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Sample records for adult common carp

  1. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  2. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a native of Asia. It is now found on every continent except Antarctica (Jester 1974) and in all 48 contiguous States (Sigler 1958). The northern limit to carp distribution appears to be the 18° C isotherm (Keleher 1956). The common carp hybridizes in nature with the goldfish (Carassius auratus) (Bardach et al. 1972; Smith 1979).

  4. Identification and analysis of the jnk1 gene in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y M; Jiang, M G; Luo, Z W; Zhou, Y H; Wen, S; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Liu, S J

    2014-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. The allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. It is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals. In this study, 2 jnk1 cDNAs (including jnk1a and jnk1b) have been cloned from the polyploid crucian carp system, consisting of the allotetraploid crucian carp, the triploid crucian carp, and their original parents (red crucian and common carp). We show that jnk1a and jnk1b represent 2 splice forms arising from the jnk1 gene. On the basis of the genetic structure of jnk1a gene in the polyploid crucian carp system, we demonstrated that the allotetraploid crucian carp is phylogenetically closer to its paternal parent (common carp) than to its maternal parent. We further show a similarity between the triploid crucian carp and its original female parent (red crucian carp). Comparisons of genetic structures indicated that the jnk1b genes of allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp are more similar to those of the original paternal parent rather than the original female parent (red crucian carp). RT-PCR analysis indicated that both the jnk1a and jnk1b genes are widely expressed in fish embryos and in the adult organs, displaying distinct features of embryonic-stage and organ specificity in the polyploid crucian carp system. PMID:24634111

  5. Speciation of polyploid Cyprinidae fish of common carp, crucian carp, and silver crucian carp derived from duplicated Hox genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian; He, Zhuzi; Yuan, Xiangnan; Jiang, Xiayun; Sun, Xiaowen; Zou, Shuming

    2010-09-15

    Recent studies on comparative genomics have suggested that a round of fish-specific whole genome duplication (3R) in ray-finned fishes might have occurred around 226-316 Mya. Additional genome duplication, specifically in cyprinids, may have occurred more recently after the divergence of the teleosts. The timing of this event, however, is unknown. To address this question, we sequenced four Hox genes from taxa representing the polyploid Cyprinidae fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 2n=100), crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus, 2n=100), and silver crucian carp (C. auratus gibelio, 2n=156), and then compared them with known sequences from the diploid Cyprinidae fish, blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, 2n=48). Our results showed the presence of two distinct Hox duplicates in the genomes of common and crucian carp. Three distinct Hox sequences, one of them orthologous to a Hox gene in common carp and the other two orthologous to a Hox gene in crucian carp, were isolated in silver crucian carp, indicating a possible hybrid origin of silver crucian carp from crucian and common carp. The gene duplication resulting in the origin of the common ancestor of common and crucian carp likely occurred around 10.9-13.2 Mya. The speciations of common vs. crucian carp and silver crucian vs. crucian carp likely occurred around 8.1-11.4 and 2.3-3.0 Mya, respectively. Finally, nonfunctionalization resulting from point mutations in the coding region is a probable fate for some Hox duplicates. Taken together, these results suggested an evolutionary model for polyploidization in speciation and diversification of polyploid fish.

  6. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Boerrigter, Jeroen G J; van de Vis, Hans W; van den Bos, Ruud; Abbink, Wout; Spanings, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Martinez, Laura Louzao; van Andel, Wouter F M; Lopez-Luna, Javier; Flik, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica), Pro-Tex, a soluble variant of TEX-OE(®), may induce expression of HSPs and reduce negative effects of cellular stress. Pro-Tex therefore is used to ameliorate conditions during stressful aquaculture-related practices. We tested Pro-Tex in zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) exposed to aquaculture-relevant stressors (thermal stress, net confinement, transport) and assessed its effects on stress physiology. Heat shock produced a mild increase in hsp70 mRNA expression in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae. Pro-Tex increased basal hsp70 mRNA expression, but decreased heat-shock-induced expression of hsp70 mRNA. In carp, Pro-Tex increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while it did not affect the mild stress response (increased plasma cortisol and glucose) to net confinement. In gills, and proximal and distal intestine, stress increased hsp70 mRNA expression; in the distal intestine, an additive enhancement of hsp70 mRNA expression by Pro-Tex was seen under stress. In yellowtail kingfish, Pro-Tex reduced the negative physiological effects of transport more efficiently than when fish were sedated with AQUI-S(®). Overall, our data indicate that Pro-Tex has protective effects under high levels of stress only. As Pro-Tex has potential for use in aquaculture, its functioning and impact on health and welfare of fish should be further studied. PMID:24493298

  7. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  8. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  9. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp x common carp.

    PubMed

    Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Shen, JiaMin; Wang, Jing; Luo, KaiKun; Liu, Yun

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G(3)), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G(2)) of red crucian carp x common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G(3), G(2)xscatter scale carp and G(2)xallotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G(2) with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G(3) with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G(1) and G(2)), G(3) was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G(2) with scatter scale carp, and crossing G(2) with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G(2) ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G(2). The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G(1), G(2) and G(3)) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application. PMID:17447025

  10. Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

  11. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Feng, Jingyan; Peng, Wenzhu; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts.

  13. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  14. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    PubMed

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  15. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  16. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  17. Accumulation of 20 elements in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and its main prey, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio).

    PubMed

    Skoric, Stefan; Visnjić-Jeftic, Zeljka; Jaric, Ivan; Djikanovic, Vesna; Mickovic, Branislav; Nikcevic, Miroslav; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2012-06-01

    In this study, 20 heavy metals and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Se, Sr and Zn) were analyzed in different tissues (muscle, liver, intestine, feather and bone) of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and in different tissues (muscle, liver, gills, kidney and gonad) of their main prey (common carp-Cyprinus carpio and Prussian carp-Carassius gibelio) during the nesting season. Cormorant and fish specimens were collected at the Ečka Fishing Farm (Serbia) and from the nearby river. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that cormorant livers were differentiated from other four tissues by higher concentrations of Hg, Fe, Cu and Mo, feathers by higher concentrations of Al and Si, and bones by higher concentrations of Sr and Mg. Differentiation among the three age classes of cormorants was observed only with regard to elemental concentrations in their feathers: subadult cormorants were differentiated by higher Hg and Zn concentrations, while the adults were separated by higher concentrations of Fe. In comparison with their prey (common carp and Prussian carp) cormorants were differentiated by higher concentrations of Fe, Hg and Cu in the muscle. Toxic mercury concentrations above 4μgg(-1)dw were determined in the liver of juvenile cormorants, as well as in the liver and feathers of subadults. Hg concentrations were significantly correlated among all studied tissues. Cormorant had significantly higher concentrations of Fe and Hg in muscle and liver than two studied fish species. PMID:22494478

  18. Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation.

  19. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies. PMID:23110192

  20. Transcriptome signatures in common carp spleen in response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Shuaisheng; Zhang, Songhao; Liu, Hong; Feng, Jianxin; Mu, Xidong; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is worldwide distributed. Nowadays, intensive rearing in aquaculture increases the susceptibility of fish to various pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, which has caused severe damage to carp production. However, systematic analysis on the host response of common carp against A. hydrophila is less studied. In order to better understand the common carp immune response process against bacteria at the global gene expression level, we examined transcriptional profiles of the common carp spleen at three timepoints following experimental infection with A. hydrophila. A total of 545 million 125-bp paired end reads were generated, and all trimmed clean reads were mapped onto the common carp whole genome sequence. Comparison of the transcriptomes between the treatment and control group fish revealed 2900 unigenes with significantly differential expression, including 732, 936, 928 genes up-regulated, and 248, 475, 700 genes down-regulated at 4 h, 12 h, 24 h post infection respectively. The captured significantly differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in the pathways including junction/adhesion, pathogen recognition, cell surface receptor signaling, and immune system process/defense response. Our study will provide fundamental information on molecular mechanism underlying the immune response of teleost against bacterial infection and might suggest strategies for selection of resistant strains of common carp in aquaculture. PMID:27521591

  1. Transcriptome signatures in common carp spleen in response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Shuaisheng; Zhang, Songhao; Liu, Hong; Feng, Jianxin; Mu, Xidong; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is worldwide distributed. Nowadays, intensive rearing in aquaculture increases the susceptibility of fish to various pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, which has caused severe damage to carp production. However, systematic analysis on the host response of common carp against A. hydrophila is less studied. In order to better understand the common carp immune response process against bacteria at the global gene expression level, we examined transcriptional profiles of the common carp spleen at three timepoints following experimental infection with A. hydrophila. A total of 545 million 125-bp paired end reads were generated, and all trimmed clean reads were mapped onto the common carp whole genome sequence. Comparison of the transcriptomes between the treatment and control group fish revealed 2900 unigenes with significantly differential expression, including 732, 936, 928 genes up-regulated, and 248, 475, 700 genes down-regulated at 4 h, 12 h, 24 h post infection respectively. The captured significantly differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in the pathways including junction/adhesion, pathogen recognition, cell surface receptor signaling, and immune system process/defense response. Our study will provide fundamental information on molecular mechanism underlying the immune response of teleost against bacterial infection and might suggest strategies for selection of resistant strains of common carp in aquaculture.

  2. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lhβ was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lhβ expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release.

  3. Common carp Cyprinus carpio responses to sub-chronic exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Giari, Luisa; Vincenzi, Fabio; Badini, Simone; Guerranti, Cristiana; Dezfuli, Bahram S; Fano, Elisa A; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an important and diffuse perfluorinated alkylated substance, but knowledge of the toxicological effects of this endocrine disrupter in fish is limited. Adult common carp Cyprinus carpio, L. were exposed to 200 ng/l (a concentration reported in impacted aquatic ecosystems) and 2 mg/l PFOA solutions in a flow-through system for 56 days to determine tissue accumulation and histological alterations of the primary target organs. PFOA was extracted from blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney, gonad, and brain by an ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.4 ng/g wet weight (ww). PFOA was not detectable in unexposed fish or in fish exposed to 200 ng/l, but was >LOD in most samples of carp exposed to 2 mg/l. Mean PFOA concentration ranged from 0.5 to 65 ng/g ww, depending on the tissue, with highest levels in the blood and liver. There were no significant differences in condition factor, hepato-somatic index, or gonado-somatic index among the fish of the three groups. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections of liver and gonad. Occurrence of atretic oocytes and a paucity of spermatozoa were documented in carp treated with 2 mg/l PFOA. Exposed fish did not show gross hepatic anomalies, but there was enhancement of hepatocytes in proliferation (positive to anti-PCNA antibody) compared to controls. PMID:27107988

  4. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  5. Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17 kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5 Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

  6. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  7. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the spleen of common carp immune organ.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Wen, Lin; Liu, Zhonghu; Yan, Fengbin; Gao, Chunsheng

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes in eukaryotes; however, miRNAs associated with immune functions in the common carp have not been reported. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the spleen of the common carp. A total of 10,603,456 high-quality clean reads, representing 293,603 unique sequences, were obtained from the small-cDNA library using the Solexa sequencing. By the bioinformatic analysis, 194 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in the carp spleen. The abundant miRNAs principally belong to 30 miRNA gene families such as let-7, mir-10, mir-15, mir-30, and so on. The conservation analysis showed that 23 families were present both in protostomes and deuterostomes, 46 families were conserved only in vertebrates, and 5 families (mir-430, mir-722, mir-724, mir-734, and mir-738) were identified only in fish species. Furthermore, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that miRNAs expressed in the spleen of common carp are involved in immune system development, lymphoid organ development, lymphocyte activation, immune response, B cell receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and so on. This study described the miRNA transcriptome in spleen tissue for the first time in the common carp. The results expand the number of known common carp miRNAs and provides a meaningful framework to understand the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms.

  8. Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead.

  9. Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

    2015-05-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) and thymosin beta (Tβ) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProTα b and Tβ are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProTα b and Tβ-like (Tβ-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProTα b and Tβ-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProTα b and Tβ-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProTα b and Tβ-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-γ, CD4 and CD8α). These results suggest that carp ProTα b and Tβ may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

  10. PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Lupton, Sara; Clapsadl, Mark; Samara, Fatin; Gatto, Louis; Biniakewitz, Robert; Aga, Diana S

    2010-09-01

    Male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie, which is greatly effected by urbanization, agriculture, and industry, were analyzed for PCB and PBDE concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver to evaluate exposure to these chemicals through habitat interactions. Additional male carp from two nearby relatively clean lakes (Bear Lake and Hemlock Lake, NY) were also sampled as controls. While PCBs were detected in muscle, liver, and plasma of Lake Erie carp, the largest concentrations were found in muscle, which also had the most number of congeners. The dominant congeners were PCB 138 and PCB 153. Concentrations of PCB 153 in the muscle were correlated with fish length, total weight, and age. Therefore, larger (and generally older) carp had the highest concentrations of PCB 153. In contrast, PBDEs were found only in muscle with the predominant congener being PBDE 47. The total PCB concentrations in muscle of male carp from eastern Lake Erie (ranging from nd to 15,000 ng g(-1) lipid) were 100-fold higher than the total PBDE observed (1.5-100 ng g(-1) lipid), indicating a higher level of contamination of PCBs in Lake Erie. The high PCB levels in carp points to PCB resistance to metabolic degradation.

  11. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). The FCR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly lower than the control (p < 0.05). Carps on B2, B3, and B4 diets showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of triglyceride than the control. B4-fed carps showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol than the control. However there was no remarkable difference (p > 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant

  12. Characterizing the In Vitro Hepatic Biotransformation of the Flame Retardant BDE 99 by Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals that are known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 19.4 μM and 1,120 pmoles hr−1 mg protein−1, respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC50 values of 2.2 μM, 0.83 μM, and >1.0 μM, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

  13. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  15. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  16. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  17. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  18. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  19. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  20. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate for 168 h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77 mg L(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-γ content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1β content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-α mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp.

  1. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp.

  2. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  3. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  4. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  5. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  6. Strategies to control a common carp population by pulsed commercial harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvin, Michael E.; Pierce, Clay; Stewart, Timothy W.; Grummer, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial fisheries are commonly used to manage nuisance fishes in freshwater systems, but such efforts are often unsuccessful. Strategies for successfully controlling a nuisance population of common carp Cyprinus carpio by pulsed commercial harvest were evaluated with a combination of (1) field sampling, (2) population estimation and CPUE indexing, and (3) simulation using an exponential semidiscrete biomass dynamics model (SDBDM). The range of annual fishing mortalities (F) that resulted in successful control (F = 0.244–0.265) was narrow. Common carp biomass dynamics were sensitive to unintentional underharvest due to high rates of surplus production and a biomass doubling time of 2.7 years. Simulations indicated that biomanipulation never achieved successful control unless supplemental fishing mortality was imposed. Harvest of a majority of annual production was required to achieve successful control, as indicated by the ecotrophic coefficient (EC). Readily available biomass data and tools such as SDBDMs and ECs can be used in an adaptive management framework to successfully control common carp and other nuisance fishes by pulsed commercial fishing.

  7. De novo assembly and characterization of the spleen transcriptome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Liu, Zhonghu; Gao, Chunsheng; Yan, Fengbin; Liu, Bianzhi; Feng, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquacultured species of the family Cyprinidae, and breeding this species for disease resistance is becoming more and more important. However, at the genome or transcriptome levels, study of the immunogenetics of disease resistance in the common carp is lacking. In this study, 60,316,906 and 75,200,328 paired-end clean reads were obtained from two cDNA libraries of the common carp spleen by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Totally, 130,293 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 1400.57 bp. Approximately 105,612 (81.06%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology with matches in the Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, COG, GO, or KEGG databases, and they were found to represent 46,747 non-redundant genes. Comparative analysis showed that 59.82% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins. Gene expression comparison revealed that 10,432 and 6889 annotated unigenes were, respectively, up- and down-regulated with at least twofold changes between two developmental stages of the common carp spleen. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed to classify all unigenes into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. In addition, 46,847 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 35,618 unigenes, and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) sites were identified in the spleen transcriptome of common carp. This study has characterized the spleen transcriptome of the common carp for the first time, providing a valuable resource for a better understanding of the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. This knowledge will also facilitate future functional studies on common carp immunogenetics that may eventually be applied in breeding programs.

  8. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  9. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  10. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Galar-Martínez, M; García-Medina, S; Gómez-Olivan, L M; Pérez-Coyotl, I; Mendoza-Monroy, D J; Arrazola-Morgain, R E

    2016-09-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac is extensively used in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pharmaceutical has been found at concentrations of 0.2-60 µg/L in diverse water bodies around the world; however, its effects on aquatic organisms remain unknown. The present study, evaluated the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by sublethal concentrations of ketorolac (1 and 60 µg/L) on liver, brain, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This toxicant induced oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide content, and protein carbonyl content) as well as changes in antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity) in liver and brain of carp. In blood, ketorolac increased the frequency of micronuclei and is therefore genotoxic for the test species. The effects observed were time and concentration dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1035-1043, 2016.

  11. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by ketorolac on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Galar-Martínez, M; García-Medina, S; Gómez-Olivan, L M; Pérez-Coyotl, I; Mendoza-Monroy, D J; Arrazola-Morgain, R E

    2016-09-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac is extensively used in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pharmaceutical has been found at concentrations of 0.2-60 µg/L in diverse water bodies around the world; however, its effects on aquatic organisms remain unknown. The present study, evaluated the oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by sublethal concentrations of ketorolac (1 and 60 µg/L) on liver, brain, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This toxicant induced oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide content, and protein carbonyl content) as well as changes in antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity) in liver and brain of carp. In blood, ketorolac increased the frequency of micronuclei and is therefore genotoxic for the test species. The effects observed were time and concentration dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1035-1043, 2016. PMID:25899151

  12. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada. PMID:17958610

  13. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada.

  14. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    PubMed

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  15. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (P<0.05). Weight gain, specific growth rate, and the feed conversion ratio were not diff erent in fish fed the diff erent dietary treatments. Protein efficiency ratio increased significantly as corn starch level increased (P<0.05). Whole-body crude lipid composition increased with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05). Glucokinase (GK), hexokinase, and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities increased significantly with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05), whereas glucose-6-phosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level (P<0.05). GK gene expression was significantly higher in fish fed the high-corn starch diet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P<0.05). G6pase gene expression tended to decrease with increasing starch level (P>0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  16. Molecular Characterization, Tissue Distribution and Expression, and Potential Antiviral Effects of TRIM32 in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yeda; Li, Zeming; Lu, Yuanan; Hu, Guangfu; Lin, Li; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) belongs to the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, which consists of a large number of proteins containing a RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain, one or two B-box domains, and coiled coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. The TRIM family is known to be implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. However, it is presently unknown whether TRIM32 of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has the antiviral effect. In this study, the sequence, expression, and antiviral function of TRIM32 homolog from common carp were analyzed. The full-length coding sequence region of trim32 was cloned from common carp. The results showed that the expression of TRIM32 (mRNA) was highest in the brain, remained stably expressed during embryonic development, and significantly increased following spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. Transient overexpression of TRIM32 in affected Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells led to significant decrease of SVCV production as compared to the control group. These results suggested a potentially important role of common carp TRIM32 in enhancing host immune response during SVCV infection both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27735853

  17. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    PubMed

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  18. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    PubMed

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  19. Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Junyan; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment. After 20 days of treatment, the fish were intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) CCl4 at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight. The fish were killed 3 days after CCl4 intoxication, and then, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Results showed that CCl4-induced liver CYP2E1 activity, oxidative stress, and injury, as indicated by the depleted glycogen storage, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and liver histological damage. Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups exhibited reduced CYP2E1 activity, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity (increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % groups (p < 0.05). Histological assay further confirmed the protective effect of betanin. In conclusion, betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin.

  20. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  1. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  2. The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  3. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio.

  4. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  5. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging.

  6. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  7. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging. PMID:25725347

  8. Effects of growth hormone (GH) transgene and nutrition on growth and bone development in common carp.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Yushun; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2013-10-01

    Limited information is available on effects of growth hormone transgene and nutrition on growth and development of aquatic animals. Here, we present a study to test these effects with growth-enhanced transgenic common carp under two nutritional conditions or feeding rations (i.e., 5% and 10% of fish body weight per day). Compared with the nontransgenic fish, the growth rates of the transgenic fish increased significantly in both feeding rations. The shape of the pharyngeal bone was similar among treatments, but the transgenic fish had relatively smaller and lighter pharyngeal bone compared with the nontransgenic fish. Calcium content of the pharyngeal bone of the transgenic fish was significantly lower than that of the nontransgenic fish. Feeding ration also affected growth rate but less of an effect on bone development. By manipulating intrinsic growth and controlling for both environment (e.g., feeding ration) and genetic background or genotype (e.g., transgenic or not), this study provides empirical evidence that the genotype has a stronger effect than the environment on pharyngeal bone development. The pharyngeal bone strength could be reduced by decreased calcium content and calcification in the transgenic carp.

  9. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  10. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  11. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  12. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Öğretmen, F; İnanan, B E

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to test the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp spermatozoa. BHT is widely used in the cryopreservation of the spermatozoa of different animal species and successfully sustains the characteristics of spermatozoa during freezing and thawing, but it has not previously been used with fish. After sampling, common carp spermatozoa were diluted with an extender composed of modified Kurokura's extender, 10% DMSO, and 10% egg yolk containing 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. The post-thaw spermatozoa characteristics (i.e., progressive motility percentage (%), duration of progressive motility (s), fertilization rate (%), and eyed-eggs rate (%)) were evaluated and compared with those of the control group. There were significant increases in the percentage of progressive motility and the duration of progressive motility at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.001mM BHT (P<0.05). The duration of post-thawed spermatozoa progressive motility at 0.001mM BHT was significantly greater than that of the other groups (39.6±0.4s, P<0.05), and the fertilization rates and eyed-eggs rates were also higher following the 0.1 and 1mM BHT treatments. BHT at concentrations of more than 1mM caused sperm immobility during the preparatory stages of the sperm freezing. We concluded that 0.001-0.1mM BHT can be beneficial for the cryopreservation of common spermatozoa.

  13. Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

  14. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  15. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  16. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  17. Metabolic capacities of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following combined exposures to copper and environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Malekpouri, Pedram; Peyghan, Rahim; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Mohammadian, Babak

    2016-05-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, a decline in water O2 level is the main factor that can release heavy metal ions from top sediment layer. Therefore, hypoxia in turn, and in association with heavy metals might provide undesirable environment and impairs physiological functions of aquatic animals. To address this, metabolic capacities, including standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and factorial aerobic scope (FAS) of common carp were determined following exposures to different levels of water-borne Cu(2+) as well as hypoxia. Treatments for Cu(2+) were included: 100% (acute), 50% (sub-lethal) and 10% (chronic) of LC50-96h for immediately, 24h and 7 days exposures respectively. Hypoxia treatments were assigned as acute for immediately, sub-lethal for 24h and chronic for 7 days. Combined effects of treatments were also considered as acute Cu(2+)+hypoxia, sub-lethal Cu(2+)+hypoxia and chronic Cu(2+)+hypoxia. While SMR of carp was reduced by chronic hypoxia, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed during acute hypoxia, as compared with control. The MMR and AS were significantly reduced (P<0.05) following all hypoxia treatments. The acute and chronic Cu(2+) treatments showed significant (P<0.05) increases in SMR and MMR values. All acute and sub-lethal combined treatments showed significant (P<0.05) reductions in SMR, MMR and AS values, whilst chronic combined treatments showed generally increasing trends for MMR and AS. PCrit was relatively reduced following all treatments except for acute and sub-lethal Cu(2+)-treated fish that showed higher value (P<0.05) and no change respectively. Although all Cu(2+) treatments increased the number of mucus cell, hypoxia treatments did not show any remarkable differences when compared with control group. In general, the results of present study reveal that hypoxia acts as limiting stressor whilst Cu(2+) do act as loading stressors in the case of common carp metabolism. The interactive exposures

  18. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  19. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  20. Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (So), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

  1. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility. PMID:26768847

  2. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W.; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility. PMID:26768847

  3. Microsatellite DNA marker analysis of genetic diversity in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayu; Kang, Dahai; Yin, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaowen; Liang, Liqun

    2007-11-01

    Thirty microsatellite loci were used for analyzing six wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Observed (H(o)) and expected (H(e)) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC), and number of effective alleles (A(e)) were all detected. Genetic similarity index and genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequency. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked according to the test of chi2. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by F(ST) and N(m). A clustering dendrogram was made based on the results of UPGMA methods using the PHYLIP software package (version 3.63). There were totally 8,136 fragments ranging from 125 bp to 414 bp in length. Three to thirteen alleles were amplified in 30 loci and 210 alleles in all six populations. The average number of alleles in each locus was seven. The result showed that 1) the level of genetic variability was moderate in the six populations. Polymorphic information contents of the six wild common carp populations were 0.44, 0.52, 0.53, 0.57, 0.63, and 0.64 respectively. Effective alleles were from 1.04 to 4.72, the average numbers in each population were 2.19, 2.60, 2.42, 2.43, 2.45, and 2.33. The average expected heterozygosity values were 0.50, 0.59, 0.56, 0.56, 0.57, and 0.54 respectively; 2) the highest genetic similarity index that came from the populations of BR and ZL was 0.8511 and the lowest index was 0.6688, and it came from the populations of BR and HN. There was a correlation between the clustering result and the geographical distribution. PMID:18037135

  4. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-04-17

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp.

  5. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred.

  6. Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of the common carp.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hongda; Chen, Dechun; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-02-01

    DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in animal. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the levels of global DNA methylation and the expression of methylation enzymes (DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylcytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)) in the brain and gonad tissues. The results revealed that a significant global DNA hypomethylation in the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture was observed compared to the control fish. The MBD2 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the brain and gonad of the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture, in contrast, the DNMTs mRNA expression was down-regulated. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on DNA methylation status generated in this study is important for pesticides toxicology evaluation. However, the effect of ATR and CPF on the methylation status of specific genes, as well as its detailed mechanism requires further investigation.

  7. Using ecological niche models to predict the abundance and impact of invasive species: application to the common carp.

    PubMed

    Kulhanek, Stefanie A; Leung, Brian; Ricciardi, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In order to efficiently manage nonindigenous species (NIS), predictive tools are needed to prioritize locations where they are likely to become established and where their impacts will be most severe. While predicting the impact of a NIS has generally proved challenging, forecasting its abundance patterns across potential recipient locations should serve as a useful surrogate method of estimating the relative severity of the impacts to be expected. Yet such approaches have rarely been applied in invasion biology. We used long-term monitoring data for lakes within the state of Minnesota and artificial neural networks to model both the occurrence as well as the abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the ability of the resulting models to (1) interpolate to new sites within our main study region, (2) extrapolate to lakes in the neighboring state of South Dakota, and (3) assessed the relative contribution of each variable to model predictions. Our models correctly identified over 83% of sites where carp are either present or absent and explained 73% of the variation in carp abundance for validation lakes in Minnesota (i.e., lakes not used to build the model). When extrapolated to South Dakota, our models correctly classified carp occurrence in 79% of lakes and explained 32% of the variation in carp abundance. Variables related to climate and water quality were found to be the most important predictors of carp distribution. These results demonstrate that ecological niche-based modeling techniques can be used to forecast both the occurrence and abundance patterns of invasive species at a regional scale. Models also yielded sensible predictions when extrapolated to neighboring regions. Such predictions, when combined, should provide more useful estimates of the overall risk posed by NIS on potential recipient systems.

  8. Toll-like receptors and interferon associated immune factors responses to spring viraemia of carp virus infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinxian; Li, Xiao Zheng; Zheng, Xiaocong; Jia, Peng; Wang, Jinjin; Yang, Xianle; Yu, Li; Shi, Xiujie; Tong, Guixiang; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptors (TLRs), antiviral agent interferon (IFN) and the effector IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) play a fundamental role in the innate immune response against viruses among all vertebrate classes. Common carp is a host for spring viraemia of carp virus (Rhabdovirus carpio, SVCV), which belong to Rhabdoviridae family. The present in-vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the expression of these innate immune factors in early phase as well as during recovery of SVCV infection by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A less lethal SVCV infection was generated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and was sampled at 3, 6, 12 h post infection (hpi), 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection (dpi). At 3 hpi, the SVCV N gene was detected in all three fish and all three fish showed a relative fold increase of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR7, IFNa1, ISG15 and Vig1. Viral copies rapidly increased at 12 hpi then remained high until 5 dpi. When viral copy numbers were high, a higher expression of immune genes TLR2, TLR3, TLR7, IFNa1, IFNa2, IFNa1S, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL6, IL10, ADAR, ISG15, Mx1, PKR and Vig1 were observed. Viral copies were gradually reduced in 5 to 10 dpi fish, and also the immune response was considerably reduced but remained elevated. A high degree of correlation was observed between immune genes and viral copy number in each of the sampled fish at 12 hpi. The quick and prolonged elevated expression of the immune genes indicates their crucial role in survival of host against SVCV. PMID:27263115

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of Toll-like receptor (Tlr)1 and Tlr2 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Fink, Inge R; Pietretti, Danilo; Voogdt, Carlos G P; Westphal, Adrie H; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental components of innate immunity that play significant roles in the defence against pathogen invasion. In this study, we present the molecular characterization of the full-length coding sequence of tlr1, tlr2a and tlr2b from common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Each is encoded within a single exon and contains a conserved number of leucine-rich repeats, a transmembrane region and an intracellular TIR domain for signalling. Indeed, sequence, phylogenetic and synteny analysis of carp tlr1, tlr2a and tlr2b support that these genes are orthologues of mammalian TLR1 and TLR2. The tlr genes are expressed in various immune organs and cell types. Furthermore, the carp sequences exhibited a good three-dimensional fit with the heterodimer structure of human TLR1-TLR2, including the potential to bind to the ligand Pam3CSK4. This supports the possible formation of carp Tlr1-Tlr2 heterodimers. However, we were unable to demonstrate Tlr1/Tlr2-mediated ligand binding in transfected cell lines through NF-κB activation, despite showing the expression and co-localization of Tlr1 and Tlr2. We discuss possible limitations when studying ligand-specific activation of NF-κB after expression of Tlr1 and/or Tlr2 in human but also fish cell lines and we propose alternative future strategies for studying ligand-binding properties of fish Tlrs. PMID:27368535

  10. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  11. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety. PMID:26830577

  12. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish.

  13. Acclimation temperature alters the relationship between growth and swimming performance among juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-09-01

    Individual variation in growth, metabolism and swimming performance, their possible interrelationships, and the effects of temperature were investigated in 30 juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two acclimation temperatures (15 and 25°C). We measured body mass, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), resting metabolic rate (RMR), active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) twice (28days apart) in both temperature groups. Fish acclimated to 25°C showed a 204% higher specific growth rate (SGR) than those acclimated to 15°C due to a 97% higher feeding rate (FR) and a 46% higher feed efficiency (FE). Among individuals, SGR was positively correlated with the FR and FE at both low and high temperatures. All measured variables (Ucrit, RMR and AMR) related to swimming except MS showed a high repeatability after adjusting for body mass (mass-independent). Fish acclimated to 25°C had a 40% higher Ucrit compared with 15°C acclimated fish, which was at least partially due to an improved metabolic capacity. AMR showed a 97% increase, and MS showed a 104% parallel increase with the higher acclimation temperature. Residual (mass-independent) Ucrit was positively correlated with residual RMR, AMR and MS, except for the residual RMR at high temperature. When acclimated to the lower temperature, both the residual and absolute Ucrit were negatively correlated with FR and FE and, hence, with SGR, suggesting a functional trade-off between growth and locomotion in fish acclimated to low temperatures. However, when acclimated to the higher temperature, this trade-off no longer existed; absolute Ucrit was positively correlated with SGR because individuals with rapid growth exhibited greatly increased body mass. The higher metabolic capacity at 25°C showed a positive effect on both swimming performance and growth rate (because of improved digestive efficiency) under the high-temperature condition, which we did not anticipate. Overall, these results indicate that temperature

  14. Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.

    1997-01-01

    A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on

  15. Expression of the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Rombout, J H W M; van der Tuin, S J L; Yang, G; Schopman, N; Mroczek, A; Hermsen, T; Taverne-Thiele, J J

    2008-05-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and aligned with other species. The pIgR of carp consists of 2 Ig domains, a transmembrane and an intracellular region, together 327 amino acids. In situ hybridisations with sense and anti-sense DIG-labelled pIgR RNA probes were performed on liver, gut and skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and in these organs only anti-sense probes were found to hybridise. In liver the majority of hepatocytes was stained around the nucleus. In gut and skin, staining could be detected around the nucleus of the epithelial cells, but in gut also a subpopulation of lymphoid cells was stained in epithelium and lamina propria. The specific in situ hybridisation of the epithelia and hepatocytes coincides with the in situ binding of FITC-labelled carp IgM to the same cells. RT-PCR results indicate the expression of the pIgR gene in all lymphoid organs of carp, but not in muscle. Macrophages/neutrophils enriched by adherence or sorted B cells (MACS) did not show expression of the pIgR gene and are excluded as the pIgR expressing lymphoid cells in the intestine. The relevance of pIgR staining and gene expression in mucosal organs is discussed. PMID:18356080

  16. Genome wide identification of scavenger receptors class A in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and their expression following Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Peng, Wenzhu; Mu, Xidong; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Scavenger receptors class A (SCARAs) is a subgroup of diverse families of pattern recognition receptors that bind a range of ligands, and play important roles in innate immune processes through pathogens detection, adhesion, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. However, most studies of SCARAs have focused on mammals, and much less is known of SCARAs in fish species. In this study, we identified 7 SCARAs across the common carp genome, which were classified into four subclasses according to comparative genomic analysis including sequence similarities analysis, gene structure and functional domain prediction. Further phylogenetic and syntenic analysis supported their annotation and orthologies. Through examining gene copy number of SCARA genes across several vertebrates, SCARA2, SCARA3 and SCARA4 were found have undergone gene duplication. The expression patterns of SCARAs in common carp were examined during early developmental stages, in healthy tissues, and after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Most SCARA genes were ubiquitously expressed during common carp early developmental stages, and presented diverse patterns in various healthy tissues, with relatively high expression levels in spleen, liver, intestine, gill and brain, indicating their critical roles likely in maintaining homeostasis and host immune response activities. After A. hydrophila infection, most SCARA genes were up-regulated at 4 h post infection in mucosal tissue intestine, while generally up-regulated at 12 h post infection in spleen, suggesting a tissue-specific pattern of regulation. Taken together, all these results suggested that SCARA genes played important roles in host immune response to A. hydrophila infection in common carp, and provided important genomic resources for future studies on fish disease management. PMID:27041666

  17. Diversification of the duplicated Rab1a genes in a hypoxia-tolerant fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Xia; Cao, Ding-Chen; Xu, Jian; Xu, Ru; Li, Jiong-Tang; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Common carp is a widely cultivated fish with longer than 2,000 years domestication history, due to its strong environmental adaptabilities, especially hypoxia tolerance. The common carp genome has experienced a very recent whole genome duplication (WGD) event. Among a large number of highly similar duplicated genes, a pair of Ras-associated binding-GTPase 1a (Rab1a) genes were found fast diverging. Four analogous Rab1a genes were identified in the common carp genome. Comparisons of gene structures and sequences indicated Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 was a pair of fast diverging duplicates, while Rab1a-3 and Rab1a-4 was a pair of less diverged duplicates. All putative Rab1a proteins shared conserved GTPase domain, which enabled the proteins serve as molecular switches for vesicular trafficking. Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 proteins varied in their C-terminal sequences, which were generally considered to encode the membrane localization signals. Differential expression patterns were observed between Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 genes. In blood, muscle, spleen, and heart, the mRNA level of Rab1a-1 was higher than that of Rab1a-2. In liver and intestine, the mRNA level of Rab1a-2 was higher. Expression of Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 showed distinct hypoxia responses. Under severe hypoxia, Rab1a-1 expression was down-regulated in blood, while Rab1a-2 expression was up-regulated in liver. Compared with the less diverged Rab1a-3/4 gene pair, common carp Rab1a-1/2 gene pair exhibited strong characteristics of sub-functionalization, which might contribute to a sophisticated and efficient Ras-dependent regulating network for the hypoxia-tolerant fish. PMID:26129846

  18. Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.

    2000-03-01

    The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

  19. Phenotypic variation and associated predation risk of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Weber, M J; Rounds, K D; Brown, M L

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio were collected from 10 lakes with variable predator abundance over 4 months to evaluate if morphological defences increased with increasing predation risk. Cyprinus carpio dorsal and pectoral spines were longer and body depth was deeper when predators were more abundant, with differences becoming more pronounced from July to October. To determine if morphological plasticity successfully reduced predation risk, prey selection of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides foraging on deep- and shallow-bodied C. carpio was evaluated in open and vegetated environments. Predators typically selected deep- over shallow-bodied phenotypes in open habitats and neutrally selected both phenotypes in vegetated habitats. When exposed to predators, shallow-bodied C. carpio phenotypes shoaled in open habitat, whereas deep-bodied phenotypes occupied vegetation. Although deep-bodied phenotypes required additional handling time, shallow-bodied phenotypes were more difficult to capture. These results suggest that juvenile C. carpio gradually develop deeper bodies and larger spines as predation risk increases. Morphological defences made it more difficult for predators to consume these prey but resulted in higher vulnerability to predation in some instances. PMID:22220889

  20. Impact of Cypermethrin on Fingerlings of Common Edible Carp (Labeo rohita)

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Tiwari, Richa; Singh, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evaluations were made to assess the toxicological and biochemical effect of cypermethrin on fingerlings of common edible freshwater culture carp (Labeo rohita). There was a significant negative (P < 0.05) correlation observed between effective doses of cypermethrin and exposure periods; that is, LC50 values decreased from 0.323 μg/L (6 h) to  > 0.278 μg/L (12 h),  > 0.240 μg/L (18 h) and >0.205 μg/L (24 h). Exposure to sublethal doses of cypermethrin for 24 h and 96 h exposure period caused significant (P < 0.05) time- and dose-dependent alterations in total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen, pyruvate, and lactate level and in the activity of enzyme protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, acid phosphatases, alkaline phosphatases, acetylcholinesterase, and cytochrome oxidase in liver and muscle tissues of fish. Thus, cypermethrin has potent piscicidal activity against fingerlings of fish Labeo rohita and adversely affects their behavioural patterns, shifting aerobic pathway of fish respiration towards anaerobic pathway and also inhibiting energy production by suppressing ATP synthesis. PMID:22666103

  1. Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

  2. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  3. Gene Expression Variations of Red—White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Min; Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Zhu, Bai-Han; Xu, Gui-Cai; Sun, Ming-Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer’s vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red—white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology. PMID:26370964

  4. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  5. Histopathological alterations in gill, liver and kidney of common carp exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sandipan; Kokushi, Emiko; Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Ghosh, Apurba R

    2012-01-01

    Histopathological alterations in gill, liver and kidney of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, intoxicated with sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (O,O,-diethyl-O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) pesticide (1 and 100 μg/L) for a period of 14 days were analyzed under light microscope. Gill exhibited hyperplasia and hypertrophy of gill epithelium, blood congestion, dilation of marginal channel, epithelial lifting, lamellar fusion, lamellar disorganization, lamellar aneurysm, rupture of the lamellar epithelium, rupture of pillar cells and necrosis. Alterations in hepatocytes were more pronounced, including nuclear and cellular hypertrophy, cellular atrophy, irregular contour of cells and nucleus, cytoplasmic vacuolation, cytoplasmic and nuclear degeneration, cellular rupture, pyknotic nucleus, necrosis and melanomacrophages aggregations. Histopathological lesions in kidney were cellular and nuclear hypertrophy, narrowing of tubular lumen, cytoplasmic vacuolation, hyaline droplet degeneration, nuclear degeneration, occlusion of tubular lumen, tubular regeneration, dilation of glomerular capillaries, degeneration of glomerulus and hemorrhage in Bowman's space. The most significant conclusion drawn from this study was that with the increased concentration and duration the toxicosis of chlorpyrifos would be enhanced as shown through the analysis of mean assessment value (MAV) and degree of tissue changes (DTC) also.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp. PMID:27649163

  7. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  8. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp. PMID:27649163

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  11. Targeted disruption of sp7 and myostatin with CRISPR-Cas9 results in severe bone defects and more muscular cells in common carp.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhaomin; Niu, Pengfei; Wang, Mingyong; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Shuhao; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xiaona; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiaowen; Yan, Yilin; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as one of the most important aquaculture fishes produces over 3 million metric tones annually, approximately 10% the annual production of the all farmed freshwater fish worldwide. However, the tetraploidy genome and long generation-time of the common carp have made its breeding and genetic studies extremely difficult. Here, TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9, two versatile genome-editing tools, are employed to target common carp bone-related genes sp7, runx2, bmp2a, spp1, opg, and muscle suppressor gene mstn. TALEN were shown to induce mutations in the target coding sites of sp7, runx2, spp1 and mstn. With CRISPR-Cas9, the two common carp sp7 genes, sp7a and sp7b, were mutated individually, all resulting in severe bone defects; while mstnba mutated fish have grown significantly more muscle cells. We also employed CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double mutant fish of sp7a;mstnba with high efficiencies in a single step. These results demonstrate that both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 are highly efficient tools for modifying the common carp genome, and open avenues for facilitating common carp genetic studies and breeding. PMID:26976234

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  13. Targeted disruption of sp7 and myostatin with CRISPR-Cas9 results in severe bone defects and more muscular cells in common carp

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhaomin; Niu, Pengfei; Wang, Mingyong; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Shuhao; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xiaona; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiaowen; Yan, Yilin; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as one of the most important aquaculture fishes produces over 3 million metric tones annually, approximately 10% the annual production of the all farmed freshwater fish worldwide. However, the tetraploidy genome and long generation-time of the common carp have made its breeding and genetic studies extremely difficult. Here, TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9, two versatile genome-editing tools, are employed to target common carp bone-related genes sp7, runx2, bmp2a, spp1, opg, and muscle suppressor gene mstn. TALEN were shown to induce mutations in the target coding sites of sp7, runx2, spp1 and mstn. With CRISPR-Cas9, the two common carp sp7 genes, sp7a and sp7b, were mutated individually, all resulting in severe bone defects; while mstnba mutated fish have grown significantly more muscle cells. We also employed CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double mutant fish of sp7a;mstnba with high efficiencies in a single step. These results demonstrate that both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 are highly efficient tools for modifying the common carp genome, and open avenues for facilitating common carp genetic studies and breeding. PMID:26976234

  14. Targeted disruption of sp7 and myostatin with CRISPR-Cas9 results in severe bone defects and more muscular cells in common carp.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhaomin; Niu, Pengfei; Wang, Mingyong; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Shuhao; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xiaona; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiaowen; Yan, Yilin; Wang, Han

    2016-03-15

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as one of the most important aquaculture fishes produces over 3 million metric tones annually, approximately 10% the annual production of the all farmed freshwater fish worldwide. However, the tetraploidy genome and long generation-time of the common carp have made its breeding and genetic studies extremely difficult. Here, TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9, two versatile genome-editing tools, are employed to target common carp bone-related genes sp7, runx2, bmp2a, spp1, opg, and muscle suppressor gene mstn. TALEN were shown to induce mutations in the target coding sites of sp7, runx2, spp1 and mstn. With CRISPR-Cas9, the two common carp sp7 genes, sp7a and sp7b, were mutated individually, all resulting in severe bone defects; while mstnba mutated fish have grown significantly more muscle cells. We also employed CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double mutant fish of sp7a;mstnba with high efficiencies in a single step. These results demonstrate that both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 are highly efficient tools for modifying the common carp genome, and open avenues for facilitating common carp genetic studies and breeding.

  15. Effect of delayed icing on biogenic amines formation and bacterial contribution of iced common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Hamzeh, Ali; Moslemi, Mehran; Lashkan, Aria Babakhani; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesús

    2013-12-12

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine the carp quality. Spermidine and spermine increased slightly toward the end of storage and the levels of dangerous BAs (histamine and tyramine) were under the limit over the period. As a result, it is indicated that delaying time affects on formation of BAs and the effect in samples with 8 h delay was significantly (p < 0.05) more than those with 0 and 4 h delay.

  16. Responses of molecular indicators of exposure in mesocosms: common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to the herbicides alachlor and atrazine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lina W; Toth, Gregory P; Gordon, Denise A; Graham, David W; Meier, John R; Knapp, Charles W; deNoyelles, F Jerry; Campbell, Scott; Lattier, David L

    2005-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estrogenic activity, liver cytochrome P4501A1 gene expression, and DNA damage in blood cells using the single-cell gel electrophoresis method. Both alachlor and atrazine showed dose-related increases in DNA strand breaks at environmentally relevant concentrations (<100 ppb). Gene expression indicators showed that neither herbicide had estrogenic activity in the carp, whereas atrazine at concentrations as low as 7 ppb induced cytochrome P4501A1. These results support the study of molecular indicators for exposure in surrogate ecosystems to gauge relevant environmental changes following herbicide treatments.

  17. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Falco, Alberto; Cartwright, Jamie R; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2012-05-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2) identity to CRP from East-Asian common carp occurs and fish CRP genes form a distinct clade. ccCRP2 gene organization comprises four exons and three introns, in contrast to the two exons/one intron organization of mammalian CRP genes. Gene expression assays showed both ccCRP-like molecules are constitutively expressed in liver, skin, gill, gut, muscle, kidney, spleen and blood. Protein levels of ccCRP in serum and spleen were significantly different from other organs analyzed, and levels were greatest in the liver. It is proposed that the two carp CRP genes defined differ in their expression profiles which may suggest differences in their biological activities.

  18. Immune effects of the vaccine of live attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila screened by rifampicin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Kong, Xianghui; Pei, Chao; Li, Li; Nie, Guoxing; Li, Xuejun

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, as a strong Gram-negative bacterium, can infect a wide range of freshwater fish, including common carp Cyprinus carpio, and cause the huge economic loss. To create the effective vaccine is the best way to control the outbreak of the disease caused by A. hydrophila. In this study, a live attenuated A. hydrophila strain, XX1LA, was screened from the pathogenic A. hydrophila strain XX1 cultured on medium containing the antibiotic rifampicin, which was used as a live attenuated vaccine candidate. The immune protection of XX1LA against the pathogen A. hydrophila in common carp was evaluated by the relative percent survival (RPS), the specific IgM antibody titers, serum lysozyme activity and the expression profiles of multiple immune-related genes at the different time points following immunization. The results showed that the variable up-regulations of the immune-related genes, such as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, the chemokine IL-10 and IgM, were observed in spleen and liver of common carp injected in the vaccines with the formalin-killed A. hydrophila (FKA) and the live attenuated XX1LA. Specific antibody to A. hydrophila was found to gradually increase during 28 days post-vaccination (dpv), and the RPS (83.7%) in fish vaccinated with XX1LA, was significant higher than that (37.2%) in fish vaccinated with FKA (P<0.05) on Day 28 after challenged by pathogen. It was demonstrated that the remarkable immune protection presented in the group vaccinated with XX1LA. During the late stage of 4-week immunization phase, compared with FKA and the control, specific IgM antibody titers significantly increased (P<0.05) in the XX1LA group. The activity of the lysozyme in serum indicated no significant change among three groups. In summary, the live attenuated bacterial vaccine XX1LA, screened in this study, indicates the better protect effect on common carp against A. hydrophila, which can be applied in aquaculture of common carp to prevent from the

  19. Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

  20. Alternative techniques for producing a quality surimi and kamaboko from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, A; Gorczyca, E M

    2008-11-01

    The demand for surimi and kamaboko is increasing in the world at the same time as the supply of the fish traditionally used has declined. In an effort to increase the range and hence supply of fish used, factors increasing the quality of surimi and kamaboko from common carp were investigated. The best surimi and kamaboko characteristics were produced by a modified conventional method (MCM) rather than traditional method (TM), alkaline-aided method (AAM), and pH modified method (PMM). MCM processing used centrifugation instead of decanting and filtering to optimize dewatering and remove the sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp-P). The temperature sweep test, at the end of sol-gel transition stage (at 75 degrees C), showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater G' for the kamaboko from MCM than that from other methods tested. Furthermore, the greatest and the least gel strengths were obtained with MCM and TM kamaboko, respectively. The protein recovery was about 67%, 74%, 87%, and 92% for TM, AAM, MCM, and PMM, respectively. TM and MCM resulted in the removal of Sp-P as determined by SDS-PAGE. The superiority of MCM kamaboko gel characteristics was supported by scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the gel, which showed a significantly (P < 0.05) greater number of polygonal structures than for the TM kamaboko, which had the fewest and largest polygonal structures. The pH-shifting methods improved the textural quality of the resultant kamaboko compared with TM. However, a simple modification (centrifugation compared with decanting) by MCM in the surimi process can further improve the quality of the surimi and kamaboko gels. Furthermore, because it removed Sp-P and still preserved gel strength, it suggests that Sp-P are not required for gel strength.

  1. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in immune organs of the common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dechun; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Cao, Ye; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-09-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are toxic and subject to long-term in vivo accumulation in different aquatic species throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on cytokines in the head kidney and spleen of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA expression of IL-6fam (IL-6), IL-8, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 (TGF-β) in the head kidney and spleen tissues. These results showed that the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in the head kidney and spleen was upregulated following ATR, CPF and mixed ATR/CPF exposure compared with the control group. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-β mRNA was significantly inhibited in both head kidney and spleen of carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. The results suggested that long-term exposure of ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture in aquatic environments can induce the dysregulation of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on cytokine mRNA expression generated in this study will be important information for pesticides toxicology evaluation.

  2. Field and laboratory investigations of the thermal influence on tissue-specific Hsp70 levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunbiao; Xu, Jingbo; Sheng, Lianxi; Zheng, Yongchen

    2007-12-01

    Thermal discharge from power stations can affect normal environmental conditions and change in heat shock proteins expression of native fish with increasing temperature. In this study, we investigated levels of Hsp70 in the heart, kidney, brain and gill of the common carp Cyprinus carpio both in long-term heat discharge environment and after 24 h acute heat shock exposure. In laboratory exposure experiments, fish acclimated at 10 degrees C were exposed to various elevated temperatures (20, 24 and 28 degrees C). Hsp70 concentrations were determined in tissues by Western blotting analysis after one dimensional SDS-PAGE separation. In the field study, the level of Hsp70 in the gill of the carp remained at control values, and Hsp70 expression in the heart, kidney and brain underwent a 2.8 to 3.7-fold increase. A lower thermal sensitivity of the Hsp70 response of the brain, compared with the heart, kidney and gill, was observed in the laboratory experiments. Our data show that these tissues had different levels of Hsp70 responses to thermal influence both in acute exposure and long-term acclimation. The pattern of tissue Hsp70 expression may have a close relationship with the thermal tolerance of the carp and allows the fish to survive long-term thermal pollution.

  3. Short and long-term exposure to diclofenac alter oxidative stress status in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Morachis-Valdes, Gabriela; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been detected in significant amounts in municipal treated wastewater effluent. Diverse studies report that trace concentrations of DCF may induce toxic effects on different aquatic organisms as well as developmental, reproductive and renal damage. This study aimed to determine whether short and long-term exposure to DCF alter the oxidative stress (OS) status in blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96 h (96-h LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed (short and long-term) to the latter value for different exposure times (4 and 24 days) and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxides content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Significant increases in HPC, LPX and PCC were observed respect to control (P < 0.05) particularly in blood, muscle, gill, brain and liver. SOD, CAT and GPx activity also increased in these organs, with respect to controls (P < 0.05). DCF concentrations decreased and increased in water system and carp, respectively. Cyprinus carpio exposed to DCF was affected in OS status during the initial days of the study (at 4 days), exhibiting an increased response at 24 days in blood and liver. In contrast, a decrease was observed in muscle, gills and brain at 24 days with respect to 4 days. In conclusion, DCF induces OS on blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver in the carp C. carpio in short and long-term exposure. The biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:25512029

  4. Functional characterisation of UCP1 in the common carp: uncoupling activity in liver mitochondria and cold-induced expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Jastroch, Martin; Buckingham, Julie A; Helwig, Michael; Klingenspor, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2007-10-01

    Mammalian uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediates nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. We previously reported on the presence of a UCP1 orthologue in ectothermic fish and observed downregulation of UCP1 gene expression in the liver of the common carp. Neither the function of UCP1, nor the mode of UCP1 activation is known in carp liver mitochondria. Here, we compared the proton conductance at 25 degrees C of liver mitochondria isolated from carp either maintained at 20 degrees C (warm-acclimated, WA) or exposed to 8 degrees C (cold-acclimated, CA) water temperature for 7-10 days. Liver mitochondria from WA carp had higher state four rates of oxygen consumption and greater proton conductance at high membrane potential. Liver mitochondria from WA, but not from CA, carp showed a strong increase in proton conductance when palmitate (or 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, HNE) was added, and this inducible proton conductance was prevented by addition of GDP. This fatty acid sensitive proton leak is likely due to the expression of UCP1 in the liver of WA carp. The observed biochemical properties of proton leak strongly suggest that carp UCP1 is a functional uncoupling protein with broadly the same activatory and inhibitory characteristics as mammalian UCP1. Significant UCP1 expression was also detected in our previous study in whole brain of the carp. We here observed a twofold increase of UCP1 mRNA in carp brain following cold exposure, suggesting a role of UCP1 in the thermal adaptation of brain metabolism. In situ hybridization located the UCP1 gene expression to the optic tectum responsible for visual system control, the descending trigeminal tract and the solitary tract. Taken together, this study characterises uncoupling protein activity in an ectotherm for the first time.

  5. Common carp implanted with prostaglandin F2α release a sex pheromone complex that attracts conspecific males in both the laboratory and field.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hangkyo; Sorensen, Peter W

    2012-02-01

    When ovulated, female fish of many species are known to release a F-prostaglandin-derived sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males. Recently, this pheromone was identified in the common carp as a mixture of prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) and unidentified body metabolites, which we termed a 'pheromone complex.' The present study sought to test the activity of this pheromone complex in the field by developing a system using carps implanted with PGF(2α) as pheromone donors. An initial experiment determined that osmotic pumps that delivered up to 0.4 mg of PGF(2α) per hour could be implanted into carp without any apparent effects on their health. A second experiment found that PGF(2α)-implanted male and female carp released biologically relevant (and equivalent) quantities of PGF(2α), along with two of its seemingly inactive metabolites, for up to 2 weeks. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the odor of PGF(2α)-implanted carp was highly attractive to male conspecifics, and included necessary body metabolites; it attracted males as strongly as ovulated carp odor, and much better than PGF(2α) alone. Finally, a field test demonstrated that PGF(2α)-implanted female carp attracted mature male, but not female carp, from a distance of 20 m. This is the first demonstration of the activity of a PGF(2α)-based pheromone in a natural environment and confirms the use of a PGF-pheromone complex in the carp. We suggest that the implant technique may be useful in future studies of how PGF pheromones function and could be further developed to attract invasive fish for use in control.

  6. Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analyses of the Frizzled Gene Family in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Provide Insights into Gene Expansion from Whole-Genome Duplications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the frizzled (FZD) gene family encodes 10 homologous proteins that commonly localize to the plasma membrane. Besides being associated with three main signaling pathways for cell development, most FZDs have different physiological effects and are major determinants in the development process of vertebrates and. Here, we identified and annotated the FZD genes in the whole-genome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a teleost fish, and determined their phylogenetic relationships to FZDs in other vertebrates. Our analyses revealed extensive gene duplications in the common carp that have led to the 26 FZD genes that we detected in the common carp genome. All 26 FZD genes were assigned orthology to the 10 FZD genes of on-land vertebrates, with none of genes being specific to the fish lineage. We postulated that the expansion of the FZD gene family in common carp was the result of an additional whole genome duplication event and that the FZD gene family in other teleosts has been lost in their evolution history with the reason that the functions of genes are redundant and conservation. Through the expression profiling of FZD genes in common carp, we speculate that the ancestral gene was likely capable of performing all functions and was expressed broadly, while some descendant duplicate genes only performed partial functions and were specifically expressed at certain stages of development. PMID:26675214

  7. Antibacterial efficacy and pharmacokinetic evaluation of sanguinarine in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Ling, F; Wu, Z-Q; Jiang, C; Liu, L; Wang, G-X

    2016-08-01

    Sanguinarine (SA), with antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities against fish pathogens, exhibits great potential commercial use in aquaculture. However, little information on pharmacokinetics of SA restricts further application in aquaculture. In this study, pharmacokinetics of SA in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration [10 mg kg(-1) BW (body weight)] was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak concentration (Cmax ) of SA in kidney was 11.8 μg g(-1) , which was higher than in other tissues and plasma. The terminal half-life in fish tissue and plasma was as follows: 42.3 h (kidney) > 37.2 h (liver) > 20.1 h (gill) > 18.8 h (muscle) > 10.9 h (spleen) > 10.0 h (plasma). Additionally, we determined the bacterial loads in tissues of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila after i.p. administration of SA at 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) BW. The results showed that i.p. administration of SA at 10 mg kg(-1) BW significantly enhanced antibacterial efficacy against A. hydrophila, where the antibacterial ratio in the gill, kidney, spleen and liver on day 5 was 95.13%, 93.33%, 90.09% and 92.82%, respectively. Overall, these results suggested the potential of SA to treat A. hydrophila infection in common carp farming industry. PMID:26763075

  8. GnIH plays a negative role in regulating GtH expression in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Li, Yongming; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    In birds and mammals, the gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) effectively inhibits the expression of gonadotrophin (GtH). In teleosts, the effects of GnIH are still unclear and under much debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functions of GnIH/receptors of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIHRs) system during reproduction in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. We cloned the full cDNA sequences of GnIH /GnIHRs. Real-time PCR results showed that GnIH/GnIHRs were distributed extensively across the whole hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. We also examined the changes of GnIH/GnIHRs in the HPG axis during reproduction. GnIH mRNA expression was decreased to the minimum value in Apr, the spawning month, and increased immediately after the completion of reproduction. Expression pattern of GnIH during reproduction was the opposite to those of Gonadotrophin release hormone 3 (GnRH3) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Expression patterns of GnIHRs were similar to that of GnIH in the hypothalamus. In the pituitary, GnIHR2/3 peaked in March before spawning. In the ovaries, the GnIHR1 decreased to the minimum value in April, but GnIHR2/3 increased. By injection and incubation with synthesized GnIH-III peptide, we confirmed the negative influence of GnIH on mRNAs of the follicle-stimulating hormone-β and LH-β subunits in the common carp. These results show that the GnIH/GnIHRs system is involved in the negative regulation of reproduction in HPG axis of the common carp. PMID:27263051

  9. Immunological and histopathological responses of the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sublethally exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide frequently used world widely in agricultural and non-agricultural areas to control unwanted plants. Health risk of chronic and subchronic exposure of glyphosate on animals and humans has received increasing attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on the immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) in the kidney of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15mgL(-1) of glyphosate for 168h. The results showed that the transcriptions of IgM, C3, or LYZ were altered due to glyphosate-exposure, for example, IgM and C3 initially increased at 24h later it decreased (except for a increase of C3 in higher dose group at 24h) while the expression of G-type LYZ were not affected at 24h, then increased at 72h, but decreased at the end of test, however C-type LYZ expression was initially up-regulated (24-72h) but down-regulated at the end of exposure (168h). However, glyphosate-exposure generally decreased the contents of IgM and C3 or inhibited LYZ activity in the kidney of common carp. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage, mainly including vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in fish kidney. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate causes immunotoxicity on common carp via suppressing the expressions of IgM, C3, and LYZ and also via damaging the fish kidney.

  10. Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp. PMID:23583469

  11. Susceptibility, metacercarial burden, and mortality of juvenile silver barb, common carp, mrigal, and tilapia following exposure to Haplorchis taichui.

    PubMed

    Kopolrat, Kulthida; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2015-04-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) including heterophyids and opisthorchiids are prevalent in native and aquaculture fish in Southeast Asia. FZT are reported highly prevalent in juvenile aquaculture fish that belonged to the family Heterophyidae, particularly Haplorchis taichui. Aquaculture fish are reported to have varying levels of natural infection with H. taichui, but data for their susceptibility as well as resistance to infection are not available. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of five aquaculture fish to H. taichui. Experimental infections were performed by exposing fish individually to 0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 H. taichui cercariae for 12 h. Metacercarial burden was measured at 45 days postinfection. Three out of five fish species, silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), were highly susceptible to H. taichui infection with percentage ranging from 93.33 to 100%. The Nile and red tilapia were not susceptible to infection. Among the susceptible fish species, silver barb had higher intensity of H. taichui metacercariae than common carp and mrigal (P < 0.001). Metacercarial burden significantly correlated with the dose of cercarial infection (P < 0.001). Our findings that common aquaculture fish species have varying degrees of susceptibility to H. taichui infection provide important information to reduce parasite transmission in aquaculture fish.

  12. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly. PMID:27225429

  13. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-05-26

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly.

  14. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly. PMID:27225429

  15. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg-1 dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the other two sites. In the center and south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg-1 dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L-1, respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site. PMID:26893811

  16. The dietary wood betony, Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl extract as a growth promoter and immune enhancer in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami Babaheydari, S; Paykan Heyrati, F; Akhlaghi, M; Dorafshan, S

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of wood betony (WB), Stachys lavandulifolia extract on growth performance and some immune responses in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Different concentrations of the WB extract 0, 2, 4 and 8% (g per 100 g of diet) were added to commercial diet. Each treatment was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish having average initial weight of 44 ± 0.62 g for 10 weeks. The results showed that final weight, food conversion ratio, specific growth rate and condition factor were significantly improved by WB in a dose dependent manner, where the best growth parameters were achieved in the group of fish receiving the highest concentration of WB (P<0.05). Feeding fish at 2 and 4% W/W by WB in the diet improved lysozyme activity, ACH50 and IgM levels significantly in comparison to the control (P<0.05). Group of fish fed on 4% WB in the diet had the best levels of the immune characteristics (P<0.05). Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to feed common carp with WB to improve growth and non-specific immunity. PMID:27175131

  17. Magnesium status in freshwater fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) and the dietary protein-magnesium interaction.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, H; Meyer-Burgdorff, K H; Gunther, K D

    1991-04-01

    Common carp juveniles were fed for 9 weeks one of the eight semipurified diets containing graded levels of magnesium, 0.08, 0.6, 1.1, 3, 2 g Mg kg(-1) and 25 or 44% protein.Fish growth and feed utilization were significantly affected by both Mg and protein levels in the diets. Significant interaction between these two studied variables existed in relation to the fish performance as well as to mean deposition rate of several minerals in common carp body. The fish fed diets containing 0.08 g Mg kg(-1) had reduced growth and developed deficiency signs such as muscle flaccidity and skin hemorrhages.Results indicated that a minimum Mg level of 0.6 g Mg kg(-1) was required to elevate plasma and bone magnesium content and to reduce the whole body Ca concentration (hypercalcinosis symptom). Further increase of dietary Mg up to 3.2 g Mg kg(-1) improved growth rate of fish insignificantly, but the deposition rate of dietary Mg fell to as low as 7.4 and 10.7 percent in low- and high-protein diet fed fish, respectively. In Mg-deficient fish, considerable amount of magnesium was absorbed via extra-oral routes, however, this way of the covering magnesium need becomes insufficient in fast growing fish.

  18. The response of thyroid hormones, biochemical and enzymological biomarkers to pyrene exposure in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Milad; Olyaei, Roya; Sharifpour, Issa

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged into aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities mainly industrial and municipal effluents. There is little information on the adverse effects of pyrene, a member of the PAH family which is classified as a priority pollutant by the USEPA, on fish biochemical and physiological endpoints, particularly thyroid hormones. The present study investigated the effects of subacute semi-static pyrene exposure on biochemical, enzymological and ionoregulatory responses as well as thyroid hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish (140±10g, 1(+) year) were exposed to 10, 50 and 100µg/l nominal concentrations of pyrene for 35 days. The results revealed that pyrene at these concentrations significantly altered plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, plasma thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were significantly decreased in fish exposed to pyrene. In contrast, plasma electrolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium) levels remained statistically unchanged after exposure to the various pyrene concentrations. In conclusion, the studied biomarkers may be used as monitoring tools to evaluate pyrene toxicity. Pyrene induced diverse effects on the physiological endpoints of common carp, thus this chemical should be considered in toxicity studies concerning PAHs. Furthermore, this study confirmed that there was an interaction between pyrene and the thyroid system in fish. Therefore, the thyroid system may be used to assess the impact of pyrene on fish. PMID:27123973

  19. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran.

    PubMed

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg(-1) dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the other two sites. In the center and south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg(-1) dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L(-1), respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site. PMID:26893811

  20. Biological significance of ( sup 14 C)phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J. )

    1990-09-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of ({sup 14}C)phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

  1. Cortisol emphasizes the metabolic strategies employed by common carp, Cyprinus carpio at different feeding and swimming regimes.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Chiarella, Daniela; Pelle, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between feeding, exercise and cortisol on metabolic strategies of common carp over a 168h post-implant period. Feeding provided readily available energy and clearly increased muscle and liver protein and glycogen stores. Swimming, feeding and cortisol all induced aerobic metabolism by increasing oxygen consumption, and stimulated protein metabolism as demonstrated by the increased ammonia and urea excretion and ammonia quotient. Hypercortisol stimulated ammonia self-detoxifying mechanisms by enhancing ammonia and urea excretion, especially during severe exercise. At high swimming level, higher branchial clearance rates in cortisol treated fish succeeded in eliminating the elevation of endogenous ammonia, resulting in reduced plasma Tamm levels compared to control and sham implanted fish. Carp easily induced anaerobic metabolism, both during routine and active swimming, with elevated lactate levels as a consequence. Both feeding and cortisol treatment increased this dependence on anaerobic metabolism. Hypercortisol induced both glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis resulting in hyperglycemia and muscle and liver glycogen deposition, most likely as a protective mechanism for prolonged stress situations and primarily fuelled by protein mobilization.

  2. Effect of ibuprofen exposure on blood, gill, liver, and brain on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Neri-Cruz, Nadia; Dublán-García, Octavio

    2014-04-01

    Although trace concentrations of ibuprofen (IBP) have been detected in diverse water bodies, there is currently insufficient information on the potentially deleterious effects of this xenobiotic. The present study aimed to determine whether IBP induces oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. To this end, the median lethal concentration at 96 h (96-h LC50) was determined and the lowest observed adverse effect level was established. Carp were exposed to the latter concentration (17.6 mg L(-1)) for 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Results indicated that LPX and antioxidant enzymes' activity increased significantly (p < 0.05) with respect to the control group in liver, gill, and blood, while no significant differences occurred in brain. In conclusion, IBP induced oxidative stress on C. carpio, the liver being the organ most affected by this damage.

  3. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A.; Echols, Kathy R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Torres, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

  4. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Goodbred, Steven L; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A; Echols, Kathy; Rosen, Michael R; Torres, Leticia

    2015-08-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

  5. Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

    2014-12-01

    Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-, 20β-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage.

  6. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies.

  7. Changes in the microbial communities of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Qian; Li, Dongping; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    The dominant microbiota of air-packaged (AP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) common carp fillets during storage were systematically identified. Culture-dependent methods were used for microbial enumeration and 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Different packaging conditions affected the growth of microbiota and the shelf life of carp. Shelf-life of AP and VP fillets was 8 and 12 days, respectively. Vacuum packaging delayed the increase of biogenic amines levels compared to air packaging, especially for cadaverine and tyramine levels. In the present study, a total of 13 different genera comprised the microbial communities of fresh carp fillets and Acinetobacter dominated the indigenous flora of carp. However, variability in bacterial community composition was observed in these two packaging conditions. Pseudomonas were the only microbiota found in the spoiled AP carp, whereas Carnobacterium followed by Aeromonas were found mainly in VP samples. Other genera Shewanella, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were also found in low numbers at the end of the VP fillets' shelf life. Additional microbial enumeration observed the highest Pseudomonas counts (8.77 log CFU/g on day 8) in AP samples and a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria (7.74 log CFU/g on day 12) in VP samples.

  8. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  9. Effects of dietary supplementations with the fibrous root of Rhizoma Coptidis and its main alkaloids on non-specific immunity and disease resistance of common carp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Peng, Yaozong; Li, Ling; He, Kai; Huang, Tao; Mou, Shaoxia; Feng, Min; Han, Bing; Ye, Xiaoli; Li, Xuegang

    2016-05-01

    The effects of fibrous root of Rhizoma Coptidis (FRC) and its main alkaloids on non-specific immunity and disease resistance of common carp were investigated. The fish were randomly assigned to seven groups: normal control group (NC), groups treated with 12.5 g/kg FRC (FRC-L), 25 g/kg FRC (FRC-M), 50 g/kg FRC (FRC-H), 0.78 g/kg total alkaloids (TA), 0.78 g/kg berberine (BBR), and 0.78 g/kg coptisine (Cop), respectively. Results showed that the activities of myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and respiratory burst were significantly elevated after treated with FRC-M, FRC-H, TA, BBR and Cop, and the complement C3 level and phagocytic activity were significantly increased in FRC-M, TA and BBR treated groups compared with NC group. The real-time PCR analysis indicated that FRC, TA, BBR and Cop could up-regulate the mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme-c and C3, but down-regulate that of IL-10 in the head kidney of common carp. Besides, FRC-M, FRC-H, TA, BBR and Cop significantly enhanced the survival rate of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, when compared to NC group. It was concluded that the FRC could enhance the non-specific immunity and disease resistance of common carp and the main alkaloids might contribute to these effects. PMID:27090624

  10. Two-Way Selection for Growth Rate in the Common Carp (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moav, R.; Wohlfarth, G.

    1976-01-01

    The domesticated European carp was subjected to a two-way selection for growth rate. Five generations of mass selection for faster growth rate did not yield any response, but subsequent selection between groups (families) resulted in considerable progress while maintaining a large genetic variance. Selection for slow growth rate yielded relatively strong response for the first three generations. Random-bred control lines suffered from strong inbreeding depression and when two lines were crossed, the F1 showed a high degree of heterosis. Selection was performed on pond-raised fish, but growth rate was also tested in cages. A strong pond-cage genetic interaction was found. A theoretical explanation was suggested involving overdominance for fast growth rate and amplification through competition of intra-group but not inter-group variation. PMID:1248737

  11. Substrate specificity of proteolytic activity in the testes fluid and seminal plasma of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cejko, B I; Słowińska, M; Judycka, S; Kowalski, R K

    2016-05-01

    Substrate specificity in the seminal plasma and testes fluids of the common carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using gelatin, casein, albumin and haemoglobin. Proteolytic profiles of the testes and seminal plasma were compared. Different ranges of pH (5·5-9·5) and temperature (4-37° C) were used during incubations of seminal plasma proteinases. Differences in proteolytic activity between testes and seminal plasma may reflect specific functions of the testes and sperm ducts in semen production. Seminal plasma metalloproteinases were characterized by higher substrate specificity than were serine proteinases. Zymography optimization for seminal plasma indicated that pH 7·5 and 22° C were the optimal conditions for gel incubations. PMID:27001550

  12. Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

  13. Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2013-11-01

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage. PMID:26653826

  15. Transciptomic study of mucosal immune, antioxidant and growth related genes and non-specific immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida).

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Jafar, Ali

    2016-08-01

    A 8-weeks feeding trial was conducted to examine the effects of different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida) on expression of antioxidant enzymes (GSR, GPX and GSTA), immune (TNF-alpha, IL1B, IL- 8 and LYZ) and growth (GH, IGF1 and Ghrl) genes as well as cutaneous mucus and serum non-specific immune response in common carp. The results revealed Ferula significantly increased antioxidant gene expression (GSR and GSTA) in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). The expression of immune growth related genes were significantly higher in Ferula fed fish compared control group (P < 0.05). The effects of Ferula on expression of genes was more pronounced in higher doses. Feeding on Ferula supplemented diet remarkably increased skin mucus lysozyme activity (P < 0.05). However, evaluation of mucus total Ig and protease activity revealed no significant difference between control and treated groups (P > 0.05). Regarding non-specific humoral response, serum total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50 showed no remarkable variation between Ferula fed carps and control group (P > 0.05). These results indicated up-regulation of growth and health related genes in Ferula fed common carp. Further studies using pathogen or stress challenge is required to conclude that transcriptional modulation is beneficial in common carp. PMID:27241284

  16. Comparison of plasma and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration.

    PubMed

    Kyuchukova, Ralica; Milanova, Aneliya; Pavlov, Alexander; Lashev, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the serum and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of enrofloxacin in the serum of rainbow trout showed high variability with two peaks at the third and 24th hour after administration. The highest concentrations were found in the liver. The curves of liver levels showed similar changes to the respective serum samples. In the muscles, enrofloxacin concentrations were also higher compared with the respective serum samples. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were lower and showed smaller variations in all investigated tissues. The serum and tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in common carp showed two peaks, with the first Cmax at the third hour after drug administration as in rainbow trout. Concentrations of both investigated substances were higher in the liver than in the serum. The differences in common carp were less pronounced in comparison with rainbow trout. Relatively high levels of both substances were found in the muscles. Seven days after treatment enrofloxacin concentrations in the serum and tissues were within the therapeutic levels for most of the sensitive microorganisms in trout. Lower concentrations of its metabolite ciprofloxacin were found in the investigated tissues at the last sampling point. Lower levels of both substances were found in carp.

  17. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Przybylska-Diaz, D A; Schmidt, J G; Vera-Jiménez, N I; Steinhagen, D; Nielsen, M E

    2013-09-01

    Wound healing is a complex and well-organized process in which physiological factors and immune mechanisms are involved. A number of different immune modulators have been found to enhance the non-specific defence system in vertebrates, among which β-glucans are the most powerful and extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two different types of β-glucans. The wound healing process was monitored using a multispectral visualisation system. The correlation between wound closure and immune response was investigated by measuring the gene expression patterns of IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17, IL-8 and Muc5b, and measurement of production of radical oxygen species. PAMPs/DAMPs stimulation caused by the wounding and or β-glucans resulted in an inflammatory response by activating IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 and differences in the expression pattern were seen depending on stimuli. IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 were activated in all wounds regardless of treatment. Expression of all three interleukins was highly up regulated in control wounded muscle already at day 1 post-wounding and decreased at subsequent time-points. The reverse was the case with control wounded skin, where expression increased from day 1 through day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp and induce a local change in cytokine expression.

  19. Polar metabolites synergize the activity of prostaglandin F2α in a species-specific hormonal sex pheromone released by ovulated common carp.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hangkyo; Sorensen, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Many species of teleost fish detect and release F prostaglandins (PGFs), but the specific identities of these compounds and how they function as species-specific pheromones have yet to be resolved. This study addressed these questions in the common carp. An initial set of experiments established that mature male common carp were attracted to chemicals released by ovulated conspecifics, whereas the odor of female goldfish, a close relative, was less attractive. Tests of fractionated holding water from ovulated carp revealed that only the non-polar fraction was attractive on its own. Mass spectrometry and immunoassay next demonstrated that the non-polar fraction contained large quantities of prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)), 15keto-prostaglandinF(2α), and 13,14-dihydro-15keto-prostaglandin F(2α) (100 g fish released over 1 μg of all 3 PGFs per h at a ratio of 1.0: 1.7: 0.7). Ovulated goldfish released the same three PGFs but at a slightly greater rate and in a different ratio. Tests of synthetic mixtures of these PGFs revealed that the carp-specific mixture attracted male carp but was no better than the goldfish-specific mixture or PGF(2α) alone and that PGF(2α) was just as attractive as mixture of all three PGFs. A final set of attraction tests revealed that although PGF(2α) could explain all of the activity of the non-polar portion of female carp holding water, it could not explain the entire activity of female water but that a mixture of PGFs and the polar fraction could. We conclude that ovulated female carp release a multi-component sex pheromone complex that is comprised of PGF(2α) and unknown species-specific polar compound(s) that synergize the activity of the former. The pheromone also might be useful in controlling this invasive species. The observation that a fish hormonal sex pheromone incorporates bodily metabolites in addition to relatively common hormonal products demonstrates a mechanism by which species specificity may be conferred to this

  20. Immunogenicity of a cell culture-derived inactivated vaccine against a common virulent isolate of grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Changchen; Li, Yingying; Shi, Chunbin; Wu, Shuqin; Song, Xinjian; Huang, Qiwen; Li, Shoujun

    2016-07-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is emerging as a serious problem in grass carp aquaculture. There is no available antiviral therapy and vaccination is the primary method of disease control. In the present study, the immunological effects and protective efficacy of an inactivated HuNan1307 vaccine in grass carp were evaluated. The GCRV isolate HuNan1307 was produced by replication onto the grass carp PSF cell line, and inactivated with 1% β-propiolactone for 60 h at 4 °C. Grass carp were injected with inactivated GCRV vaccine, followed by challenge with the isolate HuNan1307. The results showed that the minimum dosage of the inactivated vaccine was 10(5.5) TCID50/0.2 mL to induce immune protection. All grass carp immunized with the inactivated vaccine produced a high titer of serum antibodies and GCRV-specific neutralizing antibody. Moreover, the inactivated vaccine injection increased the expression of 6 immune-related genes in the spleen and head kidney, which indicated that a immune response was induced by the HuNan1307 vaccine. In addition, grass carp immunized with the inactivated vaccine showed a survival rate above 80% after the viral challenge, equal to that of grass carp immunized with a commercial attenuated vaccine, and the protection lasted at least for one year. The data in this study suggested that the inactivated HuNan1307 vaccine may represent an efficient method to induce immunity against GCRV infection and the induced disease in grass carp. PMID:27142935

  1. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of Echinocephalus carpiae n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) infecting the common carp Cyprinus carpio inhabiting Burullus Lake--a new host record in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab

    2013-12-01

    The present study described a new species of the genus Echinocephalus that was isolated from the intestine of the common carp Cyprinus carpio inhabiting Burullus Lake, Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Thirty-two out of 70 examined specimens (45.71 %) were found to be naturally infected. The adult male worms were elongated and measured 0.79-0.85 mm (0.81 ± 0.02) in length and 0.21-0.32 mm (0.28 ± 0.002) in width, while females reached 0.89-0.98 mm (0.9 ± 0.02) long and 0.25-0.38 mm (0.28 ± 0.002) wide. The reported species are investigated microscopically, genetically, and compared with previous related ones. The present study recorded this new nematode parasite as Echinocephalus carpiae with accession no. KC493258, inhabiting new host and locality records in Egypt. It is especially characterized by short body length, cephalic bulb with few (six to eight) multiple rows of spines, clear annulated cuticle, and new genetic sequences, which identify the paraphyly of Gnathostomatinae.

  2. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  3. Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the immune organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Dechun; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liang, Yang; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR (4.28, 42.8 and 428 μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 μg/L) and combined ATR/CPF (1.13, 11.3 and 113 μg/L) on common carp head kidneys and spleens following 40 d exposure and 40 d recovery treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) content, activities of anti hydroxyl radical (AHR), anti superoxide anion (ASA), peroxidase (POD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the mRNA levels of the autophagy genes (LC3-II, dynein, TOR) were determined. The results indicate that the antioxidant enzyme (AHR, ASA, POD and iNOS) activities and NO content in the head kidney and spleen of the common carp increased significantly after a 40 d exposure to ATR and CPF alone or in combination. The mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein in common carp increased significantly after exposure to ATR and CPF alone, or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein decreased significantly after a 40-d recovery. However, the mRNA levels of TOR gene for all decreased significantly at the end of the exposure and the recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the oxidative stress-induced autophagic effects in the common carp by exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination. The information presented in the present study may be helpful to understanding the mechanisms of autophagy induced by ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in fish.

  4. Differences in IgY gut absorption in gastric rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and agastric common carp (Cyprinus carpio) assessed in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Winkelbach, Anja; Günzel, Dorothee; Schulz, Carsten; Wuertz, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Oral IgY antibodies offer promising potential for passive immunization strategies. To evaluate barriers for successful IgY plasma recovery after oral application in vivo, gastric rainbow trout and agastric common carp were comparatively assessed. A positive control that received a low dose of unspecific IgY antibodies by intraperitoneal injection (0.0076 mg IgY g BW(-1) d(-1); BW=body mass) was compared with an oral administration of 75 and 150 fold in rainbow trout (corresponding to 0.57 and 1.14 mg g BW(-1)) and in carp (0.57 mg g BW(-1)). Dietary antibodies were delivered with the antacid sodium bicarbonate and three different putative uptake enhancers (Tween 20, vitamin E TPGS, sodium deoxycholate). IgY concentrations in the plasma were determined 1d (rainbow trout) or 5d after last feeding (both species). Irrespective of the enhancer used, ELISA revealed IgY absorption after feeding in carp, whereas IgY concentration in rainbow trout remained below the detection threshold. Intraperitoneal injections revealed IgY in plasma of both species. In vitro Ussing chamber experiments with posterior intestine tissue of carp and trout were carried out to determine whether species-specific differences in IgY translocation were due to acidic stomach passage or species-specific differences in transepithelial IgY passage. Significantly higher IgY translocation was measured in carp at high application dosage compared to all other groups, indicating that species-specific differences in IgY uptake after oral administration are not only related to peptic IgY degradation in the stomach, but also likely a result of differences in IgY transcytosis in the posterior intestine.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Polychlorinated biphenyls in common carp and walleye fillets, 1975-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Median PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at individual sites were greatest during 1975-79 and 1980-87, and least during 1988-95 at most sites. Most of the river segments exhibited over 80 percent decline in median PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye between the 1975-79 and 1988-95 time periods. The results from these temporal analyses were similar to those of other studies in the United States and in Minnesota and Wisconsin that reported a significant downward trend in PCB concentrations in fish. Although, PCB concentrations have decreased during 1975-95, low concentrations of PCBs still remain in the aquatic environment despite the fact that PCBs were banned nearly 20 years ago.

  6. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  7. Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on DNA methylation in the liver, kidney and gill of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Fuqing; Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-10-01

    Pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with cancers, although the molecular mechanisms behind this association are largely undetermined. Abnormal DNA methylation plays a key role in the process of some disease. However, little was known about the effect of pesticides on DNA methylation in the common carp. In this study, we investigated the mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl-CpG-binding protein DNA-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) as well as the DNA methylation levels in the liver, kidney and gill of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 40-d exposure to atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone or in combination, and a 40-d recovery period. Juvenile common carp were exposed to various concentrations of ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116μg/L), and an ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113μg/L). The results revealed that the levels of genomic DNA methylation decreased in all tissues after 40d of exposure to ATR and CPF either individually or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA expression of DNMTs was down-regulated in all treatment groups. In contrast, the mRNA expression of MBD2 was up-regulated. These results demonstrated that long-term exposure to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF mixtures could disrupt genomic DNA. It might imply that DNA methylation is involved in the toxicity caused by ATR and CPF in the common carp.

  8. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  9. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    PubMed

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future.

  10. Characterization and immune response expression of the Rig-I-like receptor mda5 in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Y; Xing, W X; Shan, S J; Zhang, S Q; Li, Y Q; Li, T; An, L; Yang, G W

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the full-length complementary (c)DNA of common carp Cyprinus carpio melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (mda5) was cloned. The complete open reading frame of C. carpio mda5 contained 2982 bp and encodes 993 amino acids. The deduced amino acids contained six functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARD), a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme (ResIII), a DExD/H box-containing domain (DEXDc), a helicase super family C-terminal domain (HELICc) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). The mda5 gene was expressed in all tested tissues, with high levels in the gills and spleen, while lower expressed in gonad and blood. The copy numbers of mda5 were increased in the liver, spleen, head kidney and the mucosal-associated immune tissues such as the foregut, hindgut, gills and skin after stimulation with polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)] and Aeromonas hydrophila. The myxovirus resistance gene (mx) messenger (m)RNA levels in the spleen, head kidney, foregut and gills were significantly up-regulated after poly(I:C) injection. When injected with poly(I:C), mda5 and mx transcripts were also significantly induced in vitro. These results implied that mda5 might be involved in both antiviral and antibacterial innate immune processes in C. carpio. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. PMID:27108774

  11. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    PubMed

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future. PMID:27095064

  12. In Vivo and in Vitro Isomer-Specific Biotransformation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Qiang, Liwen; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fang, Shuhong; Han, Yuwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-12-01

    Biotransformation of PFOS-precursors (PreFOS) may contribute significantly to the level of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in the environment. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is one of the major intermediates of higher molecular weight PreFOS. Its further degradation to PFOS could be isomer specific and thereby explain unexpected high percentages of branched (Br-) PFOS isomers observed in wildlife. In this study, isomeric degradation of PFOSA was concomitantly investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests using common carp as an animal model. In the in vivo tests branched isomers of PFOSA and PFOS were eliminated faster than the corresponding linear (n-) isomers, leading to enrichment of n-PFOSA in the fish. In contrast, Br-PFOS was enriched in the fish, suggesting that Br-PFOSA isomers were preferentially metabolized to Br-PFOS over n-PFOSA. This was confirmed by the in vitro test. The exception was 1m-PFOSA, which could be the most difficult to be metabolized due to its α-branched structure, resulting in the deficiency of 1m-PFOS in the fish. The in vitro tests indicated that the metabolism mainly took place in the fish liver instead of its kidney, and it was mainly a Phase I reaction. The results may help to explain the special PFOS isomer profile observed in wildlife.

  13. Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y

    2012-05-01

    Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio.

  14. Identification and expression of the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Wan, Q Y; Wang, L F; Su, J G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene (lgp2) from common carp Cyprinus carpio was isolated and characterized. The full-length complementary (c)DNA of lgp2 was 3061 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 680 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 77 341·2 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 6·53. The predicted protein included four main overlapping structural domains: a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme, a DEAD-DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase super family C-terminal domain and a regulatory domain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed widespread expression of lgp2, mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (mavs) and interferon transcription factor 3 (irf3) in tissues of nine organs. lgp2, mavs and irf3 expression levels were significantly induced in all examined organs by infection with koi herpesvirus (KHV). lgp2, mavs and irf3 messenger (m)RNA levels were significantly up-regulated in vivo after KHV infection, and lgp2 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro after stimulation with synthetic, double-stranded RNA polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)]. These findings suggest that lgp2 is an inducible protein involved in the innate immune defence against KHV in C. carpio. These results provide the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of lgp2 in fishes. PMID:25359511

  15. Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.

    PubMed

    Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y

    2012-05-01

    Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio. PMID:22551186

  16. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  17. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  18. Carpe Diem: Seizing the Common Core with Visual Thinking Strategies in the Visual Arts Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Mary; Unrath, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) art discussions and subsequent, inspired artmaking can help reach the goals of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, & Technical Subjects (CCSS-ELA). The authors describe how this was achieved in a remedial…

  19. The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

    2013-03-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0 ± 1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish.

  20. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. PMID:27001661

  1. Oxidative stress and immune disturbance after long-term exposure to bisphenol A in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Jingsi; Li, Yijie; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Ming; Wu, Minghong

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, which poses an ecotoxicological risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the immunotoxic effects of its long-term exposure on fish have received limited attention. We examined a number of typical immune-related parameters and oxidative stress indices in the liver and blood serum of the red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), following a 30-day exposure to five different concentrations of BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L). A significant increase in the hepato somatic index was observed in fish upon exposure to 1000µg/L BPA, which correlated strongly with the accumulated BPA concentrations in fish bile. Induced oxidative stress was also apparent in the exposed fish liver, based on the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and inhibited activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Serum lysozyme and C-reaction protein levels increased at low concentrations of exposure; however, they were significantly suppressed upon exposure to high concentrations. A significant increase was observed in the levels of immunoglobulin M, complement component 3, and alkaline phosphatase, in both fish liver and serum at low doses of 0.1 and 1μg/L. This suggests that long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (even as low as 0.1μg/L) could significantly disturb the immune response of fish. Moreover, RXRα expression in the liver was significantly altered upon BPA exposure and the trend underlying this change correlated closely with those of the most immune-related parameters, implying the involvement of the PPARγ/RXRα signaling pathway in regulating the immune response of fish upon long-term BPA exposure. In short, our results demonstrate the susceptibility of fish immune system to long-term BPA exposure. Therefore, the immunotoxicity of EDCs in aquatic organisms should not have been underestimated. PMID:27088622

  2. The combined effect of hypoxia and nutritional status on metabolic and ionoregulatory responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Moyson, Sofie; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the combined effects of hypoxia and nutritional status were examined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a relatively hypoxia tolerant cyprinid. Fish were either fed or fasted and were exposed to hypoxia (1.5-1.8mg O2L(-1)) at or slightly above their critical oxygen concentration during 1, 3 or 7days followed by a 7day recovery period. Ventilation initially increased during hypoxia, but fasted fish had lower ventilation frequencies than fed fish. In fed fish, ventilation returned to control levels during hypoxia, while in fasted fish recovery only occurred after reoxygenation. Due to this, C. carpio managed, at least in part, to maintain aerobic metabolism during hypoxia: muscle and plasma lactate levels remained relatively stable although they tended to be higher in fed fish (despite higher ventilation rates). However, during recovery, compensatory responses differed greatly between both feeding regimes: plasma lactate in fed fish increased with a simultaneous breakdown of liver glycogen indicating increased energy use, while fasted fish seemed to economize energy and recycle decreasing plasma lactate levels into increasing liver glycogen levels. Protein was used under both feeding regimes during hypoxia and subsequent recovery: protein levels reduced mainly in liver for fed fish and in muscle for fasted fish. Overall, nutritional status had a greater impact on energy reserves than the lack of oxygen with a lower hepatosomatic index and lower glycogen stores in fasted fish. Fasted fish transiently increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity under hypoxia, but in general ionoregulatory balance proved to be only slightly disturbed, showing that sufficient energy was left for ion regulation.

  3. Effect of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at environmental concentrations on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine's herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC) = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found. PMID:24689046

  4. Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Fazio, Angela; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney).

  5. Quality changes and predictive models of radial basis function neural networks for brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chunli; Wang, Huiyi; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Yuemei; Pan, Jinfeng; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    To investigate and predict quality of 2% brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage, free fatty acids (FFA), salt extractable protein (SEP), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were determined at 261 K, 253 K, and 245 K, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (P<0.05) in FFA and a sharp decrease (P<0.05) in SH at 261 K during the first 3 weeks. SEP decreased to 67.31% after 17 weeks at 245 K, whereas it took about 7 weeks and 13 weeks to decrease to the same extent at 261 K and 253 K, respectively. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity kept decreasing to 18.28% after 7 weeks at 261 K. Furthermore, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) were developed to predict quality (FFA, SEP, SH, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity) of brined carp fillets during frozen storage with relative errors all within ±5%. Thus, RBFNN is a promising method to predict quality of carp fillets during storage at 245-261 K. PMID:26868584

  6. Enzyme activity in energy supply of spermatozoon motility in two taxonomically distant fish species (sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenseriformes and common carp Cyprinus carpio, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek

    2016-03-01

    As spermatozoon motility duration differs significantly among fish species, the mechanism of ATP generation-regeneration and its distribution along the flagellum may be species-dependent. The present study compared the role of creatine kinase (CK) with that of adenylate kinase (AK) in ATP regeneration during motility of demembranated spermatozoa of taxonomically distant fish species, sterlet, and common carp, allowing investigation for the presence of the creatine-phosphocreatine (PCr) shuttle in sterlet spermatozoa. The flagellar beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was measured in reactivating media in the presence or absence of ATP, ADP, PCr, and CK and AK inhibitors. After demembranation, AK, CK, and total ATPase activity was measured in spermatozoon extracts. Beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was found to be positively correlated with ATP levels in reactivating medium and to reach a plateau at 0.8 mM and 0.6 mM ATP for carp and sterlet, respectively. It was shown for the first time that sterlet axonemal dynein ATPases have a higher affinity for ATP than do those of carp. Supplementation of reactivating medium with ADP and PCr without ATP resulted in beat frequencies comparable to that measured with 0.3 to 0.5-mM ATP for both studied species. The presence of the PCr-CK phosphagen system and its essential role in ATP regeneration were first confirmed for sturgeon spermatozoa. The inhibition of CK exerted a high impact on spermatozoon energy supply in both species, whereas the inhibition of AK was more pronounced in sterlet than in carp. This was confirmed by the quantification of enzyme activity in spermatozoon extracts. We concluded that spermatozoa of these taxonomically distant species use similar systems to supply energy for flagella motility, but with different efficacy.

  7. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  8. Protective effects of propolis on cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.

    PubMed

    Öğretmen, Fatih; Inanan, Burak E; Öztürk, Mehmet

    2014-02-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm is common procedures in aquaculture, particularly used for routine in artificial insemination. However, these application cause damages and adversely affected sperm motility, viability and consequently lower hatching rates. The objective of this study is to determine whether propolis has an effect on cryopreservation and fertilization ability and to investigate the potential protective effect of propolis on spermatozoa of Cyprinus carpio. Many studies have been done in cryopreservation offish spermatozoa, but none of them contain propolis in extender composition. The extenders were prepared by using modified Kurokura Solution to which 10% Me(2)SO added with different levels of propolis (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mgml(-1)) and 10% egg yolk (as a control without propolis). The pooled semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:9 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of motility and fertilization tests of cryopreserved sperm samples have been done immediately after thawing and compared with control and fresh semen. The extenders containing propolis exhibited higher percentage motility and motility duration than control group (P < 0.05). Especially the group IV (0.8 mgml(-1) propolis) and the group V (1 mgml(-1) propolis) showed significant positive effects on both post thaw motility and hatching ability. The propolis maintained the integrity of the spermatozoa during the cryopreservation process. Evaluating with its contents, it has been shown that propolis is an appropriate cryoprotective agent in fish semen.

  9. Localization of α-synuclein in teleost central nervous system: immunohistochemical and Western blot evidence by 3D5 monoclonal antibody in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Rosa; Toni, Mattia; Casini, Arianna; Vivacqua, Giorgio; Yu, Shun; D'este, Loredana; Cioni, Carla

    2015-05-01

    Alpha synuclein (α-syn) is a 140 amino acid vertebrate-specific protein, highly expressed in the human nervous system and abnormally accumulated in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, known as synucleinopathies. The common occurrence of α-syn aggregates suggested a role for α-syn in these disorders, although its biological activity remains poorly understood. Given the high degree of sequence similarity between vertebrate α-syns, we investigated this proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, with the aim of comparing its anatomical and cellular distribution with that of mammalian α-syn. The distribution of α-syn was analyzed by semiquantitative western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence by a novel monoclonal antibody (3D5) against a fully conserved epitope between carp and human α-syn. The distribution of 3D5 immunoreactivity was also compared with that of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and serotonin (5HT) by double immunolabelings. The results showed that a α-syn-like protein of about 17 kDa is expressed to different levels in several brain regions and in the spinal cord. Immunoreactive materials were localized in neuronal perikarya and varicose fibers but not in the nucleus. The present findings indicate that α-syn-like proteins may be expressed in a few subpopulations of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the carp brain. However, evidence of cellular colocalization 3D5/TH or 3D5/5HT was rare. Differently, the same proteins appear to be coexpressed with ChAT by cholinergic neurons in several motor and reticular nuclei. These results sustain the functional conservation of the α-syn expression in cholinergic systems and suggest that α-syn modulates similar molecular pathways in phylogenetically distant vertebrates.

  10. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P < 0.001) from autumn to winter. Based on our autumn night-time survey, overall fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  11. β-Glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Pionnier, Nicolas; Pietretti, Danilo; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2014-02-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of β-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection, particularly in the gut. However, in general, mechanisms to detect and eliminate pathogens must also be induced in order to achieve an efficient clearance of the infection. Protection against viral diseases acquired through β-glucan-supplemented feed has been extensively reported for several experimental models in fish but the underlining mechanisms are still unknown. Thus, in order to better characterize the antiviral action induced by β-glucans in fish, MacroGard® was administered daily to common carp in the form of supplemented commercial food pellets. Carp were fed for a period of 25 days prior to intra-peritoneal injection with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a well-known double-stranded RNA mimic that triggers a type-I interferon (IFN) response. Subsequently, a set of immune related genes, including mx, were analysed by real-time PCR on liver, spleen, head kidney and mid gut tissues. Results obtained confirmed that treatment with β-glucan alone generally down-regulated the mRNA expression of selected cytokines when compared to untreated fish, while mx gene expression remained stable or was slightly up-regulated. Injection with poly(I:C) induced a similar down-regulated gene expression pattern for cytokines in samples from β-glucan fed fish. In contrast, poly(I:C) injection markedly increased mx gene expression in samples from β-glucan fed fish but hardly in samples from fish fed control feed. In an attempt to explain the high induction of mx, we studied Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene expression in these carp. TLR3 is a prototypical pattern recognition receptor considered important for the binding of viral double-stranded RNA and triggering of a

  12. Effect of semen extender supplementation with cysteine on postthaw sperm quality, DNA damage, and fertilizing ability in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Öğretmen, Fatih; İnanan, Burak Evren; Kutluyer, Filiz; Kayim, Murathan

    2015-06-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of cysteine on postthaw sperm motility, duration of sperm motility, DNA damage, and fertility in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sperm collected from 10 individuals was cryopreserved in extenders containing different cysteine concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mM). Semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:9 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the semen was aspirated into 0.25-mL straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapor, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. DNA damage was evaluated by comet assay after cryopreservation. Our results indicated that an increase in the concentration of cysteine caused a significant increase in the motility rate and duration of sperm in the common carp (C carpio; P < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of cysteine, the best concentration of cysteine was 20 mM. Higher postthaw motility (76.00 ± 1.00%) and fertilization (97.00 ± 1.73%) rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 20 mM. Supplementation of the extender with cysteine was increased the fertilization and hatching rate and decreased DNA damage. Consequently, cysteine affected the motility, fertilization, and DNA damage positively, and extenders could be supplemented with cysteine.

  13. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Parvin; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Ziaei-Nejad, Saeed; Parviz Salati, Amir; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp. Four experimental diets containing 0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.20% MOS were prepared. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with initial average weight of approximately 14 g. After eight weeks, survival rate was high in all treatments with no significant difference (p > 0.05). Growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) did not differ among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better when the fish were fed 0.05 to 0.20% MOS diets. The alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity and serum total Ig were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in fish fed 0.20% MOS diets. Although the total intestinal bacterial counts were not affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05), the lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed MOS diets (p < 0.05). These results indicated that oral administration of MOS at 0.20% elevated the immune response, improved FCR and modulated intestinal microbiota of common carp. PMID:26893815

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption, dynamic tissue-specific accumulation, and isomer composition of dechlorane plus and related analogs in common carp by dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-02-01

    Dechlorane plus (DP) is a high-productive volume substance which had been identified as ubiquitous pollutant and has been widely detected in biota. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to known amounts of commercial DP-25 under laboratory conditions. The gastrointestinal absorption and tissue-specific bioaccumulation of DP and its dechlorinated analogs in common carp were investigated. The higher absorption efficiencies but lower assimilation efficiencies of anti-isomers indicated stereoselective metabolism of anti-isomers in fish. Linear uptake curves were seen in serum and muscle, but the depuration curves for all the four tissues (muscle, serum, liver and gonad) did not follow the first-order kinetics. The liver exhibited a high affinity for anti-isomers during the experiment. Other tissues, such as serum, muscle, and gonad, showed a selective accumulation of syn-DP in the early stages of the experiment, particularly the serum. However, the deviation of fanti between different tissues disappeared at late stages of the experiment, and the fanti values in all tissues were close to that in commercial mixtures. Our results suggest that the bioaccumulation of DP is a complex and multi-factorial process.

  15. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings

    PubMed Central

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Parvin; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Ziaei-Nejad, Saeed; Parviz Salati, Amir; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp. Four experimental diets containing 0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.20% MOS were prepared. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with initial average weight of approximately 14 g. After eight weeks, survival rate was high in all treatments with no significant difference (p > 0.05). Growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) did not differ among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better when the fish were fed 0.05 to 0.20% MOS diets. The alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity and serum total Ig were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in fish fed 0.20% MOS diets. Although the total intestinal bacterial counts were not affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05), the lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed MOS diets (p < 0.05). These results indicated that oral administration of MOS at 0.20% elevated the immune response, improved FCR and modulated intestinal microbiota of common carp. PMID:26893815

  16. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on the expression of immune response genes in head kidney, gill and spleen of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chuntao; Pan, Xuping; Gong, Yi; Xia, Aijun; Wu, Guanghong; Tang, Jianqing; Han, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    For fish immune defences, cytokines and anti-microbial peptides (lysozyme) in circulating system play important roles. In the present study, the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) injection on gene expression of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF-alpha) and lysozyme-C in the head kidney, gill and spleen of common carp were determined using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After injection of APS, IL-1beta mRNA level increased in a dose-dependent manner in the head kidney, while no significant changes were found in the gill and spleen. High dose of APS up regulated TNF-alpha transcription in the gill and spleen, while TNF-alpha mRNA level decreased significantly in the head kidney of low dose of APS. Lysozyme-C mRNA levels were up regulated in the gill of low dose of APS and spleen of middle dose of APS. No effect of the APS on lysozyme-C expression was observed in head kidney. These results constitute a first step toward the understanding of APS effect on cytokines and immune-related gene expression in different organs of common carp.

  17. Effect of dietary lysine on growth, intestinal enzymes activities and antioxidant status of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Tang, Ling; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Chen, Gang-Fu; Li, Shu-Hong; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The dietary lysine requirement of sub-adult grass carp (460 ± 1.5 g) was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with grade levels of lysine (6.6, 8.5, 10.8, 12.9, 15.0 and 16.7 g kg(-1) diet) for 56 days. The test diets (28% CP) contained fish meal, casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Weight gain (WG), feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved with increasing levels of lysine up to 12.9 g kg(-1) diet and thereafter declined (P < 0.05). Quadratic regression analysis of WG at 95% maximum response indicated lysine requirement was 10.9 g kg(-1) diet. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in intestine, creatine kinase activity in proximal and mid-intestine responded similar to WG (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and protein oxidation decreased with increasing levels of lysine up to certain values and increased thereafter (P < 0.05); the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity, dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione content were increased with increasing dietary lysine levels up to certain values in the detected tissues, except for hepatopancreatic GST. Requirement estimated on the basis of malondialdehyde content in intestine and hepatopancreas was 10.6 and 9.53 g lysine kg(-1) diet, respectively. PMID:24174167

  18. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P < 0.05). However, evaluation of immune related gene expression demonstrated that the expression of tnfa and il1b was considerably decreased (P < 0.05) in fish fed DPFE diet, while the expression of ly remained similar (P > 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. PMID:26439417

  19. Effects of different concentrations of metal ions on degradation of adenosine triphosphate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4°C: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Qin, Na; Zhang, Longteng; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-11-15

    The impact of different concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) on the degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the influence of these ions on the activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMP-deaminase) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in common carp fillets (in vivo) during 4°C storage was examined. The content of ATP, inosine monophosphate (IMP), and hypoxanthine (Hx), and the activity of AMP-deaminase and ACP were determined. Results indicated that the effects of different concentrations of six kinds of metal ions on AMP-deaminase and ACP were not the same. Na(+), K(+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) enhanced AMP-deaminase activity, which led to the rapid degradation of ATP and to the generation of a large quantity of IMP within a short time. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) delayed the change in AMP-deaminase and ACP activity in carp and caused a further delay in the degradation of ATP. Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) inhibited ACP activity, which reduced the decomposition of IMP and the formation of Hx. PMID:27283700

  20. Low prevalence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Found in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) collected from nine locations in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Anderson, Gregory B; Wooster, Gregory A; Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Casey, James W; Bain, Mark B; Bowser, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a viral disease of fish first detected in the United States in 1998. Since that time, mortality events in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) have occurred in several locations within the Great Lakes basin, but not within the Great Lakes themselves. We sampled 675 carp from 20 sites across the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, between 19 July and 26 September 2010. We tested the gill and a pooled internal organ sample from each fish for CyHV3 with the use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Virus was detected in 18 fish from nine sites in four lakes (Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Ontario). Tissues from these 18 fish were also tested for CyHV3 with the use of the PCR assay recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health; amplification was achieved from two fish and confirmation by sequencing of CyHV3 from one fish collected in Lake St. Clair. The results of this study suggest that CyHV3 is present in the Great Lakes.

  1. Characterization and expression analysis of Toll-interacting protein in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., responding to bacterial and viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shijuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fumiao; Zhu, Yaoyao; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2016-01-01

    Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) is a mediator involved in the TLRs signaling pathway which is critical for innate immune response. In the present study, a full-length Tollip cDNA was first cloned from common carp (CcTollip), which was 1284 bp in length, containing an open reading frame of 831 bp encoding a peptide of 276 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the CcTollip shared the highest similarity with that of grass carp and zebrafish. Phylogenetically, the CcTollip clustered together well with their piscine family members. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CcTollip was widely expressed in all tissues tested and showed up-regulation with challenges of Vibrio anguillarum and poly(I:C), suggesting that CcTollip was activated by V. anguillarum and poly(I:C). These data indicated that CcTollip might play an important role in immune response to bacterial and viral invasion. PMID:27330905

  2. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, E.L.; Goodbred, S.L.; May, T.W.; Alvarez, David; Echols, K.R.; Wieser, C.M.; Ruessler, S.; Torres, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17?? and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p< 0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WB < LVB < LVW for metal concentrations and LVB < WB < LVW for biological traits. Respective primary drivers for these separations were Ag, As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn; and TL, GSI, 11kt, and Hct. Canonical correlation analysis using the latter variable sets showed they are significantly associated (p<0.0003); with As, Ba, Hg, and Zn, and TL, 11kt, and Hct being the primary contributors to the association. In conclusion, male carp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this

  3. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Reynaldo; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik L; Goodbred, Steven L; May, Thomas W; Alvarez, David; Echols, Kathy R; Wieser, Carla M; Ruessler, Shane; Torres, Leticia

    2012-02-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17β and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p<0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WBcarp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are

  4. Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. )

    1992-06-01

    Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

  5. The in vitro effect of temperature on motility and antioxidant response of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dadras, Hadiseh; Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Golpour, Amin; Dzyuba, Borys

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa in vitro was investigated with spermatozoa activated at 4, 14, and 24°C. At 30s post-activation, motility rate was significantly higher at 4°C compared to 14 and 24°C, whereas highest swimming velocity was observed at 14°C. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) content was significantly higher at 14°C and 24°C than at 4°C in motile spermatozoa. No significant differences in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity relative to temperature were observed. This study provides new information regarding effect of temperature on lipid peroxidation intensity and spermatozoon motility parameters in carp. The elevation of TBARS seen at higher temperatures could be due to inadequate capacity of antioxidant enzymes to protect the cell against the detrimental effects of oxidative stress induced by higher temperatures. PMID:27264890

  6. Use of biological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to indicate exposure to hormonally active agents in selected Minnesota streams, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Talmage, Philip J.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of HAAs in selected Minnesota streams was indicated by biological characteristics in common carp. Biological characteristics used in this study identified WWTP effluent as a potential source of HAAs. Additionally, fish located at sites upstream of WWTP effluent primarily draining agricultural land show indications of HAAs, which may be the result of agricultural runoff or other sources of HAAs. There was variability among all sites and among sites within each site group. Differences among sites may be due to differences in water chemistry or fish exposure time. Natural variation in the biological characteristics may account for some of the differences observed in this study. This study and others indicate the presence of HAAs in surface water and the potential signs of endocrine disruption in resident fish populations. Detailed controlled studies could confirm the effects of particular chemicals such as pesticides or components of WWTPs on fish reproduction and population structure.

  7. No need to open the jar: a comparative study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging results on fresh and alcohol preserved common carps (Cyprinus carpio (L. 1758), Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Chanet, Bruno; Fusellier, M; Baudet, J; Madec, S; Guintard, C

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examinations have been conducted both on fresh and alcohol-preserved common carps (Cyprinus carpio). The images have been compared to those of a sagittally-cut frozen animal of the same species. This work shows that the images obtained are globally similar, and that the MRI technique can be applied to investigate the gross anatomy of alcohol-preserved specimens without destroying them. Unfortunately, this kind of study does not provide precise enough anatomical data for small specimens (less than 10 cm in total length) with a 1 Tesla magnetic field. Nevertheless, leaving the specimen in the jar during MRI examinations does not affect the quality of the final images.

  8. Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A.

    1994-10-01

    Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of profenofos and its effects on the behavioral pattern of fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Muhammad; Ali, Rahat; Ali, Tayyaba; Waheed, Usman; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

    2009-05-01

    Profenofos, an organophosphate insecticide is acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has the potential to contaminate the ground water. The 96 h LC(50) value of profenofos was determined in 3-month-old fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a body weight 1.04 +/- 0.25 g and a body length 4.25 +/- 0.75 cm at 26 +/- 1 degrees C temperature. Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) software was used for the statistical analysis, which calculated the LC(50) value as 62.4 microg/L for three replicates of the assay. The behavioral responses of fish exposed to profenofos included loss of balance, moving in spiral fashion with sudden jerky movements, lying on their sides and rapid flapping of the operculum with the mouth open. PMID:19242633

  10. Effects of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and liver histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in zero-water exchange system.

    PubMed

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Bakhshi, Farideh; Lakani, Forouzan Bagherzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Biofloc technology is considered as a method that degrades organic waste by microorganisms and produces microbial flocs. A 30-day experiment was performed to investigate the effects of partial replacement of daily feeding intake with biofloc on the growth performances, digestive enzymes activity and liver histology of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings. Two hundred and eight healthy fingerlings (58.6 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (30 L) at a density of 25.4 kg m(-3) and fed experimental treatments (100 % daily feeding rate as a control, biofloc + 75% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 50% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 25% daily feeding rate). At the end of experiment, the results indicated that the highest weight gain was observed in the fish fed BFT 75% and control which differed significantly from those fed BFT 25 % (P < 0.05). Diet BFT 75% improved total protease and pepsin activity compared with BFT 25 and 50% (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in case of lipase, amylase and alkaline phosphatase activity between the treatments. In the liver, histological alterations were found in the treatments, and feeding the fish with BFT 75% significantly improved hepatocellular quantification and qualification than the other groups. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the biofloc improves growth performances, digestive enzyme activity and liver condition of the common carp fingerlings when 25% of daily feeding rate (BFT 75%) was replaced with one carbohydrate such as molasses in zero-water exchange system. PMID:26530301

  11. Screening of SSR markers associated with scale cover pattern and mapped to a genetic linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tongqian; Lu, Cuiyun; Xu, Yulan; Li, Chao; Zheng, Xianhu; Cao, Dingchen; Cheng, Lei; Mahboob, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    Fish scale is an attractive model in bone physiology research and is also a crucial character for breeding new varieties. Thus, it is important to identify loci in the genome associated with scale formation. In this study, 290 microsatellite markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were selected and tested for their segregation in a full-sib mapping panel containing 96 individuals (population 1). Association analysis identified seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (HLJ2509, HLJ3227, HLJ3675, HLJ3766, HLJ3863, FGFR1, FGFR7) that showed significant correlation with scale cover pattern in population 1. When the seven SSRs were investigated in two other populations, seven and five SSRs were significantly correlated with scale cover pattern in population 2 (116 individuals) and population 3 (57 individuals), respectively. The exceptions were FGFR1 and HLJ3227. A genetic linkage map was constructed using the 290 SSRs and 241 SSRs were mapped into 47 linkage groups (LGs), with 2-15 markers per LG. The map spanned 2,241.7 cM, with LG sizes that varied from 1.1 to 124.9 cM. All seven markers associated with scale cover mapped into LG3. We considered that a gene cluster that affected the scale cover pattern possibly existed in LG3. By aligning the seven markers with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome, we identified six candidate genes (atoh1a, ptch1, bmp1a, fgfr1a, fgf17, wnt5a) that may be associated with scale formation. We propose that the seven markers could be used with marker-assisted selection to breed a new variety of common carp, and the six candidate genes could help in understanding the scale cover mechanism. PMID:25339596

  12. Screening of SSR markers associated with scale cover pattern and mapped to a genetic linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tongqian; Lu, Cuiyun; Xu, Yulan; Li, Chao; Zheng, Xianhu; Cao, Dingchen; Cheng, Lei; Mahboob, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    Fish scale is an attractive model in bone physiology research and is also a crucial character for breeding new varieties. Thus, it is important to identify loci in the genome associated with scale formation. In this study, 290 microsatellite markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were selected and tested for their segregation in a full-sib mapping panel containing 96 individuals (population 1). Association analysis identified seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (HLJ2509, HLJ3227, HLJ3675, HLJ3766, HLJ3863, FGFR1, FGFR7) that showed significant correlation with scale cover pattern in population 1. When the seven SSRs were investigated in two other populations, seven and five SSRs were significantly correlated with scale cover pattern in population 2 (116 individuals) and population 3 (57 individuals), respectively. The exceptions were FGFR1 and HLJ3227. A genetic linkage map was constructed using the 290 SSRs and 241 SSRs were mapped into 47 linkage groups (LGs), with 2-15 markers per LG. The map spanned 2,241.7 cM, with LG sizes that varied from 1.1 to 124.9 cM. All seven markers associated with scale cover mapped into LG3. We considered that a gene cluster that affected the scale cover pattern possibly existed in LG3. By aligning the seven markers with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome, we identified six candidate genes (atoh1a, ptch1, bmp1a, fgfr1a, fgf17, wnt5a) that may be associated with scale formation. We propose that the seven markers could be used with marker-assisted selection to breed a new variety of common carp, and the six candidate genes could help in understanding the scale cover mechanism.

  13. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C) in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T) in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01). These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:25486058

  14. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  15. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  16. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E.; Chen, Billy; Koch, Stephen R.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  17. Chronic exposure to pollutants in Madín Reservoir (Mexico) alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Morachis-Valdez, Gabriela; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Madín Reservoir (MR) is located on the Río Tlalnepantla in Mexico. Previous studies seeking to identify pollutants at this site evidence that MR water contains a considerable metal load as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at concentrations above those determined suitable for aquatic life. This study aimed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to pollutants in MR alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following biomarkers were evaluated in muscle of carp caught in the general area of discharge from the town of Viejo Madín: hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Physicochemical and textural properties of muscle were also evaluated. Results show that the metals Al and Fe were accumulated in muscle of C. carpio at levels of 21.3 and 29.6 μg L(-1), respectively, and the NSAIDs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen at levels from 0.08 to 0.21 ng L(-1). Fish exposed to discharge from the town of Viejo Madín showed significant increases in HPC (9.77 %), LPX (69.33 %), and PCC (220 %) with respect to control specimens (p < 0.05). Similarly, enzyme activity increased significantly: SOD (80.82 %), CAT (98.03 %), and GPx (49.76 %). In muscle, physicochemical properties evidenced mainly significant reductions compared to control values while textural properties showed significant increases. Thus, water in this reservoir is contaminated with xenobiotics that alter some biological functions in C. carpio, a fish species consumed by the local human population. PMID:25583264

  18. Sublethal propoxur toxicity to juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758): biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and genotoxicity effects.

    PubMed

    Gül, Ali; Benli, A Çağlan Karasu; Ayhan, Ayşen; Memmi, Burcu Koçak; Selvi, Mahmut; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Cakiroğullari, Gül Çelik; Erkoç, Figen

    2012-09-01

    The sublethal toxicological and genotoxic potential of propoxur, a widely used carbamate insecticide against household pests, in veterinary medicine, and in public health, was evaluated on carp as a model species (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Based on the 96-h lethal concentration, 50% (LC50) data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX Database (10 mg/L), a sublethal exposure concentration of 5 mg/L was used under static bioassay laboratory conditions. Histopathological evaluation showed no significant changes in spleen, intestine, muscle, or skin tissues. However, the following conditions were recorded: hyperemia, branchitis in primary lamella, and telangiectasis, hyperplasia, fusion, epithelial lifting, and epithelial desquamation in secondary lamella of gill tissues; hemorrhage, destruction, prenephritis, and inflammation and desquamation in the tubules; edema in the kidney; passive hyperemia, albumin, and hydropic degeneration in the liver; and hyperemia, chromatolysis, and glial proliferation in brain tissues. No statistically significant increases in micronuclei frequencies were found. Hematological parameters showed decreased hematocrit values and mean corpuscular volume values, as well as increased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, phosphorus, sodium, total plasma protein, chloride, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were increased (p < 0.01). Only plasma calcium and potassium levels decreased in the experimental group. Propoxur has an ecotoxicological potential on fish, a nontarget organism.

  19. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats.

  20. Effects of water pH on copper toxicity to early life stages of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    SciTech Connect

    Stouthart, X.J.H.X.; Haans, J.L.M.; Lock, R.A.C.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1996-03-01

    Carp eggs were exposed immediately after fertilization to Cu concentrations of 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L at water pH 7.6 or pH 6.3. Mortality, the incidence of spinal cord deformation, heart rate, tail movements, hatching success, and whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, Ca, and Cu were determined over time. Light microscopical preparations of eggs (48 h after fertilization) and larvae (168 h after fertilization) were studied. At pH 7.6, Cu did not affect egg mortality, heart rate, tail movements, and whole-body K and Mg content. Hatching success increased only in the 0.3 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu increased egg mortality and decreased heart rate and tail movements. Furthermore, premature hatching, a concentration-dependent increase of larval mortality, and larval deformation was observed. Exposure to 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu decreased the whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, and Ca. Uptake of Cu after hatching increased two-fold at pH 6.3 compared to the pH 7.6 groups. At pH 6.3, all Cu-exposed larvae were unable to fill their swim bladder. Also, after 168 h the yolk sac remained largely unabsorbed in the 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu resulted in coagulation of proteins in eggs and yolk sacs. No significant changes in any of the assessed parameters were observed in control groups of pH 6.3 and pH 7.6.

  1. [Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) gene in common carp].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang-Fei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Ping; Sun, Yong-Hua; Chen, Shang-Ping; Zhu, Zuo-Yani

    2004-10-01

    Two types of complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the precursor of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH, [Trp7, Leu8] GnRH) are cloned and sequenced from common carp brain using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The two cDNAs are referred to sGnRH cDNA1 and cDNA2, and the full-length fragment of cDNA1 and cDNA2 were 393 and 478 bp, respectively. Two sGnRH cDNAs contain an open reading frame of 285 bp, which encodes the sGnRH precursor including 94 amino acid residues. The sGnRH precursors consist of a signal peptide, sGnRH decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) which is linked by the processing site (Gly-Lys-Arg). Two different sGnRH genes are characterized by intron trapping, and they share a similar structure composed of four exons and three introns. The nucleotide sequences identity of intron 1, intron 2 and intron 3 in sGnRH gene1 and gene2 are 71.1, 76. 1 and 88.0%, respectively. The basic structure and encoding architecture of sGnRH cDNAs and genes are similar with the reported GnRH. It is presumed that all the GnRH variants may evolve from a common ancestral molecular. Southern blot results confirm further the conclusion that there are two differential sGnRH genes in common carp genome. The results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assaying show that the two sGnRH genes co-express in the dissected brain regions, pituitary and ovary with the exception of expression of sGnRH genes in testis. According to the co-existence of two sGnRH genes in distinct brain regions,pituitary and ovary, it is presumed that sGnRH plays an important role in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis,and that sGnRH also operates as the neuromodulator, autocrine and/or paracrine regulator.

  2. Carp lemonade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane

    2004-01-01

    You've probably heard the adage, "When life gives you lemons, make lemonade!"  Missouri has been given some lemons in the form of bighead and silver carp.  These large, plankton eating fish, native to Asia, were imported into Arkansas in the 1970s to control water quality in fish farms and sewage treatment facilities.  It didn't take long for the fish to escape to the wild, and their populations have been increasing ever since.

  3. Changes in Biogenic Amines and ATP-Related Compounds and Their Relation to Other Quality Changes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Stored at 20 and 0°C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuemei; Qin, Na; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic amines, ATP-related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen, microbial flora (total viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and H2S-producing bacteria), and free amino acids were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) stored at 20 and 0°C. Pseudomonas and H2S-producing bacteria became the dominant bacteria in carp stored at 20 and 0°C, whereas Aeromonas rapidly increased only in carp stored at 0°C. Inosine monophosphate, which is responsible for flavor and freshness, increased to a maximum of 2.37 l mol/g after 12 h at 20°C and to 4.72 l mol/g after 3 days at 0°C. Putrescine and cadaverine were the dominant amines in carp and their concentrations were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores in all samples during the storage. Significant correlations also were observed between histamine and total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores only in samples stored at 20°C. Arginine decreased while putrescine increased in all samples. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in histidine was observed after 24 h of storage, which coincided with an increase in histamine after 36 h in samples stored at 20°C. Hypoxanthine concentrations were significantly correlated with the microbial species (P < 0.01) and sensory scores (P < 0.05) and seems to be a reliable marker for quality of carp fillets stored at 20 and 0°C.

  4. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Fashner, Julia; Ericson, Kevin; Werner, Sarah

    2012-07-15

    The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no benefits with over-the-counter cough and cold medications; therefore, they should not be used in children younger than four years. Other commonly used medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, oral prednisolone, and Echinacea, also are ineffective in children. Products that improve symptoms in children include vapor rub, zinc sulfate, Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract, and buckwheat honey. Prophylactic probiotics, zinc sulfate, nasal saline irrigation, and the herbal preparation Chizukit reduce the incidence of colds in children. For adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, nasal saline irrigation, Echinacea angustifolia preparations, and steam inhalation are ineffective at relieving cold symptoms. Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, inhaled ipratropium, and zinc (acetate or gluconate) modestly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms for adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some herbal preparations, including Echinacea purpurea, improve symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of garlic may decrease the frequency of colds in adults, but has no effect on duration of symptoms. Hand hygiene reduces the spread of viruses that cause cold illnesses. Prophylactic vitamin C modestly reduces cold symptom duration in adults and children. PMID:22962927

  5. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  6. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6μM Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied

  7. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6μM Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied

  8. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  9. Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Ondračková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, Jiří; Vojtek, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk

    2012-04-01

    Lesions ranging from surface wounds to deep tissue wounds caused by cormorant predation were observed on several species of the farmed fish in Pohořelice, Czech Republic. Two-year-old stocked common carp Cyprinus carpio harvested in late March were examined for ectoparasites and endoparasites, injuries extent, and lysozyme concentration in skin mucus. Additionally, three body condition indices were measured. Endoparasite infection occurred only scarcely. Wounded fish were more susceptible to the ectoparasites Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. (Monogenea), and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora). The intensity of infection of other ectoparasites Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea), Argulus spp. (Branchiura) and trichodinids (Ciliophora) did not significantly differ between wounded and control groups of fish. Lysozyme concentration in fish mucus was significantly higher in wounded fish and was positively associated with both the extent of damaged epithelium and Gyrodactylus spp. abundance. There were no differences in Fulton's condition factor and lipid content in muscle and liver tissues between wounded and non-wounded fish. Higher values of spleen-somatic index in wounded fish corresponded to increased intensity of parasite infection, most likely reflecting changes in immune system of infected fish. Although our results did not show any significant effect of cormorant attacks on fish condition, the wounded fish had significantly higher parasite numbers which could impact the growth or survival of the fish throughout the production season.

  10. Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jingjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2 6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

  11. Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjie, Hu; Xiaolong, Wang; Xiaoli, Hu; Zhenmin, Bao

    2006-01-01

    Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2-6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus macrovacuolaris n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the palate in the mouth of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao

    2016-08-01

    Thelohanellus macrovacuolaris n. sp. is described during a survey on myxozoan diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in China. It is characterized by the presence of round or ellipsoidal plasmodium in the palate in the mouth of host. Mature spores were pyriform in frontal view, lemon shaped in lateral view, measuring 21.6±0.9 (19.3-23.8) long, 12.5±0.7 (10.3-13.6) wide, and 10.2±0.4 (9.8-11.8) thick. Most spores were surrounded by the membrane sheath. Single polar capsule was round with an apophysis at its top end presented close to apex of spore, measuring 9.1±0.6 (8.0-10.0) in length, 8.6±0.5 (7.8-9.6) in width. Polar filaments coiled, with 7 to 8 turns. A large, round iodinophilous vacuole was present, with 5.8-7.5 in diameter. The present species is morphologically distinct from all other Thelohanellus species. The BLAST search indicated that the newly obtained small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene sequence of T. macrovacuolaris n. sp. did not match any available sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, T. macrovacuolaris n. sp. was placed sister to Thelohanellus wangi in the Thelohanellus clade. Both morphology and ssrRNA gene sequence data revealed that the present parasite is a new species of genus Thelohanellus. PMID:26939982

  13. Reference gene validation for quantification of gene expression during final oocyte maturation induced by diethylstilbestrol and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in common carp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanyan; Lu, Jie; Wang, Yilei; Wang, Shuhong

    2016-08-01

    Final oocyte maturation is the key step to successful spawning and fertilization. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the technique of election to quantify the abundance of functional genes in such study. Reference gene is essential for correct interpretation of qPCR data. However, an ideal universal reference gene that is stable under all experimental circumstances has not been described. Researchers should validate their reference genes while performing qPCR analysis. The expression of 6 candidate reference genes: 18s rRNA, 28s rRNA, Cathepsin Z, Elongation factor 1-α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-actin were investigated during final oocyte maturation induced by different compounds (DES and DEHP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Four softwares (Bestkeeper, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder) were used to screen the most stable gene in order to evaluate their expression stability. The results revealed that EF1α was highly stable expressed when final oocyte maturation was induced by DES, while gapdh was the most stable gene when final oocyte maturation was induced by DEHP. Stable expressed reference gene selection is critical for all qPCR analysis to get accurate target gene mRNA expression information. PMID:27521935

  14. Bioavailability of cadmium and zinc to the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in complexing environments: A test for the validity of the free ion activity model

    SciTech Connect

    Ginneken, L. Van; Chowdhury, M.J.; Blust, R.

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, was studied in chemically defined freshwater in the presence of different organic ligands (i.e., citrate, glycine, histidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid). In most cases, metal complexation decreased Cd and Zn uptake by reducing the free Cd and Zn ion activity. However, Cd and Zn uptake did not increase linearly with the free Cd and Zn ion activity in the solution. A good fit to the data was obtained when the observations were fitted to a Michaelis-Menten-like model for carrier-mediated transport of the metal ions across the biological interface. In addition, the uptake of Cd in the presence of citrate, glycine, and histidine was markedly higher than expected on the basis of the free Cd ion activity. It was concluded that cadmium complexes of these low molecular weight, hydrophilic ligands contributed to the Cd bioavailability, probably by direct uptake of these complexes. Zinc uptake in the presence of the complexing agents could be predicted on the basis of the ambient free Zn ion activity, although uptake in the presence of citrate was lower than expected on the basis of the free Zn ion activity. These results provide a challenging test for the free ion activity model.

  15. Effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TLR9 overexpression on the expression of downstream interferon-associated immune factor mRNAs in epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells.

    PubMed

    Xinxian, Wei; Peng, Jia; Guixiang, Tong; Jinjin, Wang; Xiaocong, Zheng; Junqiang, He; Xianle, Yang; Hong, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play an important role in the antiviral response. To determine the effect of common carp TLR9 (CcTLR9) overexpression on the expression of down-stream interferon associated immune factors in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells, may provide useful information for the further investigation on the anti-virus effect mediated by TLR9 in fish. In this study, we constructed an overexpression vector, pEGFP-N1-CcTLR9, by cloning the CcTLR9 gene and inserting it into an expression vector pEGFP-N1. Both plasmids DNA of pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-N1-CcTLR9 were transfected into EPC cells, and the expression of IRF3, IRF7, ISG15, Mx1, PKR and Viperin mRNA at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h post-transfection were determined by real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). Overexpression of the CcTLR9 gene in EPC cells upregulates the expression of IRF3, IRF7, ISG15, Mx1, PKR, and Viperin mRNA, and this was more significant for Viperin, ISG15, and IRF7, and least significant for PKR. Thus, fish TLR9 activates IRF7 signaling to induce I-IFN secretion and the subsequent upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes. PMID:26848048

  16. Effects of sublethal copper exposure on muscle energy metabolism of common carp, measured by {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Boeck, G. De; Borger, R.; Van der Linden, A.; Blust, R.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of shock and subchronic exposure of copper on the energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied by means of in vivo {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-NMRS). During the experiments, fish were submitted to an additional hypoxic challenge and recovery from this challenge was followed for 6 hs. During all experiments adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels remained stable. Under control conditions, levels of phosphocreatine (P{sub Cr}) and inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) recovered rapidly after the hypoxic challenge; however, full recovery was not observed after shock copper exposure. Also, intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) did not recover from the hypoxic challenge after shock exposure. After 1 week of exposure the fish had clearly developed an increased tolerance to copper. At both copper concentrations, P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} levels returned to resting levels after the hypoxic challenge, but at the highest copper concentration P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios were significantly lower than P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios in the control group and levels of P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} were very unstable. At the high copper concentration, pH{sub i} was clearly decreased compared to the control group even before the hypoxic challenge.

  17. Toxicity and molecular effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on CYP1A, SOD, and GPx in Cyprinus carpio (common carp).

    PubMed

    Agus, Hizlan H; Sümer, Sibel; Erkoç, Figen

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, we evaluated a series of ecotoxicological stress biomarkers in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as an experimental model to test for alterations in gene expression at a sublethal concentration of 1 mg/L DBP for 4, 24, and 96 h. In gills, an immediate increase in CYP1A messenger RNA (mRNA) levels was observed within the first 4 h and persisted for 96 h. Protein levels were nearly consistent with mRNA levels. However, a time-dependent inhibition was observed in CYP1A levels in the liver within 96 h. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels increased gradually in liver with exposure time to a maximum level of 11-fold. Varied responses of different tissues were likely due to xenobiotic metabolism of DBP. In conclusion, evaluating the tissue-specific alterations of CYP1A, SOD, and GPx levels can be used as specific and effective biomarkers for ecotoxicological monitoring of DBP pollution. We strongly recommend using molecular tools to ecotoxicologists for aquatic monitoring of newly emerging pollutants. PMID:26065888

  18. Tracing the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cryprinus carpio): Enantiomeric fraction and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Sun, Run-Xia; Chen, Hua-Shan; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish are difficult to detect in vivo due to the complexity of biometabolism. In the present study, atropisomeric fraction analysis of chiral PCB congeners and compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) were applied to trace the biotransformation of PCBs in fish by exposure of common carp (Cryprinus carpio) to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. Stereoselective elimination of the chiral PCB congeners 91, 95, and 136 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The δ(13)C values of PCBs 5/8, 18, and 20/33 in fish were increased compared with those in the spiked food, while PCBs 47/48 and 49 showed significant heavy isotope depletion. These results suggested a significant biotransformation of the corresponding individual PCB congeners although the potential PCB metabolites, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), were not detected in the fish tissue samples throughout this experiment. The results of the present study demonstrated that a combination of chiral analysis and CSIA is a promising new approach for investigating the biotransformation of PCBs in biota. PMID:27341148

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.

    PubMed

    Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

    2007-07-16

    Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China.

  20. Impact of acute Cd²⁺ exposure on the antioxidant defence systems in the skin and red blood cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Ágnes; Hermesz, Edit

    2015-05-01

    Cd(2+)-induced oxidative stress and its effects on the expression of stress biomarkers and on macromolecule damage in the skin and blood of common carp were studied. Both tissues play important roles in the defence mechanisms against external hazards, serving as an anatomical barrier and as connecting tissue between the organs. In the skin, the production of peroxynitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide was almost doubled after exposure to 10 mg/L Cd(2+). The accumulation of these oxidant molecules suggests an intensive production of superoxide anion and nitrogen monoxide and the development of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Although the metallothioneins and the components of the glutathione redox system were activated in the skin, the accumulation of reactive intermediates led to the enhanced damage of lipid molecules after 24 h of metal exposure. In the blood, the basal levels of metallothionein messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were 2-2.5-fold of that measured in the skin. This high level of metallothionein expression could be the reason that the blood was less affected by an acute Cd(2+) challenge and the metallothionein and glutathione systems were not activated.

  1. The effect of gamma radiation on the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio): In vivo genotoxicity assessment with the micronucleus and comet assays.

    PubMed

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Soorambail K, Shyama; Bhagatsingh Harisingh, Sonaye; D'costa, Avelyno; Ramesh Chandra, Chaubey

    2015-10-01

    Radioactive wastes may be leached into freshwater, either accidentally or in industrial effluents. We have studied gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Fish were irradiated with 2-10Gy gamma radiation and genotoxic effects in blood cells were studied with the micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Micronuclei and a dose-dependent increase in comet-tail DNA were seen in dose- and time-dependent studies. The highest % tail DNA was observed at 24h, declining until 72h, which may indicate the repair of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks after gamma radiation. However, double-stranded DNA damage may not have been repaired, as indicated by increased micronuclei at later periods. A positive correlation was observed between the comet and micronucleus assay results. This study confirms the mutagenic/genotoxic potential of gamma radiation in the Common carp, as well as the possible combined use of the micronucleus and comet assays for in vivo laboratory studies with fresh-water fish for screening the genotoxic potential of radioactive pollution. PMID:26433258

  2. Transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is independent of density of fish and trematodes.

    PubMed

    Boerlage, A S; Graat, E A M; Verreth, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2014-06-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause major human health problems. The aim of this study was to quantify the transmission of parapleurolophocercous cercariae to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and to study the effect of the density of cercariae and the density of fish on transmission with respect to the volume of water and surface area of the bottom. Fish were kept individually either as controls (n= 91) or were exposed to 250 cercariae in tubes with a volume of 25, 50, 100, 250 or 500 ml water (n= 190) with a surface area of 4, 12, 21, 30 or 49 cm2 (n= 195). The dose to which the fish were exposed was kept constant. Infection occurred in 94-100% of fish, with a mean of 15-18 metacercariae per fish and the proportion of FZTs established at 0.06-0.07 metacercariae per cercariae per fish. Neither the prevalence of infection with FZTs nor the number of metacercariae per fish nor the proportion of FZTs established were significantly associated with differences in the density of cercariae or the density of fish per ml water or per cm2 surface area. Thus, it was concluded that the transmission of cercariae to fish is independent of density.

  3. The fate of recent duplicated genes following a fourth-round whole genome duplication in a tetraploid fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiong-Tang; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Chun-Yan; Zeng, Jian-Ming; Li, Heng-De; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Xiao-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) results in extensive genetic redundancy. In plants and yeast, WGD is followed by rapid gene deletions and intense expression differentiation with slow functional divergence. However, the early evolution of the gene differentiation processes is poorly understood in vertebrates because almost all studied WGDs are extremely ancient, and the genomes have returned to a diploid status. Common carp had a very recent fourth round of WGD dated to 8 million years ago. It therefore constitutes an ideal model to study early-stage functional divergence and expression differentiation in vertebrates. We identified 1,757 pairs of recently duplicated genes (RDGs) originating from this specific WGD and found that most ancestral genes were retained in duplicate. Most RDGs were conserved and under selective pressure. Gene expression analysis across six tissues revealed that 92.5% of RDG pairs were co-expressed in at least one tissue and that the expression of nearly half pairs ceased to be strongly correlated, indicating slow spatial divergence but rapid expression dissociation. Functional comparison revealed that 25% of pairs had functional divergence, of which neo- and sub-functionalization were the main outcomes. Our analysis revealed slow gene loss but rapid and intense expression and function differentiation after WGD. PMID:25645996

  4. Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Ondračková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, Jiří; Vojtek, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk

    2012-04-01

    Lesions ranging from surface wounds to deep tissue wounds caused by cormorant predation were observed on several species of the farmed fish in Pohořelice, Czech Republic. Two-year-old stocked common carp Cyprinus carpio harvested in late March were examined for ectoparasites and endoparasites, injuries extent, and lysozyme concentration in skin mucus. Additionally, three body condition indices were measured. Endoparasite infection occurred only scarcely. Wounded fish were more susceptible to the ectoparasites Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. (Monogenea), and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora). The intensity of infection of other ectoparasites Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea), Argulus spp. (Branchiura) and trichodinids (Ciliophora) did not significantly differ between wounded and control groups of fish. Lysozyme concentration in fish mucus was significantly higher in wounded fish and was positively associated with both the extent of damaged epithelium and Gyrodactylus spp. abundance. There were no differences in Fulton's condition factor and lipid content in muscle and liver tissues between wounded and non-wounded fish. Higher values of spleen-somatic index in wounded fish corresponded to increased intensity of parasite infection, most likely reflecting changes in immune system of infected fish. Although our results did not show any significant effect of cormorant attacks on fish condition, the wounded fish had significantly higher parasite numbers which could impact the growth or survival of the fish throughout the production season. PMID:21979786

  5. Occurrence of glucocorticoids discharged from a sewage treatment plant in Japan and the effects of clobetasol propionate exposure on the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kei; Sato, Kentaro; Shibano, Takazumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Go; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluated the environmental risks to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) posed by glucocorticoids present in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. To gather information on the seasonal variations in glucocorticoid concentration, the authors sampled the effluent of a Japanese STP every other week for 12 mo. Six of 9 selected glucocorticoids were detected in the effluent, with clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate detected at the highest concentrations and frequencies. The present study's results indicated that effluent glucocorticoid concentration may depend on water temperature, which is closely related to the removal efficiency of the STP or to seasonal variations in the public's use of glucocorticoids. In a separate experiment, to clarify whether glucocorticoids in environmental water increase susceptibility to bacterial infection in fish, the authors examined the responses to bacterial infection (Aeromonas veronii) of common carp exposed to clobetasol propionate. Clobetasol propionate exposure did not affect bacterial infection-associated mortality. In fish infected with A. veronii but not exposed to clobetasol propionate, head kidney weight and number of leukocytes in the head kidney were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas these effects were not observed in infected fish exposed to clobetasol. This suggests that clobetasol propionate alleviated bacterial infection-associated inflammation. Together, these results indicate that susceptibility to bacterial infection in common carp is not affected by exposure to glucocorticoids at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  6. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    PubMed

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource. PMID:27007291

  7. Effects of phenol on ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo and antioxidant metabolism in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Gupta, Shreyasi; Dutta, Sharmistha; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cyp19a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity were measured in vivo in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to phenol for 96 h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and parameters of antioxidant defense system in serum ovary and liver of this fish after long-term phenol exposure were also studied. In vivo exposure of fish to sublethal dose of phenol for 96 h caused marked attenuation of ovarian cyp19a1a gene expression and P450 aromatase activity. Production of ROS like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in serum, liver and ovary in fish exposed to phenol for 15 days elevated significantly from day 1 to day 7 with no further significant increase thereafter compared to their respective control values. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in serum and ovary decreased gradually and significantly from day 1 to day 4, which then increased significantly for the rest of the exposure days. Liver SOD activity seemed to be distinctly responsive to phenol. SOD activity in liver of phenol-exposed fish started to increase gradually from day 1 to 4 with no further increase thereafter. Catalase activities in all the tissues showed significant inhibition up to day 4 which then increased gradually and significantly up to day 15 of phenol exposure compared to their respective control values. From our results, it appears that sublethal dose of phenol has the endocrine disruptive potential and effect is mediated via inhibition of ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo. Sublethal dose of phenol also caused oxidative stress, and antioxidant systems are very much effective to prevent the damages caused by the generation of ROS.

  8. Alteration of cytochrome P450 1 regulation and HSP 70 level in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after chronic exposure to tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua; Mu, Wei-Na

    2016-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a toxic contaminant in aquatic environments, has bio-accumulated in aquatic food webs throughout the world and can be found at toxic levels in some biota. However, the molecular mechanisms and effects of TBT are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure of TBT on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1 regulation and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) profiling in brain of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1 family genes and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the brain of common carp were evaluated, as well as HSP 70 level. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on EROD activity, HSP 70 level and CYP450 1 family genes expression). The mRNA expression of CYP450 1 family genes (CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C1 and CYP1C2) suggested that CYP1A was to accommodate most EROD activity in fish, but other CYP450 forms also involved in this proceeding. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring the TBT pollution in the field. PMID:26400268

  9. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    PubMed Central

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  10. Optimization of recovery patterns in common carp exposed to roundup using response surface methodology: evaluation of neurotoxicity and genotoxicity effects and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalil; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Kosari, Ali Asghar; Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalal; Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jamal

    2013-12-01

    The present study is the first report on optimization of recovery conditions of fishes exposed to pesticides using response surface methodology-central composite rotatable design (RSM-CCRD). The sub-lethal toxicity bioassay of Roundup® (2 ppm ~10 percent LC₅₀, 96 h) in common carp (1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 35 and 40 day) was investigated. After exposure for 16 days to Roundup®, some the fishes were introduced to herbicide-free water. The effects of four recovery parameters including time (5-25 d), temperature (18-26 °C), water exchange rate (WER, 10-30), and salinity (0-8 ppt) on the levels of biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE)), and the serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase in plasma were studied. The polynomial equations were significantly fitted for all response variables with high R² values (>0.95), which revealed no indication of lack of fit. The optimum conditions for the maximum AChE activity (37.14 nmol/min/mg protein) and the minimum levels of DNA damage (8.00 percent tail DNA), ALT (27.0 IU/L) and AST (91.0 IU/L) were time of 20 d, temperature of 20 °C, WER of 25 and water salinity of 6 ppt. Thus, a promising improvement for the recovery trend of fishes exposed to Roundup® stress was obtained under the optimized conditions using RSM-CCRD.

  11. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    PubMed

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  12. Anatoxin-a induces apoptosis of leukocytes and decreases the proliferative ability of lymphocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bownik, A; Rymuszka, A; Sierosławska, A; Skowroński, T

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, Cyanoprocaryota, Cyanobacteria) (blue-green algae) are procaryotic phototrophic microorganisms playing an important ecological role in the freshwater and marine environment as primary producers. However, as a consequence of water eutrophication observed in many reservoirs in different parts of the world, these microorganisms form massive scums, known as water blooms, releasing cyanotoxins hazardous to fish and other aquatic organisms. Cyanotoxins are cyanobacterial secondary metabolites of various chemical structures harmful to humans, terrestial and aquatic animals such as fish. The most abundant cyanotoxins are microcystins and hepatotoxins inducing toxic changes in fish liver, kidney, gills, digestive tract and immune system. Very little is known on the effects of alkaloid neurotoxic anatoxin-a on fish and their immunity. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro influence of anatoxin-a on immune cells isolated from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The leukocyte intracellular level of ATP was reduced only at the highest concentration of anatoxin-a. Apoptotic and necrotic leukocytes were observed at the lower and the highest concentrations of anatoxin-a, respectively. Elevated activity of caspases 3/7 after 2 hours and a concentration-dependent decrease in the proliferative ability of T and B lymphocytes was also observed. The results suggest that anatoxin-a could be a possible immunotoxic agent in the aquatic environment and may increase the susceptibility of fish to infectious and neoplastic diseases. Therefore, constant monitoring of anatoxin-a and its producers in lakes and fish ponds should be performed. PMID:23214375

  13. Common snapping turtle preys on an adult western grebe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of predators of aquatic birds can be difficult. The Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentine) is considered a major predator of waterfowl and other aquatic birds, but the evidence for this reputation is based largely on circumstantial or indirect evidence rather than direct observations. Herein, the first documented observations of a snapping turtle attacking and killing an adult Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) are described.

  14. Interaction of diet and the masou salmon Δ5-desaturase transgene on Δ6-desaturase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and N-3 fatty acid level in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Su, Baofeng; Qin, Zhenkui; Weng, Chia-Chen; Yin, Fang; Zhou, Yangen; Fobes, Michael; Perera, Dayan A; Shang, Mei; Soller, Fabio; Shi, Zhiyi; Davis, Allen; Dunham, Rex A

    2014-10-01

    The masou salmon Δ5-desaturase-like gene (D5D) driven by the common carp β-actin promoter was transferred into common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that were fed two diets. For P1 transgenic fish fed a commercial diet, Δ6-desaturase-like gene (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA levels in muscle were up-regulated (P < 0.05) 12.7- and 17.9-fold, respectively, and the D6D mRNA level in the gonad of transgenic fish was up-regulated 6.9-fold (P < 0.05) compared to that of non-transgenic fish. In contrast, D6D and SCD mRNA levels in transgenic fish were dramatically down-regulated (P < 0.05), 50.2- and 16.7-fold in brain, and 5.4- and 2.4-fold in liver, respectively, in comparison with those of non-transgenic fish. When fed a specially formulated diet, D6D and SCD mRNA levels in muscle of transgenic fish were up-regulated (P < 0.05) 41.5- and 8.9-fold, respectively, and in liver 6.0- and 3.3-fold, respectively, compared to those of non-transgenic fish. In contrast, D6D and SCD mRNA levels in the gonad of transgenic fish were down-regulated (P < 0.05) 5.5- and 12.4-fold, respectively, and D6D and SCD mRNA levels in the brain were down-regulated 14.9- and 1.4-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to those of non-transgenic fish. The transgenic common carp fed the commercial diet had 1.07-fold EPA, 1.12-fold DPA, 1.07-fold DHA, and 1.07-fold higher observed total omega-3 fatty acid levels than non-transgenic common carp. Although these differences were not statistically different (P > 0.05), there were significantly (P < 0.10) higher omega-3 fatty acid levels when considering the differences for all of the individual omega-3 fatty acids. The genotype × diet interactions observed indicated that the potential of desaturase transgenesis cannot be realized without using a well-designed diet with the needed amount of substrates.

  15. Expression pattern of potential biomarker genes related to growth, ion regulation and stress in response to ammonia exposure, food deprivation and exercise in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Diricx, Marjan; Chan, Lai Pong; Liew, Hon Jung; Kumar, Vikas; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-10-15

    Waterborne ammonia has become a persistent pollutant of aquatic habitats. During certain periods (e.g. winter), food deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural water. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by their genes. In this present study, toxicogenomic analyses using real time PCR was used to characterize expression patterns of potential biomarker genes controlling growth, ion regulation and stress responses in common carp subjected to elevated ammonia (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and fasting (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Both feeding groups of fish were exposed to high environment ammonia (HEA) for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days, and were sampled after performing swimming at different speeds (routine versus exhaustive). Results show that the activity and expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an important branchial ion regulatory enzyme, was increased after 4-10 days of exposure. Effect of HEA was also evident on expression patterns of other ion-regulatory hormone and receptor genes; prolactin and cortisol receptor mRNA level(s) were down-regulated and up-regulated respectively after 4, 10 and 21 days. Starvation and exhaustive swimming, the additional challenges in present study significantly further enhanced the HEA effect on the expression of these two genes. mRNA transcript of growth regulating hormone and receptor genes such as Insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone receptor were reduced in response to HEA and the effect of ammonia was exacerbated in starved fish, with levels that were remarkably reduced compared to fed exposed fish. However, the expression of the growth

  16. Disseminated bronchiectasis in an adult with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Zea-Vera, Andrés Felipe; Agudelo-Rojas, Olga Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are traditionally considered childhood diseases; however, adults account for 35% of all patients with PID. Antibody deficiencies, especially Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), which have their peak incidence in adulthood, require a high suspicion index. Even though the estimated frequency of CVID is not high (1:25,000), high rates of under diagnosis and under reporting are very likely. The delay in diagnosis increases the morbidity and mortality; therefore, adult physicians should be able to suspect, identify and initiate management of individuals with PID. Here we report the case of a 37 year-old man presenting to the emergency room with dyspnea, fever and cough; he developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. He complained of recurring pneumonia associated with widespread bronchiectasis since he was 18 years old. Serum immunoglobulins quantification showed severe hypogammaglobulinemia (total IgG <140 mg/dL; total IgA, 2.9 mg/dL; and total IgM <5 mg/dL). Treatment with Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% was started, and with antibiotic treatment for severe pneumonia (during 14 days) was also prescribed. His clinical evolution has been favorable after one year follow-up. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) diagnosis was made.

  17. Disseminated bronchiectasis in an adult with common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Rojas, Olga Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are traditionally considered childhood diseases; however, adults account for 35% of all patients with PID. Antibody deficiencies, especially Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), which have their peak incidence in adulthood, require a high suspicion index. Even though the estimated frequency of CVID is not high (1:25,000), high rates of under diagnosis and under reporting are very likely. The delay in diagnosis increases the morbidity and mortality; therefore, adult physicians should be able to suspect, identify and initiate management of individuals with PID. Here we report the case of a 37 year-old man presenting to the emergency room with dyspnea, fever and cough; he developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. He complained of recurring pneumonia associated with widespread bronchiectasis since he was 18 years old. Serum immunoglobulins quantification showed severe hypogammaglobulinemia (total IgG <140 mg/dL; total IgA, 2.9 mg/dL; and total IgM <5 mg/dL). Treatment with Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% was started, and with antibiotic treatment for severe pneumonia (during 14 days) was also prescribed. His clinical evolution has been favorable after one year follow-up. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) diagnosis was made. PMID:26019385

  18. Effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate on growth, intestinal mucosal morphology, immune response and adhesive bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pre-fed with or without oxidised oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yanou; Zhang, Jianli; Gatlin, Delbert M; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-07-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different dietary sustained-release microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) products (0 (non-supplement), 1·5 and 3·0 h) for a control or oxidised soyabean oil (SBO) diet on fish production, intestinal mucosal condition, immunity and intestinal bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Dietary MSB increased weight gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio within the control and oxidised SBO groups. Gut mucosa was damaged in the oxidised SBO group fed without MSB, in contrast to a normal appearance found in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group. Microvillus density increased in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group (P< 0·001); however, microvillus density was affected by the different pre-fed diets in the midgut (P< 0·001) and by the different sustained-release times of MSB in the distal gut (DG) (P= 0·003). The interaction between the pre-fed diets and the sustained-release times of dietary MSB was significant for the relative gene expression levels of gut heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-β) within each gut segment, except for HSP70 in the DG and IL-1β in the foregut. Modulation of adherent bacterial communities within each gut segment investigated was not obvious when the common carp were fed the diets with MSB, as similarity coefficients of >0·79 were observed. These results indicated that MSB can be used as a dietary supplement to repair or prevent intestinal damage in carp fed oxidised SBO.

  19. The effect of oyster mushroom β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Dobšíková, Radka; Blahová, Jana; Mikulíková, Ivana; Modrá, Helena; Prášková, Eva; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skorič, Mišo; Jarkovský, Jiří; Siwicki, Andrzej-Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of micronized β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan (BG) derived from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Hiratake and tetracycline antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in tissues of one- to two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish tested were divided into five experimental groups and one control. Carp in the control group were fed commercial carp feed pellets. Fish in the five experimental groups were fed the same pellets supplemented with either OTC, a combination of OTC and BG, or BG as follows: 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw (OTC group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 0.5% β-glucan (OTC + 0.5% BG group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 2.0% β-glucan (OTC + 2.0% BG group), 0.5% β-glucan (0.5% BG group), and 2.0% β-glucan (2.0% BG group). OTC- and BG-supplemented diets and the control diet were administered to experimental and control carp for 50 days (i.e. samplings 1-3, the exposure period); for the following 14 days, fish were fed only control feed pellets with no OTC or BG supplementation (i.e. sampling 4, the recovery period). Blood and tissue samples were collected both during, and at the end of the study. No significant changes in biometrical indices (i.e. total length, standard length, total weight, hepatosomatic and spleen somatic index, and Fulton's condition factor) were found in experimental carp compared to control in any sampling. In haematological indices, significant changes were found only in sampling 2, in which shifts in PCV (P < 0.01), Hb (P < 0.01), and WBC (P < 0.01), and in the counts of lymphocytes (P < 0.01), monocytes (P < 0.01), and neutrophil granulocytes-segments (P < 0.05) were revealed. As for biochemical profiling, plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, natrium, and chlorides (all P < 0.01), and total proteins, lactate, phosphorus, and potassium (all P < 0

  20. Hepatocytes as in vitro test system to investigate metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed rainbow trout and common carp: Comparison between in vivo and in vitro and across species.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Ina; Köster, Jessica; Segner, Helmut; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2016-09-01

    In vitro tools using isolated primary fish hepatocytes have been proposed as a useful model to study the hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics in fish. In order to evaluate the potential of in vitro fish hepatocyte assays to provide information on in vivo metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish, the present study addressed the following questions: Are in vitro and in vivo metabolite patterns comparable? Are species specific differences of metabolite patterns in vivo reflected in vitro? Are metabolite patterns obtained from cryopreserved hepatocytes comparable to those from freshly isolated cells? Rainbow trout and common carp were dosed orally with feed containing the pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) for 14days. In parallel, in vitro incubations using suspensions of freshly isolated or cryopreserved primary hepatocytes obtained from both species were performed. In vivo and in vitro samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with authentic standards supported by HPLC-MS. Comparable metabolite patterns from a qualitative perspective were observed in liver in vivo and in hepatocyte suspensions in vitro. Species specific differences of MXC metabolite patterns observed between rainbow trout and common carp in vivo were well reflected by experiments with hepatocytes in vitro. Finally, cryopreserved hepatocytes produced comparable metabolite patterns to freshly isolated cells. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro hepatocyte assay could be used to identify metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish and could thus serve as a valuable tool to support in vivo studies as required for pesticides approval according to the EU regulation 1107.

  1. Hepatocytes as in vitro test system to investigate metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed rainbow trout and common carp: Comparison between in vivo and in vitro and across species.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Ina; Köster, Jessica; Segner, Helmut; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2016-09-01

    In vitro tools using isolated primary fish hepatocytes have been proposed as a useful model to study the hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics in fish. In order to evaluate the potential of in vitro fish hepatocyte assays to provide information on in vivo metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish, the present study addressed the following questions: Are in vitro and in vivo metabolite patterns comparable? Are species specific differences of metabolite patterns in vivo reflected in vitro? Are metabolite patterns obtained from cryopreserved hepatocytes comparable to those from freshly isolated cells? Rainbow trout and common carp were dosed orally with feed containing the pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) for 14days. In parallel, in vitro incubations using suspensions of freshly isolated or cryopreserved primary hepatocytes obtained from both species were performed. In vivo and in vitro samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with authentic standards supported by HPLC-MS. Comparable metabolite patterns from a qualitative perspective were observed in liver in vivo and in hepatocyte suspensions in vitro. Species specific differences of MXC metabolite patterns observed between rainbow trout and common carp in vivo were well reflected by experiments with hepatocytes in vitro. Finally, cryopreserved hepatocytes produced comparable metabolite patterns to freshly isolated cells. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro hepatocyte assay could be used to identify metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish and could thus serve as a valuable tool to support in vivo studies as required for pesticides approval according to the EU regulation 1107. PMID:27185525

  2. Metals and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals drugs present in water from Madín Reservoir (Mexico) induce oxidative stress in gill, blood, and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    González-González, Edgar David; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Islas-Flores, Hariz; García-Medina, Sandra; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel; Razo-Estrada, Celene; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Many toxic xenobiotics that enter the aquatic environment exert their effects through redox cycling. Oxidative stress, which incorporates both oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses, is a common effect induced in organisms exposed to xenobiotics in their environment. The results of the present study aimed to determine the oxidative stress induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by contaminants [metals and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] present in Madín Reservoir. Five sampling stations (SSs), considered to have the most problems due to discharges, were selected. Carp were exposed to water from each SS for 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, blood, and muscle: hydroperoxide content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Results show that contaminants (metals and NSAIDs) present in water from the different SSs induce oxidative stress. Thus, water in this reservoir is contaminated with xenobiotics that are hazardous to C. carpio, a species consumed by the local human population. PMID:24916851

  3. Flexible rule use: common neural substrates in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Wendelken, Carter; Munakata, Yuko; Baym, Carol; Souza, Michael; Bunge, Silvia A

    2012-07-01

    Flexible rule-guided behavior develops gradually, and requires the ability to remember the rules, switch between them as needed, and implement them in the face of competing information. Our goals for this study were twofold: first, to assess whether these components of rule-guided behavior are separable at the neural level, and second, to identify age-related differences in one or more component that could support the emergence of increasingly accurate and flexible rule use over development. We collected event-related fMRI data while 36 children aged 8-13 and adults aged 20-27 performed a task that manipulated rule representation, rule switching, and stimulus incongruency. Several regions - left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left posterior parietal cortex, and pre-supplementary motor area - were engaged by both the rule representation and the rule-switching manipulations. These regions were engaged similarly across age groups, though contrasting timecourses of activation in left DLPFC suggest that children updated task rules more slowly than did adults. These findings support the idea that common networks can contribute to a variety of executive functions, and that some developmental changes take the form of changes in temporal dynamics rather than qualitative changes in the network of brain regions engaged.

  4. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  5. Viability of male gametes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) along the Lower Colorado River from the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Havasu NWR, and Lake Mohave of Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to an investigation on possible endocrine impacts in three sites along the lower Colorado River in Arizona, especially in male fishes, this study addressed the null hypothesis that aquatic species in southern sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those in nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the reproductive condition of biota in their habitat along the lower Colorado River to minimize any potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and to identify water resources of acceptable quality. In particular, these data can inform decision making about wastewater discharges into the Colorado River that directly supplies water to Arizona refuges located along the river. These data are integral to the USFWS proposal entitled 'AZ - Endocrine Disruption in Razorback Sucker and Common Carp on National Wildlife Refuges along the Lower Colorado River' that was proposed to assess evidence of endocrine disruption in carp and razorback suckers downstream of Hoover Dam.

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of an interferon-γ2 induced chemokine receptor CXCR3 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chadzinska, M; Golbach, L; Pijanowski, L; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L

    2014-11-01

    Chemokine and chemokine receptor signalling pairs play a crucial role in regulation of cell migration, morphogenesis, and cell activation. Expressed in mammals on activated T and NK cells, chemokine receptor CXCR3 binds interferon-γ inducible chemokines CXCL9-11 and CCL21. Here we sequenced the carp CXCR3 chemokine receptor and showed its relationship to CXCR3a receptors found in other teleosts. We found high expression of the CXCR3 gene in most of the organs and tissues of the immune system and in immune-related tissues such as gills and gut, corroborating a predominantly immune-related function. The very high expression in gill and gut moreover indicates a role for CXCR3 in cell recruitment during infection. High in vivo expression of CXCR3 at later stages of inflammation, as well as its in vitro sensitivity to IFN-γ2 stimulation indicate that in carp, CXCR3 is involved in macrophage-mediated responses. Moreover, as expression of the CXCR3 and CXCb genes coincides in the focus of inflammation and as both the CXCb chemokines and the CXCR3 receptor are significantly up-regulated upon IFN-γ stimulation it is hypothesized that CXCb chemokines may be putative ligands for CXCR3. PMID:25036761

  7. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, P<0.05). Intestinal α-amylase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities rose along with increasing dietary CM level. The structure of the mid-intestinal tissues and the ultrastructure of the enterocyte microvilli were normal when dietary CM was <36.6% (60% protein replacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  8. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Prevalence of Common Ocular Morbidities in Adult Population of Aligarh

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Inaamul; Khan, Zulfia; Khalique, Najam; Amir, Ali; Jilani, Fatima A; Zaidi, Meena

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of common ocular morbidities (cataract, refractive errors, glaucoma, and corneal opacities) and their demographic and sociocultural correlates. Settings and Design: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh, for a period of one year, from September 2005 to August 2006. Materials and Methods: Systematic random sampling was done to select the required sample size. All adults aged 20 years and above in the selected households were interviewed and screened using a 6/9 illiterate ‘E’ chart. Those who could not read the ‘E’ chart were referred to the respective health training center for a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist. Statistical Analysis: Chi- square test. Results: The prevalence of visual impairment, low vision, and blindness, based on presenting visual acuity was 13.0, 7.8, and 5.3%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was 21.7%. Bilateral cataract was present in 16.9% of the population. Cataract was significantly associated with age, education, and fuel use. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism was 11.5, 9.8, and 3.7%, respectively. Glaucoma was diagnosed in six patients, giving a prevalence rate of 0.9%. All the six patients of glaucoma were aged above 40 years. The prevalence of corneal opacity was 4.2%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of treatable or preventable morbidities such as cataract, refractive errors, and corneal opacity. PMID:20049295

  10. Common Mechanisms in Infant and Adult Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2004-01-01

    Computational models of infant categorization often fail to elaborate the transitional mechanisms that allow infants to achieve adult performance. In this article, we apply a successful connectionist model of adult category learning to developmental data. The Supervised and Unsupervised Stratified Adaptive Incremental Network (SUSTAIN) model is…

  11. Comparative study of β-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Vera-Jimenez, N I; Pietretti, D; Wiegertjes, G F; Nielsen, M E

    2013-05-01

    The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role in the clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single-point measurement based on the intracellular reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and a real-time luminol-enhanced assay based on the detection of native chemiluminescence. Both assays allowed for detection of dose-dependent changes in magnitude of the respiratory burst response induced by β-glucans in head kidney cells of carp. However, whereas the NBT assay was shown to detect the production of only superoxide anions, the real-time luminol-enhanced assay could detect the production of both superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Only the chemiluminescence assay could reliably record the production of ROS on a real-time scale at frequent and continual time intervals for time course experiments, providing more detailed information on the respiratory burst response. The real-time chemiluminescence assay was used to measure respiratory burst activity in macrophage and neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched head kidney cell fractions and total head kidney cell suspensions and proved to be a fast, reliable, automated multiwell microplate assay to quantitate fish health status modulated by β-glucans.

  12. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  13. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

    2012-10-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone

  14. Primary Care of Adult Women: Common Dermatologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Mhlaba, Julie; Roman, Carly

    2016-06-01

    Dermatologic disease often presents in the primary care setting. Therefore, it is important for the primary care provider to be familiar with the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of common skin conditions. This article provides an overview of acne, rosacea, melasma, vitiligo, alopecia, nonmelanoma, and melanoma skin cancer, dermatitis, and lichen sclerosus. PMID:27212088

  15. Exposure to sub-acute doses of fipronil and buprofezin in combination or alone induces biochemical, hematological, histopathological and genotoxic damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Bibi, Asia; Shahid, Sana; Ghazanfar, Madiha

    2016-10-01

    Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400μgL(-1); 9.15×10(-7)molL(-1)) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100mgL(-1); 1.072×10(-6)molL(-1)) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level. Results obtained in treated fish were compared statistically with those of control non-treated fish and also among treatment groups. Significance level was p<0.05. Compared to control, serum total protein and globulin concentrations decreased significantly (p<0.0001) in fish treated with FP; while albumin concentration remained unaltered with all treatments. Glucose concentration decreased significantly (p<0.002) in fish treated with FP. In contrast, combined FP+BPFN treatment and BPFN treatment caused insignificant elevation of glucose concentration. Hematological assessment demonstrated significant decrease in red blood cell and thrombocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit percent; while white blood cell count showed an increase in all treatment groups (p<0.0001). Blood smears from pesticide treated fish revealed aberrant erythrocyte morphologies which included necrosis, micronuclear formation and hyperchromatosis. DNA laddering assay carried out on whole blood demonstrated excessive smear formation in combined FP+BPFN and BPFN treatment groups but no smear formation was noticeable in FP treated fish. Compared to control, whole blood DNA content increased significantly in the combined FP+BPFN and BPFN treatment groups (p<0.001 and p<0.009). With all treatments histopathological changes observed in the gills were: epithelial uplifting and necrosis of lamellae

  16. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  17. Do wild fish species contribute to the transmission of koi herpesvirus to carp in hatchery ponds?

    PubMed

    Fabian, M; Baumer, A; Steinhagen, D

    2013-05-01

    The koi herpesvirus (KHV) has spread worldwide since its discovery in 1998 and causes disease and mortality in koi and common carp populations with a high impact on the carp production industry. Many investigations have been conducted to examine ways of distribution and to identify possible transmission vectors. The answers, however, raise many new questions. In the present study, different wild fish species taken from carp ponds with a history of KHV infection were examined for their susceptibility to the virus. In the tissue of these fish, the virus load was determined and it was tested whether a release of the virus could be induced by stress and the virus then could be transferred to naive carp. Wild fish were gathered from carp ponds during acute outbreaks of virus-induced mortality in summer and from ponds stocked with carp carrying a latent KHV infection. From these ponds, wild fish were collected during the harvesting process in autumn or spring when the ponds were drained. We found that regardless of season, temperature variation, age and infection status of the carp stock, wild fish from carp ponds and its outlets could be tested positive for the KHV genome using real-time PCR with a low prevalence and virus load. Furthermore, virus transfer to naive carp was observed after a period of cohabitation. Cyprinid and non-cyprinid wild fish can therefore be considered as an epidemiological risk for pond carp farms.

  18. Antibiotics for common respiratory tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, J V

    2002-02-11

    A thorough review of the published information indicates that antibiotics rarely benefit acute bronchitis, exacerbations of asthma and chronic bronchitis, acute pharyngitis, and acute sinusitis, although they are commonly prescribed for these illnesses. Rather than prescribing them for these conditions, practitioners should explain to their patients that antibiotics, which have numerous adverse effects, will not hasten resolution of their symptoms, which will often respond to other medications. Most patients will accept this approach if the clinician addresses their concerns, shows a personal interest in them, discusses the expected course of the ailment, and explains the treatment. PMID:11822917

  19. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  20. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  1. Induced gynogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using irradiated sperm of allotetraploid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, ShaoJun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Peng, LiangYue; You, CuiPing; Xiao, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, GongJian; Luo, KaiKun; Liu, Yun

    2011-10-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) eggs were activated by UV-irradiated diploid sperm of allotetraploid hybrids derived from red crucian carp (♀) × common carp (♂) and then duplicated by cold shock in 4-6°C water for 10-12 min. Different cold shock initiation times resulted in two types of diploid gynogenetic grass carp: meiotic gynogenetic (meiG) and mitotic gynogenetic (mitG). Over a 5-year period, a total of 17,170 meiG and 1,080 mitG fry were produced and 6,862 meiG and 372 mitG grass carp survived. The gynogenetic fish were confirmed by morphological characteristics, chromosome examination, and microsatellite DNA analysis. The morphological traits of the gynogenetic grass carp were similar to those of wild diploid grass carp. Normal gynogenetic fish were identified as diploid with 48 chromosomes by chromosomal metaphases examination, while nonviable abnormal embryos were detected as haploid with 24 chromosomes. Microsatellite DNA analysis indicated that after one generation of gynogenesis, the genetic purity of meiG and mitG grass carp was significantly increased over that of wild grass carp. In addition, both meiG and mitG grass carp groups were 100% female, and 88% of these showed normal ovary development. Thus, the sex determination mechanism in female grass carp was homogamety. The ability to establish pure all-female groups of meiG and mitG grass carp should be a valuable contribution to both fish genetics and grass carp breeding. PMID:21279407

  2. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  3. Primary Care for the Older Adult Patient: Common Geriatric Issues and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine; Shi, Sandra; Kiraly, Carmela

    2016-06-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population and the majority of older adults are women. Primary care for the older adult patient requires a wide variety of skills, reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of this patient population. Individualizing care through consideration of patients' goals, medical conditions, and prognosis is paramount. Quality care for the older adult patient requires familiarity with common geriatric syndromes, such as dementia, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, developing the knowledge and communication skills necessary for complex care and end-of-life care planning is essential.

  4. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host.

  5. Young Adult Literature and the Common Core: A Surprisingly Good Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostenson, Jonathan; Wadham, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Advocates have long argued that an increased role for young adult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young…

  6. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity. PMID:26920403

  7. Cloning and characterization of two duplicated interleukin-17A/F2 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Transcripts expression and bioactivity of recombinant IL-17A/F2.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Yu, Juhua; Li, Jianlin; Tang, Yongkai; Yu, Fan; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Wenjuan

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays an important role in inflammation and host defense in mammals. In this study, we identified two duplicated IL-17A/F2 genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (ccIL-17A/F2a and ccIL-17A/F2b), putative encoded proteins contain 140 amino acids (aa) with conserved IL-17 family motifs. Expression analysis revealed high constitutive expression of ccIL-17A/F2s in mucosal tissues, including gill, skin and intestine, their expression could be induced by Aeromonas hydrophila, suggesting a potential role in mucosal immunity. Recombinant ccIL-17A/F2a protein (rccIL-17A/F2a) produced in Escherichia coli could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β) and the antimicrobial peptides S100A1, S100A10a and S100A10b in the primary kidney in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Above findings suggest that ccIL-17A/F2 plays an important role in both proinflammatory and innate immunity. Two duplicated ccIL-17A/F2s showed different expression level with ccIL-17A/F2a higher than b, comparison of two 5' regulatory regions indicated the length from anticipated promoter to transcriptional start site (TSS) and putative transcription factor binding site (TFBS) were different. Promoter activity of ccIL-17A/F2a was 2.5 times of ccIL-17A/F2b which consistent with expression results of two genes. These suggest mutations in 5'regulatory region contributed to the differentiation of duplicated genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze 5'regulatory region of piscine IL-17 family genes. PMID:26921542

  8. Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in precision-cut liver slices in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiahao; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) were employed as an in vitro model system. LBPs (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLSs culture system before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the exposure of PCLSs to 12 mM CCl4. The supernatants and PCLSs were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH and AKP) and MDA induced by CCl4 in all LBPs treatments and it also enhanced the suppressed antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST) and GSH, in the pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment. In vivo, fish were fed diets containing LBPs at 0.1, 0.5 and 1% for 60 d before an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in olive oil at a volume of 0.05 ml/10 g body weight. At 72 h post-injection, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs at 0.5 and 1% significantly reduced the levels of GOT, GPT and LDH in the serum; the decreases of the antioxidant enzymes and the increase of MDA in the liver tissue were inhibited markedly. Moreover, LBPs even at lower concentration exerted a potent DPPH scavenging activity. Overall results prove the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of LBPs and support the use of LBPs as a hepatoprotective agent in fish.

  9. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity.

  10. Survival of Common Eider Somateria mollissima adult females and ducklings during brood rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Moran, C.L.; Schamber, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied survival of adult female and duckling Common Eiders during brood rearing at two sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in 1997. Duckling survival to 30 days of age was 19% ?? 10% (95% CI). Seventy-three percent of radio-marked adult females had lost all their ducklings by 30 days after hatch. Duckling survival was not related to hatch date. We estimate an average of 0.84 ducklings fledged per adult female radio-marked at hatch. Most broods moved to salt water within 15 days of hatch. Adult female survival during the first 30 days of brood rearing was 96 ?? 6% (95% CI). Mortality of adult females during brood rearing is probably higher than during other times of the year.

  11. Evaluation of DNA damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by comet assay for determination of possible pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara).

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Okuşluk, Oncü; Durmaz, Emre; Demir, Nilsun

    2011-07-28

    Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (micrometer), tail intensity (%), and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0013, respectively). These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  12. Common Strategy for Adult and Pediatric Medulloblastoma: A Multicenter Series of 253 Adults

    SciTech Connect

    Padovani, Laetitia . E-mail: laetitia.padovani@free.fr; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Perol, David; Mercier, Cedric; Alapetite, Claire; Haie-Meder, Christine; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Muracciole, Xavier; Kerr, Christine; Wagner, Jean-Philippe; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Maire, Jean-Philippe; Cowen, Didier; Frappaz, Didier; Carrie, Christian

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors for adults with medulloblastoma in a multicenter, retrospective study. Methods and Materials: Data were collected by file review or mail inquiry for 253 adults treated between 1975 to 2004. Radiologists or surgeons assessed disease characteristics, such as volume and extension. Patients were classified as having either high- or standard-risk disease. Prognostic factors were analyzed. Results: Median patient age was 29 years. Median follow-up was 7 years. Radiotherapy was delivered in 246 patients and radiochemotherapy in 142. Seventy-four patients relapsed. Respective 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 72% and 55%. Univariate analysis showed that survival significantly correlated with metastasis, postsurgical performance status, brainstem involvement, involvement of the floor of the fourth ventricle (V4), and radiation dose to the spine and to the posterior cerebral fossa (PCF). By multivariate analysis, brainstem, V4 involvement, and dose to the PCF were negative prognostic factors. In the standard-risk subgroup there was no overall survival difference between patients treated with axial doses of {>=}34 Gy and patients treated with craniospinal doses <34 Gy plus chemotherapy. Conclusion: We report the largest series of medulloblastoma in adults. Prognostic factors were similar to those observed in children. Results suggest that patients with standard-risk disease could be treated with radiochemotherapy, reducing doses to the craniospinal area, maintaining at least 50 Gy to the PCF. The role of chemotherapy for this group is still unclear. A randomized study should be performed to confirm these results, but because frequency is very low, such a study would be difficult.

  13. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  14. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province.

  15. Reliability and Validity Issues for Two Common Measures of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.

    2006-01-01

    Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…

  16. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  17. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  18. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  19. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  20. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  1. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner's statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  2. Adult functional outcomes of common childhood psychiatric problems: A prospective, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Psychiatric problems are among the most common health problems of childhood. Objective To test whether these health problems adversely affect adult functioning even if the problems themselves do not persist. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 participants assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood (ages 9 to 16; 6674 observations) for common psychiatric diagnoses and subthreshold psychiatric problems. Setting and population Community sample. Main outcome measure Participants were then assessed 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24–26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for adverse outcomes related to health, legal, financial, and social functioning. Results Participants with a childhood disorder had 6 times higher odds of at least one adverse adult outcome as compared to those with no history of psychiatric problems and 9 times higher odds of 2 or more such indicators (1 indicator: 59.5% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 34.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). These associations persisted after statistically controlling for childhood psychosocial hardships and adult psychiatric problems. Risk was not limited to those with a diagnosis: participants with subthreshold psychiatric problems had 3 times higher odds of adult adverse outcomes and 5 time higher odds of 2 or more outcomes (1 indicator: 41.9% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 23.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). The best diagnostic predictor of adverse outcomes was cumulative childhood exposure to psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Common, typically moderately-impairing, childhood psychiatric problems are associated with a disrupted transition to adulthood even if the problems do not persist into adulthood and even if the problems are subthreshold. Such problems provide potential target for public health efforts to ameliorate adult suffering and morbidity. PMID:26176785

  3. Comparative studies on the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Li, De-Shang

    1994-06-01

    Study of the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp by means of experimental ecology showed that the filtering frequency of silver carp was slightly greater than that of bighead carp, but that the latter's suction volume was much greater than the former's so the filtering rate (filtering frequency multiplied by the suction volume) of silver carp was smaller than that of bighead carp. The filtering efficiency of silver carp for phytoplankton was greater than that of bighead carp for them. The removal rates of silver carp for phytoplankton were greater than those of bighead carp, but for zooplankton the former were smaller than the latter. For food particles about 70 μm both removal rates were almost equal. The feeding habits of the two species in natural waters is also discussed in the paper.

  4. A Systematic Review of Loneliness and Common Chronic Physical Conditions in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Petitte, Trisha; Mallow, Jennifer; Barnes, Emily; Petrone, Ashley; Barr, Taura; Theeke, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is a prevalent and global problem for adult populations and has been linked to multiple chronic conditions in quantitative studies. This paper presents a systematic review of quantitative studies that examined the links between loneliness and common chronic conditions including: heart disease, hypertension, stroke, lung disease, and metabolic disorders. A comprehensive literature search process guided by the PRISMA statement led to the inclusion of 33 articles that measure loneliness in chronic illness populations. Loneliness is a significant biopsychosocial stressor that is prevalent in adults with heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and lung disease. The relationships among loneliness, obesity, and metabolic disorders are understudied but current research indicates that loneliness is associated with obesity and with psychological stress in obese persons. Limited interventions have demonstrated long-term effectiveness for reducing loneliness in adults with these same chronic conditions. Future longitudinal randomized trials that enhance knowledge of how diminishing loneliness can lead to improved health outcomes in persons with common chronic conditions would continue to build evidence to support the translation of findings to recommendations for clinical care. PMID:26550060

  5. Dysphagia is a common and serious problem for adults with mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Kristy J; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-03-01

    Adults with mental illness may experience a higher incidence of dysphagia and choking due to factors such as medication side effects and behavioural abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of dysphagia and the most effective interventions for this population. Studies published up to August 2010 were sought via a comprehensive electronic database search (CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase). Studies reporting dysphagia frequency or dysphagia intervention outcomes in adults with mental illness were included. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and quality, and the results were synthesised descriptively. Ten studies were identified, each describing dysphagia frequency or death due to choking asphyxiation. No studies evaluating intervention effectiveness were identified. Study quality was limited by subjective assessment of outcomes. Six studies presented dysphagia frequencies ranging from 9 to 42% in varying subgroups. Four studies presented the frequency of choking asphyxiation death, including a large survey that concluded that adults with organic mental illness were 43 times more likely to die of this cause than the general population. Dysphagia is a common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with mental illness and our review found that there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention techniques.

  6. Chronic cough in Korean adults: a literature review on common comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Gun-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is a significant medical condition with high prevalence and a strong negative impact on the quality of life. Cough hypersensitivity is thought to underlie chronic cough, with several environmental and host factors interacting to cause neuronal sensitization and chronicity. Comorbid conditions affecting cough reflex pathways, such as upper airway diseases, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux, play important roles in chronic cough. However, their prevalence may vary in patients living in different geographical regions or with different ethnicities. We conducted a literature review to examine common comorbidities in Korean adult patients with chronic cough, their clinical implications, and the issues that still need to be addressed in the development of clinical evidence of chronic cough in Korean adult patients. PMID:27803879

  7. The most common nursing diagnosis among adults/seniors hospitalised with cancer: integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Jomar, Rafael Tavares; de Souza Bispo, Vitória Régia

    2014-01-01

    The nursing process, with emphasis on the diagnosis phase, is essential to oncology hospital services due to a high frequency of physical and psychological problems that compromise the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer treatment. The goal of this study was to identify, according to NANDA International, the most common nursing diagnosis among adults/seniors with cancer who are hospitalised. This study is an integrative review of the literature completed in 2013 using five electronic databases, resulting in the selection and analysis of nine articles. This review identified the following eight actual diagnoses and two risk diagnoses that are more common among hospitalised adults/seniors with cancer: anxiety, deficient knowledge, constipation, self-care deficit for bathing/hygiene, body image disturbance, acute/chronic pain, fear, disturbed sleep pattern, risk of infection, and risk of deficient fluid volume. The heterogeneity of the studies used in this review may not have allowed the identification of all the common nursing diagnoses in the practice of oncology nursing in hospitals. However, even though the results are not based on the highest possible level of scientific evidence, their correlation to clinical practice can contribute to the enhancement of the nursing process in oncology services provided by hospitals. PMID:25228918

  8. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  9. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  10. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  11. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  12. Common Perceptions of Periodontal Health and Illness among Adults: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, M.; Pakdaman, A.; Virtanen, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Our aim was to explore perceptions of periodontal health and illness and to examine attitudes and beliefs regarding prevention of gum diseases among Iranian adults. Methods. Our qualitative approach included focus-group discussions among adults aged 18 and above based on convenient and purposive sampling in Tehran. Transcripts of the four focus-group discussions were analyzed by two independent reviewers using a content analysis method. Results. Two major themes in the analyses emerged: the common perception of periodontal health and illness and the attitude towards prevention. The study demonstrated the subjects' good understanding of prevention of periodontal disease, but their lack of knowledge of the aetiology of the diseases, and an inability to differentiate aetiology, symptoms, and prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease. Conclusion. This study revealed a need for oral health education among Iranian adults to improve their knowledge and change their attitudes to achieve deeper understanding of the aetiology and prevention of periodontal disease. Health promotion programs should address misconceptions about prevention of gum disease. PMID:23029620

  13. How could fully scaled carps appear in natural waters in Madagascar?

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jean-Noël; Allal, François; Hervet, Caroline; Ravakarivelo, Monique; Jeney, Zsigmond; Vergnet, Alain; Guyomard, René; Vandeputte, Marc

    2016-08-31

    The capacity of organisms to rapidly evolve in response to environmental changes is a key feature of evolution, and studying mutation compensation is a way to evaluate whether alternative routes of evolution are possible or not. Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a homozygous loss-of-function mutation for the scale cover gene fgfr1a1, causing the 'mirror' reduced scale cover, were introduced in Madagascar a century ago. Here we show that carps in Malagasy natural waters are now predominantly covered with scales, though they still all carry the homozygous mutation. We also reveal that the number of scales in mutated carps is under strong polygenic genetic control, with a heritability of 0.49. As a whole, our results suggest that carps submitted to natural selection could evolve a wild-type-like scale cover in less than 40 generations from standing polygenic genetic variation, confirming similar findings mainly retrieved from model organisms. PMID:27559059

  14. Herpesviruses detected in papillomatous skin growths of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hedrick, R P; Groff, J M; Okihiro, M S; McDowell, T S

    1990-10-01

    Herpesviruses were found associated with epidermal hyperplasia of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in northern California (USA). Papillomas were found principally on the caudal regions of the fish including the fins. The growths occurred most commonly in the fall and winter among populations of captive carp. Infected epidermal cells were characterized by greatly enlarged nuclei depleted of chromatin but with thickened nuclear membranes. Numerous virions were detected in infected cells. Herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cell nucleus had a diameter of 109 nm. Virions with envelopes with a diameter of 157 nm were abundant in cytoplasmic vacuoles. The characteristics of the papillomatous growths and the viruses were consistent with descriptions of Herpesvirus cyprini known in koi carp populations in Japan and extends the range of this pathogen to koi carp to North America. PMID:2174469

  15. Identification of housekeeping genes suitable for gene expression analysis in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-kai; Yu, Ju-hua; Xu, Pao; Li, Jian-lin; Li, Hong-xia; Ren, Hong-tao

    2012-10-01

    Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) is an important economic fish species cultured in China. In this report, we performed a systematic analysis to identify an appropriate housekeeping (HK) gene for the study of gene expression in Jian carp. For this purpose, partial DNA sequences of four potential candidate genes (elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), beta-actin (ACTB), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were isolated, and their expression levels were studied using RNA extracted from nine tissues (forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, fore-intestine, hind-intestine, ovary, muscle, heart, kidney) in juvenile and adult Jian carp. Gene expression levels were quantified by quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and expression stability was evaluated by comparing the coefficients of variation (CV) of the Ct values. The results showed that EF-1α was the most suitable HK gene in all tissues of juvenile and adult Jian carp. However, at distinct juvenile and adult developmental stages, there was not a single optimal gene for normalization of expression levels in all tissues. EF-1α was the most stable gene only in forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, heart, and kidney. These results provide data that can be expected to aid gene expression analysis in Jian carp research, but underline the importance of identifying the optimal HK gene for each new experimental paradigm. PMID:22789712

  16. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  17. Treatments for common psychiatric conditions among adults during acute, rehabilitation, and reintegration phases.

    PubMed

    Difede, Joann; Cukor, Judith; Lee, Francis; Yurt, Roger

    2009-12-01

    Common and pernicious adult psychiatric disorders consequent to burn injury include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and new-onset substance abuse disorder. Diagnosing and treating these disorders is complicated by the complex psychosocial issues associated with burns including grief, pain, role impairment, disfigurement, dysfunction, stigma, as well as financial and legal issues. Additionally, pre-morbid psychiatric and neurological illnesses are risk factors for burns, adding to the challenge of diagnosis and treatment. This article will focus on the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and MDD consequent to burn trauma, as these are the major psychiatric outcomes, addressing the attendant psychosocial problems as threads in this post-trauma tapestry.

  18. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Burklund, Lisa J.; Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one's own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 39). Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes. PMID:24715880

  19. Simple Psychological Interventions for Reducing Pain From Common Needle Procedures in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Katelynn E.; Birnie, Kathryn A.; Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Noel, Melanie; Shah, Vibhuti; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of simple psychological interventions for managing pain and fear in adults undergoing vaccination or related common needle procedures (ie, venipuncture/venous cannulation). Design/Methods: Databases were searched to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Self-reported pain and fear were prioritized as critically important outcomes. Data were combined using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: No studies involving vaccination met inclusion criteria; evidence was drawn from 8 studies of other common needle procedures (eg, venous cannulation, venipuncture) in adults. Two trials evaluating the impact of neutral signaling of the impending procedure (eg, “ready?”) as compared with signaling of impending pain (eg, “sharp scratch”) demonstrated lower pain when signaled about the procedure (n=199): SMD=−0.97 (95% CI, −1.26, −0.68), after removal of 1 trial where self-reported pain was significantly lower than the other 2 included trials. Two trials evaluated music distraction (n=156) and demonstrated no difference in pain: SMD=0.10 (95% CI, −0.48, 0.27), or fear: SMD=−0.25 (95% CI, −0.61, 0.10). Two trials evaluated visual distraction and demonstrated no difference in pain (n=177): SMD=−0.57 (95% CI, −1.82, 0.68), or fear (n=81): SMD=−0.05 (95% CI, −0.50, 0.40). Two trials evaluating breathing interventions found less pain in intervention groups (n=138): SMD=−0.82 (95% CI, −1.21, −0.43). The quality of evidence across all trials was very low. Conclusions: There are no published studies of simple psychological interventions for vaccination pain in adults. There is some evidence of a benefit from other needle procedures for breathing strategies and neutral signaling of the start of the procedure. There is no evidence for use of music or visual distraction. PMID:26352921

  20. [Common prediction equations of respiratory function tests from children to adults in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Gen; Aizawa, Hisamichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    In order to make common prediction equations of respiratory function tests (RFTs) from children to adults in Japan, we combined data of RFTs accumulated for "Reference values of spirogram and arterial blood gas levels in Japanese" reported in 2001 at the Japanese Respiratory Society congress and those for "An attempt to establish reference vales of respiratory function tests for Japanese children and adolescents" reported in 2006 from the Tohoku district. We then conducted multiple regression analysis on forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), V50, V25, and Gaensler's FEV1%, since they were measured under the same condition in the both reports. With all the combinations of 5 dependent variables (age, height, age2, height2, and age x height), multiple regression analysis was performed for each RFT. Judging by both evaluation indices of adjusted R-square and Mallows's Cp statistic, the equation using 4 dependent variables of age, height, age2, and age x height demonstrated roughly high efficiency for all RFTs. Therefore, we decided the equation excluding a dependent variable of height2 as common prediction equations for all RFTs and demonstrated the prediction equation for each RFT by sex.

  1. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term. PMID:21107884

  2. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  3. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.

  4. Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo) during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing orientation of adult anurans with a controlled magnetic field of a known strength and alignment. Results After displacement, toads oriented themselves unimodally under the geomagnetic field, following their former migration direction (d-axis). When the magnetic field was reversed, the distribution of bearings changed from a unimodal to a bimodal pattern, but still along the d-axis. The clustering of bearings was only significant after the toads reached the outer circle, 60.5 cm from their starting point. At a virtual inner circle (diameter 39 cm) and at the start of the experiment, orientation of toads did not show any significant pattern. Conclusions The experimental set-up used in our study is suitable to test orientation behaviour of the Common Toad. We speculate that toads had not enough time to relocate their position on an internal map. Hence, they followed their former migration direction. Bimodality in orientation when exposed to the reversed magnetic field could be the result of a cue conflict, between magnetic and possibly celestial cues. For maintaining their migration direction toads use, at least partly, the geomagnetic field as a reference system. PMID:21418651

  5. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A F; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J F; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.

  6. Common reasons for hospitalization among adult patients with diabetes in a private medical college in Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P; Pathak, U N; Subedi, N

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is one of the important non communicable disease affecting the adult populations around the world. Incidence of diabetes increasing in South Asia. Nepal is also experiencing increasing in diabetes disease burden. Diabetes mellitus is one of the important causes of hospital admission in the western world. In this study we evaluated the causes of hospital admission amongst diabetic population. Most common cause is of diagnosis is some forms of infections commonest (20%) being urinary tract infections. Ten out of total 69 patients had septicemia. Six patients out of 69 had sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis only one patient presented with metabolic complications of diabetes i.e. diabetic ketoacidosis. Coronary artery disease with heart failure was present in 14 patients. Five patients had diabetic nephropathy and 3 had retinopathy. This shows that infections is the major cause of hospital admission for diabetics followed by heart failure. Tuberculosis is important diagnosis in person with diabetes. This study shows more female patients get admitted and amongst admitted patents glycemic control is poor. This signify that women had more complications than male counter parts. PMID:24579542

  7. MRI-guided stereotaxic brain surgery in the infant and adult common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Mundinano, Inaki-Carril; Flecknell, Paul A; Bourne, James A

    2016-07-01

    In the past decade, the New World common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has taken a seminal position in neurobiological research, fueled in part by its smooth cortical sheet, which allows cortical areas to be easily accessed by current technologies on the dorsal surface of the brain. In this protocol, we describe a method for the precision placement of agents (e.g., tracers or neurotoxins) into small brain regions of the infant and adult marmoset, using an MRI-guided approach. This strategy uses a protocol for prolonged anesthesia without the need for intubation that we have recently developed, alongside appropriate analgesia and monitoring. The protocol can be readily adapted to be used together with advanced research techniques, such as two-photon microscopy and optical imaging. Including a 5-d postoperative care plan, this protocol takes 7 d to complete. The protocol requires a team of personnel experienced in marmoset care and handling, and small-animal neurosurgery; an assistant for monitoring the animal and assisting with anesthesia; and an MRI technician. PMID:27336707

  8. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex SF; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor VA; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John JP; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela AF; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul IW; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L.; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth JF; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  9. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Golay, Alain; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Haas, David W; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hypponen, Elina; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Kayser, Manfred; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lupoli, Sara; Madden, Pamela A F; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Moll, Frans L; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ritchie, Marylyn; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sebert, Sylvain; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Powell, Joseph E; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reinmaa, Eva; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Deloukas, Panos; Heid, Iris M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Barroso, Inês; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; McCarthy, Mark I; Metspalu, Andres; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franke, Lude; Willer, Cristen J; Price, Alkes L; Lettre, Guillaume; Loos, Ruth J F; Weedon, Michael N; Ingelsson, Erik; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Chasman, Daniel I; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  10. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  11. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  12. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair.

  13. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp.

  14. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  15. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ∼16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  16. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  17. Ketamine potentiates cerebrocortical damage induced by the common anaesthetic agent nitrous oxide in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, V; Benshoff, N; Olney, J W

    2000-08-01

    For general anaesthesia, patients usually receive a combination of drugs, all of which are classified as gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) agonists, with two notable exceptions - ketamine and nitrous oxide (laughing gas, N(2)O) - which are antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. At clinically relevant doses both ketamine and N(2)O, like other NMDA antagonists, have the potential to induce psychotomimetic reactions in humans and to cause pathomorphological changes in cerebrocortical neurons in rat brain. Because drug combinations used in clinical anaesthesia sometimes include both ketamine and N(2)O, we undertook experiments to evaluate whether augmented neurotoxicity results from their combined use. Ketamine and N(2)O were administered alone or in combination by various dosing regimens to adult female rats for a duration of 3 h and the severity of cerebrocortical neurotoxic changes was quantified histologically. Because GABA agonists are known to protect against the psychotomimetic and neurotoxic effects of NMDA antagonists, we also evaluated whether the combined neurotoxicity of ketamine+N(2)O can be prevented by certain commonly used GABA agonists. When ketamine and N(2)O were used in combination the neurotoxic reaction was enhanced to a degree much greater than can be explained by simple additivity. The apparent synergistic interaction was particularly striking when low doses of the agents were combined, the degree of toxic synergism at higher doses being masked by a ceiling effect. GABA agonists protected against ketamine/N(2)O neurotoxicity. It is recommended that this information be taken into consideration in the selection of drugs to be used in multi-agent protocols for general anaesthesia. PMID:10928976

  18. Identifying a Common Set of Key Competences for Adult Learning Staff: An Inventory of European Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiskool, Bert-Jan; Broek, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Professional development and improvement in the quality of adult learning staff has been recognized as a priority at a European level. However, at European and national levels there is no clear view on the standard competences needed to fulfill the professional tasks in adult learning. In some European countries competence profiles and standards…

  19. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  20. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1β receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1β receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1β activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1β receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-κB and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1β activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  2. Healthy adults demonstrate less skin reactivity to commercial extracts of commonly ingested food than to D. farinae.

    PubMed

    Chng, H H; Tang, C Y; Leong, K P

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the skin reactivity of healthy Oriental adults to commercial extracts of commonly ingested food and the house dust mite D. farinae, a common local aeroallergen. D. farinae and 18 food extracts were skin prick tested on adults without any personal history of atopic diseases and food allergy. The extracts of food not consumed by any subject on religious or personal grounds were not tested for that individual. A total of 103 healthy adults who fulfilled the selection criteria were skin prick tested. There were 35 males and 68 females. Their mean age was 29 years (SD +/- 7.5) with a range of 19 to 49 years. Sixty-eight percent were Chinese, 12.6% Malay, 12.6% Indian and 6.8% other Oriental races. Fifty-four (52.4%) were positive for D. farinae while only 12 (11.7%) were positive for at least one food extract The food extract that gave the most number of positive reactions was shellfish mix (5/102, 4.9%). A family history of atopy did not have any significant correlation with the results of skin test. It was concluded that healthy adults demonstrate less skin reactivity to extracts of commonly ingested food than to D. farinae.

  3. Cellular Composition and Organization of the Subventricular Zone and Rostral Migratory Stream in the Adult and Neonatal Common Marmoset Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Hirota, Yuki; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; He, Xiaoping; Hayakawa-Yano, Yoshika; Yamada, Masayuki; Hikishima, Keigo; Tabata, Hidenori; Iwanami, Akio; Nakajima, Kazunori; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Toshio; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Okano, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle contains neural stem cells. In rodents, these cells generate neuroblasts that migrate as chains toward the olfactory bulb along the rostral migratory stream (RMS). The neural-stem-cell niche at the ventricular wall is conserved in various animal species, including primates. However, it is unclear how the SVZ and RMS organization in nonhuman primates relates to that of rodents and humans. Here we studied the SVZ and RMS of the adult and neonatal common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World primate used widely in neuroscience, by electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical detection of cell-type-specific markers. The marmoset SVZ contained cells similar to type B, C, and A cells of the rodent SVZ in their marker expression and morphology. The adult marmoset SVZ had a three-layer organization, as in the human brain, with ependymal, hypocellular, and astro-cyte-ribbon layers. However, the hypocellular layer was very thin or absent in the adult-anterior and neonatal SVZ. Anti-PSA-NCAM staining of the anterior SVZ in whole-mount ventricular wall preparations of adult marmosets revealed an extensive network of elongated cell aggregates similar to the neuroblast chains in rodents. Time-lapse recordings of marmoset SVZ explants cultured in Matrigel showed the neuroblasts migrating in chains, like rodent type A cells. These results suggest that some features of neurogenesis and neuronal migration in the SVZ are common to marmosets, humans, and rodents. This basic description of the adult and neonatal marmoset SVZ will be useful for future studies on adult neurogenesis in primates. PMID:21246550

  4. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  5. A Common Language: How Neuroimmunological Cross Talk Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Odette; Kempermann, Gerd; Walker, Tara L

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulation of the brain is generally studied in the context of injury or disease. Less is known about how the immune system regulates the brain during normal brain function. Recent work has redefined the field of neuroimmunology and, as long as their recruitment and activation are well regulated, immune cells are now known to have protective properties within the central nervous system in maintaining brain health. Adult neurogenesis, the process of new neuron generation in the adult brain, is highly plastic and regulated by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Emerging research has shown that immune cells and their secreted factors can influence adult neurogenesis, both under baseline conditions and during conditions known to change neurogenesis levels, such as aging and learning in an enriched environment. This review will discuss how, under nonpathological conditions, the immune system can interact with the neural stem cells to regulate adult neurogenesis with particular focus on the hippocampus-a region crucial for learning and memory.

  6. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components. PMID:27605835

  7. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components.

  8. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  9. A reevaluation of the common factor theory of shared variance among age, sensory function, and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anstey, K J; Luszcz, M A; Sanchez, L

    2001-01-01

    The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the relationship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors including memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population based and comprised very old adults (n = 894; mean age = 77.7, SD = 5.6 years) from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The results showed that there was common variance in the cognitive factor shared by age, speed, vision, and hearing but that specific effects of age on cognition remained. Furthermore, speed did not fully mediate the effect of age or sensory function on cognition. Some age differences in cognitive performance are not explained by the same processes that explain age differences in sensory function and processing speed.

  10. A Public Health Approach to Addressing Arthritis in Older Adults: The Most Common Cause of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Helmick, Charles G.; Brady, Teresa J.

    2012-01-01

    Arthritis is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States owing to the aging of the population and increases in the prevalence of risk factors (e.g., obesity). Arthritis will play a large role in the health-related quality of life, functional independence, and disability of older adults in the upcoming decades. We have emphasized the role of the public health system in reducing the impact of this large and growing public health problem, and we have presented priority public health actions. PMID:22390506

  11. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Annahita; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ansari, Mahshid Bagherzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a primitive neoplasm that originates from skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In a routine inspection of a cyprinid farm in southwestern Iran, an approximately 2-year-old female Silver Carp was observed to have a raised mass located on the dorsolateral surface just caudal to the head. Macroscopic examination revealed a firm irregular fleshy pink mass (5 × 4 cm, depth = 3 cm) that appeared to arise from the subcutaneous musculature. Histologic sections were prepared using routine methods and separate sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Massons' trichrome. Microscopically, the tumor mass was composed of spindle cells that were densely packed and arranged in long interwoven bundles. The nuclei were vesicular and oval to elongated or cigar-shaped. Nuclear pleomorphism and multinucleate tumor giant cells were clearly evident. The neoplastic cell cytoplasm was eosinophilic with indistinct cell margins, and clear cross striations were observed in fibrils. The striated fibrils stained diffusely red with Masson's trichrome. This account represents the first reported occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma in Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Received July 10, 2015; accepted February 4, 2016.

  12. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Annahita; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ansari, Mahshid Bagherzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a primitive neoplasm that originates from skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In a routine inspection of a cyprinid farm in southwestern Iran, an approximately 2-year-old female Silver Carp was observed to have a raised mass located on the dorsolateral surface just caudal to the head. Macroscopic examination revealed a firm irregular fleshy pink mass (5 × 4 cm, depth = 3 cm) that appeared to arise from the subcutaneous musculature. Histologic sections were prepared using routine methods and separate sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Massons' trichrome. Microscopically, the tumor mass was composed of spindle cells that were densely packed and arranged in long interwoven bundles. The nuclei were vesicular and oval to elongated or cigar-shaped. Nuclear pleomorphism and multinucleate tumor giant cells were clearly evident. The neoplastic cell cytoplasm was eosinophilic with indistinct cell margins, and clear cross striations were observed in fibrils. The striated fibrils stained diffusely red with Masson's trichrome. This account represents the first reported occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma in Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Received July 10, 2015; accepted February 4, 2016. PMID:27229885

  13. Energy allocation changes in overwintering adults of the common pistachio Psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, R; Izadi, H; Mahdian, K

    2012-12-01

    The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is known as the key pest of pistachio orchards in Iran. This pest passes the winter as adults. In this study, energy allocation changes in relation to ambient temperature were investigated in field-collected adults by measuring total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, sorbitol, myoinositol, glycogen, lipid, and protein contents. Glycogen content decreased with decrease in ambient temperature. The decrease in glycogen content was proportional to the increase in total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents. In January, with mean ambient temperature of 5.4°C, glycogen content was at the lowest level, whereas total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, and sorbitol were at the highest level. Total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents increased as temperature decreased from 22.7°C in October to 5.4°C in January. In conclusion, low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols may play a role in winter survival and adaptation to cold of the common pistachio psylla by providing the required cryoprotection. Also, overwintering adults of the common pistachio psylla may store energy in the form of lipid for later utilization during the overwintering.

  14. Multiple Images, Common Threads. Case Studies of Good Practice in Adult Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia

    This document presents 10 case studies of adult community education programs (ACE) in the state of Victoria, Australia, in the mid 1990s, that were identified as exemplifying the following principles of good practice in ACE: expansiveness, integration, responsiveness, innovation, belonging, explicitness, autonomy, accessibility, synthesis, and…

  15. A Common Language: How Neuroimmunological Cross Talk Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Odette; Kempermann, Gerd; Walker, Tara L

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulation of the brain is generally studied in the context of injury or disease. Less is known about how the immune system regulates the brain during normal brain function. Recent work has redefined the field of neuroimmunology and, as long as their recruitment and activation are well regulated, immune cells are now known to have protective properties within the central nervous system in maintaining brain health. Adult neurogenesis, the process of new neuron generation in the adult brain, is highly plastic and regulated by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Emerging research has shown that immune cells and their secreted factors can influence adult neurogenesis, both under baseline conditions and during conditions known to change neurogenesis levels, such as aging and learning in an enriched environment. This review will discuss how, under nonpathological conditions, the immune system can interact with the neural stem cells to regulate adult neurogenesis with particular focus on the hippocampus-a region crucial for learning and memory. PMID:27143977

  16. Finding Common Ground in the Study of Child Maltreatment, Youth Violence, and Adult Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Pinderhughes, Howard

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issues etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the…

  17. A Common Language: How Neuroimmunological Cross Talk Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Odette; Kempermann, Gerd; Walker, Tara L.

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulation of the brain is generally studied in the context of injury or disease. Less is known about how the immune system regulates the brain during normal brain function. Recent work has redefined the field of neuroimmunology and, as long as their recruitment and activation are well regulated, immune cells are now known to have protective properties within the central nervous system in maintaining brain health. Adult neurogenesis, the process of new neuron generation in the adult brain, is highly plastic and regulated by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Emerging research has shown that immune cells and their secreted factors can influence adult neurogenesis, both under baseline conditions and during conditions known to change neurogenesis levels, such as aging and learning in an enriched environment. This review will discuss how, under nonpathological conditions, the immune system can interact with the neural stem cells to regulate adult neurogenesis with particular focus on the hippocampus—a region crucial for learning and memory. PMID:27143977

  18. Interagency Collaboration for Young Adults with Deaf-Blindness: Toward a Common Transition Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Jane M.; And Others

    This monograph is a compilation of the knowledge gained by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the Helen Keller National Center, from training and technical assistance activities conducted with state interagency teams serving youth and young adults with deaf-blindness. The book views interagency collaboration as essential in achieving…

  19. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  20. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  1. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    PubMed

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  2. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger,

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  3. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  4. Ontogenetic changes in meristic measurements of silver carp and bighead carp.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-04-01

    The study analyzed 30 exterior meristic characters for 255 silver and bighead carp samples of 1- to 5-year-old collected from the National Primary Breeding Farm at Laojianghe Lake at the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Multivariate analysis was performed. In silver carp, the Euclidean distance was the greatest between the 1-year-old group and other age groups. Silver carp individuals were correctly classified at 98.0% accuracy with a discriminant function established by discriminant analysis based on meristic measurements. Similarly, bighead carp had the greatest distance between 1- to 2-year-old group and other age groups. Individuals of bighead carp were correctly classified at 90.7% accuracy by the discrimination function. The data showed that morphological transformation occurred during the life history of silver and bighead carp development. Eighteen meristic measurements showed highly significant differences, while four showed a significant difference between the two silver carp groups. Ten parameters decreased, while twelve measurements increased during development. In bighead carp, fourteen parameters were significantly different, while three parameters were significantly different between the two groups. Twelve parameters were significantly decreased and another five were increased during development. The results suggest allometric growth should be taken into account when identifying species, analyzing population differences and establishing germplasm standards based on morphology. PMID:20545007

  5. Isolation of Left Common Carotid Artery with Its Origin Proximal to Patent Ductus Arteriosus Presenting in Adult Age

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anagha R.; Joshi, Saurabh; Kale, Kiran; Jain, Rahul; Bava, Jernail Singh

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies of aortic arch are a common occurrence. Such anomalies of right sided aortic arch with its various branching patterns are of clinical importance. Rarer anomalies include isolation (deficient connection) of either left subclavian artery or left common carotid artery; that is, they do not have their origin from aorta or its major branches. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with gradual onset pulsatile swelling with bruit in neck on left side and was evaluated by CT brain and neck angiography. CT angiography revealed right sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and isolated left common carotid artery. Very few cases of such an anomaly have been documented in the literature but none in an adult. PMID:27213071

  6. Hospital Resource Utilization for Common Noncardiac Diagnoses in Adult Survivors of Single Cardiac Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Seckeler, Michael D; Moe, Tabitha G; Thomas, Ian D; Meziab, Omar; Andrews, Jennifer; Heller, Elissa; Klewer, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Single ventricle congenital heart disease (SV CHD) has transformed from a nearly universally fatal condition to a chronic illness. As the number of adults living with SV CHD continues to increase, there needs to be an understanding of health care resource utilization (HCRU), particularly for noncardiac conditions, for this patient population. We performed a retrospective database review of the University HealthSystem Consortium Clinical Database/Resource Manager for adult patients with SV CHD hospitalized for noncardiac conditions from January 2011 to November 2014. Patients with SV CHD were identified using International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes associated with SV CHD (hypoplastic left heart, tricuspid atresia, and SV) and stratified into 2 groups by age (18 to 29 years and 30 to 40 years). Direct cost, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and mortality data were compared with age-matched patients without CHD. There were 2,083,651 non-CHD and 590 SV CHD admissions in Group 1 and 2,131,046 non-CHD and 297 SV CHD admissions in Group 2. There was no difference in LOS in Group 1, but there were higher costs for several diagnoses. LOS and costs were higher for several diagnoses in Group 2. ICU admission rate and in-hospital mortality were higher for several diagnoses for patients with SV CHD in both groups. In conclusion, adults with SV CHD admitted for noncardiac diagnoses have higher HCRU (longer LOS and higher ICU admission rates) compared with similarly aged patients without CHD. These findings stress the importance of good primary care in this population with complex, chronic cardiac disease to prevent hospitalizations and higher HCRU. PMID:26455384

  7. Will food-handling time influence agonistic behaviour in sub-adult common ravens (Corvus corax)?

    PubMed

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Gattermayr, Matthias; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Discovering a food source may invoke either competition or cooperation, depending on many factors such as divisibility and accessibility. We experimentally investigated the influence of effort to procure food on the tolerance towards others during feeding. Nine sub-adult captive ravens were tested in different foraging contexts that differed in foraging effort, namely three string-pulling conditions and two without pulling requirement. We expected that the effort to gain access to food would positively affect the tolerance towards others at feeding. As predicted, we found fewer agonistic interactions, fewer displacements of subordinates from food and prolonged feeding bouts in the three string-pulling conditions compared to the two conditions when no pulling was involved. Further, in the string pulling tasks interactions occurred mostly on the perch before pulling and only rarely was pulling interrupted by agonistic interactions. The rate of interactions did not change over trials. Our data suggests that perceived effort influences social behaviour.

  8. Will food-handling time influence agonistic behaviour in sub-adult common ravens (Corvus corax)?

    PubMed Central

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Gattermayr, Matthias; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Discovering a food source may invoke either competition or cooperation, depending on many factors such as divisibility and accessibility. We experimentally investigated the influence of effort to procure food on the tolerance towards others during feeding. Nine sub-adult captive ravens were tested in different foraging contexts that differed in foraging effort, namely three string-pulling conditions and two without pulling requirement. We expected that the effort to gain access to food would positively affect the tolerance towards others at feeding. As predicted, we found fewer agonistic interactions, fewer displacements of subordinates from food and prolonged feeding bouts in the three string-pulling conditions compared to the two conditions when no pulling was involved. Further, in the string pulling tasks interactions occurred mostly on the perch before pulling and only rarely was pulling interrupted by agonistic interactions. The rate of interactions did not change over trials. Our data suggests that perceived effort influences social behaviour. PMID:24239503

  9. Spontaneous renal artery thrombosis and common iliac artery dissection in a previously healthy young adult.

    PubMed

    Penn, D Eli; Gist, Amber; Axon, R Neal

    2008-12-01

    A previously healthy 20-year-old male with a history of easy bruising presented to the emergency department complaining of intermittent left lower quadrant abdominal pain for one week. He was diagnosed with vascular (type IV) Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and attendant defects in type III collagen leading to spontaneous left renal artery thrombosis and common iliac artery dissection. Treatment was conservative. The types of EDS and their general management are discussed. PMID:19005424

  10. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    PubMed

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  11. A Common Variant in the FTO Gene Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Predisposes to Childhood and Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Frayling, Timothy M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Perry, John R. B.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W.; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J.; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ring, Susan M.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J.; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R.; Cardon, Lon R.; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes–susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass. PMID:17434869

  12. The aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis in adolescents and adults - Fusobacterium necrophorum is commonly found.

    PubMed

    Hedin, K; Bieber, L; Lindh, M; Sundqvist, M

    2015-03-01

    Sore throat is common in primary healthcare. Aetiological studies have focused on the presence of a limited number of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a wide range of bacteria and viruses, including Fusobacterium necrophorum, in patients with pharyngotonsillitis and in asymptomatic controls. A prospective case control study was performed in primary healthcare in Kronoberg County, Sweden. Patients (n=220) aged 15 to 45 years with a suspected acute pharyngotonsillitis, and controls (n=128), were included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed for β-hemolytic streptococci, F. necrophorum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and 13 respiratory viruses. Serum samples were analysed for antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus. The patient history and symptoms, including Centor score, were analysed in relation to pathogens. In 155/220 (70.5%) of the patients, as compared to 26/128 (20.3%) of the controls (p <0.001), at least one microorganism was found. Group A streptococci, F. necrophorum, and influenza B virus were the three most common findings, and all significantly more common in patients than in controls (p <0.001, p 0.001, and p 0.002, respectively). Patients with F. necrophorum only (n=14) displayed a lower Centor score than patients with Group A streptococcus only (n=46), but a higher score than patients with influenza B, other viruses, or no potential pathogen (Kruskal-Wallis p <0.001). A pathogen was detected in 70% of the patients, displaying a wide range of pathogens contributing to the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis. This study supports F. necrophorum as one of the pathogens to be considered in the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis.

  13. Common variants of GIP are associated with visceral fat accumulation in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Boonvisut, Supichaya; Makishima, Saho; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2014-12-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GIP receptor (GIPR) contribute to the etiology of obesity. In humans, genomewide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GIPR gene that are strongly associated with body mass index (BMI); however, it is not clear whether genetic variations in the GIP gene are involved in the development of obesity. In the current study, we assessed the impact of GIP SNPs on obesity-related traits in Japanese adults. Six tag SNPs were tested for associations with obesity-related traits in 3,013 individuals. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that rs9904288, located at the 3'-end of GIP, was significantly associated with visceral fat area (VFA). Moreover, rs1390154 and rs4794008 showed significant associations with plasma triglyceride levels and hemoglobin A1c levels, respectively. Among the significant SNPs, rs9904288 and rs1390154 were independently linked with SNPs in active enhancers of the duodenum mucosa, the main GIP-secreting tissue. The haplotypes of these two SNPs exhibited stronger associations with VFA. Numbers of VFA-increasing alleles of rs9904288 and BMI-increasing alleles of previously identified GIPR SNPs showed a strong additive effect on VFA, waist circumference, and BMI in the subject population. These novel results support the notion that the GIP-GIPR axis plays a role in the etiology of central obesity in humans, which is characterized by the accumulation of visceral fat.

  14. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  15. A Common Elements Treatment Approach for Adult Mental Health Problems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Laura K.; Dorsey, Shannon; Haroz, Emily; Lee, Catherine; Alsiary, Maytham M.; Haydary, Amir; Weiss, William M.; Bolton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) for adults presenting with mood or anxiety problems developed specifically for use with lay counselors in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Details of the intervention development, training, supervision, and decision-making process are presented. Case vignettes are used as examples throughout. Preliminary findings are presented on counselor/supervisor performance and client outcomes from practice cases completed prior to randomized controlled trials (RCT) conducted at two sites for adult survivors of torture and/or systematic violence in (a) southern Iraq and (b) Thailand-Burma border. Data suggest that local supervisors and lay counselors with little prior mental health training or experience maintained fidelity to the model. The majority of pilot clients were retained in treatment, suggesting acceptability. Using the Reliable Change Index (RCI) for each individual we examined the number of clients above a minimal threshold (z > 1.96) for each outcome. In Iraq 100% of clients had RCIs above the threshold for depression and posttraumatic stress, and 81.8% for impaired function. In Thailand, 81.3% of clients had RCIs above minimum threshold for depression, 68.8% for posttraumatic stress, and 37.5% for impaired function. Implementation of CETA is discussed in relation to cultural issues within LMIC. These findings, combined with US-based evidence, suggest that a common elements approach warrants further development and testing as a means for addressing the treatment gap for mental health problems in LMIC. PMID:25620867

  16. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  17. Changes of haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella exposed to monogenean parasites, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Restiannasab, Abulhasan; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein; Saljoghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-09-01

    The present was carried out to investigate the effects of monogenean infection on haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some haematological indices were measured in two adult groups of grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) decreased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the white blood cells (WBCs) values increased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the WBC values increased significantly in infected fishes. In conclusion, our results showed that monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. can affects health condition of grass carp through alternation of haematology. PMID:27605756

  18. An agent-based mathematical model about carp aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Wu, Chao

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an agent-based mathematical model to simulate the aggregation of carp, a harmful fish in North America. The referred mathematical model is derived from the following assumptions: (1) instead of the consensus among every carps involved in the aggregation, the aggregation of carp is completely a random and spontaneous physical behavior of numerous of independent carp; (2) carp aggregation is a collective effect of inter-carp and carp-environment interaction; (3) the inter-carp interaction can be derived from the statistical analytics about large-scale observed data. The proposed mathematical model is mainly based on empirical inter-carp force field, whose effect is featured with repulsion, parallel orientation, attraction, out-of-perception zone, and blind. Based on above mathematical model, the aggregation behavior of carp is formulated and preliminary simulation results about the aggregation of small number of carps within simple environment are provided. Further experiment-based validation about the mathematical model will be made in our future work.

  19. Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

    1983-04-01

    Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

  20. Categorization of common sounds by cochlear implanted and normal hearing adults.

    PubMed

    Collett, E; Marx, M; Gaillard, P; Roby, B; Fraysse, B; Deguine, O; Barone, P

    2016-05-01

    Auditory categorization involves grouping of acoustic events along one or more shared perceptual dimensions which can relate to both semantic and physical attributes. This process involves both high level cognitive processes (categorization) and low-level perceptual encoding of the acoustic signal, both of which are affected by the use of a cochlear implant (CI) device. The goal of this study was twofold: I) compare the categorization strategies of CI users and normal hearing listeners (NHL) II) investigate if any characteristics of the raw acoustic signal could explain the results. 16 experienced CI users and 20 NHL were tested using a Free-Sorting Task of 16 common sounds divided into 3 predefined categories of environmental, musical and vocal sounds. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Hierarchical Clustering based on Principal Components (HCPC) show that CI users followed a similar categorization strategy to that of NHL and were able to discriminate between the three different types of sounds. However results for CI users were more varied and showed less inter-participant agreement. Acoustic analysis also highlighted the average pitch salience and average autocorrelation peak as being important for the perception and categorization of the sounds. The results therefore show that on a broad level of categorization CI users may not have as many difficulties as previously thought in discriminating certain kinds of sound; however the perception of individual sounds remains challenging. PMID:27050944

  1. Stigmatisation, Avoidance Behaviour and Difficulties in Coping are Common Among Adult Patients with Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christian; Schallreuter, Karin U

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is a non-contagious skin disorder with loss of pigmentation, often impairing patients' well-being. This study used Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire (ACS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and additional questions to explore quality of life (QoL), coping, depression and stigmatisation and included 96 patients with vitiligo and 23 controls. Stigmatisation was common: 87/96 patients (90%) reported questions/approaches, 23/96 (24%) experienced nasty comments. Sixty-four out of 96 (66.7%) had avoided situations because of vitiligo or concealed their white spots. Sixty patients (62.5%) implied psychological stress as influential on disease's course. Patients scored higher in all questionnaires than controls (DLQI = 4.9/1.6, ACS-social anxiety/avoidance = 36.9/22.1, ACS-helplessness = 27.3/16.0, ACS-anxious-depressive mood = 19.4/15.6), except BDI (6.8/7.3). QoL of 65 patients (67.7%) was hardly impaired, 70 (72.9%) were not depressed. Treatment with pro-pseudocatalase PC-KUS reduced social anxiety/avoidance, anxious-depressive mood and depression. Patients without low-key stigmatisation scored highest in DLQI and social anxiety/avoidance. Avoidance and concealing behavior correlated with all questionnaires' scores. PMID:25269389

  2. Stigmatisation, Avoidance Behaviour and Difficulties in Coping are Common Among Adult Patients with Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christian; Schallreuter, Karin U

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is a non-contagious skin disorder with loss of pigmentation, often impairing patients' well-being. This study used Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Adjustment to Chronic Skin Disorders Questionnaire (ACS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and additional questions to explore quality of life (QoL), coping, depression and stigmatisation and included 96 patients with vitiligo and 23 controls. Stigmatisation was common: 87/96 patients (90%) reported questions/approaches, 23/96 (24%) experienced nasty comments. Sixty-four out of 96 (66.7%) had avoided situations because of vitiligo or concealed their white spots. Sixty patients (62.5%) implied psychological stress as influential on disease's course. Patients scored higher in all questionnaires than controls (DLQI = 4.9/1.6, ACS-social anxiety/avoidance = 36.9/22.1, ACS-helplessness = 27.3/16.0, ACS-anxious-depressive mood = 19.4/15.6), except BDI (6.8/7.3). QoL of 65 patients (67.7%) was hardly impaired, 70 (72.9%) were not depressed. Treatment with pro-pseudocatalase PC-KUS reduced social anxiety/avoidance, anxious-depressive mood and depression. Patients without low-key stigmatisation scored highest in DLQI and social anxiety/avoidance. Avoidance and concealing behavior correlated with all questionnaires' scores.

  3. Reference Intervals of Common Clinical Chemistry Analytes for Adults in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lo, YC

    2012-01-01

    Background Defining reference intervals is a major challenge because of the difficulty in recruiting volunteers to participate and testing samples from a significant number of healthy reference individuals. Historical literature citation intervals are often suboptimal because they’re be based on obsolete methods and/or only a small number of poorly defined reference samples. Methods Blood donors in Hong Kong gave permission for additional blood to be collected for reference interval testing. The samples were tested for twenty-five routine analytes on the Abbott ARCHITECT clinical chemistry system. Results were analyzed using the Rhoads EP evaluator software program, which is based on the CLSI/IFCC C28-A guideline, and defines the reference interval as the 95% central range. Results Method specific reference intervals were established for twenty-five common clinical chemistry analytes for a Chinese ethnic population. The intervals were defined for each gender separately and for genders combined. Gender specific or combined gender intervals were adapted as appropriate for each analyte. Conclusion A large number of healthy, apparently normal blood donors from a local ethnic population were tested to provide current reference intervals for a new clinical chemistry system. Intervals were determined following an accepted international guideline. Laboratories using the same or similar methodologies may adapt these intervals if deemed validated and deemed suitable for their patient population. Laboratories using different methodologies may be able to successfully adapt the intervals for their facilities using the reference interval transference technique based on a method comparison study.

  4. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development.

  5. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Identify Common Smoking Situations Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Shin, Hee-Sung; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides detailed contextual information about smoking habits among young Korean American smokers with the goal of characterizing situations where they are most at risk for smoking. Relevant situational factors included location, social context, concurrent activities, time of day, affective states, and food and beverage consumption. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 7 days, participants (N = 78) were instructed to respond to smoking prompts (n = 2614) and non-smoking prompts (n = 2136) randomly scheduled throughout the day. At each prompt, participants completed a short survey about immediate contextual factors. We used multilevel models to evaluate the association between contextual factors and smoking and further explored the distribution of smoking locations and concurrent activities across each social context and reason for smoking. Compared to non-smoking events, smoking events were associated with being outside, the presence of Korean friends, socializing, consuming alcohol, and experiencing more stress relative to one's average stress level (all ps < .01). Further analyses involving only smoking events showed that when participants smoked alone, they were most commonly at home (50 %) and most often studying/working (28 %). When smoking with Korean friends, participants were most often outside (38 %) and socializing (54 %). When smoking to reduce craving, participants were most often at home (39 %) and studying/working (25 %). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide detailed descriptions of real-time smoking contexts among young Korean American smokers. Information with this level of granularity is needed to develop effective just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) for smoking cessation. PMID:27476588

  6. Effects induced by feeding organochlorine-contaminated carp from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, to laying White Leghorn hens. I. Effects on health of adult hens, egg production, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Summer, C L; Giesy, J P; Bursian, S J; Render, J A; Kubiak, T J; Jones, P D; Verbrugge, D A; Aulerich, R J

    1996-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of consumption of halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, primarily polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), contained in Great Lakes fish by the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). In this article we report the results of feeding White Leghorn hens for a period of 8 wk diets that contained 31-35% ocean fish and/or carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, MI, which provided 0.3 (control), 0.8 (low-dose group), or 6.6 (high-dose group) mg PCB/kg, wet weight (ww). These concentrations were analogous to 3.3, 26, or 59 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs)/g diet, ww, respectively. There were no significant effects on feed consumption among the groups. An unexpectedly high incidence of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) was observed in hens from the control (78% FLHS) and low-dose (75% FLHS) groups when compared to the high-dose group (15% FLHS). Birds in the control and low-dose groups had a significant increase in liver and body weights. Significant decreases in egg production, weight, and fertility were immediate in all dose groups, with the effect being permanent in the control and low-dose groups. Although the incidence of FLHS was an unexpected complication, the fact that there were no significant effects on egg production, egg weights, or fertility in the high-dose group suggests that the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) for these parameters is in excess of 26 mg total weathered PCBs/kg egg, ww. This value was the average concentration of PCBs in the high-dose group eggs during the last week of the study. PMID:8931740

  7. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    PubMed Central

    Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

  8. Fumonisin B1 neurotoxicity in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Sanja; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Petrinec, Zdravko; Klarić, Maja Segvić

    2009-12-01

    For years scientists have suspected that the environment plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is produced by several Fusarium species, mainly by Fusarium verticilioides, which is one of the most common fungi associated with corn worldwide. Fumonisins are known to cause equine leukoencephalomalacia, a disease associated with the consumption of corn-based feeds contaminated with FB1. Here we have reported chronic experimental toxicosis in one-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) receiving feed containing 100 mg kg-1 or 10 mg kg-1 of added FB1 for 42 days. We focused on fumonisin toxicity in the fish brain. After staining with hemalaun-eosin, histology of the fish brain revealed vacuolated, degenerate, or necrotic neural cells, scattered around damaged blood capillaries and in the periventricular area. These findings suggest that fumonisin, although it is a hydrophilic molecule, permeated the blood-brain barrier of young carp and had a toxic effect on neuronal cells.

  9. Characterization and Comparative Profiling of MiRNA Transcriptomes in Bighead Carp and Silver Carp

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large ‘hairpin’ precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  10. Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  11. Neuromarkers of the common angiotensinogen polymorphism in healthy older adults: A comprehensive assessment of white matter integrity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Zhao, Yi; Luo, Xi; Wang, Youdan; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Conturo, Thomas E; Tate, David F; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Cagle, Lee M; Paul, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The common angiotensinogen (AGT) M268T polymorphism (rs699; historically referred to as M235T) has been identified as a significant risk factor for cerebrovascular pathologies, yet it is unclear if healthy older adults carrying the threonine amino acid variant have a greater risk for white matter damage in specific fiber tracts. Further, the impact of the threonine variant on cognitive function remains unknown. The present study utilized multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological assessment to examine the integrity of specific white matter tracts and cognition between individuals with homozygous genotypes of M268T (MetMet n=27, ThrThr n=27). Differences in subcortical hyperintensity (SH) volume were also examined between groups. Results indicated that the threonine variant was associated with significantly reduced integrity in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and the cingulate gyrus segment of the cingulum bundle (cingulum CG) compared to those with the methionine variant, and poorer cognitive performance on tests of attention/processing speed and language. Despite these associations, integrity of these tracts did not significantly mediate relationships between cognition and genetic status, and SH did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively our results suggest that the threonine variant of M268T is a significant risk factor for abnormalities in specific white matter tracts and cognitive domains in healthy older adults, independent of SH burden.

  12. Commonalities in social and non-social cognitive impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Bahorik, Amber L; McKnight, Summer A F; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Newhill, Christina E; Phillips, Mary L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Minshew, Nancy J

    2013-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are both conditions that are characterized by impairments in social and non-social cognition, yet commonalities in the magnitude and domains of cognitive deficits across these two conditions remain unclear. This study examined neurocognitive and social-cognitive functioning in 47 outpatients with schizophrenia, 43 verbal adults with ASD, and 24 healthy volunteers. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing processing speed, attention, memory, and problem-solving domains was administered along with a social-cognitive battery of emotion processing. Results demonstrated large and significant impairments in emotion processing and neurocognition relative to healthy individuals in participants with autism (d=-.97 and -1.71, respectively) and schizophrenia (d=-.65 and -1.48, respectively). No significant differences were observed between those with ASD and schizophrenia on any cognitive domain assessed, and the areas of greatest impairment were identical across both disorders and included slowness in speed of processing and an inability to understand emotions. These findings indicate a high degree of similarity in the cognitive challenges experienced by verbal adults with autism and schizophrenia, and the potential need for trans-diagnostic remediation approaches to enhance cognition in these conditions.

  13. Neuromarkers of the common angiotensinogen polymorphism in healthy older adults: A comprehensive assessment of white matter integrity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Zhao, Yi; Luo, Xi; Wang, Youdan; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Conturo, Thomas E; Tate, David F; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Cagle, Lee M; Paul, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The common angiotensinogen (AGT) M268T polymorphism (rs699; historically referred to as M235T) has been identified as a significant risk factor for cerebrovascular pathologies, yet it is unclear if healthy older adults carrying the threonine amino acid variant have a greater risk for white matter damage in specific fiber tracts. Further, the impact of the threonine variant on cognitive function remains unknown. The present study utilized multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological assessment to examine the integrity of specific white matter tracts and cognition between individuals with homozygous genotypes of M268T (MetMet n=27, ThrThr n=27). Differences in subcortical hyperintensity (SH) volume were also examined between groups. Results indicated that the threonine variant was associated with significantly reduced integrity in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and the cingulate gyrus segment of the cingulum bundle (cingulum CG) compared to those with the methionine variant, and poorer cognitive performance on tests of attention/processing speed and language. Despite these associations, integrity of these tracts did not significantly mediate relationships between cognition and genetic status, and SH did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively our results suggest that the threonine variant of M268T is a significant risk factor for abnormalities in specific white matter tracts and cognitive domains in healthy older adults, independent of SH burden. PMID:26318936

  14. Archival tagging of subadult and adult common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) off the coast of southern California.

    PubMed

    Cartamil, Daniel P; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Wegner, Nicholas C; Aalbers, Scott A; Baquero, Andres; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    The common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) is a secondary target species of the California drift gillnet fishery (CA-DGN) and supports a growing recreational fishery in California waters. This study used archival tags to examine the movement patterns and habitat preferences of common threshers of the size range captured in the CA-DGN (>120 cm fork length). Depth and temperature-logging archival tags were deployed on 57 subadult and adult common threshers in the Southern California Bight. Tags from five individuals (8.8%) were recovered, and 154 days of data were successfully obtained from four of these. By night, shark movements were primarily limited to waters above the thermocline, which ranged in depth from 15 to 20 m. Sharks were significantly deeper by day, and daytime vertical distribution consisted of two distinct modes: a 'shallow mode' (wherein sharks occupied only the upper 20 m of the water column) and a 'deep mode' (characterized by frequent vertical excursions below the thermocline). This modal switch is interpreted as relating to regional differences in abundance of surface-oriented prey and prey in deeper water. Maximum dive depth was 320 m, greatest dive duration was 712 min, minimum temperature experienced during a dive was 9.1°C, and dive descent rate was significantly greater than ascent rate. Sharks inhabited waters corresponding to a sea surface temperature range of 16 to 21°C. The nocturnal depth distribution of common threshers has implications for management of drift gillnet deployment depths in the CA-DGN.

  15. Recombinant carp IL-4/13B stimulates in vitro proliferation of carp IgM(+) B cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takuya; Miyata, Shunsuke; Katakura, Fumihiko; Nagasawa, Takahiro; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Yabu, Takeshi; Fischer, Uwe; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Moritomo, Tadaaki

    2016-02-01

    Teleost IL-4/13B is a cytokine related to mammalian IL-4 and IL-13, of which hitherto the function had not been studied at the protein level. We identified an IL-4/13B gene in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and expressed the recombinant protein (rcIL-4/13B). RcIL-4/13B was shown to stimulate proliferation of IgM(+) B cells, because after four days of stimulation the IgM(+) fraction of carp kidney and spleen leukocytes had formed many cell colonies, whereas such colonies were not found in the absence of rcIL-4/13B stimulation. After nine days of incubation with rcIL-4/13B these cells had proliferated to more than 3-to-7-fold higher numbers when compared to untreated cells. The proliferating cells contained a majority of IgM(+) cells but also other cells, as indicated by FACS and RT-PCR analyses. The important conclusion is that in fish not only IL-4/13A has B cell stimulating properties, as a previous publication has shown, but also IL-4/13B. PMID:26766176

  16. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-03-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

  17. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests. PMID:26352753

  18. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn.

  19. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests.

  20. Common FABP4 Genetic Variants and Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Biggs, Mary L.; Jensen, Majken K.; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Zieman, Susan J.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Psaty, Bruce M.; Siscovick, David S.; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-01-01

    We examined common variants in the fatty acid binding protein 4 gene (FABP4) and plasma levels of FABP4 in adults aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. We genotyped rs16909187, rs1054135, rs16909192, rs10808846, rs7018409, rs2290201, and rs6992708 and measured circulating FABP4 levels among 3190 European Americans and 660 African Americans. Among European Americans, the minor alleles of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were associated with lower FABP4 levels (all p ≤ 0.01). Among African Americans, the SNP with the lowest minor allele frequency was associated with lower FABP4 levels (p = 0.015). The C-A haplotype of rs16909192 and rs2290201 was associated with lower FABP4 levels in both European Americans (frequency = 16 %; p = 0.001) and African Americans (frequency = 8 %; p = 0.04). The haplotype combined a SNP in the first intron with one in the 3′untranslated region. However, the alleles associated with lower FABP4 levels were associated with higher fasting glucose in meta-analyses from the MAGIC consortium. These results demonstrate associations of common SNP and haplotypes in the FABP4 gene with lower plasma FABP4 but higher fasting glucose levels. PMID:24043587

  1. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  2. Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; Němec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Červený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Štípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

  3. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    PubMed

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; Němec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cervený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  4. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  5. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21>age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p<0.001), associated mainly with infants with 22q11.2DS. Stillbirths also showed elevated prevalence (p<0.05). Not all observed adverse events appeared to be attributable to transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, pre-natal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  6. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  7. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  8. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  9. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  10. Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  11. Herpesvirus-associated papillomas in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Calle, P P; McNamara, T; Kress, Y

    1999-03-01

    From January through November 1994, 32% (7/22) of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) maintained in indoor aquariums developed proliferative cutaneous lesions that consisted of single to multiple 2-10-mm whitish to pink fleshy masses usually associated with fin rays. Although scaleless koi were more commonly affected (3/6) than were normally scaled koi (4/16), the difference in incidence rates was not significant (chi2 text, P > 0.05). Lesions typically resolved spontaneously in 1-3 wk, occasionally persisted for >3 mo, and recurred in several fish after 2-5 mo. Fish were otherwise asymptomatic. Wet mount preparations from lesions were densely cellular and consisted of hyperplastic epidermal cells of normal morphology without parasites or inflammatory cells. Histologically, biopsies were consistent with papillomas and were characterized by a marked benign epidermal hyperplasia without inclusion bodies or inflammatory infiltrate. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed intranuclear and intracytoplasmic herpesvirus virions. Virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful. PMID:10367660

  12. Stressors and common mental disorder in informal carers – An analysis of the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Smuk, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Clark, Charlotte; Pike, Cleo; McManus, Sally; Harris, Jenny; Bebbington, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates potential explanations of the association between caring and common mental disorder, using the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. We examined whether carers are more exposed to other stressors additional to caring – such as domestic violence and debt – and if so whether this explains their elevated rates of mental disorder. We analysed differences between carers and non-carers in common mental disorders (CMD), suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, recent stressors, social support, and social participation. We used multivariate models to investigate whether differences between carers and non-carers in identifiable stressors and supports explained the association between caring and CMD, as measured by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. The prevalence of CMD (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.37–1.97), suicidal thoughts in the last week (OR = 2.71 95% CI 1.31–5.62) and fatigue (OR = 1.33 95% CI 1.14–1.54) was increased in carers. However, caring remained independently associated with CMD (OR = 1.58 1.30–1.91) after adjustment for other stressors and social support. Thus caring itself is associated with increased risk of CMD that is not explained by other identified social stressors. Carers should be recognized as being at increased risk of CMD independent of the other life stressors they have to deal with. Interventions aimed at a direct reduction of the stressfulness of caring are indicated. However, carers also reported higher rates of debt problems and domestic violence and perceived social support was slightly lower in carers than in non-carers. So carers are also more likely to experience stressors other than caring and it is likely that they will need support not only aimed at their caring role, but also at other aspects of their lives. PMID:25259657

  13. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  14. Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

  15. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  16. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The long-term impact of infant rearing background on the affective state of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Hayley; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life environment, including temporary family separation, can have a major influence on affective state. Using a battery of tests, the current study compared the performance of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), reared as infants under 3 different conditions: family-reared twins, family-reared animals from triplet litters where only 2 remain (2stays) and supplementary fed triplets. No significant differences were found in latency to approach and obtain food from a human or a novel object between rearing conditions, suggesting no effect on neophobia. There were no differences in cognitive bias task acquisition time, or proportion of responses to each ambiguous probe. Very minor differences were found in response to the probes, with only supplementary fed marmosets making fewer responses to the middle probe, compared to the probe nearest the rewarded stimuli. Similarly, in a test for anhedonia, no difference was found between rearing conditions in consumption of milkshake at different concentrations. There was just one very small difference in reward motivation, with only supplementary fed triplets demonstrating a lack of preference for milkshake over water at the lowest concentration. This consistent pattern of results suggests that the supplementary feeding of large litters of marmosets at this facility did not have a major effect on welfare, and is unlikely to influence performance in reward-related scientific tasks. Therefore, while family separation is not recommended, this particular practice should be used if it is necessary, such as to reduce infant mortality. Regular positive interactions with humans are also encouraged, to reduce fear and improve welfare of marmosets kept in captivity. PMID:26912940

  18. QTL mapping for adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in Italian common wheat cultivars Libellula and Strampelli.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaming; Lan, Caixia; Liang, Shanshan; Zhou, Xiangchun; Liu, Di; Zhou, Gang; Lu, Qinglin; Jing, Jinxue; Wang, Meinan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2009-11-01

    Italian common wheat cultivars Libellula and Strampelli, grown for over three decades in Gansu province of China, have shown effective resistance to stripe rust. To elucidate the genetic basis of the resistance, F(3) populations were developed from crosses between the two cultivars and susceptible Chinese wheat cultivar Huixianhong. The F(3) lines were evaluated for disease severity in Beijing, Gansu and Sichuan from 2005 to 2008. Joint- and single-environment analyses by composite interval mapping identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in Libellula for reduced stripe rust severity, designated QYr.caas-2DS, QYr.caas-4BL, QYr.caas-5BL.1, QYr.caas-5BL.2 and QYr.caas-7DS, and explained 8.1-12.4, 3.6-5.1, 3.4-8.6, 2.6 and 14.6-35.0%, respectively, of the phenotypic variance across four environments. Six interactions between different pairs of QTLs explained 3.2-7.1% of the phenotypic variance. The QTLs QYr.caas-4BL, QYr.caas-5BL.1 and QYr.caas-7DS were also detected in Strampelli, explaining 4.5, 2.9-5.5 and 17.1-39.1% of phenotypic variance, respectively, across five environments. Three interactions between different pairs of QTLs accounted for 6.1-35.0% of the phenotypic variance. The QTL QYr.caas-7DS flanked by markers csLV34 and Xgwm295 showed the largest effect for resistance to stripe rust. Sequence analyses confirmed that the lines with the QYr.caas-7DS allele for resistance carried the resistance allele of the Yr18/Lr34 gene. Our results indicated that the adult-plant resistance gene Yr18 and several minor genes confer effective durable resistance to stripe rust in Libellula and Strampelli.

  19. Utilization of Skills in the Care of the Adult with Common, Well-Defined Health Deviations II (NS 227): Competency-Based Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Elizabeth G.; Yates, Laura H.

    "Utilization of Skills in the Care of the Adult with Common, Well-Defined Health Deviations II" (NS 227) is an associate degree nursing course offered at Chattanooga State Technical Community College to help students implement increasingly complex nursing strategies and develop new competencies related to patients with cardiovascular, respiratory,…

  20. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  1. Burden of Common Multiple-Morbidity Constellations on Out-of-Pocket Medical Expenditures among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Kim, Hyungsoo; Edwards, William; Fleming, Steven T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: On average, adults aged 60 years or older have 2.2 chronic diseases, contributing to the over 60 million Americans with multiple morbidities. We aimed to understand the financial implications of the most frequent multiple morbidities among older adults. Design and Methods: We analyzed Health and Retirement Study data, determining…

  2. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  3. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  4. Evaluation of environmental contaminants and elements in bigheaded carps of the Missouri River at Easley, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; Chapman, Duane C.; May, Thomas W.; Meadows, John C.; Walther, Michael J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Deters, Joseph E.; Dierenfeld, S; Chapman, Duane C.; Hoff, MIchael H.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the history, biology, and status of Asian carps, and reviews current research on control measures. Explores the factors influencing recruitment and spread of Asian carps, considers current research on habitat requirements of bigheaded carps, analyzes data on diet overlap and potential competition between bigheaded carps and native fishes, and examines the use of pheromones as controls for Asian carps.

  5. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  6. Homology model and molecular dynamics simulation of carp ovum cystatin.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuan-Chen; Lin, Jin-Chung; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a homology model of carp ovum cystatin was constructed based on the crystal structure of chicken egg white cystatin. The results of amino acid sequence alignment indicate that these two proteins exhibit 36.11% of sequence identity. The resultant homology model reveals that carp ovum cystatin shares similar folds as chicken egg white cystatin, particularly in the conserved regions of Q48-V49-G52 and P98-W99 and the locations of two disulfide bonds, C67-C76 and C90-C110. However, the results of 1 ns molecular dynamics simulations show that carp ovum cystatin exhibits less structural integrity than chicken egg white cystatin in explicit water at 300 K. The relatively hydrophilic Met62 of carp ovum cystatin, corresponding to the hydrophobic Leu68 of human cystatin C and Ile66 of chicken egg white cystatin, may destabilize the hydrophobic core and form a dimeric structure more easily through domain swapping. A total of 16 positively charged residues are equally distributed on the surface of carp ovum cystatin, resulting in agglutination with the negatively charged spermatozoa via electrostatic interaction. Thus, carp ovum cystatin is considered to be important in preventing carp eggs from polyspermy.

  7. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  8. [Investigation of membrane permeability of carp spermatozoa for water molecules].

    PubMed

    Pugovkin, A Iu; Kopeĭka, E F; Nardid, O A; Cherkashina, Ia O

    2014-01-01

    The fundamentals of a photometry method for determination of membrane permeability of some fish spermatozoa for water molecules are presented. Osmotic tolerance of carp spermatozoa membranes was studied using EPR-spectroscopy and photometric analysis methods. It was shown that carp spermatozoa look like the ideal osmometers in their reaction on media of different osmolarity. The value of membrane permeability of carp spermatozoa for water molecules was determined. Data obtained can be used in cryobiology for creating cryoprotective media and regimes of fish sperm cryopreservation. PMID:25715589

  9. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  10. Impaired long-term memory retention: common denominator for acutely or genetically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, Nada M-B; Filipkowski, Robert K; Pruschy, Martin; Jaholkowski, Piotr; Winkler, Juergen; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2013-09-01

    In adult rodents, decreasing hippocampal neurogenesis experimentally using different approaches often impairs performance in hippocampus-dependent processes. Nonetheless, functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is far from being unraveled, and deficits so far described in animal models often lack reproducibility. One hypothesis is that such differences might be the consequence of the extent of the methodological specificity used to alter neurogenesis rather than the extent to which adult neurogenesis is altered. To address this, we focused on cranial irradiation, the most widely used technique to impair hippocampal neurogenesis and consequentially induce hippocampus-dependent behavioral deficits. To investigate the specificity of the technique, we thus exposed 4-5 months old female cyclin D2 knockout mice, a model lacking physiological levels of olfactory and hippocampal neurogenesis, to an X-ray dose of 10 Gy, reported to specifically affect transiently amplifying precursors. After a recovery period of 1.5 months, behavioral tests were performed and probed for locomotor activity, habituation, anxiety, and spatial learning and memory. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze was intact in all experimental groups. Although spatial memory retention assessed 24h following acquisition was also intact in all mice, irradiated wild type and cyclin D2 knockout mice displayed memory deficits one week after acquisition. In addition, we observed significant differences in tests addressing anxiety and locomotor activity dependent on the technique used to alter neurogenesis. Whereas irradiated mice were hyperactive regardless of their genotype, cyclin D2 knockout mice were hypoactive in most of the tests and displayed altered habituation. The present study emphasizes that different approaches aimed at decreasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis may result in distinct behavioral impairments related to locomotion and anxiety. In contrast, spatial long-term memory retention is

  11. Induction of gynogenesis in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Tao, Min; Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yun

    2006-05-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4,200 mJ/cm2 and 3,600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively. At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4 +/- 3.3)% vs. (33.8 +/- 1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7 +/- 0.3)% vs. (0.5 +/- 0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4 degrees C for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8 +/- 2.1)% and (29.4 +/- 3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7 +/- 3.4)% and (23.6 +/- 4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J x B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J x B crosses may be useful in aquaculture. PMID:16722335

  12. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  13. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  14. Occurrence and effects of organotins on adult common whelk (Buccinum undatum) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in harbours and in a simulated dredging situation.

    PubMed

    Svavarsson, J; Granmo, A; Ekelund, R; Szpunar, J

    2001-05-01

    Transplanted common whelk (Buccinum undatum) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) accumulated fairly high levels of organotins (tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT)) during exposure in three harbours with different TBT contamination. This did not though lead to an increase in imposex frequency in the adult females studied. Simulating harbour dredging in an experiment using suspended sediment from one of the harbours only resulted in a low concentration of TBT in the tissues of the common whelk and subsequently no changes in the occurrence and degree of imposex. The common whelk seemed to receive the main part of TBT from the water column and the limited bioaccumulation in the experiment indicates that desorption of TBT from the suspended sediment was slow. After TBT has been totally banned, dredging of contaminated sediments will cause increased exposure of the biota to TBT. Due to slow desorption the increase may however, be slight and temporary to pelagic and epibenthic species unless the settled particles are resuspended.

  15. Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Forró, Barbara; Lengyel, György; Székely, Csaba; Varga, Ádám; Molnár, Kálmán

    2016-06-01

    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes. PMID:27342092

  16. Mink biomagnification factors for dioxin-like compounds fed Saginaw Bay carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, T.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Heaton, S.N.; Bursian, S.N.; Giesy, J.P.; Render, J.A.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% Saginaw Bay carp were fed to ranch mink to assess reproductive effects. All carp diets adversely affected reproduction. The diets and livers of the adult mink at the end of the study were chemically analyzed for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHS) that induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)/ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD). Biomagnification factors (BMFS) from diets to mink livers were calculated. AHH and EROD-active PCB congeners uniformly magnified across diets except for PCB 126, which had higher magnification at lowest carp and control diets. PCB and PCDF congener magnification ranged from incalculable to 60-fold higher and individual PCDDs ranged from incalculable to 165 times the diet. As expected from previous mammalian studies, 2378-TCDD magnified over an order of magnitude more than 2378-TCDF but by 4 to 5-fold less than 23478-PCDF. Based on dioxin equivalents theory and TEFS, PCB 126 ranked first in the liver residues of 2378-TCDD equivalents followed by PCB 105, 23478-PCDF and 2378-TCDD. Magnification factors allow for interpretation of relative exposure risks from certain wild forage species if wild mink liver concentrations are known. Conversely, knowledge of wild mink forage item concentrations allows for calculation of an estimated wild mink liver residue, when the concentration and dietary forage percentage are multiplied by the BMF. Therefore, BMFs can assist in the elucidation of relative risk of a population to these contaminants without necessarily having large numbers of mink samples, especially in habitats such as the Saginaw Bay area where mink and otter populations are presumed to be affected by high PHH contamination.

  17. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Mojsak, P; Jankowska, M; Kaczynski, P; Hrynko, I; Rutkowska, E; Szabunko, J; Borusiewicz, A

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005-2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01-0.81mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor <2.9% and <10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. PMID:27220092

  18. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  19. Functional analysis of membrane-bound complement regulatory protein on T-cell immune response in ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Nur, Indriyani; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K; Motobe, Shiori; Nakamura, Ryota; Tsujikura, Masakazu; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2016-02-01

    Complements have long been considered to be a pivotal component in innate immunity. Recent researches, however, highlight novel roles of complements in T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Membrane-bound complement regulatory protein CD46, a costimulatory protein for T cells, is a key molecule for T-cell immunomodulation. Teleost CD46-like molecule, termed Tecrem, has been newly identified in common carp and shown to function as a complement regulator. However, it remains unclear whether Tecrem is involved in T-cell immune response. We investigated Tecrem function related to T-cell responses in ginbuna crucian carp. Ginbuna Tecrem (gTecrem) proteins were detected by immunoprecipitation using anti-common carp Tecrem monoclonal antibody (mAb) and were ubiquitously expressed on blood cells including CD8α(+) and CD4(+) lymphocytes. gTecrem expression on leucocyte surface was enhanced after stimulation with the T-cell mitogen, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Coculture with the anti-Tecrem mAb significantly inhibited the proliferative activity of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that cross-linking of Tecrems on T-cells interferes with a signal transduction pathway for T-cell activation. These findings indicate that Tecrem may act as a T-cell moderator and imply that the complement system in teleost, as well as mammals, plays an important role for linking adaptive and innate immunity.

  20. Common culture practices for cyprinids in Asia.

    PubMed

    Singh, T

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinids are the largest group of cultured freshwater fish and thus the most important from the aspect of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses. The common practices employed in the culture of this group are described to provide background information which may be used in the formulation of strategies for the control of these zoonoses. Only the common carp is cultured in monoculture: all the rest of the carp species are usually cultured in polyculture systems incorporating several species. Polyculture of cyprinids may be carried out in ponds, cages or in free range culture in natural or man-made water bodies, Polyculture of cyprinids is often integrated with agriculture, such as livestock, poultry or crop farming, utilizing byproducts of the agriculture activity, especially manure, as a source of nutrient for the fish pond. If precautions are not taken, this practice may provide an avenue for the transmission of fish borne parasites to man.

  1. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  2. Older adults' fears about diabetes: using common sense models of disease to understand fear origins and implications for self-management.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Reynolds, Teresa; Chapman, Christine; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Kirk, Julienne K; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines older adults' fears of diabetes complications and their effects on self-management practices. Existing models of diabetes self-management posit that patients' actions are grounded in disease beliefs and experience, but there is little supporting evidence. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 74 African American, American Indian, and white older adults with diabetes. Analysis uses Leventhal's Common Sense Model of Diabetes to link fears to early experience and current self-management. Sixty-three identified fears focused on complications that could limit carrying out normal activities: amputation, blindness, low blood glucose and coma, and disease progression to insulin use and dialysis. Most focused self-management on actions to prevent specific complications, rather than on managing the disease as a whole. Early experiences focused attention on the inevitability of complications and the limited ability of patients to prevent them. Addressing older adults' fears about diabetes may improve their diabetes self-management practices.

  3. Replication of established common genetic variants for adult BMI and childhood obesity in Greek adolescents: the TEENAGE study.

    PubMed

    Ntalla, Ioanna; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Vlachou, Panagiota; Southam, Lorraine; William Rayner, Nigel; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Dedoussis, George V

    2013-05-01

    Multiple genetic loci have been associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of established adult BMI and childhood obesity loci in a Greek adolescent cohort. For this purpose, 34 variants were selected for investigation in 707 (55.9% females) adolescents of Greek origin aged 13.42 ± 0.88 years. Cumulative effects of variants were assessed by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS-34) for each subject. Variants at the FTO, TMEM18, FAIM2, RBJ, ZNF608 and QPCTL loci yielded nominal evidence for association with BMI and/or overweight risk (p < 0.05). Variants at TFAP2B and NEGR1 loci showed nominal association (p < 0.05) with BMI and/or overweight risk in males and females respectively. Even though we did not detect any genome-wide significant associations, 27 out of 34 variants yielded directionally consistent effects with those reported by large-scale meta-analyses (binomial sign p = 0.0008). The GRS-34 was associated with both BMI (beta = 0.17 kg/m(2) /allele; p < 0.001) and overweight risk (OR = 1.09/allele; 95% CI: 1.04-1.16; p = 0.001). In conclusion, we replicate associations of established BMI and childhood obesity variants in a Greek adolescent cohort and confirm directionally consistent effects for most of them.

  4. Homozygosity for the common GAA gene splice site mutation c.-32-13T>G in Pompe disease is associated with the classical adult phenotypical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Olimpia; Thieme, Andrea; Claeys, Kristl G; Wenninger, Stephan; Kley, Rudolf A; Kuhn, Marius; Lukacs, Zoltan; Deschauer, Marcus; Gaeta, Michele; Toscano, Antonio; Gläser, Dieter; Schoser, Benedikt

    2015-09-01

    Homozygosity for the common Caucasian splice site mutation c.-32-13T>G in intron 1 of the GAA gene is rather rare in Pompe patients. We report on the clinical, biochemical, morphological, muscle imaging, and genetic findings of six adult Pompe patients from five unrelated families with the c.-32-13T>G GAA gene mutation in homozygous state. All patients had decreased GAA activity and elevated creatine kinase levels. Five patients, aged between 43 and 61 years (median 53 years), initially presented with myalgia, hyperCKaemia, and/or exercise induced fatigue at an age of onset (12-55 years). All but one had proximal lower limb weakness combined with axial weakness and moderate respiratory insufficiency; the sixth patient presented with hyperCKaemia only. Muscle biopsies showed PAS-positive vacuolar myopathy with lysosomal changes and reduced GAA activity. Muscle MRI of lower limb muscles revealed a moderate adipose substitution of the gluteal muscles, biceps femoris and slight fatty infiltration of all thigh muscles. One MRI of the respiratory muscles revealed a diaphragmatic atrophy with unilateral diaphragm elevation. So, the common Caucasian, so called mild, splice site mutation c.-32-13T>G in intron 1 of the GAA gene in a homozygote status reflects the full adult Pompe disease phenotype severity spectrum. PMID:26231297

  5. Restricted use of fetal VH3 immunoglobulin genes by unselected B cells in the adult. Predominance of 56p1-like VH genes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Berberian, L; King, L; Sanz, I; Govan, H L

    1992-05-01

    The large VH3 family of human immunoglobulin genes is commonly used throughout B cell ontogeny. However, B cells of the fetus and certain autoantibody-producing clones are restricted to a recurrent subset of VH3 genes, and VH3 B cells are deficient in certain immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we have sequenced a set of rearranged VH3 genes generated by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from normal adults and those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). In both groups, all cones were readily identifiable with the fetal VH3 subset, and were further distinguished by limited DH motifs and exclusive use of JH4. In CVI, the residual population of VH3 B cells were notable for predominant use of 56p1-like VH genes. All clones displayed sequence divergence (including somatic mutation) with evidence of strong selection against complementarity-determining region (CDR) coding change. A survey of other V gene families indicates that human V gene diversity may be restricted in general by germline mechanisms. These findings suggest that the expressed antibody repertoire in the human adult may be much smaller than anticipated, and selected by processes in part distinct from the paradigm of maximal antigen-binding diversity.

  6. Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified Common Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults Referred for Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known common obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4±8.1 kg/m2) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 common variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0–24.9 kg/m2); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3×10−8) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6×10−4), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3×10−11) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated common variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of

  7. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    PubMed

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  8. Obestatin partially suppresses ghrelin stimulation of appetite in "high-responders" grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaochen; Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Su, Hang; Yuan, Yongchao; Li, Aixuan; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gastrointestinal peptides obtained by post-translational processing of a common precursor, preproghrelin. The effect of obestatin on food intake is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ghrelin and obestatin on food intake in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Fish received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of saline, ghrelin (100 ng g(-1)BW), obestatin-like (25 ng g(-1)BW) and ghrelin in combination with obestatin-like. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake varied considerably among individual fish with 70.8% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, food intake was significantly increased by IP ghrelin within 2 h. Co-administration of ghrelin and obestatin-like resulted in a decrease in food intake, indicating that obestatin was able to antagonize the effect of ghrelin. However, IP obestatin-like alone could not regulate food intake in grass carp. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that IP ghrelin peptide led to a significant increase in mRNA abundance of NPY, Y8a and Y8b genes compared to saline injected fish, while in combination with obestatin-like peptide decreased ghrelin-induced gene expressions of these three genes. IP sole obestatin-like peptide did not modify the expression levels of NPY, Y8a, Y8b, CART and POMC compared to the control group. Therefore, IP administration of obestatin-like peptide, partially blocking the ghrelin-induced appetite, investigated the possible involvement of obestatin as a mediator of the ghrelin stimulatory action on food intake, at least in "high-responders" grass carp.

  9. Concentration of carp edema virus (CEV) DNA in koi tissues affected by koi sleepy disease (KSD).

    PubMed

    Adamek, Mikolaj; Jung-Schroers, Verena; Hellmann, John; Teitge, Felix; Bergmann, Sven Michael; Runge, Martin; Kleingeld, Dirk Willem; Way, Keith; Stone, David Michael; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    Carp edema virus (CEV), the causative agent of 'koi sleepy disease' (KSD), appears to be spreading worldwide and to be responsible for losses in koi, ornamental varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Clinical signs of KSD include lethargic behaviour, swollen gills, sunken eyes and skin alterations and can easily be mistaken for other diseases, such as infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). To improve the future diagnosis of CEV infection and to provide a tool to better explore the relationship between viral load and clinical disease, we developed a specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) for strains of the virus known to infect koi carp. In samples from several clinically affected koi, CEV-specific DNA was present in a range from 1 to 2,046,000 copies, with a mean of 129,982 copies and a median of 45 copies per 250 ng of isolated DNA, but virus DNA could not be detected in all clinically affected koi. A comparison of the newly developed qPCR, which is based on a dual-labelled probe, to an existing end-point PCR procedure revealed higher specificity and sensitivity of the qPCR and demonstrated that the new protocol could improve CEV detection in koi. In addition to improved diagnosis, the newly developed qPCR test would be a useful research tool. For example, studies on the pathobiology of CEV could employ controlled infection experiments in which the development of clinical signs could be examined in parallel with a quantitative determination of virus load. PMID:27225208

  10. Genetic polymorphism study of regulatory B cell molecules and cellular immunity function in an adult patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sarantopoulos, A; Tselios, K; Skendros, P; Bougiouklis, D; Theodorou, I; Boura, P

    2008-01-01

    A 43 year old female patient presented for recurrent bacterial lower respiratory infections. A research for immunodeficiency status revealed total hypogammaglobulinemia, reduced IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 subclass levels, and low number of B lymphocytes (CD19+). Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) 11.2 category was diagnosed according to recent criteria of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Further immunological study consisting of genetic polymorphism of genes relating to differentiation, activation and function of B cells (ICOS, BAFF receptor BCMA and TACI) was performed, which did not reveal any related mutations. T cell parameters and Th1/Th2 cytokine network did not show any disturbances. It is postulated that probable endstage B cell differentiation defects should be investigated. The patient receives IVIGs replacement thereafter and the rate and severity of infections have significantly improved. PMID:18923749

  11. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adults: a common chronic condition in need of a comprehensive chronic condition management approach.

    PubMed

    Heatley, Emer M; Harris, Melanie; Battersby, Malcolm; McEvoy, R Doug; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Antic, Nicholas A

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder that has all the characteristics of a chronic condition. As with other chronic conditions, OSA requires ongoing management of treatments and problems, such as residual symptoms, deficits and co-morbidities. Also, many OSA patients have modifiable lifestyle factors that contribute to their disease, which could be improved with intervention. As health systems are in the process of developing more comprehensive chronic care structures and supports, tools such as chronic condition management programs are available to enable OSA patients and their health care providers to further engage and collaborate in health management. This review explains why the OSA patient group requires a more comprehensive approach to disease management, describes the chronic care model as a platform for management of chronic conditions, and assesses the suitability of particular chronic disease management programs in relation to the needs of the OSA population. Implementation of an evidence-based health-professional-led chronic condition management program into OSA patient care is likely to provide a context in which health risks are properly acknowledged and addressed. Such programs present an important opportunity to enable more optimal health outcomes than is possible by device-focused management alone.

  12. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4–67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction

  14. Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates.

  15. Quantitative profiling of mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase superfamily genes in various tissues of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyu; Xie, Ping; Li, Huiying; Chen, Jun; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2010-01-01

    The expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a crucial factor in determining the sensitivity of cells and organs in response to a variety of toxicants. In this study, we cloned the core nucleotide of alpha, kappa, mu, mGST, pi, rho, and theta-like GST genes from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). Their derived amino acid sequences were clustered with other vertebrate GSTs in a phylogenetic tree, and the bighead carp GST sequences have the highest similarity with those from common carp and zebrafish. We quantified the constitutive mRNA transcription of GST isoforms in eight different tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, muscle, heart, brain, and gill). The information obtained from the present study could be distilled into a few generalized principles: multiple GST isoenzymes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues; majority of GSTs had high constitutive expression in intestine, liver, and kidney. These findings are in agreement with the roles of these tissues in xenobiotic metabolism. At the same time, some unique findings were detected in the current experiment: (1) higher expression of most GSTs was observed in spleen; (2) the expression of GST pi was highest in almost all the studied tissues except muscle; the other two isoforms, GST alpha and rho, were also highly expressed in liver, kidney, intestine, spleen, heart, and brain of bighead carp. All these results strongly imply an important role of these GST isoforms in detoxification of ingested xenobiotics. PMID:20135640

  16. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(<20 μm) in Donghu Lake, studies on phytoplankton in their gut contents and feces were made in 1990. The fish were cultured in both net cage in Donghu Lake and aquaria with the lake water. Past the intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 μm, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  17. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.

  18. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control. PMID:27603885

  19. Effect of Tributyltin, Cadmium, and Their Combination on Physiological Responses in Juvenile Grass Carp.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wei-Na; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and cadmium (Cd) are two common pollutants in aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine the physiological responses of juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to TBT, Cd, and their combination. Fish were apportioned into a control group, a TBT group (7.5 μg/L), a Cd group (2.97 mg/L), and a TBT-Cd group (7.5 μg/L TBT, 2.97 mg/L Cd(2+)) for 7 d. The following activities were measured: Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gill tissues; nitric oxide synthase (NOS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in brain tissues; and lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues. Cadmium-induced stress was suggested by alterations in antioxidant responses (MDA, LPO, and T-AOC) and neurological parameters (AChE, MAO, and NOS). Cadmium also induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and GSH activity. Compared with the responses among the Cd group, the combination of TBT and Cd not only decreased the level of GSH and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but also increased the levels of MDA, LPO, AChE, MAO, and NOS. These results suggest that a combination of TBT and Cd could reduce the adverse effects of Cd on Grass Carp. However, the exact mechanisms for the combined effects TBT and Cd on these biomarkers require further investigation. Received September 28, 2015; accepted April 17, 2016. PMID:27484920

  20. From aquaculture goals to real social and ecological impacts: carp introduction in rural Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Mónica; Zambrano, Luis

    2003-06-01

    Aquaculture has been seen as a solution to food/protein availability in rural populations of poor countries. It is mainly based on exotic species, that produce changes in host system dynamics once introduced. Aquaculture not only changes the ecology of freshwater systems, but can also lead to modification of social relations. Until now, aquaculture programs have not been adequately analyzed no questioned enough. We evaluate both ecological effects and local social benefits of common carp aquaculture programs in shallow ponds of rural areas, using a municipality in Central Mexico as a case study. Using an "environmental entitlements" approach, our findings suggest that: i) carp aquaculture increases water turbidity and depletes native species reducing the poor people's access to them; ii) aquaculture mainly benefits pond owners rather than poor peasants. This mainly results from changes in fishing rights. We conclude that aquaculture policy goals and assumptions of benefits should be reviewed, if the negative ecological effects are to be decreased and conditions for people in rural areas are to be improved.

  1. The association between substance use and common mental disorders in young adults: results from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J; Grimsrud, Anna; Morojele, Neo; London, Leslie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although substance use is commonly associated with mental disorders, limited data on this association are available from low and middle income countries such as South Africa. The aims of the study were i) to determine patterns of substance use in young adults, ii) to identify trends of common psychiatric disorders in relation to use of specific substances, and iii) to determine whether specific psychiatric disorders were associated with use of specific substances in the South African population. Methods Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of So