Science.gov

Sample records for adult community members

  1. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  2. Prioritizing Approaches to Engage Community Members and Build Trust in Biobanks: A Survey of Attitudes and Opinions of Adults within Outpatient Practices at the University of Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Maloney, Kristin A.; Alestock, Tameka DeShawn; Chavez, Justin; Berman, David; Sharaf, Reem Maged; Fitzgerald, Tom; Kim, Eun-Young; Palmer, Kathleen; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Achieving high participation of communities representative of all sub-populations is needed in order to ensure broad applicability of biobank study findings. This study aimed to understand potentially mutable attitudes and opinions commonly correlated with biobank participation in order to inform approaches to promote participation in biobanks. Methods: Adults from two University of Maryland (UMD) Faculty Physicians, Inc. outpatient practices were invited to watch a video and complete a survey about a new biobank initiative. We used: Chi-square to assess the relationship between willingness to join the biobank and participant characteristics, other potentially mutable attitudes and opinions, and trust in the UMD. We also used t-test to assess the relationship with trust in medical research. We also prioritize proposed actions to improve attitudes and opinions about joining biobanks according to perceived responsiveness. Results: 169 participants completed the study, 51% of whom indicated a willingness to join the biobank. Willingness to join the biobank was not associated with age, gender, race, or education but was associated with respondent comfort sharing samples and clinical information, concerns related to confidentiality, potential for misuse of information, trust in UMD, and perceived health benefit. In ranked order, potential actions we surveyed that might alleviate some of these concerns include: increase chances to learn more about the biobank, increase opportunities to be updated, striving to put community concerns first, including involving community members as leaders of biobank research, and involving community members in decision making. Conclusions: This study identified several attitudes and opinions that influence decisions to join a biobank, including many concerns that could potentially be addressed by engaging community members. We also demonstrate our method of prioritizing ways to improve attitudes and opinions about joining a

  3. Psychological Community Integration among People with Psychiatric Disabilities and Nondisabled Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanos, Philip T.; Stefanic, Ana; Tsemberis, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined individual and neighborhood predictors of the psychological community integration of people with psychiatric disabilities and nondisabled community members. One hundred twenty-three adults (60 psychiatrically disabled, 63 general community residents), completed measures of sense of community, life satisfaction, psychiatric…

  4. Hispanic Faculty Members in Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony; Joyner, Sheila; Slate, John

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which Hispanic faculty members employed at all Texas community colleges had changed from 2000 to 2008 is examined. Both the number and percentage of Hispanic faculty members employed full-time at Texas community colleges had increased from 2000 to the 2008 school year. Though a statistically significant increase was present, the…

  5. Converting virtual community members into online buyers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumeet; Kim, Hee-Woong; Shin, Seon-Jin

    2010-10-01

    Although many online vendors have sponsored virtual communities (VCs) in the hope of reaping commercial benefits from it, not many have been successful in reaping commercial benefits from their VC. Online vendors can benefit greatly from having a VC, if the VC members can be converted into online buyers. This study examines the conversion of a VC member into an online buyer. Using a classical-conditioning approach, this study finds that members' committed participation in the VC is the springboard for online vendors to convert VC members into online buyers.

  6. 7 CFR 7.15 - Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., community committee members, and delegates. 7.15 Section 7.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.15 Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members,...

  7. Who's in Charge Here? The Administrative Challenges of Being a Volunteer Board Member for a Community-Based Adult Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Marion

    2006-01-01

    A 2003 qualitative study examined the perspectives of 70 stakeholders in two adult literacy programs in Manitoba, Canada. Two stakeholders were Literacy Working Group (LWG) chairpersons, who held administrative positions akin to public school boards. Of particular significance to these administrators were issues related to program coordination,…

  8. Scholarship and the Professional Identity of Community College Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The institutional culture of community colleges often fosters a professional identity among faculty members that sees research, publication, and other forms of out-of-class scholarship as detrimental to teaching and student learning. But the professional associations established by and for community college faculty members in specific academic…

  9. Adult and Adolescent Perceptions of Their Community's Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Reese; And Others

    This study identified differences and similarities among the perceptions of adult and adolescent community members regarding drug use patterns and practices. A written questionnaire was administered to 5,128 adolescents from grades 7 through 12 in the rural inland northwest, and a similar questionnaire was administered to over 900 adults in the…

  10. Beyond the School: Getting Community Members Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer L.; Brown, William M.; Rogers, Catherine S.

    2005-01-01

    Citizen involvement in education has increased in the last two decades as schools have sought to involve their communities in school matters. An increasing number of schools have formed partnerships with citizens and local businesses to provide volunteers, funding, and expertise to benefit students. Developing partnerships with local citizens and…

  11. Exposure to Violence During Ferguson Protests: Mental Health Effects for Law Enforcement and Community Members.

    PubMed

    Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D; Beagley, Marin C; Strasshofer, David R; Held, Philip; Fletcher, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    There is little information available on the mental health effects of exposure to shared community violence such as the August 2014 violence that occurred in Ferguson, Missouri. This study sought to examine the relationship between proximity to community violence and mental health in both community members and police officers. We recruited 565 adults (community, n = 304, and police, n = 261) exposed to the violence in Ferguson to complete measures of proximity to violence, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anger. Using structural equation modeling, we assessed aspects of proximity to violence-connectedness, direct exposure, fear from exposure, media exposure, reactions to media, and life interruption-as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and anger. The final model yielded (n = 432), χ(2) (d = 12) = 7.4, p = .830; comparative fit index = 1.0, root mean square error of approximation = 0 [0, .04]. All aspects of proximity except direct exposure were associated with mental health outcomes. There was no moderation as a function of community versus police. Race moderated the relationship between life interruptions and negative outcomes; interruption was related to distress for White, but not Black community members. Based on group comparisons, community members reported more symptoms of PTSD and depression than law enforcement (ηp (2) = .06 and .02, respectively). Black community members reported more PTSD and depression than White community members (ηp (2) = .05 and .02, respectively). Overall, distress was high, and mental health interventions are likely indicated for some individuals exposed to the Ferguson events.

  12. The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marti M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

  13. Screening of household family members of brucellosis cases and neighboring community members in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T

    2013-05-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis cases and 27 community neighbors were serologically tested for evidence of exposure by the serum agglutination test. Of these, the brucellosis seropositivity rate was 9.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Screening of household members of index cases and individuals who live in proximity to infected household members is a practical approach to increase the detection of brucellosis exposure.

  14. Exploring Knowledge Sharing among Members of a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Selena S.; Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that explored knowledge sharing among members of a community of practice (CoP) in a large, urban high school. Findings suggest that social relationships, informal channels, community culture, levels of trust, and spatial factors influence knowledge sharing, and that CoPs have the potential to…

  15. Perception of Quality of Life for Adults with Hearing Impairment in the LGBT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the this study was to examine the perception of both generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) in adults with hearing impairment who are members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Eighty-three adults who self-identified as having hearing impairment and as being members of the LGBT community and…

  16. A Descriptive Study to Determine the Opinions of Community Band Members regarding the Effectiveness of Comprehensive Musicianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Various comprehensive musicianship teaching methods have been used in school instrumental programs throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The intention of this study was to determine the attitudes of adult community band members on the use of comprehensive musicianship teaching methods within rehearsals. Members of the South of the…

  17. Sustaining Members, Volunteers, and Leaders in Community Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    Community organizations must be self-sustaining in order to remain active, viable, and strong. The three primary steps involved in sustaining members, volunteers, and leaders include evaluate, recognize, and either retain, redirect, or disengage. A volunteer performance evaluation will determine whether individual and organizational goals are…

  18. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  19. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  20. Exposure to Violence During Ferguson Protests: Mental Health Effects for Law Enforcement and Community Members.

    PubMed

    Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D; Beagley, Marin C; Strasshofer, David R; Held, Philip; Fletcher, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    There is little information available on the mental health effects of exposure to shared community violence such as the August 2014 violence that occurred in Ferguson, Missouri. This study sought to examine the relationship between proximity to community violence and mental health in both community members and police officers. We recruited 565 adults (community, n = 304, and police, n = 261) exposed to the violence in Ferguson to complete measures of proximity to violence, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anger. Using structural equation modeling, we assessed aspects of proximity to violence-connectedness, direct exposure, fear from exposure, media exposure, reactions to media, and life interruption-as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and anger. The final model yielded (n = 432), χ(2) (d = 12) = 7.4, p = .830; comparative fit index = 1.0, root mean square error of approximation = 0 [0, .04]. All aspects of proximity except direct exposure were associated with mental health outcomes. There was no moderation as a function of community versus police. Race moderated the relationship between life interruptions and negative outcomes; interruption was related to distress for White, but not Black community members. Based on group comparisons, community members reported more symptoms of PTSD and depression than law enforcement (ηp (2) = .06 and .02, respectively). Black community members reported more PTSD and depression than White community members (ηp (2) = .05 and .02, respectively). Overall, distress was high, and mental health interventions are likely indicated for some individuals exposed to the Ferguson events. PMID:27254474

  1. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span. PMID:26788781

  2. Adult Education and Community Development in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Edwin

    1984-01-01

    Describes and discusses adult education and community development in Nigeria, specifically in the Bendel State. Provides a brief history of adult education and community development and describes several programs, methods, and techniques. Highlights the Mass Literacy Campaign as the major priority. (CT)

  3. Adult School and Community College Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This document represents the completion of the first phase of a study of adult and continuing education in California. The current method of funding community colleges in general, and adult/continuing education programs offered by community colleges and school districts specifically, are examined, their shortcomings noted, and alternatives to the…

  4. 7 CFR 7.18 - Terms of office of county and community members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of office of county and community members. 7.18... STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.18 Terms of office of county and community members. The term of office of county and community committee members and alternates to...

  5. Final Thoughts on Community in Adult ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrott, Clarena

    2009-01-01

    Community building is an important, if not essential, element of adult English as a second language (ESL) learning. Communities, whether civic, work, religious, or identity-based, are the contexts within which people cease to be alone and become connected with others. Language is the main tool for communicating with others in communities. For…

  6. Formative Research on Perceptions of Biobanking: What Community Members Think

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Montel-Ishino, Francisco A.; Arevalo, Mariana; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Preparing healthy community members with timely communications prior to engaging them in a request to donate biospecimens promises to improve the experience of biobanking participation. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted to assess community member knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about cancer-related biospecimen collection in a large metropolitan area in southwest Florida. The study utilized purposive sampling techniques to recruit a total of 95 participants to participate in 12 focus groups, segmented by race/ethnicity and language preference (mixed race, African American only, and Spanish speaking) and age (18–29, 30–54, and 55 and older). Focus group interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. Overall, participants in the 30 years and older groups were favorable toward participating in biobanking if their concerns were addressed, such as confidentiality and consent issues, in contrast to participants aged 18–29 who were more skeptical. For all participants, the desire to participate in research that seeks new cancer treatments outweighed mistrust. Moreover, many cited the potential scientific benefit for future generations as a primary motivator. Finally, in some groups a therapeutic misconception was expressed, where participants expressed a willingness to forego confidentiality of their health status in exchange for therapeutic benefit. This study contributes to the literature on community perceptions of the benefits and barriers of biobanking and adds to the development of meaningful education communication priming tools to advance understandings about biobanking. PMID:21927867

  7. Perceptions of Service Providers and Community Members on Intimate Partner Violence within a Latino Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, M. Jane; West, Bernadette; Bautista, Leyna; Greenberg, Alexandra M.; Done-Perez, Iris

    2005-01-01

    This study examined perceptions regarding intimate partner abuse (IPV) in a largely Latino community in New Jersey through focus groups with Latino community members and key informant interviews with providers of services to this population. Questions examined definitions of partner abuse; perceptions of factors contributing to, or protecting…

  8. A Family-Based Diabetes Intervention for Hispanic Adults and Their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Debra; McCoy, Thomas; Amirehsani, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this quasi-experimental one group longitudinal study is to examine the effects of a family-based intervention program on diabetes self-management behaviors, HbA1c, other biomarkers, psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in Hispanics with diabetes. Methods Adult patients with diabetes (n = 36) and family members (n = 37) were recruited from a community clinic in rural central North Carolina. Patients and family members attended an 8-week culturally tailored diabetes educational program taught in Spanish. Data was collected pre and post intervention for both patients and family members, with an additional data collection for patients 1 month post intervention. Results Most patients and family members were female and almost all were immigrants. HbA1c dropped by 0.41% on average among patients from pre-intervention to 1 month post intervention. Patients showed significant improvements in systolic blood pressure, diabetes self-efficacy diabetes knowledge, and physical and mental components of health-related quality of life. Higher levels of intake of healthy foods and performance of blood sugar tests and foot inspections were reported. Family members significantly lowered BMI and improved diabetes knowledge from pre- to immediate post-intervention. No significant changes in levels of physical activity were found among patients with diabetes or family members. Conclusions Findings suggest that including family members in educational interventions may provide emotional and psychological support to patients with diabetes, help to develop healthy family behaviors, and promote diabetes self-management. PMID:24248832

  9. Adult Women in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Janene

    This digest reviews some of the recent literature about adult female students at community colleges. Their motivations, unique needs, and barriers to entry are discussed, as well as ways institutions can enhance the educational experience for adult women. Female students have outnumbered male students in higher education for nearly 30 years. In…

  10. Promoting Community Wellbeing: The Case for Lifelong Learning for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha

    2014-01-01

    Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…

  11. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... European Union (``EU'') member state governments of France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom to... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member... dispute European Communities and Certain Member States--Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil...

  12. How Community College Faculty Members May Improve Student Learning Productivity in Their Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven experienced community college faculty members were interviewed to elicit examples of how they improved student learning productivity in their online courses. The 11 faculty members represented eight different states, nine different fields or disciplines, and all were permanent or full-time faculty members at community colleges in the…

  13. Advancing coalition theory: the effect of coalition factors on community capacity mediated by member engagement.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W

    2012-08-01

    Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community's capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity.

  14. Adult and Community Learning Fund Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Twelve articles describe projects supported by Britain's Adult and Community Learning Fund, including employment skills and information technology for disadvantaged groups, heritage restoration skills, alcohol rehabilitation, basic skills through media-based learning, guidance for female ex-offenders, access to learning for socially excluded…

  15. Getting It Together: Serving the Adult Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a community needs assessment survey conducted by the College of DuPage (Illinois) which served to advertise existing programs, provide public relations for the adult education council, and obtain measures of need for existing or expanded educational and leisure activities. (MB)

  16. Community College Older Adult Program Development Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getskow, Veronica

    This guide provides information and suggestions for developing programs that meet the needs of older adults at community colleges. Recommended procedures are presented for the following stages of program development: (1) leadership influences, highlighting the process of hiring effective leaders, key leadership skills, and leaders'…

  17. Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, Mary Grace

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

  18. Every Mark on the Page: Educating Family and Community Members about Young Children's Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusumano, Kate Foley

    2008-01-01

    Family and community members often look at children's writing from a deficit point of view--seeing only what's "wrong" with it, what needs "fixing." Teachers can take a proactive role as family and community member educators, communicating to them how writing develops in young children and how they can play a positive role in this development.…

  19. Community Members' Interference and Conduct of University Distance Learning Examinations in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unamma, Anthony Odera

    2013-01-01

    This research work was aimed at determining the degree of community members' interference in the conduct of university distance learning examination in South Eastern Nigeria. It was also aimed at finding out the factors responsible for the community members' interference, the ways by which interference is effected, the consequences and the…

  20. Four Members of the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame Reflect on Their Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Miller, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on collective experience of over 200 years, four members of the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame were panelists in a session at the 2010 National Outreach Scholarship Conference. As the panelists reflected on careers in the field of adult and continuing education, four sustaining themes emerged: commitment,…

  1. Shared Understandings: Environmental Perspectives of Kenyan Community Members and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigely, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are a shared human concern as communities in all nations and geographic regions are grappling with environmental degradation. Despite this concern, there are multiple different viewpoints on the current state of environmental issues and how to understand these problems. Understanding how different communities conceive of the…

  2. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  3. Everyday living with diabetes described by family members of adult people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  4. Structural determinants of adolescent girls' vulnerability to HIV: views from community members in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Skinner, Joanna; Osman, Nadia; Schwandt, Hilary

    2011-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls are three to four times more likely than adolescent boys to be living with HIV/AIDS. A literature review revealed only four studies that had examined HIV vulnerability from the perspective of community members. None of the studies focused specifically on adolescent girls. To fill this gap, in 2008 12 focus group discussions were held in selected peri-urban and rural sites in Botswana, 12 in Malawi, and 11 in Mozambique to identify factors that render girls vulnerable to HIV infection from the community members' perspective. The preponderance of comments identified structural factors--insufficient economic, educational, socio-cultural, and legal support for adolescent girls--as the root causes of girls' vulnerability to HIV through exposure to unprotected sexual relationships, primarily relationships that are transactional and age-disparate. Community members explicitly called for policies and interventions to strengthen cultural, economic, educational, and legal structures to protect girls, recognized community members' responsibility to take action, and requested programs to enhance adult-child communication, thus revealing an understanding that girls' vulnerability is multi-level and multi-faceted, so must be addressed through a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  5. Sexuality in a Community Based Sample of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Laura; Schalomon, P. Melike; Smith, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the sexual attitudes and behaviours of individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in community settings. A total of 82 (55 female and 17 male) adults with autism were contrasted with 282 members of the general population on their responses to an online survey of sexual knowledge and…

  6. The relative importance of relational and scientific characteristics of psychotherapy: Perceptions of community members vs. therapists.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed.

  7. Becoming an Adult in a Community of Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes developmental needs of emerging young adults and how they are often met, or not met, in faith communities. The author offers recommendations for creating better connections with today's emerging young adults.

  8. Determinants of Success for Online Communities: An Analysis of Three Communities in Terms of Members' Perceived Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon

    2009-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence suggests that the updated DeLone and McLean's information systems (D&M IS) model can identify the determinants of success of online communities in terms of member loyalty (Lin and Lee 2006). This study is similarly concerned with the challenge of identifying the determinants of success of online communities, but it…

  9. 76 FR 70132 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) members it has selected for the 2010 fourth round review cycle under the... selected for the review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must submit... selected for the 2010 fourth round review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements...

  10. 77 FR 35965 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) members it has selected for the 2010 sixth round review cycle under the FHFA... for the review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must submit completed... 2010 sixth round review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must...

  11. 76 FR 35434 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) members it has selected for the 2010 third round review cycle under the FHFA... for the review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must submit completed... 2010 third round review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must...

  12. With Their Help: How community members construct a congruent Third Space in an urban kindergarten classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie F.

    2013-03-01

    Through the use of narrative enquiry, this paper tells the story of how a kindergarten teacher in an all-girls' school incorporates family and community members' involvement to the construction of the congruent Third Space present in the classroom, and the ways the girls respond to this involvement, thereby providing a successful model for other schools in marginalized communities. In this study, the author sought to understand how this teacher and the community members' in this classroom create a congruent Third Space. This research enquiry includes the systematic use of the methodology portraiture with analysis of critical events. The portraits are titled: Mutual Desire for the Girls to Succeed and Community Members' Involvement. This paper moves Third Space theory towards praxis through concrete examples in an urban, kindergarten classroom.

  13. Which Members of the Microbial Communities Are Active? Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.

    only at the early stages of understanding the microbial processes that occur in petroliferous formations and the surrounding subterranean environment. Important first steps in characterising the microbiology of oilfield systems involve identifying the microbial community structure and determining how population diversity changes are affected by the overall geochemical and biological parameters of the system. This is relatively easy to do today by using general 16S rRNA primers for PCR and building clone libraries. For example, previous studies using molecular methods characterised many dominant prokaryotes in petroleum reservoirs (Orphan et al., 2000) and in two Alaskan North Slope oil facilities (Duncan et al., 2009; Pham et al., 2009). However, the problem is that more traditional molecular biology approaches, such as 16S clone libraries, fail to detect large portions of the community perhaps missing up to half of the biodiversity (see Hong et al., 2009) and require significant laboratory time to construct large libraries necessary to increase the probability of detecting the majority of even bacterial biodiversity. In the energy sector, the overarching desire would be to quickly assess the extent of in situ hydrocarbon biodegradation or to disrupt detrimental processes such as biofouling, and in these cases it may not be necessary to identify specific microbial species. Rather, it would be more critical to evaluate metabolic processes or monitor gene products that are implicated in the specific activity of interest. Research goals such as these are well suited for a tailored application of microarray technology.

  14. "Grandma, You Should Do It--It's Cool" Older Adults and the Role of Family Members in Their Acceptance of Technology.

    PubMed

    Luijkx, Katrien; Peek, Sebastiaan; Wouters, Eveline

    2015-12-01

    Despite its potential, the acceptance of technology to support the ability to live independently in one's own home, also called aging in place, is not optimal. Family members may play a key role in technology acceptance by older adults; however, it is not well understood why and how they exert influence. Based on open interviews with 53 community-dwelling older adults, this paper describes the influence of family members, including spouses, on the use of various types of consumer electronics by older adults as was reported by themselves. Such a broad focus enables understanding the use of technology as was reported by older adults, instead of its intended use. Our study reveals that the influence of each family member has its own characteristics. The influence of technology acceptance is a natural and coincidental part of the interaction with spouses and grandchildren in which entertainment and pleasure are prominent. This is also partly true for the influence of children, but their influence also is intentional and driven by concerns. Our study indicates the importance of including all family members when implementing technology in the lives of older adults. Besides information for children about the use(fullness) of devices, it is worthwhile to give grandchildren an important role, because older adults easily adopt their enthusiasm and it might eventually lighten the burden on children. PMID:26690188

  15. “Grandma, You Should Do It—It’s Cool” Older Adults and the Role of Family Members in Their Acceptance of Technology

    PubMed Central

    Luijkx, Katrien; Peek, Sebastiaan; Wouters, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential, the acceptance of technology to support the ability to live independently in one’s own home, also called aging in place, is not optimal. Family members may play a key role in technology acceptance by older adults; however, it is not well understood why and how they exert influence. Based on open interviews with 53 community-dwelling older adults, this paper describes the influence of family members, including spouses, on the use of various types of consumer electronics by older adults as was reported by themselves. Such a broad focus enables understanding the use of technology as was reported by older adults, instead of its intended use. Our study reveals that the influence of each family member has its own characteristics. The influence of technology acceptance is a natural and coincidental part of the interaction with spouses and grandchildren in which entertainment and pleasure are prominent. This is also partly true for the influence of children, but their influence also is intentional and driven by concerns. Our study indicates the importance of including all family members when implementing technology in the lives of older adults. Besides information for children about the use(fullness) of devices, it is worthwhile to give grandchildren an important role, because older adults easily adopt their enthusiasm and it might eventually lighten the burden on children. PMID:26690188

  16. "Grandma, You Should Do It--It's Cool" Older Adults and the Role of Family Members in Their Acceptance of Technology.

    PubMed

    Luijkx, Katrien; Peek, Sebastiaan; Wouters, Eveline

    2015-12-05

    Despite its potential, the acceptance of technology to support the ability to live independently in one's own home, also called aging in place, is not optimal. Family members may play a key role in technology acceptance by older adults; however, it is not well understood why and how they exert influence. Based on open interviews with 53 community-dwelling older adults, this paper describes the influence of family members, including spouses, on the use of various types of consumer electronics by older adults as was reported by themselves. Such a broad focus enables understanding the use of technology as was reported by older adults, instead of its intended use. Our study reveals that the influence of each family member has its own characteristics. The influence of technology acceptance is a natural and coincidental part of the interaction with spouses and grandchildren in which entertainment and pleasure are prominent. This is also partly true for the influence of children, but their influence also is intentional and driven by concerns. Our study indicates the importance of including all family members when implementing technology in the lives of older adults. Besides information for children about the use(fullness) of devices, it is worthwhile to give grandchildren an important role, because older adults easily adopt their enthusiasm and it might eventually lighten the burden on children.

  17. Older adults in the division of domestic labor in communities on the outskirts of Beirut

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The gendered division of domestic labor has been widely studied over the last three decades. However, older adults' contribution to housework, especially in patriarchal communities in the Middle East, has been largely overlooked. This article examined the participation of older members of the household in domestic labor in three communities in the outskirts of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon. Drawing on a sample of 2,797 households, the results revealed that three salient factors seemed to have the major impact on older adults' participation in domestic labor; these were the presence of adult women (18–59 years old) in the household, the marital status and age of older adults. Older men's participation in domestic labor was much lower than that of older women, suggesting that a gender divide exists among older adults in the patriarchal setting of the study. Housework remains feminized in the later stage of life. PMID:17515949

  18. Participation of Patient Community Members in Communication Classes for Dental Students at Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoko; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Hirata, SoIchiro; Sugihara, Naoki; Mochizuki, Riuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yuko; Kawada, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched its "Program for Promoting University Education and Student Support, Theme A: Program for Promoting University Education Reform". The ministry's stated aims were to 1) enhance student training centered on the needs of the individual patient; 2) improve their ability to make comprehensive diagnosis and treatment plans; and 3) instill high ethical standards and good communication skills. One of the main pillars of this project was to establish an educational organization aimed at encouraging public participation, the "Patient Community". The aim was to have members of this community roleplay patients in the Communication Studies component of the 1st-4th years of dental school. It was hoped that they would be able to respond to the students in a more realistic manner than simulated patients. Here, the number of Patient Community members and number who attended Communication Studies classes in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were investigated. The results showed that the number registered in the Patient Community increased annually, as did the number participating in Communication Studies classes, which rose in accordance with the number of classes held. No difference was observed in the number of attendees per Communication Studies class by grade (years 1-4). The number of members never attending Community Studies classes increased annually, although some members repeatedly attended. These findings suggest that the members who regularly participate tend to remain the same. PMID:27665697

  19. Participation of Patient Community Members in Communication Classes for Dental Students at Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoko; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Hirata, SoIchiro; Sugihara, Naoki; Mochizuki, Riuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yuko; Kawada, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched its "Program for Promoting University Education and Student Support, Theme A: Program for Promoting University Education Reform". The ministry's stated aims were to 1) enhance student training centered on the needs of the individual patient; 2) improve their ability to make comprehensive diagnosis and treatment plans; and 3) instill high ethical standards and good communication skills. One of the main pillars of this project was to establish an educational organization aimed at encouraging public participation, the "Patient Community". The aim was to have members of this community roleplay patients in the Communication Studies component of the 1st-4th years of dental school. It was hoped that they would be able to respond to the students in a more realistic manner than simulated patients. Here, the number of Patient Community members and number who attended Communication Studies classes in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were investigated. The results showed that the number registered in the Patient Community increased annually, as did the number participating in Communication Studies classes, which rose in accordance with the number of classes held. No difference was observed in the number of attendees per Communication Studies class by grade (years 1-4). The number of members never attending Community Studies classes increased annually, although some members repeatedly attended. These findings suggest that the members who regularly participate tend to remain the same.

  20. Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries ... full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ...

  1. Adult Community Education: A Model for Regional Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The adult community education (ACE) sector in the state of Victoria provides an example of best practice in regional rural policy in Australia that may serve as a model for other areas of government effort. In 1997, 309,000 Victorians enrolled in adult and community education courses, such as business and technical skills development, literacy and…

  2. Young & ACE: Young Unemployed People and Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    Pilot projects designed to increase the access of young unemployed Australians to adult and community education (ACE) were undertaken in one rural and one metropolitan adult, community and further education region with significant rates of unemployment among individuals aged 15-24 years. Two consortia were selected to conduct the pilot programs,…

  3. Community Schools--Adults and Children: A Cumbrian AAE Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    1977-01-01

    Examines the role of the "community school", particularly in reference to Cumberland County, England. Notes that a greater effort needs to be made to ensure that the adult part of the community is adequately considered and provided for, and that the adult education center should not be regarded as merely an adjunct of the secondary school. (WL)

  4. Creating Adult Learning Communities through School-College Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Holly C.; Brimijoin, Kay; Alouf, James L.; Mayhew, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Given the challenges of time and economics in education today, what are practical models for creating adult learning communities that improve teaching and learning in today's diverse classrooms? How do Americans foster and nurture adult learning communities once they are established? The authors have found that carefully crafted partnerships…

  5. The Adult Community Education Administrator Position. A Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmino, Lucy M.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to explore in depth the adult/community education administrator position as it exists in Florida in order to gain as much information as possible about the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to do the job well. A special focus was on the skills needed by adult/community educators to a greater extent than K-12…

  6. Adult Communication and Teen Sex: Changing a Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Walker, Karen E.; Kotloff, Lauren J.; Pepper, Sarah

    The Plain Talk initiative, developed by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, was designed to increase the amount and quality of communication that parents and community adults provided youth regarding responsible sexual decision making. It offered parents and other community adults information and skills necessary to communicate more effectively with…

  7. An Investigation of Selected Community College Programs for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dib, Elias L.

    The special needs of older adults in relation to community colleges were studied with the intent to (1) identify Southern California community colleges which have a special program for older adults, (2) identify and report the characteristics of selected programs, and (3) delineate the effect of Proposition 13 and under-financing for programs. Of…

  8. Adult Resource Center--A Community/University Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegso, Kathryn A.

    Cooperative planning, based upon a decade of reentry programs for adults, culminated in the establishment of a public service known as the Adult Resource Center at the University of Akron (Ohio). Located in a renovated building between the campus and the downtown community, the Adult Resource Center serves as a liaison with social service…

  9. A Study of Adult Education Opportunities for an Underprivileged Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbury, Harry Douglas

    This study aimed at describing: the forced attachment of two suburban districts and the extension of adult education opportunities to a disadvantaged community, the process and actions involved in establishing the Carver School Adult Education Program, and the attempt to provide educational opportunities for the adults of the Carver School area.…

  10. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  11. Analyzing Members' Motivations to Participate in Role-Playing and Self-Expression Based Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Eun; Saharia, Aditya

    With the rapid growth of computer mediated communication technologies in the last two decades, various types of virtual communities have emerged. Some communities provide a role playing arena, enabled by avatars, while others provide an arena for expressing and promoting detailed personal profiles to enhance their offline social networks. Due to different focus of these virtual communities, different factors motivate members to participate in these communities. In this study, we examine differences in members’ motivations to participate in role-playing versus self-expression based virtual communities. To achieve this goal, we apply the Wang and Fesenmaier (2004) framework, which explains members’ participation in terms of their functional, social, psychological, and hedonic needs. The primary contributions of this study are two folds: First, it demonstrates differences between role-playing and self-expression based communities. Second, it provides a comprehensive framework describing members’ motivation to participate in virtual communities.

  12. A Study of the Antecedents and Consequences of Members' Helping Behaviors in Online Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kuo-Ming

    Despite the growing popularity of online communities, there are a major gap between practitioners and academicians as to how to share information and knowledge among members of these groups. However, none of the previous studies have integrated these variables into a more comprehensive framework. Thus more validations are required the aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical model that enables us to examine the antecedents and consequences effects of members’ helping behavior in online communities. The moderating effects of the sense of community on the relationships between members’ helping behaviors on information sharing and knowledge contribution are also evaluated. A complete model is developed for empirical testing. Using Yahoo’s members as the samples of this study, the empirical results suggested that online communities members’ helping behavior represents a large pool of product know-how. They seem to be a promising source of innovation capabilities for new product development.

  13. Transitioning Adult Education Students into Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Bryce Ralph

    2012-01-01

    At both a national and state level there is a growing need for skilled workers in the labor force. Educating low skilled adults is one way to address this need. Adult education programs teach low skilled adults basic academic skills to prepare them for work and life in U.S. society. Until recently little attention was paid to transitioning…

  14. The Adult Illiterate in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, R. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers is intended to provide adult educators and administrators information that will assist in making decisions about, initiating, financing, and evaluating adult literacy programs in England. Papers in the first part of the book focus on definitions of adult literacy, examining the dimensions of the problem, the potential…

  15. Social Patterns in Mobile Technology Mediated Collaboration among Members of the Professional Distance Education Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laru, Jari; Jarvela, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify social patterns in mobile technology mediated collaboration among distributed members of the professional distance education community. Ten participants worked for 12 weeks designing a master's programme in information sciences. The participants' mobile technology usage activity and interview data were first…

  16. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  17. Attitudes of Pakistani Community Members and Staff toward People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patka, Mazna; Keys, Christopher B.; Henry, David B.; McDonald, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The acceptance and inclusion of persons with intellectual disability can vary across cultures, and understanding attitudes can provide insight into such variation. To our knowledge, no previous study has explored attitudes toward people with intellectual disability among Pakistani community members and disability service providers. We administered…

  18. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  19. With Their Help: How Community Members Construct a Congruent Third Space in an Urban Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie F.

    2013-01-01

    Through the use of narrative enquiry, this paper tells the story of how a kindergarten teacher in an all-girls' school incorporates family and community members' involvement to the construction of the congruent Third Space present in the classroom, and the ways the girls respond to this involvement, thereby providing a successful model…

  20. Community Member and Stakeholder Perspectives on a Healthy Environment Initiative in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Lowe-Wilson, Abby; Mouw, Mary Sherwyn; Jeon, Janet Yewon; Baber, Ceola Ross; Vu, Maihan B.; Bethell, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The North Carolina Community Transformation Grant Project (NC-CTG) aimed to implement policy, system, and environmental strategies to promote healthy eating, active living, tobacco-free living, and clinical and community preventive services to advance health equity and reduce health disparities for the state’s most vulnerable communities. This article presents findings from the Health Equity Collaborative Evaluation and Implementation Project, which assessed community and stakeholder perceptions of health equity for 3 NC-CTG strategies: farmers markets, shared use, and smoke-free multiunit housing. Methods In a triangulated qualitative evaluation, 6 photo elicitation (PE) sessions among 45 community members in 1 urban and 3 rural counties and key informant interviews among 22 stakeholders were conducted. Nine participants from the PE sessions and key informant interviews in the urban county subsequently participated in a stakeholder power analysis and mapping session (SPA) to discuss and identify people and organizations in their community perceived to be influential in addressing health equity–related issues. Results Evaluations of the PE sessions and key informant interviews indicated that access (convenience, cost, safety, and awareness of products and services) and community fit (community-defined quality, safety, values, and norms) were important constructs across the strategies. The SPA identified specific community- and faith-based organizations, health care organizations, and local government agencies as key stakeholders for future efforts. Conclusions Both community fit and access are essential constructs for promoting health equity. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of and need for formative research that engages community members and local stakeholders to shape context-specific, culturally relevant health promotion strategies. PMID:26270741

  1. [Participatory Quality Development: Engaging Community Members in All Phases of Project Planning and Implementation].

    PubMed

    Wright, M T; Kilian, H; Block, M; von Unger, H; Brandes, S; Ziesemer, M; Gold, C; Rosenbrock, R

    2015-09-01

    Community participation, recognised as a central feature of successful health promotion and prevention, is often difficult to implement. In this research project internationally recognised methods of participatory health research were applied to demonstrate ways in which community members can be engaged. Participatory health research is characterised by a close collaboration between academic researchers, practitioners and community members in order to generate common knowledge. It is not a question of translating knowledge from research into practice, but rather a question of promoting a collective learning process on the part of all participants for the purpose of developing solutions which address the interests and needs of local people. The result of the project is a new approach for strengthening the quality of prevention and health promotion interventions: participatory quality development (PQD).

  2. Use of and interest in alternative therapies among adult primary care clinicians and adult members in a large health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N P; Sobel, D S; Tarazona, E Z

    1998-09-01

    During spring 1996, random samples of adult primary care physicians, obstetrics-gynecology physicians and nurse practitioners, and adult members of a large northern California group practice model health maintenance organization (HMO) were surveyed by mail to assess the use of alternative therapies and the extent of interest in having them incorporated into HMO-delivered care. Sixty-one percent (n = 624) of adult primary care physicians, 70% (n = 157) of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians, and 50% (2 surveys, n = 1,507 and n = 17,735) of adult HMO members responded. During the previous 12 months, 25% of adults reported using and nearly 90% of adult primary care physicians and obstetrics-gynecology clinicians reported recommending at least 1 alternative therapy, primarily for pain management. Chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, and behavioral medicine techniques such as meditation and relaxation training were most often cited. Obstetrics-gynecology clinicians used herbal and homeopathic medicines more often than adult primary care physicians, primarily for menopause and premenstrual syndrome. Two thirds of adult primary care physicians and three fourths of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians were at least moderately interested in using alternative therapies with patients, and nearly 70% of young and middle-aged adult and half of senior adult members were interested in having alternative therapies incorporated into their health care. Adult primary care physicians and members were more interested in having the HMO cover manipulative and behavioral medicine therapies than homeopathic or herbal medicines.

  3. Adult Learning in Community: Themes and Threads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.; Imel, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes theme articles on learning communities: place is important, learning content is situated in daily life; knowledge is locally produced; and learning communities may be power structures. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  4. Faculty Members' Perceptions of Rigor in Dual Enrollment, Accelerated Programs, and Standard Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Colin; Baker, Pete; Burnett, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a study that investigated faculty members' views on the level of academic rigor in three settings at one community college: dual enrollment, accelerated programs, and standard community college courses.

  5. Religious Coping Among Adults Caring for Family Members with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Michelle J; Medoff, Deborah; Lawrence, Ryan E; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of religious coping strategies among family members of adults with serious mental illness. A sample of 436 individuals caring for a family member with serious mental illness were recruited into a randomized clinical trial for the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family to Family Education Program. Relationships are reported between religious coping and caregiving, care recipient, and mental health services outcomes. Religious coping was associated with more objective caregiving burden, greater care recipient need, less mental health knowledge, and less receipt of mental health services after adjusting for non-religious types of coping. At the same time, religious coping was associated with a positive caregiving experience and greater religious support. Religious coping plays an important role for many caregivers of persons with serious mental illness. Caregivers who use more religious coping may have an especially high need for mental health education and mental health services.

  6. Expression of Hepatoma-derived growth factor family members in the adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahir, Heba M; Dietz, Frank; Dringen, Ralf; Schwabe, Kerstin; Strenge, Karen; Kelm, Sørge; Abouzied, Mekky M; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Franken, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Background Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1–4 (HRP-1 to -4) and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. Results HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be expressed by neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, strong expression of HRP-3 in the adult nervous system is restricted to neurons, except for very weak expression in oligodendrocytes in the brain stem. Although the majority of neurons are HRP-3 positive, some like cerebellar granule cells are negative. Conclusion The coexpression of HDGF and HRP-2 in glia and neurons as well as the coexpression of all three proteins in many neurons suggests different functions of members of the HDGF protein family in cells of the central nervous system that might include proliferation as well as cell survival. In addition the restricted expression of HRP-3 point to a special function of this family member for neuronal cells. PMID:16430771

  7. Building a Co-Created Citizen Science Program with Community Members Neighboring a Hazardous Waste Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A research project that is only expert-driven may ignore the role of local knowledge in research, often gives low priority to the development of a comprehensive strategy to engage the community, and may not deliver the results of the study to the community in an effective way. To date, only a limited number of co-created citizen science projects, where community members are involved in most or all steps of the scientific process, have been initiated at contaminated sites and even less in conjunction with risk communication. Gardenroots: The Dewey-Humboldt AZ Garden Project was a place-based, co-created citizen science project where community members and researchers together: defined the question for study, developed hypotheses, collected environmental samples, disseminated results broadly, translated the results into action, and posed new research questions. This co-created environmental research project produced new data and addressed an additional exposure route (consumption of vegetables grown in soils with elevated arsenic levels) that was not being evaluated in the current site assessment. Furthermore, co-producing science led to both individual learning and social-ecological outcomes. This approach illustrates the benefits of a co-created citizen-science program in addressing the complex problems that arise in communities neighboring a hazardous waste sites. Such a project increased the community's involvement in regional environmental assessment and decision-making, which has the potential to help mitigate environmental exposures and thereby reduce associated risks.

  8. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  9. Adult Student Identity in an Intergenerational Community College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol

    2005-01-01

    What is the nature of an adult student identity? Based in social constructivist theory, this study explored coconstructed understandings of culturally and socially mediated student identities through a select group of adult undergraduates in intergenerational community college classroom contexts. Key findings elaborated the coconstruction of two…

  10. Students, Parents and Community Members as Partners in Strategic School-Community Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blick, Charles (Buzz)

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the question of who should be involved in strategic decisions that affect a school, a cluster of schools, or an entire school district. It discusses the common problems that hamper effective participation: such as workgroups that are too large or too small; selecting the same roster of persons to serve as team members; choosing…

  11. Recruitment of Members from the Rare Biosphere of Marine Bacterioplankton Communities after an Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Sjöstedt, Johanna; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Tunlid, Anders; Lundberg, Per; Hagström, Åke

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial community may be resistant to environmental disturbances if some of its species show metabolic flexibility and physiological tolerance to the changing conditions. Alternatively, disturbances can change the composition of the community and thereby potentially affect ecosystem processes. The impact of disturbance on the composition of bacterioplankton communities was examined in continuous seawater cultures. Bacterial assemblages from geographically closely connected areas, the Baltic Sea (salinity 7 and high dissolved organic carbon [DOC]) and Skagerrak (salinity 28 and low DOC), were exposed to gradual opposing changes in salinity and DOC over a 3-week period such that the Baltic community was exposed to Skagerrak salinity and DOC and vice versa. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone libraries of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the transplanted communities differed significantly from those held at constant salinity. Despite this, the growth yields (number of cells ml−1) were similar, which suggests similar levels of substrate utilization. Deep 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the disturbed communities had changed due to the recruitment of phylotypes present in the rare biosphere of the original community. The study shows that members of the rare biosphere can become abundant in a bacterioplankton community after disturbance and that those bacteria can have important roles in maintaining ecosystem processes. PMID:22194288

  12. Functional Communication in Adult Education: A Learning Community Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ken W.

    Functional communication emphasizes the uses that communication serves in everyday interaction and places particular importance on the context in which the functions are performed. A practical means for integrating functional communication instruction into adult education environments is the learning community method. Learning community students…

  13. Youth-Adult Partnerships: A Powerful Force for Community Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Shuan

    2004-01-01

    Shuan Butcher is director of the Center for Youth as Resources in Washington, DC, a national organization that connects youth to their communities through local Youth as Resources (YAR) programs, which engage youth as problem solvers, partners, and stakeholders in positive community change. In YAR, young people and adults work together as equal…

  14. Theme with Variations: Social Policy, Community Care and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)

  15. Building partnerships to continue older adults' residence in the community.

    PubMed

    Beeber, Anna Song

    2008-01-01

    Current care of older adults focuses on maintenance of independence and frames assessment and decision making about when to intervene. This conceptualization focuses on older adults' deficits and how to compensate for loss of function. Instead of considering independence to continue community residence, an alternative-interdependence-provides a conceptualization that focuses on older adults in the family context and on supportive services, which are the main components of community residence. This article presents the concept of interdependence by analyzing the current research, practice, and policy literature. The article concludes with a discussion of the application of interdependence in gerontological nursing practice and research.

  16. Sociology Faculty Members Employed Part-Time in Community Colleges: Structural Disadvantage, Cultural Devaluation, and Faculty-Student Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.; Mahabir, Cynthia; Vitullo, Margaret Weigers

    2016-01-01

    The large majority of faculty members teaching in community colleges are employed on a part-time basis, yet little is known about their working conditions and professional engagement. This article uses data from a recent national survey of faculty members teaching sociology in community colleges to provide this information, with particular…

  17. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities.

  18. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nyantekyi, Liza; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Tadesse, Konjit; Macias, Chanda; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years. Conclusions Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area. PMID:25183071

  19. Engaging Black Learners in Adult and Community Education. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lenford

    This guide explains how adult and community education (ACE) providers across Great Britain can engage black learners in ACE by making their learning programs relevant, challenging, and appropriate to adult learners from black and minority groups. The following topics are discussed: (1) the importance of engaging black and minority learners in ACE;…

  20. Responses towards a dying adult group member in a wild New World monkey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Keasey, Matthew Philip; Schiel, Nicola; da Silva Souto, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Compassionate caretaking behaviour towards dying adult group members has been reported as being unique to humans and chimpanzees. Here we describe in detail the reaction of a wild dominant male common marmoset, a neotropical primate, to the accidental death of the dominant female of its group. The male exhibited behaviours towards the dying female that resembled those of chimpanzees and humans. The long-term relationship between the dominant pair (which lasted at least 3.5 years) and their social status in the group may have contributed to the male's behavioural response. The male prevented young individuals from approaching the dying female, behaviour previously observed in chimpanzees. The data provide an interesting insight into compassionate caretaking behaviours in New World primates as well as the pair-bond systems of common marmosets. These are rare observations, and thus their detailed descriptions are essential if we are to create a comparative and enhanced understanding of human and nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:24566801

  1. Responses towards a dying adult group member in a wild New World monkey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Keasey, Matthew Philip; Schiel, Nicola; da Silva Souto, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Compassionate caretaking behaviour towards dying adult group members has been reported as being unique to humans and chimpanzees. Here we describe in detail the reaction of a wild dominant male common marmoset, a neotropical primate, to the accidental death of the dominant female of its group. The male exhibited behaviours towards the dying female that resembled those of chimpanzees and humans. The long-term relationship between the dominant pair (which lasted at least 3.5 years) and their social status in the group may have contributed to the male's behavioural response. The male prevented young individuals from approaching the dying female, behaviour previously observed in chimpanzees. The data provide an interesting insight into compassionate caretaking behaviours in New World primates as well as the pair-bond systems of common marmosets. These are rare observations, and thus their detailed descriptions are essential if we are to create a comparative and enhanced understanding of human and nonhuman primate thanatology.

  2. Local Knowledge and Adult Learning in Environmental Adult Education: Community-Based Ecotourism in Southern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…

  3. Birth preparedness and complication readiness – a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B.; Kayombo, Edmund; Mbekenga, Columba; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. Design A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. Conclusions This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via community health workers

  4. Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

  5. Most of the Dominant Members of Amphibian Skin Bacterial Communities Can Be Readily Cultured.

    PubMed

    Walke, Jenifer B; Becker, Matthew H; Hughey, Myra C; Swartwout, Meredith C; Jensen, Roderick V; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-10-01

    Currently, it is estimated that only 0.001% to 15% of bacteria in any given system can be cultured by use of commonly used techniques and media, yet culturing is critically important for investigations of bacterial function. Despite this situation, few studies have attempted to link culture-dependent and culture-independent data for a single system to better understand which members of the microbial community are readily cultured. In amphibians, some cutaneous bacterial symbionts can inhibit establishment and growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and thus there is great interest in using these symbionts as probiotics for the conservation of amphibians threatened by B. dendrobatidis. The present study examined the portion of the culture-independent bacterial community (based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) that was cultured with R2A low-nutrient agar and whether the cultured bacteria represented rare or dominant members of the community in the following four amphibian species: bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus). To determine which percentage of the community was cultured, we clustered Illumina sequences at 97% similarity, using the culture sequences as a reference database. For each amphibian species, we cultured, on average, 0.59% to 1.12% of each individual's bacterial community. However, the average percentage of bacteria that were culturable for each amphibian species was higher, with averages ranging from 2.81% to 7.47%. Furthermore, most of the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), families, and phyla were represented in our cultures. These results open up new research avenues for understanding the functional roles of these dominant bacteria in host health. PMID:26162880

  6. Most of the Dominant Members of Amphibian Skin Bacterial Communities Can Be Readily Cultured

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Matthew H.; Hughey, Myra C.; Swartwout, Meredith C.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Belden, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, it is estimated that only 0.001% to 15% of bacteria in any given system can be cultured by use of commonly used techniques and media, yet culturing is critically important for investigations of bacterial function. Despite this situation, few studies have attempted to link culture-dependent and culture-independent data for a single system to better understand which members of the microbial community are readily cultured. In amphibians, some cutaneous bacterial symbionts can inhibit establishment and growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and thus there is great interest in using these symbionts as probiotics for the conservation of amphibians threatened by B. dendrobatidis. The present study examined the portion of the culture-independent bacterial community (based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) that was cultured with R2A low-nutrient agar and whether the cultured bacteria represented rare or dominant members of the community in the following four amphibian species: bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus). To determine which percentage of the community was cultured, we clustered Illumina sequences at 97% similarity, using the culture sequences as a reference database. For each amphibian species, we cultured, on average, 0.59% to 1.12% of each individual's bacterial community. However, the average percentage of bacteria that were culturable for each amphibian species was higher, with averages ranging from 2.81% to 7.47%. Furthermore, most of the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), families, and phyla were represented in our cultures. These results open up new research avenues for understanding the functional roles of these dominant bacteria in host health. PMID:26162880

  7. Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Colucci, Erminia; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient

  8. Ascomycota Members Dominate Fungal Communities during Straw Residue Decomposition in Arable Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested. PMID:23840414

  9. The effects of leadership and governance processes on member participation in community health coalitions.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Maureen E; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Weiner, Bryan J

    2005-08-01

    This study examines the effects of coalition leadership and governance on member participation in voluntary community health coalitions. Path modeling was used to explore how leadership and governance processes in coalitions affect existing member costs, benefits, and levels of participation. It was hypothesized that the effects of coalition decision making and leadership variables would be indirect by working through their effects on participants' perceived influence over coalition decision making and on overall consensus around the coalition vision. Results of the analysis indicate that open and collaborative decision making and empowering leadership do have indirect, positive effects on the level of participation by way of vision consensus and participation benefits. Participation costs, however, show no significant direct effect on the level of participation. Perceived personal influence appears to be primarily an outcome of participation rather than an antecedent.

  10. Engagement in Retirement: An Evaluation of the Effect of Active Mentoring on Engagement of Older Adults with Intellectual Disability in Mainstream Community Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, J. P. L.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Wilson, N. J.; Anderson, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As adults with intellectual disability age, retirement options need to be explored. One option is to attend a mainstream community group for retirees. Support within these groups could come from group members who are trained to act as mentors for the older adults with intellectual disability. This research evaluated a support training…

  11. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Lois A.

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which influence their contributions to America's science literacy and school science education. This emergent design nested case study described how an innovative program provided professional development and enabled growth in participants' abilities to contribute to science literacy. Data were collected through interviews, participant observations, and class artifacts. The program by design and constituency was the overarching entity that accounted for members' experiences. Three principal aspects of the ISI certificate program and cohort which influenced perceptions and reported positive outcomes were (1) the cohort's composition and their collaborative activities which established a vigorous community of practice and fostered community building, mentoring, and networking, (2) long term program design and implementation which promoted experiential learning in a generative classroom, and (3) ability of some members who were able to be independent or autonomous learners to embrace science education reform strategies for greater self-efficacy and career advancement. This research extends the limited literature base for professional development of informal science educators and may benefit informal science institutions, informal and formal science educators, science education reform efforts, and public education and science-technology-society understanding. The study may raise awareness of the need to establish more professional development opportunities for ISEs and to fund professional development. Further, recognizing and appreciating informal science educators as a diverse committed community of professionals who positively

  12. PARCS: A Safety Net Community-Based Fitness Center for Low-Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole; de Groot, Mary; Mi, Deming; Alexander, Kisha; Kaiser, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and fitness are critical to maintaining health and avoiding chronic disease. Limited access to fitness facilities in low-income urban areas has been identified as a contributor to low PA participation and poor fitness. Objectives This research describes community-based fitness centers established for adults living in low-income, urban communities and characterizes a sample of its members. Methods The community identified a need for physical fitness opportunities to improve residents’ health. Three community high schools were host sites. Resources were combined to renovate and staff facilities, acquire equipment, and refer patients to exercise. The study sample included 170 members ≥ age 18yr who completed demographic, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life surveys and a fitness evaluation. Neighborhood-level U.S. Census data were obtained for comparison. Results The community-based fitness centers resulted from university, public school, and hospital partnerships offering safe, accessible, and affordable exercise opportunities. The study sample mean BMI was 35 ± 7.6 (Class II obesity), mean age was 50yr ± 12.5, 66% were black, 72% were female, 66% completed some college or greater, and 71% had an annual household income < $25K and supported 2.2 dependents. Participants had moderate confidence for exercise participation and low fitness levels. When compared to census data, participants were representative of their communities. Conclusion This observational study reveals a need for affordable fitness centers for low-income adults. We demonstrate a model where communities and organizations strategically leverage resources to address disparities in physical fitness and health. PMID:27346764

  13. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country. PMID:16163422

  14. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country.

  15. A Living Spiral of Understanding: Community-Based Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueva, Melany

    2010-01-01

    What does it mean to provide community-based health education that respects adults of diverse cultures and ways of being in the world? How does one nurture meaningful learning opportunities that awaken possibilities as a catalyst for understanding, conversation, and action? In this article, nurturing place, sharing power, heart listening, talking…

  16. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  17. Adult Outcomes in Autism: Community Inclusion and Living Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kylie M.; Keating, Caroline M.; Taffe, John R.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Reardon, Tessa C.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and…

  18. Motivators of Adult Women Enrolled in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Connie Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe what motivates adult women enrolled in a community college to pursue higher education. Utilizing profile analysis and multiple regression analyses, this study investigated the extent to which gender, English as a first language, and age predicted the seven factors of the Education Participation Scale (A-form)…

  19. Youth-Adult Partnership: Impacting Individuals and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Petrokubi, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Youth-adult partnership (Y-AP) in community decision making and collective action has gained momentum as a key element of prevention programming. There is now a solid body of evidence demonstrating that these partnerships have developmental benefits for youth. There is also an increasing awareness that Y-AP may also produce positive…

  20. Evaluating Adult Literacy Programs at the Community Provider Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseman, John; Sutton, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Details the design and implementation of a rolling review process for community-based adult literacy programs. Describes four steps: documentation to become "review ready," collection of feedback from participants and key informants, site visit by reviewers, and use of the evaluation report as a planning tool. (SK)

  1. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…

  2. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  3. Services for Learning Disabled Adults in California's Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostertag, Bruce A.; And Others

    During the 1980's, a series of studies have been conducted to examine assessment strategies, teaching methodologies, core services, and delivery systems for Learning Disabled Average (LDA) adults in California's community colleges. Study findings included the following: (1) between 1981-82 and 1985-86, the number of formal programs for LDA adults…

  4. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  5. Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

    This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

  6. A Community Based Study of Adult Literacy in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Yevonne S.; And Others

    A North Carolina study examined the problem of adult illiteracy in Spring 1988. Secondary data for the service areas of eight community colleges chosen as study sites indicated that approximately 25 percent of North Carolinans aged 25 years and older had completed less than the ninth grade in 1980 and the majority of them were unemployed. A review…

  7. Outcomes and Pathways in Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    A project examined the outcomes and pathways of 1992 participants in adult and community education (ACE) courses in Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia. It explored participant characteristics, vocational skills gained from completing ACE courses, educational and employment outcomes, and personal benefits and benefits to families and…

  8. Community Based Learning with Adults: Bridging Efforts in Multiple Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara; Robinson, Gail

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the diverse ways in which community based learning strategies are used to enhance further development of adults, raising their levels of educational attainment and increasing their involvement in public and civic activities. There are two social and demographic dynamics at the heart of this topic: the aging…

  9. 7 CFR 7.9 - Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of community committee members, delegates to local administrative area and county conventions, and county committee members. 7.9 Section 7.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  10. How Community College Adjunct Faculty Members Teaching Communications Courses Understand Diversity as It Relates to Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rediger, James N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Midwestern Community College (MCC) communication adjunct faculty members' descriptions of techniques used to prepare for a diverse student population. This research was conducted in order to gain a better understanding of how adjunct faculty members teaching communications courses at MCC understood…

  11. Worry in older community-residing adults.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n = 310). Findings showed that that those people under 75 years of age had a higher risk of worrying (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1) compared to the older age groups. Women worried more than men and an important finding was that those with chronic health conditions such as arthritis of the hip and knee were more prone to worry than those who were healthy or had acute conditions (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.9). This latter finding suggests the importance placed on the role of the hip and knee in maintaining functional capacity to perform life skills. PMID:21977675

  12. Flint Photovoice: community building among youths, adults, and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline C; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Hutchison, Peter M; Bell, Lee; Pestronk, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Flint Photovoice represents the work of 41 youths and adults recruited to use a participatory-action research approach to photographically document community assets and concerns, critically discuss the resulting images, and communicate with policymakers. At the suggestion of grassroots community leaders, we included policymakers among those asked to take photographs. In accordance with previously established photovoice methodology, we also recruited at the project's outset another group of policymakers and community leaders to provide political will and support for implementing photovoice participants' policy and program recommendations. Flint Photovoice enabled youths to express their concerns about neighborhood violence to policymakers and was instrumental in acquiring funding for local violence prevention. We note salutary outcomes produced by the inclusion of policymakers among adults who took photographs.

  13. Flint Photovoice: Community Building Among Youths, Adults, and Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline C.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Hutchison, Peter M.; Bell, Lee; Pestronk, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Flint Photovoice represents the work of 41 youths and adults recruited to use a participatory-action research approach to photographically document community assets and concerns, critically discuss the resulting images, and communicate with policymakers. At the suggestion of grassroots community leaders, we included policymakers among those asked to take photographs. In accordance with previously established photovoice methodology, we also recruited at the project’s outset another group of policymakers and community leaders to provide political will and support for implementing photovoice participants’ policy and program recommendations. Flint Photovoice enabled youths to express their concerns about neighborhood violence to policymakers and was instrumental in acquiring funding for local violence prevention. We note salutary outcomes produced by the inclusion of policymakers among adults who took photographs. PMID:15249287

  14. Integrating Assessment and Evaluation Into Partnership Initiatives: Lessons From the Community Partnerships for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Giunta, Nancy; Thomas, M Lori

    2015-08-01

    Communities nationwide have formed cross-sector partnerships to face the needs of an aging population, particularly for the purpose of improving long-term supportive service systems. Research is limited on how evaluation strategies are incorporated into partnership work, especially in the field of aging. This retrospective qualitative study reviewed administrative and key informant interview data to examine how 15 community partnerships (CPs) within the Community Partnerships for Older Adults (CPFOA) national program incorporated evaluation into their work. The four overarching lessons drawn from our inquiry suggest that effective CPs: (a) incorporate both formative and summative methods into evaluation, (b) use and develop the knowledge and skills of its members, (c) support flexible and creative evaluation methods and strategies, and (d) use internal and external resources to support evaluation efforts, particularly with nontraditional partners. There is a need for continued research to capture the methodological complexity of partnership evaluation.

  15. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chi, Iris; Xu, Ling

    2013-06-01

    Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  16. Could Integrating Development Education into Adult and Community Education Create More Space for Critical Adult and Community Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    From 2008-2009 the author was commissioned by AONTAS in partnership with Irish Aid to carry out a piece of research which aimed to examine how there could be a strategic focus on the integration of development education, or incorporating a global dimension to learning, into adult and community education in Ireland. It also examined whether or not…

  17. [Severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Arancibia H, Francisco; Díaz P, Orlando

    2005-01-01

    Patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) need continuous surveillance and monitoring at intensive care units (ICU), where they can receive specialized support as mechanical ventilation and/or hemodynamic support. Patients that require ICU admittance represent 10 to 30% of all patients interned because a pneumonia. In this category, high complication rate, prolonged hospital stay and high mortality rate are the rule. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for severe pneumonia establishes the following main criteria: necessity of mechanical ventilation and presence of septic shock; minor criteria: systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, radiological multilobar involvement and PaO2/FiO2 < 250 mmHg. British Thoracic Society (BTS) criteria for severe CAP are: respiratory rate over 30 breaths/min, diastolic blood pressure under 60 mmHg, BUN > 20 mg/dl and mental confusion. In all patients with CAP it is recommended the evaluation of its severity at admission. This evaluation should be done in conjunction with an experienced physician, and if criteria for poor prognosis are met, an early admission to ICU is recommended. ATS and BTS modified criteria (CURB) are useful in this procedure. In severely ill patients with CAP it is recommended to perform the following microbiological analysis: sputum Gram stain and culture, blood culture, pleural fluid Gram stain and culture, if present and tapped, Legionella pneumophila urine antigen test, influenza A and B antigen detection tests (epidemic period: autumn and winter), and serology for atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae).

  18. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings.

  19. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings. PMID:25520209

  20. Development of CRIS: measure of community reintegration of injured service members.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Plow, Matthew; Jette, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Identification and prevention of community reintegration problems of veterans is an important public health mandate. However, no veteran-specific measure exists. Study purposes were to (1) develop the Community Reintegration for Service Members (CRIS) measure and (2) test the validity and reliability of the measure. Formative research identified challenges in community reintegration postdeployment. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health participation domain guided item-bank development. Items were refined through cognitive interviews and clinician consultation. Pilot studies with 126 veterans examined unidimensionality, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity. Three unidimensional CRIS scales were developed. Working subjects had better CRIS scores then unemployed subjects. Subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, or mental health problems had worse scores than subjects without these conditions. The correlations between the CRIS and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scales of role physical, role emotional, and social functioning were 0.44-0.80. CRIS has strong reliability, conceptual integrity, and construct validity.

  1. Community-dwelling older adults with memory loss

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Karen; Surprenant, Aimee; Tracey, Anne-Marie; Godwin, Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the health-related needs of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Setting A large community in Newfoundland. Participants Twenty-two adults between the ages of 58 and 80 years. Methods This needs assessment used a qualitative methodology of collecting and analyzing narrative data to develop an understanding of the issues, resources, and constraints of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Data were collected through semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenologic analysis. Main findings Three constitutive patterns with relational themes and subthemes were identified: forgetting and remembering, normalizing yet questioning, and having limited knowledge of resources. Participants described many examples of how their daily lives were affected by forgetfulness. They had very little knowledge of resources that provided information or support. Most of the participants believed they could not discuss their memory problems with their family doctors. Conclusion It is important for older adults with mild memory loss to have access to resources that will assist them in understanding their condition and make them feel supported. PMID:23486801

  2. Where It's at! The Role of Best Friends and Peer Group Members in Young Adults' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Bot, Sander M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Sentse, Miranda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger

    2011-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that best friends and members from a broader peer group would not differ in the amount of influence they have on young adults' alcohol consumption and that what counts would be the mere presence of drinking peers in a given context--irrespective of the type of relationship such peers would have with the target young…

  3. "Role Models Can't Just Be on Posters": Re/membering Barriers to Indigenous Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Brooke; Higgins, Marc; Korteweg, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Current Canadian scholarly literature, education policy, and curricular documents encourage the participation of Indigenous community members as a key component of Indigenous Education reform. Guided by sharing circles conducted with Indigenous Elders, families, teachers, and support workers, we present community voices and experiences of…

  4. What Are Fair Study Benefits in International Health Research? Consulting Community Members in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njue, Maureen; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Background Planning study benefits and payments for participants in international health research in low- income settings can be a difficult and controversial process, with particular challenges in balancing risks of undue inducement and exploitation and understanding how researchers should take account of background inequities. At an international health research programme in Kenya, this study aimed to map local residents' informed and reasoned views on the effects of different levels of study benefits and payments to inform local policy and wider debates in international research. Methods and Findings Using a relatively novel two-stage process community consultation approach, five participatory workshops involving 90 local residents from diverse constituencies were followed by 15 small group discussions, with components of information-sharing, deliberation and reflection to situate normative reasoning within debates. Framework Analysis drew inductively and deductively on voice- recorded discussions and field notes supported by Nvivo 10 software, and the international research ethics literature. Community members' views on study benefits and payments were diverse, with complex contextual influences and interplay between risks of giving ‘too many’ and ‘too few’ benefits, including the role of cash. While recognising important risks for free choice, research relationships and community values in giving ‘too many’, the greatest concerns were risks of unfairness in giving ‘too few’ benefits, given difficulties in assessing indirect costs of participation and the serious consequences for families of underestimation, related to perceptions of researchers' responsibilities. Conclusions Providing benefits and payments to participants in international research in low-income settings is an essential means by which researchers meet individual-level and structural forms of ethical responsibilities, but understanding how this can be achieved requires a careful

  5. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  6. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings

    PubMed Central

    Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3–3.7], 4.6 [3.6–5.8], and 5.8 [4.4–7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7–4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6–2.6], 4.0 [3.1–5.1], 4.1 [3.0–5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents. PMID:27711150

  7. Perceptions of African-American Health Professionals and Community Members on Participation of Children and Pregnant Women in Genetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Emmanuel M.; Warner, Teddy D.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2014-01-01

    Background As genetic research gains more prominence in society, ethical concerns and the need for safeguards in the participation of children and pregnant women have increased. This study examined the perspectives of African-American health professional and community members on genetic research involving children and pregnant women. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to collect and analyze survey data and qualitative data from focus groups of community members and structured interviews of health professionals. Results We found that community members had significantly more favorable attitudes toward participation of children and pregnant women in genetic research than health professionals. Health professionals did not differ significantly from community members in their perceived understanding of genetic research. Emergent themes included limited knowledge of genetic research and distinction of biomedical research and clinical care, ethical concerns about confidentiality, and potential harm and the need to protect children and pregnant women. Participants expressed high interest and favorable attitude towards genetic research, despite limited genetic knowledge and concerns of potential harm to children and pregnant women. Some participants felt that genetic research findings could help dispel stigma and reduce discrimination, especially in mental illness. Conclusion Findings suggest that the recruitment of participants into genetic research should directly address privacy and benefit concerns, and limited knowledge of physical and mental illness genetic research. There is a critical need to invest and engage racial/ethnic communities early, provide education on genetics, mental illness, and translate and share research findings with these communities. PMID:24216722

  8. Internet Gambling Among Community Adults and University Students in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high availability of offline gambling in Macao, China, Internet gambling may remain attractive to many gamblers due to its anonymity and convenience. Given the scarcity of relevant research, this study aims to not only investigate the public attitude and prevalence of Internet gambling but also identify the demographic and psychological characteristics of Internet gamblers in Macao. We recruited 952 community adults with the random residential number dialing method and 427 university students through convenience sampling. Only 5.4% of the community adult respondents preferred online gambling compared to offline gambling, and the past-year prevalence of online gambling was about 1%. As hypothesized, Internet gambling was found to be positively associated with pathological gambling in both community and student samples. It was also associated with casino employment across samples. Moreover, we found that male gender, casino employment, materialism, and life dissatisfaction were significant risk factors of pathological gambling among Chinese gamblers. The findings provide insights on future designs of preventive measures and research direction for Internet gambling and pathological gambling in Chinese communities.

  9. Adult outcomes in autism: community inclusion and living skills.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kylie M; Keating, Caroline M; Taffe, John R; Brereton, Avril V; Einfeld, Stewart L; Reardon, Tessa C; Tonge, Bruce J

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood. Social outcomes in relation to community inclusion and living skills were examined, including the predictive role of a range of individual factors and the environment (socio-economic disadvantage). Overall, the degree of community inclusion and living skills was restricted for the majority, and while childhood IQ was an important determinant of these outcomes, it was not the sole predictor. The implications of these findings in relation to interventions are discussed.

  10. Perceptions of Community College Adult Basic Education Faculty regarding Faculty Professional Development in Alabama Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty professional development is an integral part of the overall mission of the Adult Basic Education programs that are operated under the auspices of the Alabama Community College System. Since their realignment within the ACCS in 2004, there has been a continual process underway to increase professional development activities at both the…

  11. Causes of schizophrenia reported by urban African American lay community members.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Esterberg, Michelle L; Broussard, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Although mental health professionals' "etiologic beliefs" concerning schizophrenia have evolved in accordance with diathesis-stress and neurodevelopmental models, little is known about etiologic attributions in nonclinical general population samples in the United States. Yet, course and outcome for people with the illness may be indirectly influenced by beliefs about causes in the larger community. Because of very limited research in this area, especially among African Americans in particular, this descriptive study investigated the causes of schizophrenia reported by 127 urban African Americans from the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly reported causes of schizophrenia, as well as the frequency of endorsing items from a list of 30 factors, some of which are congruent with current psychiatric conceptualizations of schizophrenia, whereas others are not. Results of this report complement previously reported findings from the same setting involving family members of patients with schizophrenia [Esterberg ML, Compton MT. Causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of urban African American hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:221-226]. The 5 most commonly reported causes were disturbance of brain biochemistry (49.6%), drug/alcohol abuse (42.5%), hereditary factors (40.9%), brain injury (40.2%), and avoidance of problems in life (37.8%). The mean number of likely or very likely causes endorsed by participants was 7.5 +/- 5.7. Some 47.9% reported one or more esoteric factors as a cause. Of the 6 esoteric factors, possession by evil spirits (28.3%), radiation (20.2%), and punishment by God (19.7%) were most common. Esoteric causes were more commonly chosen by male participants, those with 12 years of education or less, and participants who reported never having known someone with schizophrenia. Future research should seek to better understand how esoteric beliefs about causation affect attitudes

  12. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment may benefit, not harm, young adult staff members.

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S; Earleywine, M

    2015-08-01

    Despite the success of weight-management programmes, some researchers caution that participation in an aggressive approach to weight management could promote the development of eating pathology. The current study evaluated the risks and benefits for young adults of serving as staff members in an immersion treatment of adolescent obesity over the course of a summer. Participants included weight loss staff members (n = 108) along with a comparison group of young adults with similar demographic characteristics (n = 136). Participants completed assessments of eating disorder and obesity risk at three time points: the beginning of the summer, the end of the summer and a 6-week follow-up. Weight loss leadership participants who were initially overweight lost weight over the course of the summer, but those at healthy weights maintained their weight. Comparison participants also maintained their weight during the summer. Weight loss staff members also increased dietary restraint over the summer, and increases in dietary restraint appeared to facilitate appropriate weight reduction. Participation as a leader in an immersion weight loss programme seemed to benefit, not harm, young adults; this suggests potential advantages for using weight controlling interventions in a wide range of individuals, including as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:26129749

  13. Partnering with libraries to promote walking among community-dwelling adults: a Kingston gets active pilot pedometer-lending project.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Holly H; Faloon, Kathryn J; Lévesque, Lucie; McDonald, Deanna

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not walk enough to obtain health benefits. Pedometers have been successfully utilized to motivate and increase walking. Given that libraries are a place where community members seek health resources, they are a logical setting for increasing community accessibility to pedometers. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of lending pedometers to library patrons to increase walking. In five Canadian public libraries, 90 pedometers were made available for 6 months. A total of 41 library patrons (33 women, 8 men, age range 18 to 65 or older) completed a survey about their walking patterns and pedometer use. More than 330 loans were made. Chisquare analysis found significant associations between walking and motivation to walk more (p < .05), walking and goal setting (p < .05), and motivation to walk more and setting a walking goal (p < .001). Results provide preliminary evidence that lending pedometers through local libraries is an effective, low-cost approach to enhance walking in community members.

  14. Partnering with libraries to promote walking among community-dwelling adults: a Kingston gets active pilot pedometer-lending project.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Holly H; Faloon, Kathryn J; Lévesque, Lucie; McDonald, Deanna

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not walk enough to obtain health benefits. Pedometers have been successfully utilized to motivate and increase walking. Given that libraries are a place where community members seek health resources, they are a logical setting for increasing community accessibility to pedometers. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of lending pedometers to library patrons to increase walking. In five Canadian public libraries, 90 pedometers were made available for 6 months. A total of 41 library patrons (33 women, 8 men, age range 18 to 65 or older) completed a survey about their walking patterns and pedometer use. More than 330 loans were made. Chisquare analysis found significant associations between walking and motivation to walk more (p < .05), walking and goal setting (p < .05), and motivation to walk more and setting a walking goal (p < .001). Results provide preliminary evidence that lending pedometers through local libraries is an effective, low-cost approach to enhance walking in community members. PMID:18349147

  15. Network correlates of sexual health advice seeking and substance use among members of the Los Angeles House and Ball communities.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Schrager, Sheree M; Wong, Carolyn F; Dunlap, Shannon L; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-04-01

    House and Ball communities (HBCs), represent a prime context for human immunodeficiency virus prevention with African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons. This study sought to understand the composition and function of social support and sexual networks of HBC members in Los Angeles, California (N = 263). Participants were recruited using venue-based sampling and asked to report on sexual health advice seeking, alcohol use and illicit substance use. Participants were more likely to seek sexual health advice from social support network members compared with sexual network members [odds ratio (OR): 2.50, P < 0.001]. HBC members were more likely to get drunk (OR: 1.57; P < 0.05) and use illicit substances (OR: 1.87; P < 0.10) with House members and sexual network members compared with non-House members and social support network members. Health promotion programs tailored for the HBC should encourage open communication regarding sexual health; these interventions must include information about the role of substance use in sexual risk taking.

  16. Lifeline Work: Community-Based Adult Learning and Learners' Personal Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Janis

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores learner progression for participants in community-based adult learning (CBAL) provision in Scotland. It focuses on learners' perceptions of progression drawn from analysis of life history interviews carried out with ten adults who had participated in community-based adult learning. The analysis of data was undertaken in three…

  17. Network Correlates of Sexual Health Advice Seeking and Substance Use among Members of the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Wong, Carolyn F.; Dunlap, Shannon L.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    House and Ball communities (HBCs), represent a prime context for human immunodeficiency virus prevention with African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons. This study sought to understand the composition and function of social support and sexual networks of HBC members in Los Angeles, California (N = 263). Participants…

  18. Increasing the Usage of a School District Web Site by Training Staff and Community Members in Its Use and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willome, Mike

    This goal of this project was to create a public school district World Wide Web site that staff and community members would use more frequently. The project included three solutions. First, 33 one-on-one and small-group training sessions were conducted to increase awareness and improve Web services. A Web-site advisory committee, which developed…

  19. Incorporating Traditional Healing into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…

  20. The Reliance on and Demand for Adjunct Faculty Members in America's Rural, Suburban, and Urban Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Hara D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a survey of chief academic officers at 347 community colleges nationwide, this study examined the impact of institutional type (rural, suburban, urban) on reliance on and demand for adjunct faculty members. Findings indicated that rural institutions rely less on adjuncts, whereas both rural and urban institutions report high levels of…

  1. Remembering Nancy. 25 Members of the Montessori Community Share Their Reflections on the Death of the AMS Founder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five members of the Montessori community share their memories of Dr. Nancy McCormick Rambusch, charismatic founder of the American Montessori movement, early childhood professional, and innovative educator, who died of pancreatic cancer on October 27, 1994. Rambusch's work of 40 years now flowers as an institutionalized educational program…

  2. The Perceived Presence and Effect of Incentives on Community College Faculty Members' Enthusiasm to Teach Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Burton Cornelius, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the perceived effects of incentives on community college faculty member enthusiasm to teach online courses. Ten incentives used with college faculty were identified in the literature: (a) release time, (b) personal satisfaction, (c) teaching development, (d) technical support, (e) professional prestige,…

  3. Assessing the Educational and Support Needs of Nursing Staff Serving Older Adults: A Case Study of a Community Coalition/ University Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Tam E.; Ziemba, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Given expected changes in demography and dependent care ratios, communities are preparing for the needs of older populations. Sometimes communities form coalitions to address health care needs. This case study evaluates a coalition/university partnership formed to assess the educational and support needs of nursing staff who are taking care of older adults across all service settings in one geographically defined community. A community-based coalition of 17 service providers contracted with researchers from an external university to determine the perceptions of three key stakeholder groups: older adults and their families; all levels of nursing staff; and agency administrators. By applying principles of Participatory Action Research (PAR) this case study presents the challenges faced in the community-based coalition/university research team partnership. This community/research partnership is unique, differing from most academic examples of PAR because nursing professionals as community members initiated the partnership. PMID:24652930

  4. Evaluating clinical supervision in community homes and teams serving adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Malin, N A

    2000-03-01

    Evaluating clinical supervision in community homes and teams serving adults with learning disabilities This paper provides a discussion of some of the professional and policy outcomes associated with implementing clinical supervision within a community service for adults with learning disabilities. It is based upon a small qualitative study whose aim was to examine how clinical supervision was operating, its strengths, its weaknesses and where improvements might be made. The study followed the introduction of clinical supervision 9 months earlier for nurses and carers employed in three community homes and one community multiprofessional team. The method consisted of direct observation of individual and group supervision and staff completing critical incident questionnaires, followed by semi-structured, audio-taped interviews with seven registered nurses and four community team members, including a social worker, psychologist and physiotherapist. Outcomes were expressed in two ways: in terms of the benefits of clinical supervision or of its ambivalence. The range of matters brought for discussion, or resolution, in supervision reflected some of the difficulties or dilemmas staff faced working in this area, for example promoting empowerment and assisting clients to make choices, and dealing with clients' challenging and inappropriate behaviours. As for the role of supervisor there was some evidence of nurses expressing apprehension or unpreparedness, also a perceived general concern over the relatively low status of clinical supervision, thought to be due to absence of visible management approval or failure to articulate properly the objective of supervision. A limitation of the study was its small subject sample although considerable data were gathered in each of the units through relatively long-term contact.

  5. Learning from the Past, Organizing for the Future: Adult and Community Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion; Tobias, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses key events in the history of adult and community education in Aotearoa New Zealand. It draws on historical sources to examine the role of grassroots community activism and local and national networking in upholding a broad vision of adult and community-based education, in the face of a hostile policy climate. The authors…

  6. Education of Older Adults in Communities with Varying Levels of Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krašovec, Sabina Jelenc; Kump, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the education of older adults in communities with different levels of well-being. We are interested in whether the educational offerings for older adults depend on the well-being of the local community. We also examine how the educational offerings differ depending on whether the community is primarily rural or urban. In…

  7. Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

  8. Learning to Be Drier: A Case Study of Adult and Community Learning in the Australian Riverland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning derived…

  9. Facilitating Responsibility for Learning in Adult Community College Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Cynthia Lake

    This digest discusses adult students in community colleges, focusing on their learning expectations and needs. In 1997, nearly a third of community college students were age 30 or older. Adult students often have realistic, practical goals for their education and bring valuable life experience to the community college classroom. However, adults…

  10. Community services' involvement in the discharge of older adults from hospital into the community

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Michelle; Grimmer, Karen; Kumar, Saravana

    2013-01-01

    Background Community services are playing an increasing role in supporting older adults who are discharged from hospital with ongoing non-acute care needs. However, there is a paucity of information regarding how community services are involved in the discharge process of older individuals from hospital into the community. Methods Twenty-nine databases were searched from 1980 to 2012 (inclusive) for relevant primary published research, of any study design, as well as relevant unpublished work (e.g. clinical guidelines) which investigated community services' involvement in the discharge of older individuals from hospital into the community. Data analysis and quality appraisal (using McMaster critical appraisal tools) were undertaken predominately by the lead author. Data was synthesised qualitatively. Results Twelve papers were eligible for inclusion (five randomised controlled trials, four before and after studies and three controlled trials), involving a total of 8440 older adults (>65 years). These papers reported on a range of interventions. During data synthesis, descriptors were assigned to four emergent discharge methods: Virtual Interface Model, In-reach Interface Model, Out-reach Interface Model and Independent Interface Model. In each model, the findings were mixed in terms of health care and patient and carer outcomes. Conclusions It is plausible that each model identified in this systematic review has a role to play in successfully discharging different cohorts of older adults from hospital. Further research is required to identify appropriate population groups for various discharge models and to select suitable outcome measures to determine the effectiveness of these models, considering all stakeholders' involved. PMID:24179455

  11. Intra-community coalitionary lethal attack of an adult male southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    PubMed

    Talebi, M G; Beltrão-Mendes, R; Lee, P C

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first evidence of intra-community coalitionary lethal aggression in muriquis (Brachyteles). The event occurred in southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) during a long-term study (>15 years) of two social groups inhabiting mostly pristine Atlantic forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, southern São Paulo State, Brazil. The attack took place deep in the core area of the Group Caetê home range. Tense agonistic behaviors and vocalizations preceded the lethal coalitionary attack, and the tension increased over a 36-48 hr period. One adult female and two unidentified individuals also took part in a coalition led by six adult males. The members of the coalition collectively approached, embraced, immobilized and repeatedly bit the entire body of an adult male, resulting in severe bleeding injuries and the victim's death in less than 1 hr after the attack commenced. Combined ecological, behavioral and spatial data related to the event indicate that this was an intra-community attack and suggest social tensions related to mating competition as the proximate trigger of the coalitionary killing. The attack resembled those reported for chimpanzees, with clear numeric superiority and a low risk of injury to aggressors, resulting in the death of a lone conspecific victim. This observation (n=1) is suggestive of a capacity for escalated aggression in muriquis and reinforces arguments for the potential adaptive significance of intra-community aggression in male philopatric societies, as reported for spider monkeys and chimpanzees. These characteristics challenge the view of the muriquis as a peaceful primate and support the general hypothesis that imbalances of power contribute to intra-specific killing in primates, such as chimpanzees and humans.

  12. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  13. Young Adult Books: A Writer's Response to "Members of the Last Generation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolan, Stephanie S.

    1986-01-01

    Responds to both Kate Water's May l985 article, "Members of the Last Generation" and to a response to it written by Bryna J. Fireside in the January l986 issue, both dealing with whether authors of adolescent literature have a moral obligation to address the issue of nuclear war. (EL)

  14. Incorporating Traditional Healing Into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available for urban AI communities do not exist in the literature, this community-based project convened 4 focus groups consisting of 26 members of a midwestern urban AI community to better understand traditional healing practices of interest and how they might be integrated into the mental health and substance abuse treatment services in an Urban Indian Health Organization (UIHO). Qualitative content analysis of focus group transcripts revealed that ceremonial participation, traditional education, culture keepers, and community cohesion were thought to be key components of a successful traditional healing program. Potential incorporation of these components into an urban environment, however, yielded 4 marked tensions: traditional healing protocols versus the realities of impoverished urban living, multitribal representation in traditional healing services versus relational consistency with the culture keepers who would provide them, enthusiasm for traditional healing versus uncertainty about who is trustworthy, and the integrity of traditional healing versus the appeal of alternative medicine. Although these tensions would likely arise in most urban AI clinical contexts, the way in which each is resolved will likely depend on tailored community needs, conditions, and mental health objectives. PMID:22731113

  15. School-Community Communication: School Board Members and Their Constituents. Research Report 1980-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Washington, DC.

    Based on results of a survey conducted at the 1979 National School Boards Association Convention, this report focuses on the channels, frequency, and topics of communication between board members and their constituents. A total of 759 board members completed the survey instrument. The data presented show that, on the whole, moderate levels of…

  16. 76 FR 12109 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... FHFA's community support requirements regulation. This notice also prescribes the deadline by which... selected for the review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation must submit... for the 2010 second round review cycle under the FHFA's community support requirements regulation...

  17. Hospital study of adult community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, J T; Finch, R G; Ward, M J; Macrae, A D

    1982-07-31

    The cause of primary pneumonia was diagnosed in 124 of 127 consecutive adult patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired illness. Pneumococcal infection was found in 96 (76%) patients and legionnaries' disease was the second commonest infection identified (15%). Other bacterial infections were uncommon. 11 patients had atypical pneumonia, including 7 with psittacosis. There were several mixed infections and most of the 11 patients with viral infections also had bacterial pneumonia. 19 patients died (15%) and mortality was associated with increasing age, the presence of coexisting disease, and the cause of the pneumonia. Recognition of the most likely causes of severe pneumonia allows logical initial antibiotic treatment for such patients admitted to hospital. PMID:6124681

  18. Democracy (In)Action: A Critical Policy Analysis of New York City Public School Closings by Teachers, Students, Administrators, and Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmar, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I serve as a secretary for the critical policy analysis presented by hundreds of teachers, parents, students, and community members during 19 public hearings on school closures in New York City. In testimony at hearings, community members rejected the narrow, statistical approach they felt the Department of Education was using to…

  19. Adult baby/diaper lovers: an exploratory study of an online community sample.

    PubMed

    Hawkinson, Kaitlyn; Zamboni, Brian D

    2014-07-01

    This internet-based study provided descriptive information and exploratory analyses on 1,795 male and 139 female members of the Adult Baby/Diaper Lover (ABDL) community. Based on prior research, some research questions focused on the degree to which ABDL behavior was associated with negative mood states, parental relationships, and attachment style. Based on clinical experience, a second research question focused on discerning two possible subgroups within the ABDL community: persons focused on role play behavior and persons who were primarily interested in sexual arousal in their ABDL behavior. The results showed modest support for the former research questions, but notable support for the last research question. Because of some overlap between the two hypothesized subgroups, additional subgroups may exist. Males in the ABDL community identified their ABDL interests earlier than females and these males may be more focused on sexual aspects of ABDL practices. Both males and females perceived being dominated as important in their ABDL behavior. Most participants were comfortable with their ABDL behavior and reported few problems. ABDL behavior may represent a sexual subculture that is not problematic for most of its participants. PMID:24473941

  20. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

  1. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culture-dependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25373236

  2. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. Findings: We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural and attitudinal differences exist between Boomers and older residents, and (c) shared age matters less than shared interests. Implications: Our data clearly show the operation of ageism in this community and an equating of being old with being sick. The conflict between these two age cohorts suggests that cohort consciousness among Boomers carries elements of age denial, shared by the older old. It also challenges the Third Age concept as a generational phenomenon. PMID:22391870

  3. 75 FR 16463 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Tennessee. Community Trust & Banking Company........ Ooletewah Tennessee. SmartBank Pigeon Forge Tennessee.... United Bank Osseo Wisconsin. Pigeon Falls State Bank Pigeon Falls Wisconsin. The Port Washington...

  4. 78 FR 8131 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Nashville Tennessee. Community Trust & Banking Company........ Ooltewah Tennessee. SmartBank Pigeon Forge... Wisconsin. United Bank Osseo Wisconsin. Pigeon Falls State Bank Pigeon Falls Wisconsin. The Port...

  5. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

    PubMed

    Willsey, Graham G; Wargo, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes) involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment.

  6. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

    PubMed

    Willsey, Graham G; Wargo, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes) involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment. PMID:26599415

  7. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members

    PubMed Central

    Willsey, Graham G.; Wargo, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes) involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment. PMID:26599415

  8. The Experiences of Older Adult Dislocated Workers in Community College Non-Credit Workforce Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stelfanie Sherrell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of older adult dislocated workers who participated in community college non-credit workforce training programs. The research questions guiding the study were: (a) what are the experiences of older adult dislocated workers who attend community college non-credit workforce…

  9. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  10. Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

    This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

  11. The First-Generation Adult Community College Student: A Case Study of Persistence Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    All college students face new challenges and transitions, but for first-generation adult community college students, those challenges are more pervasive than those of their second-generation peers. The problem addressed is that first-generation adult community college students are at greater risk than their second-generation peers of dropping out…

  12. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  13. The Intersection of Black Lives Matter and Adult Education: One Community College Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian; Schwartz, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is a call to action for adult educators to critically engage the Black Lives Matter Movement through pedagogy, community engagement and scholarly activism. It explores the intersection of the Black Lives Matter movement and adult education by highlighting the response of one community college initiative.

  14. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  15. The Development and Recovery of Social Capital through Community-Based Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Janis

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between participation in community-based adult learning (CBAL) and the development of social capital. It is based on a life-history study of participation in community-based adult learning opportunities undertaken in two local authority areas in Scotland. A life-history approach was chosen in order to ensure that…

  16. "Turning the Sugar": Adult Learning and Cultural Repertoires of Practice in a Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…

  17. Opening the Doors of Your Community. Pennsylvania Youth in Action. Project 2--Member Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education.

    This student workbook is for 12- to 14-year-olds participating in the Pennsylvania 4-H "Opening the Doors of Your Community" project which is designed to involve youth in improving the quality of community life, learning about the role and functions of local government, understanding public issues, becoming involved in the process of community…

  18. The Education Structures in the Member States of the European Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This document was prepared in response to a comparative study tour undertaken as part of the European Communities Commission's Community Education Programme. It describes the educational structures of Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of German, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemborg, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Each country's…

  19. Care for the adult family members of victims of unexpected cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, Robert; Gillum, Richard F; Quest, Tammie E; Griffith, James L

    2006-12-01

    More than 300,000 sudden coronary deaths occur annually in the United States, despite declining cardiovascular death rates. In 2000, deaths from heart disease left an estimated 190,156 new widows and 68,493 new widowers. A major unanswered question for emergency providers is whether the immediate care of the loved ones left behind by the deceased should be a therapeutic task for the staff of the emergency department in the aftermath of a fatal cardiac arrest. Based on a review of the literature, the authors suggest that more research is needed to answer this question, to assess the current immediate needs and care of survivors, and to find ways to improve care of the surviving family of unexpected cardiac death victims. This would include improving quality of death disclosure, improving care for relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of their family member, and improved methods of referral for services for prevention of psychological and cardiovascular morbidity during bereavement. PMID:16946285

  20. Hospital to community transitions for adults: discharge planners and community service providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Rosemary Kennedy; Chandran, Devyani; Sergeant, Julie F; Koenig, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    Discharges from the hospital to community-based settings are more difficult for older adults when there is lack of communication, resource sharing, and viable partnerships among service providers in these settings. The researchers captured the perspectives of three different groups of participants from hospitals, independent living centers, and Area Agencies on Aging, which has rarely been done in studies on discharge planning. Findings include identification of barriers in the assessment and referral process (e.g., timing of discharge, inattention to client goals, lack of communication and partnerships between hospital discharge planners and community providers), and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Implications are discussed including potential for Medicaid and Medicare cost reductions due to fewer re-hospitalizations.

  1. Adult roles in community-based youth empowerment programs: implications for best practices.

    PubMed

    Messias, Deanne K Hilfinger; Fore, Elizabeth M; McLoughlin, Kerry; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Current literature on community-based youth empowerment programs provides few specific operational descriptions of adult roles. This research addressed that gap by exploring the perspectives and experiences of adults actively engaged with youth empowerment programs. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews, field observations, and interactive group discussions with adult program leaders. The following dimensions of adults' work were identified: putting youth first; raising the bar for youth performance; creating the space and making things happen; being in relationships; exerting influence, control, and authority; and communicating and connecting with the broader community. These findings provide guidance for the development of best practices in community-based youth empowerment programs.

  2. Beyond Traditional Art Education: Transformative Lifelong Learning in Community-Based Settings with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Pamela Harris; La Porte, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Quality community-based art education programs for older adults over the age of 50 should exploit the broad range of interests and cognitive abilities of participants by utilizing adult education theory, brain research, and the best practices of adult art education programs. We consider a developing paradigm on the cognitive abilities of the…

  3. An Assessment of the Adult Learners' Needs at Gateway Community-Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Wilson

    A study was conducted to assess the needs of adult learners at Gateway Community-Technical College (GCTC), in North Haven, Connecticut. An extended literature review resulted the choice of the three-part Adult Learner Needs Assessment Survey (ALNAS). In spring 1993, the ALNAS was administered to adult learners in classes at GCTC, resulting in 400…

  4. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  5. Descriptive Assessment of Sleep Patterns among Community-Living Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…

  6. Program Evaluation of a Community College Adult Program for Underprepared Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watta, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a program evaluation of a community college adult program for underprepared learners in the eastern lower peninsula of Michigan. The purpose of the program is to make postsecondary education more accessible to those adults who typically would not consider postsecondary education an option. Guided by Cross's adult learning…

  7. Understanding older adults' usage of community green spaces in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pleson, Eryn; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Lee, Karen K; Chaddah, Anuradha; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Schopflocher, Donald

    2014-02-01

    As the world's population ages, there is an increasing need for community environments to support physical activity and social connections for older adults. This exploratory study sought to better understand older adults' usage and perceptions of community green spaces in Taipei, Taiwan, through direct observations of seven green spaces and nineteen structured interviews. Descriptive statistics from observations using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) confirm that older adults use Taipei's parks extensively. Our analyses of interviews support the following recommendations for age-friendly active living initiatives for older adults: make green spaces accessible to older adults; organize a variety of structured activities that appeal to older adults particularly in the morning; equip green spaces for age-appropriate physical activity; and, promote the health advantages of green spaces to older adults. PMID:24473116

  8. Hiring Diverse Faculty Members in Community Colleges: A Case Study in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Eugene Oropeza

    2012-01-01

    As the diversity of students on college campuses continues to increase, the racial and ethnic diversity among faculty members continues to lag (Jayakumar, Howard, Allen, & Han, 2009; Turner, Myers, & Creswell, 1999). An often overlooked segment of this problem is the 2-year-college setting. With increasing numbers of students of color achieving…

  9. A Community of Practice That Supported the Transition from Doctoral Student to Faculty Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Robin J.; Hemphill, Michael A.; Beaudoin, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Professional collaboration is an important aspect of any field. It allows for individuals to share ideas and be part of a team. The TPSR Alliance has been a space for such professional collaborations where members have been able to both benefit from and contribute to it by sharing research and practices revolving around developing responsible…

  10. Results of Community Deliberation About Social Impacts of Ecological Restoration: Comparing Public Input of Self-Selected Versus Actively Engaged Community Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Charles C.; Nielsen, Erik A.; Becker, Dennis R.; Blahna, Dale J.; McLaughlin, William J.

    2012-08-01

    Participatory processes for obtaining residents' input about community impacts of proposed environmental management actions have long raised concerns about who participates in public involvement efforts and whose interests they represent. This study explored methods of broad-based involvement and the role of deliberation in social impact assessment. Interactive community forums were conducted in 27 communities to solicit public input on proposed alternatives for recovering wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest US. Individuals identified by fellow residents as most active and involved in community affairs ("AE residents") were invited to participate in deliberations about likely social impacts of proposed engineering and ecological actions such as dam removal. Judgments of these AE participants about community impacts were compared with the judgments of residents motivated to attend a forum out of personal interest, who were designated as self-selected ("SS") participants. While the magnitude of impacts rated by SS participants across all communities differed significantly from AE participants' ratings, in-depth analysis of results from two community case studies found that both AE and SS participants identified a large and diverse set of unique impacts, as well as many of the same kinds of impacts. Thus, inclusion of both kinds of residents resulted in a greater range of impacts for consideration in the environmental impact study. The case study results also found that the extent to which similar kinds of impacts are specified by AE and SS group members can differ by type of community. Study results caution against simplistic conclusions drawn from this approach to community-wide public participation. Nonetheless, the results affirm that deliberative methods for community-based impact assessment involving both AE and SS residents can provide a more complete picture of perceived impacts of proposed restoration activities.

  11. 77 FR 14787 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    .... Joseph Minnesota. Great Northern Bank St. Michael Minnesota. The Nicollet County Bank of St. Peter St... Pennsylvania. County. Alliance Bank Broomall Pennsylvania. Cresson Community Bank Cresson Pennsylvania. Sharon Savings Bank Darby Pennsylvania. ESB Bank Ellwood City......... Pennsylvania. County Savings...

  12. Community Member and Faith Leader Perspectives on the Process of Building Trusting Relationships Between Communities and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M.; Olshansky, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: 1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; 2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; 3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; 4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; 5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. PMID:24405695

  13. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    PubMed

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  14. What community resources do older community-dwelling adults use to manage their osteoarthritis? A formative examination.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Schoster, Britta; Woodard, Janice; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-10-01

    Community resources can influence health outcomes, yet little research has examined how older individuals use community resources for osteoarthritis (OA) management. Six focus groups were conducted with 37 community-dwelling older adult African Americans and Caucasians who self-reported OA and resided in Johnston County, North Carolina. Descriptive analyses and qualitative constant comparison methodology revealed individuals use local recreational facilities, senior centers, shopping centers, religious organizations, medical providers, pharmacies and their social network for OA management. Participants also identified environmental characteristics (e.g., sidewalk conditions, curb-cuts, handicapped parking, automatic doors) that both facilitated and hindered use of community resources for OA management. Identified resources and environmental characteristics were organized around Corbin & Strauss framework tasks: medical/behavioral, role, and emotional management. As older Americans live with multiple chronic diseases, better understanding of what community resources are used for disease management may help improve the health of community-dwelling adults, both with and without OA.

  15. What community resources do older community-dwelling adults use to manage their osteoarthritis? A formative examination

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Schoster, Britta; Woodard, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Community resources can influence health outcomes, yet little research has examined how older individuals use community resources for osteoarthritis (OA) management. Six focus groups were conducted with 37 community-dwelling older adult African Americans and Caucasians who self-reported OA and resided in Johnston County, North Carolina. Descriptive analyses and qualitative constant comparison methodology revealed individuals use local recreational facilities, senior centers, shopping centers, religious organizations, medical providers, pharmacies and their social network for OA management. Participants also identified environmental characteristics (e.g., sidewalk conditions, curb-cuts, handicapped parking, automatic doors) that both facilitated and hindered use of community resources for OA management. Identified resources and environmental characteristics were organized around Corbin & Strauss framework tasks: medical/behavioral, role, and emotional management. As older Americans live with multiple chronic diseases, better understanding of what community resources are used for disease management may help improve the health of community-dwelling adults, both with and without OA. PMID:23049159

  16. Perceptions of the Role of Short-Term Volunteerism in International Development: Views from Volunteers, Local Hosts, and Community Members

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Bethina; Sibbald, Rebekah; Raman, Salem A.; Darren, Benedict; Loh, Lawrence C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Short-term international volunteer trips traditionally involve volunteers from high-income countries travelling to low- and middle-income countries to assist in service-related development activities. Their duration typically ranges from 7 to 90 days. The city of La Romana, Dominican Republic, receives hundreds of short-term international volunteers annually. They participate in activities aimed at improving conditions faced by a marginalized ethnic-Haitian community living in bateyes. Methods. This qualitative analysis examined perceptions of short-term international volunteerism, held by three key stakeholder groups in La Romana: local hosts, international volunteers, and community members. Responses from semistructured interviews were recorded and analysed by thematic analysis. Results. Themes from the 3 groups were broadly categorized into general perceptions of short-term volunteerism and proposed best practices. These were further subdivided into perceptions of value, harms, and motivations associated with volunteer teams for the former and best practices around volunteer composition and selection, partnership, and skill sets and predeparture training for the latter. Conclusion. Notable challenges were associated with short-term volunteering, including an overemphasis on the material benefits from volunteer groups expressed by community member respondents; misalignment of the desired and actual skill sets of volunteers; duplicate and uncoordinated volunteer efforts; and the perpetuation of stereotypes suggesting that international volunteers possess superior knowledge or skills. Addressing these challenges is critical to optimizing the conduct of short-term volunteerism. PMID:27382372

  17. Perceptions of the Role of Short-Term Volunteerism in International Development: Views from Volunteers, Local Hosts, and Community Members.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Bethina; Sibbald, Rebekah; Raman, Salem A; Darren, Benedict; Loh, Lawrence C; Dimaras, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Short-term international volunteer trips traditionally involve volunteers from high-income countries travelling to low- and middle-income countries to assist in service-related development activities. Their duration typically ranges from 7 to 90 days. The city of La Romana, Dominican Republic, receives hundreds of short-term international volunteers annually. They participate in activities aimed at improving conditions faced by a marginalized ethnic-Haitian community living in bateyes. Methods. This qualitative analysis examined perceptions of short-term international volunteerism, held by three key stakeholder groups in La Romana: local hosts, international volunteers, and community members. Responses from semistructured interviews were recorded and analysed by thematic analysis. Results. Themes from the 3 groups were broadly categorized into general perceptions of short-term volunteerism and proposed best practices. These were further subdivided into perceptions of value, harms, and motivations associated with volunteer teams for the former and best practices around volunteer composition and selection, partnership, and skill sets and predeparture training for the latter. Conclusion. Notable challenges were associated with short-term volunteering, including an overemphasis on the material benefits from volunteer groups expressed by community member respondents; misalignment of the desired and actual skill sets of volunteers; duplicate and uncoordinated volunteer efforts; and the perpetuation of stereotypes suggesting that international volunteers possess superior knowledge or skills. Addressing these challenges is critical to optimizing the conduct of short-term volunteerism.

  18. Perceptions of the Role of Short-Term Volunteerism in International Development: Views from Volunteers, Local Hosts, and Community Members.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Bethina; Sibbald, Rebekah; Raman, Salem A; Darren, Benedict; Loh, Lawrence C; Dimaras, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Short-term international volunteer trips traditionally involve volunteers from high-income countries travelling to low- and middle-income countries to assist in service-related development activities. Their duration typically ranges from 7 to 90 days. The city of La Romana, Dominican Republic, receives hundreds of short-term international volunteers annually. They participate in activities aimed at improving conditions faced by a marginalized ethnic-Haitian community living in bateyes. Methods. This qualitative analysis examined perceptions of short-term international volunteerism, held by three key stakeholder groups in La Romana: local hosts, international volunteers, and community members. Responses from semistructured interviews were recorded and analysed by thematic analysis. Results. Themes from the 3 groups were broadly categorized into general perceptions of short-term volunteerism and proposed best practices. These were further subdivided into perceptions of value, harms, and motivations associated with volunteer teams for the former and best practices around volunteer composition and selection, partnership, and skill sets and predeparture training for the latter. Conclusion. Notable challenges were associated with short-term volunteering, including an overemphasis on the material benefits from volunteer groups expressed by community member respondents; misalignment of the desired and actual skill sets of volunteers; duplicate and uncoordinated volunteer efforts; and the perpetuation of stereotypes suggesting that international volunteers possess superior knowledge or skills. Addressing these challenges is critical to optimizing the conduct of short-term volunteerism. PMID:27382372

  19. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  20. Student Achievement in Math and Science: Putting Community Members into the Equation. The ARSI Community Engagement Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI) aims to stimulate sustainable systemic improvements that enhance student performance in mathematics, science, and technology in 66 Appalachian counties characterized by persistent poverty. To support this aim, a major ARSI goal involves development of partnerships among families, communities, and…

  1. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  2. Lighting the Way: Keweenaw Bay Ojibwa Community College Serves as a Beacon Light for Tribal Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Sherrole

    2015-01-01

    On the shores of Lake Superior, the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC), a small cluster of Ojibwa (also known as Chippewa), keep their fires alive in the face of daunting pressures to let go of their ways. After the ravages of war, colonization, and territorial loss, KBIC continues to make a stand for their people and future generations. Their…

  3. Negotiating the Roles of Community Member and Parent: Participation in Education in Rural Paraguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan-Silva, Aliah

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes parents' perceptions of their role in supporting educational opportunities for their children, based on a qualitative study of parents and teachers in a rural community in Paraguay. The parents' views on participation are positioned within the context of the intended goals for parent participation outlined in Paraguayan…

  4. Newest Members of the Net Set: Pittsburgh's Carnegie Cashes in on Community Info.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Bette Ann; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Electronic Information Network, a project created by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh in conjunction with public libraries in Pennsylvania's Allegheny County. The project uses the library's vision, funding, and librarian expertise to provide public access to community information on the Internet. Sidebars present steps and issues…

  5. A Planned Giving Primer for Rockingham Community College Foundation Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Barry M.

    This document provides an explanation of various ways individuals, groups, and corporations can financially support Rockingham Community College through planned giving, previously known as "deferred giving." Planned giving, which is defined as a deliberate, well-thought-out act of contributing an asset or assets to a charitable organization, has…

  6. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Lois A.

    2012-01-01

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which…

  7. Higher Education Criticism: Do University Faculty Members and Community Professionals Have Different Viewpoints?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    This paper presents results of a survey that focused upon responses from college faculty (N=33) and community professionals (N=56) in the following areas: the goals of higher education; success factors of higher education; attitudes and values held about higher education; gender discrimination in higher education; and perceived social status of…

  8. Analyzing the Role of Community and Individual Factors in Food Insecurity: Identifying Diverse Barriers Across Clustered Community Members.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Becca B R; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Colpaart, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    This paper uses the results from a community food security assessment survey of 684 residents and three focus groups in Pueblo County, Colorado to examine the question: what community and individual factors contribute to or alleviate food insecurity, and are these factors consistent throughout a sub-county population. Importantly, we use a technique called cluster analysis to endogenously determine the key factors pertinent to food access and fruit and vegetable consumption. Our results show significant heterogeneity among sub-population clusters in terms of the community and individual factors that would make it easier to get access to fruits and vegetables. We find two distinct clusters of food insecure populations: the first was significantly less likely to identify increased access to fruits and vegetables proximate to where they live or work as a way to improve their household's healthy food consumption despite being significantly less likely to utilize a personal vehicle to get to the store; the second group did not report significant challenges with access, rather with affordability. We conclude that though interventions focused on improving the local food retail environment may be important for some subsamples of the food insecure population, it is unclear that proximity to a store with healthy food will support enhanced food security for all. We recommend that future research recognizes that determinants of food insecurity may vary within county or zip code level regions, and that multiple interventions that target sub-population clusters may elicit better improvements in access to and consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  9. Dental students and faculty members' attitudes towards care for underserved patients and community service: do community-based dental education and voluntary service-learning matter?

    PubMed

    Volvovsky, Mariya; Vodopyanov, Dmitry; Inglehart, Marita R

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore 1) how students across the four years of a dental curriculum differed in attitudes towards underserved patients and community service at the beginning and end of each school year; 2) how these attitudes changed as a function of participating in required vs. voluntary community-based activities; and 3) what attitudes faculty members held about the effects of community service-learning on students. Surveys were distributed to 440 students at one dental school at the beginning and end of the school year. The overall response rate for those surveys was 75 percent, with variations among classes: first year, 94 percent; second year, 92 percent; third year, 69 percent; and fourth year, 43 percent. Survey data were also collected from twenty-two students (out of a possible forty-seven) who participated in voluntary service-learning and from fifty-four faculty members (out of approximately 150). The results showed that, at the beginning of the year, the first-year students' attitudes were more positive than the responses of students in all other cohorts. However, at the end of the year, their attitudes were less positive. Participating in voluntary service-learning improved students' attitudes towards treating underserved patients only in the short run, and experiencing ten weeks of community-based dental education did not improve their attitudes. The faculty respondents' attitudes, however, were quite positive. The decrease in students' positive attitudes towards treating underserved patients and participating in community service should raise questions about why this loss of idealism occurred. PMID:25086145

  10. Perceived Stigma towards Leprosy among Community Members Living Close to Nonsomboon Leprosy Colony in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaehler, Nils; Adhikar, Bipin; Raut, Shristi; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Chapman, Robert Sedgwick

    2015-01-01

    Background Interpretation of Leprosy as a sickness differs among society. The set of beliefs, knowledge and perceptions towards a disease play a vital role in the construction of stigma towards a disease. The main purpose of this study was to explore the extent and correlates of the perceived stigma towards leprosy in the community living close to the leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Khon Kaen Province of Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 leprosy unaffected community participants, above the age of 18 who were living close to the Leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Thailand. Each participant was asked a questionnaire containing characteristics of the participants in terms of socio-demographic background and knowledge regarding the disease. In addition perceived stigma towards leprosy was measured using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) questionnaire. Results Among EMIC items, shame or embarrassment in the community due to leprosy was felt by 54.5%, dislike to buy food from leprosy affected persons were 49.8% and difficulty to find work for leprosy affected persons were perceived by 47.1%. Higher total EMIC score was found in participants age 61 years or older (p = 0.021), staying longer in the community (p = 0.005), attending fewer years of education (p = 0.024) and who were unemployed (p = 0.08). Similarly, perceptions about leprosy such as difficult to treat (p = 0.015), severe disease (p = 0.004) and punishment by God (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with higher perceived stigma. Conclusions Perceived stigma towards leprosy was found highest among participants with age 61 years or older, longer duration of stay in community close to the leprosy colony, lower duration of education and participants who were unemployed had higher perceived stigma. Similarly, participants with perceptions of leprosy such as difficult to treat, severe disease and punishment by God had higher perceived stigma towards

  11. Physical Health Screenings Among African-American Church and Community Members.

    PubMed

    Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs.

  12. Engaging communities to strengthen research ethics in low-income settings: selection and perceptions of members of a network of representatives in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis K; Geissler, P Wenzel; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-04-01

    There is wide agreement that community engagement is important for many research types and settings, often including interaction with 'representatives' of communities. There is relatively little published experience of community engagement in international research settings, with available information focusing on Community Advisory Boards or Groups (CAB/CAGs), or variants of these, where CAB/G members often advise researchers on behalf of the communities they represent. In this paper we describe a network of community members ('KEMRI Community Representatives', or 'KCRs') linked to a large multi-disciplinary research programme on the Kenyan Coast. Unlike many CAB/Gs, the intention with the KCR network has evolved to be for members to represent the geographical areas in which a diverse range of health studies are conducted through being typical of those communities. We draw on routine reports, self-administered questionnaires and interviews to: 1) document how typical KCR members are of the local communities in terms of basic characteristics, and 2) explore KCR's perceptions of their roles, and of the benefits and challenges of undertaking these roles. We conclude that this evolving network is a potentially valuable way of strengthening interactions between a research institution and a local geographic community, through contributing to meeting intrinsic ethical values such as showing respect, and instrumental values such as improving consent processes. However, there are numerous challenges involved. Other ways of interacting with members of local communities, including community leaders, and the most vulnerable groups least likely to be vocal in representative groups, have always been, and remain, essential. PMID:23433404

  13. ENGAGING COMMUNITIES TO STRENGTHEN RESEARCH ETHICS IN LOW-INCOME SETTINGS: SELECTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF MEMBERS OF A NETWORK OF REPRESENTATIVES IN COASTAL KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis K; Geissler, P Wenzel; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-01-01

    There is wide agreement that community engagement is important for many research types and settings, often including interaction with ‘representatives’ of communities. There is relatively little published experience of community engagement in international research settings, with available information focusing on Community Advisory Boards or Groups (CAB/CAGs), or variants of these, where CAB/G members often advise researchers on behalf of the communities they represent. In this paper we describe a network of community members (‘KEMRI Community Representatives’, or ‘KCRs’) linked to a large multi-disciplinary research programme on the Kenyan Coast. Unlike many CAB/Gs, the intention with the KCR network has evolved to be for members to represent the geographical areas in which a diverse range of health studies are conducted through being typical of those communities. We draw on routine reports, self-administered questionnaires and interviews to: 1) document how typical KCR members are of the local communities in terms of basic characteristics, and 2) explore KCR's perceptions of their roles, and of the benefits and challenges of undertaking these roles. We conclude that this evolving network is a potentially valuable way of strengthening interactions between a research institution and a local geographic community, through contributing to meeting intrinsic ethical values such as showing respect, and instrumental values such as improving consent processes. However, there are numerous challenges involved. Other ways of interacting with members of local communities, including community leaders, and the most vulnerable groups least likely to be vocal in representative groups, have always been, and remain, essential. PMID:23433404

  14. Engaging communities to strengthen research ethics in low-income settings: selection and perceptions of members of a network of representatives in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis K; Geissler, P Wenzel; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-04-01

    There is wide agreement that community engagement is important for many research types and settings, often including interaction with 'representatives' of communities. There is relatively little published experience of community engagement in international research settings, with available information focusing on Community Advisory Boards or Groups (CAB/CAGs), or variants of these, where CAB/G members often advise researchers on behalf of the communities they represent. In this paper we describe a network of community members ('KEMRI Community Representatives', or 'KCRs') linked to a large multi-disciplinary research programme on the Kenyan Coast. Unlike many CAB/Gs, the intention with the KCR network has evolved to be for members to represent the geographical areas in which a diverse range of health studies are conducted through being typical of those communities. We draw on routine reports, self-administered questionnaires and interviews to: 1) document how typical KCR members are of the local communities in terms of basic characteristics, and 2) explore KCR's perceptions of their roles, and of the benefits and challenges of undertaking these roles. We conclude that this evolving network is a potentially valuable way of strengthening interactions between a research institution and a local geographic community, through contributing to meeting intrinsic ethical values such as showing respect, and instrumental values such as improving consent processes. However, there are numerous challenges involved. Other ways of interacting with members of local communities, including community leaders, and the most vulnerable groups least likely to be vocal in representative groups, have always been, and remain, essential.

  15. Investigating local sustainable environmental perspectives of Kenyan community members and teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Efforts to conserve and preserve the environment in developing or marginalized locales frequently involve a one-way transfer of knowledge and materials from a source in a more developed location. This situation often degenerates into a short-term donor project which risks little to no long-term impacts on local or indigenous relationships with the environment. This research study with educators in Narok, Kenya investigates the current perspectives of local key stakeholders on the environment and sustainability with the purpose of sharing these understandings among local groups to generate a locally constructed meaning of environmental conservation and sustainability. It is the researchers' aim that through locally constructed meanings of environmental hazards and conservation, the Maasai community will empower themselves to transform their relationship with their environment and begin to construct and enact sustainable alternatives to destructive environmental practices. The approach used in this study is a qualitative study of representative stakeholders' environmental perspectives called photovoice. Two major themes emerged during the data analysis: How do we co-habit? and How do we modernize? This community demonstrated a complex understandings including navigate traditional practices, made connections to a larger system, and describing positive ways in which humans influence our environment.

  16. The construction and validation of an instrument to measure "community understanding": Interdependence among community members, awareness of sustainability issues, and experience of connection with the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerly-Kolb, Susan Jessamyn

    Statement of the problem. Research in the areas of environmentalism and environmental education indicate the need to understand the concepts of environmental attitude and environmental action in order to better facilitate their positive development in students. This research indicates that environmental attitude is connected to certain characteristics found in persons who exhibit positive attitude toward the environment and who tend toward positive environmental action. These characteristics include interdependence among members of a community, awareness of sustainability issues, and experience of connection with nature. For this research, the above characteristics, taken together, are called Community Understanding. The purpose of this research was the development of an instrument to examine the construct of Community Understanding and to utilize the instrument to look at a possible correlation between Community Understanding and environmental attitudes and action. The instrument was also used to examine the differences in Community Understanding among rural and urban students. Methods. The Community Understanding Questionnaire was developed utilizing the method created by Dr. William Curlette at Georgia State University (Curlette, 1996). The questionnaire was then administered to 500 10sp{th} grade students in rural and urban Colorado. After the administration of a group difference study and the questionnaire, the results were analyzed using factor analysis to determine the fit of the questions into the original constructs of Interdependence, Awareness of Sustainability Issues, and Connection to Nature. The analysis resulted in the elimination of certain questions and the rearrangement of other questions to create a better fit into the three scales. Reliability analysis conducted on this new formation of questions resulted in a stronger instrument. Results. Statistical analyses of the Community Understanding Questionnaire imply the presence of a construct

  17. Developing Shared Youth and Adult Leadership within Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Timothy; Branham, Dan

    This paper proposes a model in which the rural school becomes an active agent in community economic development through leadership development and civic education. Families, school, and community are the three pillars of public education, and the concept of community engagement is crucial to rebuilding this educational partnership and creating an…

  18. Knowledge and attitudes toward depression among community members in rural Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

    2014-11-01

    Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat.

  19. Method for the Development of Data Visualizations for Community Members with Varying Levels of Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Arcia, Adriana; Bales, Michael E.; Brown, William; Co, Manuel C.; Gilmore, Melinda; Lee, Young Ji; Park, Chin S.; Prey, Jennifer; Velez, Mark; Woollen, Janet; Yoon, Sunmoo; Kukafka, Rita; Merrill, Jacqueline A.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Many Americans are challenged by the tasks of understanding and acting upon their own health data. Low levels of health literacy contribute to poor comprehension and undermine the confidence necessary for health self-management. Visualizations are useful for minimizing comprehension gaps when communicating complex quantitative information. The process of developing visualizations that accommodate the needs of individuals with varying levels of health literacy remains undefined. In this paper we provide detailed descriptions of a) an iterative methodological approach to the development of visualizations, b) the resulting types of visualizations and examples thereof, and c) the types of data the visualizations will be used to convey. We briefly describe subsequent phases in which the visualizations will be tested and refined. Web deployment of the final visualizations will support the ethical obligation to return the data to the research participants and community that contributed it. PMID:24551322

  20. Knowledge and attitudes toward depression among community members in rural Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

    2014-11-01

    Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat. PMID:25275344

  1. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:26550005

  2. Detection and analysis of elusive members of a novel and diverse archaeal community within a thermal spring streamer consortium.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Thomas, Raquela; Maas, Kendra R; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2015-03-01

    Recent metagenomic analyses of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) thermal spring communities suggested the presence of minor archaeal populations that simultaneous PCR-based assays using traditional 'universal' 16S rRNA gene primers failed to detect. Here we use metagenomics to identify PCR primers effective at detecting elusive members of the Archaea, assess their efficacy, and describe the diverse and novel archaeal community from a circum-neutral thermal spring from the Bechler region of YNP. We determined that a less commonly used PCR primer, Arch349F, captured more diversity in this spring than the widely used A21F primer. A search of the PCR primers against the RDP 16S rRNA gene database indicated that Arch349F also captured the largest percentage of Archaea, including 41 % more than A21F. Pyrosequencing using the Arch349F primer recovered all of the phylotypes present in the clone-based portion of the study and the metagenome of this spring in addition to several other populations of Archaea, some of which are phylogenetically novel. In contrast to the lack of amplification with traditional 16S rRNA gene primers, our comprehensive analyses suggested a diverse archaeal community in the Bechler spring, with implications for recently discovered groups such as the Geoarchaeota and other undescribed archaeal groups.

  3. Radical Learning for Liberation. Maynooth Adult and Community Education Occasional Series Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Brid, Ed.; Fleming, Ted, Ed.; McCormack, David, Ed.; Ryan, Anne, Ed.

    The six articles in this first issue comprise a critical discourse about theories, practices, and research with the intent of realizing the potential of adult learning to bring about social change. "Adult Education and Empowerment for Individual and Community Development" (Jack Mezirow) outlines and updates the author's transformation theory of…

  4. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  5. ODD, ADHD, versus ODD+ADHD in Clinic and Community Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne; Nolan, Edith E.; Schwartz, Joseph; Weiss, Margaret D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To seek evidence for the validity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a behavioral syndrome in adults. Method: Two samples of adults, mental health outpatient clinic referrals (N = 490) and community controls (N = 900), completed a "Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders"--referenced rating scale and a brief…

  6. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  7. Responsible Adult Culture (RAC): Cognitive and Behavioral Changes at a Community-Based Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Renee S.; Gibbs, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examined cognitive and behavioral changes among participants in Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a cognitive-behavioral (especially, cognitive restructuring) treatment program in use at the Franklin County Community-Based Correctional Facility (CBCF). Participants were adult felony offenders (approximately three-fourths male). A…

  8. Making a Difference: Leading and Managing for Quality Improvement in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark; Kenway, Mike

    This guide looks at demands on leaders and managers in adult and community learning (ACL) in the roles and issues they face in the context of quality improvement (QI). It suggests practical approaches for improving the quality of provision for adults. The guide's design builds on current practice toward the desired state of excellence in all…

  9. Accounting for Change: Adult and Community Education Organisations and the GST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelade, Sue; Harris, Roger; Mason, Deb

    A study examined impact of the adult and community education (ACE) Amendment to the Goods and Services Tax (GST) on Australian adult and continuing education (ACE) providers. Telephone interviews were held with representatives of 232 ACE organizations. Most were small businesses; almost half had less than $100,000 annual revenue; two-thirds had…

  10. A Randomized Trial of a Multifaceted Intervention to Reduce Falls among Community-Dwelling Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Laurie; Tonner, Chris; Stevens, Judy A.; Fineman, Norman; Ross, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a fall prevention intervention to reduce falls among adults in a community-based health promotion program. Adults aged 65 and older within two counties were recruited (control n = 257; intervention n = 286). After 12 months, there was a significant decrease in the number of falls in…

  11. Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

  12. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  13. Nutrition Education and Support Program for Community-Dwelling Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To test the efficacy, acceptability, and appropriateness of a nutrition education and support program, 4 community-based group homes for adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities participated in a pilot intervention with extended baseline period and pre--post-test design. Adults (N = 32) with intellectual or developmental…

  14. High School 21+: A Competency-Based Diploma for Adults. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Adults who lack a high school diploma now have a new way to get a second chance. It's called "High School 21+," a competency-based high school diploma offered at Washington's community and technical colleges. Adults 21 years old and older can go to participating colleges to earn a high school diploma. An advisor will look at transcripts…

  15. The Community of Practice among Mathematics and Mathematics Education Faculty Members at an Urban Minority Serving Institution in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jacqueline; Quander, Judith; Redl, Timothy; Leveille, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Using narrative inquiry as a research method, four mathematics and mathematics education faculty members explored the integration of theoretical perspectives into their personal narratives as they developed a community of practice. Initially their focus was strictly on improving their students' mathematical knowledge. As their community of…

  16. Building Relationships: It's Not Always Easy, but Juggling Relationships with Board Members and Community Stakeholders Is Essential to Making Needed Campus Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Building relationships is the essence of the community college. Higher education administrators learned long ago that building rapport with businesses, state and local government, and constituents is the best way to represent the interests of the community. But that does not make it easy. Board members come and go and the shifting dynamics of…

  17. Adult Education, Social Inclusion and Cultural Diversity in Regional Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of recent research into adult education programs and experiences in the Shire of Campaspe, a region in northern Victoria. Research data of people from diverse cultural backgrounds reveal how individuals can utilize adult education as a space to explore their own social and cultural isolation in a regional…

  18. Community College Adult Literacy Programs: Moving toward Collaboration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Gigi

    The National Education Goals Panel has not met its goal of having every adult American literate by the year 2000. There are many adults who "slipped through the cracks," and have only rudimentary reading and writing skills. The large number of foreign born residents who do not have the necessary reading and writing skills to communicate…

  19. Emotional Wellness Needs: Older Adults in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Randall

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…

  20. Everything in Moderation: The Effects of Adult Moderators in Online Youth Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Meg; Zutty, Debbie; Foucault, Brooke; Huffaker, David; Derby, Dustin; Cassell, Justine

    There is considerable debate over the appropriate role for adults in youth online communities. Although many within the mass media argue for adult supervision of youth online, our research suggests that many young people are using the Internet to communicate productively with peers, to solve problems and learn collaboratively online. However, without studies that explicitly explore the positive aspects of youth online community involvement and the actual effects of adult intervention and oversight, only misguided and chilling stories may hit the news. In this study, we examine the 1998 Junior Summit, a well-studied, early example of a large-scale international community for youth, in order to look at the effects of moderator involvement on several measures of positive youth involvement. Children who participated in the Junior Summit were asked to identify and write white-papers about the ways in which technology could help young people. We have selected the Junior Summit as our community of focus because we have access to data that is mostly otherwise unavailable to researchers — the content of all of the community's posts as well as information about each participant, follow-up interviews five year's after the community's launch, and questionnaire data about self-efficacy and wellbeing. In this study, we compare the content of three different sub-forums, with different adult moderators and different involvement levels, in order to evaluate the impact of adult moderation on the community.

  1. Exploring psychosocial support online: a content analysis of messages in an adolescent and young adult cancer community.

    PubMed

    Love, Brad; Crook, Brittani; Thompson, Charee M; Zaitchik, Sarah; Knapp, Jessica; Lefebvre, Leah; Jones, Barbara; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Eargle, Emily; Rechis, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    The increased usage of online cancer support groups as a resource for health-related information and social support has sparked numerous discussions about the role of online support in healthcare. However, little is known about the role of social-networking groups focused on supporting adolescents and young adults (AYAs) dealing with cancer. The current investigation report findings from a content analysis designed to explore how AYAs use an online support group to meet their psychosocial needs. Overall, members of the community focused on exchanging emotional and informational support, coping with difficult emotions through expression, describing experiences of being an AYA dealing with cancer through language (metaphors), enacting identity through evaluations of the new normal (life with and after cancer), and communicating membership as an AYA with cancer. This study highlights the unique needs of the AYA cancer community and offers a preliminary roadmap for practitioners, and network members, such as family and friends, to attempt to meet the needs of this unique community. PMID:22970826

  2. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894

  3. Defining Rural Community(ies): Future Considerations for Informal and Nonformal Adult Education in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The study and practice of adult education takes place in many forms and contexts, so much so that it is sometimes asked, "What isn't adult education?" For the purposes of this chapter, informal and nonformal adult education include just about any endeavor adults undertake to learn and work together outside formal classroom, workplace, or…

  4. Rec Club: A Community Centered Approach to Recreational Development for Adults with Mild to Moderate Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A community-centered recreational program that has served 12 mentally retarded young adults is described. Major features of the Rec Club include specific skill training activities and enhancement of independent recreational activities conducted in commercial community settings (e.g., bowling alley). Assistance is reduced as participants' skills…

  5. Participation in Adult Education for Community Development: A Critical Discourse Analysis of "Training for Transformation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupar, Allyson M.; Prins, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Participation has become so central to adult education for community development that even the World Bank supports participatory programming. This article analyses how participation is conceptualised in "Training for Transformation" (TfT), a Freirean-inspired curriculum used in international community development settings. TfT seeks to…

  6. Working for Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning: Leadership, Representation and Racialised "Outsiders within"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Shona

    2006-01-01

    This article uses empirical material from a qualitative study of adult and community learning (ACL) to explore issues around leading for equality and diversity in educational organisations. What the author is interested in is the way that the commitment to a "community" context in ACL opens up (or keeps open) certain possibilities for "diverse"…

  7. Neighborhood Renewal: Case Studies & Conversations Focusing on Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lenford

    This document explores the themes of sustainability, rural poverty, community activism, and challenging racism in the United Kingdom. The book presents 21 case studies demonstrating ways in which 18 organizations and 3 activists in the United Kingdom have worked successfully with adult learners to empower their communities, develop capacity, and…

  8. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  9. Wise Choices: Nutrition and Exercise for Older Adults: A Community-Based Health Promotion Intervention.

    PubMed

    Turk, Melanie T; Elci, Okan U; Resick, Lenore K; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interventions for older adults are needed to address lifestyle behaviors linked to chronic illnesses. We implemented a 12-week group behavioral intervention for 118 racially diverse older adults at 6 community-based senior centers to improve eating and physical activity. Assessments were completed pre- and postintervention, with 85.6% retention. We documented increases in fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; pace of walking; number of city blocks walked; daily steps walked; functional mobility; and self-rated general health (P < .05). Findings indicate that a relatively low-intensity lifestyle intervention can effectively be implemented for community-dwelling older adults. Further development of this approach is warranted.

  10. Wise Choices: Nutrition and Exercise for Older Adults: A Community-Based Health Promotion Intervention.

    PubMed

    Turk, Melanie T; Elci, Okan U; Resick, Lenore K; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interventions for older adults are needed to address lifestyle behaviors linked to chronic illnesses. We implemented a 12-week group behavioral intervention for 118 racially diverse older adults at 6 community-based senior centers to improve eating and physical activity. Assessments were completed pre- and postintervention, with 85.6% retention. We documented increases in fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; pace of walking; number of city blocks walked; daily steps walked; functional mobility; and self-rated general health (P < .05). Findings indicate that a relatively low-intensity lifestyle intervention can effectively be implemented for community-dwelling older adults. Further development of this approach is warranted. PMID:27536931

  11. Adult Learning, Community Education, and Public Health: Making the Connection through Community Health Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Community health education does more than educate communities about health. In the most basic form, community health education seeks to enable citizens to assume responsibility for their own and their community's health through an understanding of their community's health problems and the societal influences that act upon them. Many community…

  12. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies.

  13. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies. PMID:20702447

  14. Community Living and Housing Options for Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Data indicates that people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are increasingly receiving community based services in lieu of institutionalization. The Research and Training Center on Community Living at the University of Minnesota reports that the number of people living in large state run institutions decreased from 117,147…

  15. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  16. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  17. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution. PMID:27563915

  18. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie T.; Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Thiel, Vera; Klapper, Isaac; Kühl, Michael; Fredrickson, James K.; Bryant, Donald A.; Ward, David M.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptive and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabit this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms, and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g., glycolate) and fermentation (e.g., acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gasses (e.g., H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: (1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; (2) photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; (3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and (4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g., wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their niches. PMID:25941514

  19. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Debra J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Riley, Natasha E; Behar, Alma I; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-08-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was chosen for adaptation because it was perceived to fit the CORRECT model of innovation (credible, observable, relevant, relatively advantageous, easy to understand, compatible, and testable) and because of the potential to customize any components not identified as core, allowing them to be revised for cultural and linguistic alignment in New York City. Most of the 143 community participants (76.2%) were female; most (54.6%) were older than 59 years. More than half (78.3%) preferred to speak English or were bilingual in English and Spanish. A large proportion (41.3%) had not completed high school. Knowledge and perceived benefits and barriers regarding CCT showed small, though statistically significant, increases. There were no statistically significant group differences for changes in mean knowledge, perceived benefits, or perceived barriers when examined by ethnicity, education level, language, or other included sociodemographic variables. However, a small, but statistically significant difference in perceived barriers was observed when examined by country of origin, with the foreign born score worsening 0.08 points (SD = 0.47, p = .007) on the 5-point Likert-type scale administered posteducation compared to preeducation. Participants' open-ended comments demonstrated the acceptability of the topic and intervention. This adaptation resulted in an intervention with the potential to educate African American and Latina/o general community members in a new geographic region about the purpose, methods, and benefits of CCTs. PMID:26493870

  20. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution.

  1. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution. PMID:27563915

  2. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie; Becraft, Eric; Wood, Jason M.; Thiel, Vera; Klapper, Isaac; Kuhl, Michael; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bryant, Donald A.; et al

    2015-04-17

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptative and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number ofmore » predominant taxa inhabiting this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate) and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2) Synechococcus spp. produce CH4 via metabolism of phosphonates, and photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences

  3. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie; Becraft, Eric; Wood, Jason M.; Thiel, Vera; Klapper, Isaac; Kuhl, Michael; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bryant, Donald A.; Ward, David M.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2015-04-17

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptative and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabiting this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate) and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2) Synechococcus spp. produce CH4 via metabolism of phosphonates, and photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their

  4. Adult and Community Education: A Snapshot of the Conditions and Circumstances of Being a Community-Based Adult Community Education (ACE) Provider in South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria from September to December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwencke, Helen

    This report compiles information from a study tour to identify the current status, development, and issues of nonprofit organizations with voluntary boards of management that provide adult and community-based education (ACE) in Australia. An overview of the community-based ACE sector covers organizations in South Australia, Western Australia,…

  5. Administering Successful Programs for Adults. Promoting Excellence in Adult, Community, and Continuing Education. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Michael W.; And Others

    This book provides a practical orientation as well as a conceptual framework for understanding the administrative process by examining the primary elements, functions, and processes involved with effective administration of adult, community, and continuing education agencies and organizations. The book is organized in nine chapters. Chapter 1…

  6. Quality of life (QOL) of older adult community choral singers in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julene K; Louhivuori, Jukka; Stewart, Anita L; Tolvanen, Asko; Ross, Leslie; Era, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Background Enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults is an international area of focus. Identifying factors and experiences that contribute to QOL of older adults helps promote optimal levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between perceived benefits associated with choral singing and quality of life (QOL) among community-dwelling older adults. Methods One hundred and seventeen older adults who sing in community choirs in Jyväskylä, Finland completed self-report measures of QOL (WHOQOL-Bref), depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire about the benefits of singing in choir. Correlational analyses and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the benefits of singing in choir and QOL. Results Both correlation and regression analyses found significant relationships between the benefits of choral singing and three QOL domains: psychological, social relationships, and environment but not physical. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, older choral singers who reported greater benefits of choir singing had higher QOL in multiple domains. The older choral singers in the study also reported few symptoms of depression and high overall QOL and satisfaction with health. Conclusion Results suggest that singing in a community choir as an older adult may positively influence several aspects of QOL. These results suggest that community choral singing may one potential avenue for promoting quality of life in older adults. PMID:23574947

  7. Increased Difficulties in Managing Stairs in Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Community-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Managing stairs is a challenging aspect of daily activities of living for older people. We assessed whether older adults with visual impairment (VI) have greater difficulties of managing stairs in daily lives. Methods The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years and older in rural China. Visual acuity (VA) was measured in both eyes using a retro-illuminated Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes. VI (including blindness) was defined as presenting VA of worse than 20/60 in either eye. Having any difficulties in managing stairs was self-reported based on a question drawn from the Barthel Index. Information on participants’ socioeconomic status, lifestyle-related factors, diseases histories and medication intake was collected using a questionnaire. Results The Barthel Index, Activities of Daily Living questionnaire was completed by 4597 (99.7%) participants including 2218 men and 2379 women. The age of the participants ranged from 60 to 93 years with a mean of 67.6 ± 6.3 years. In age and gender adjusted models, adults with VI had a higher likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.7) compared with those without. The association of VI with the likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs was stronger in older adults who lived alone (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 1.8, 4.5) compared with those who lived with other family members (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3, 4.3). Compared with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cognitive dysfunction, VI had the greatest impact on people's abilities of managing stairs. Conclusion VI was associated with an increased likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs, especially in those who lived alone. However, whether the finding could be extrapolated to other populations warrants further studies as different environmental exposures such as illumination and types of stairs may alter the association

  8. Youth–adult partnership: exploring contributions to empowerment, agency and community connections in Malaysian youth programs.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Collura, Jessica; Zeldin, Shepherd; Ortega, Adriana; Abdullah, Haslinda; Sulaiman, Abdul Hadi

    2014-09-01

    Youth–adult partnership (Y–AP) has emerged as a key practice for enacting two features of effective developmental settings: supportive adult relationships and support for efficacy and mattering. Previous studies have shown that when youth, supported by adults, actively participate in organizational and community decision making they are likely to show greater confidence and agency, empowerment and critical consciousness, and community connections. Most of the extant research on Y–AP is limited to qualitative studies and the identification of organizational best practices. Almost all research focuses on Western sociocultural settings. To address these gaps, 299 youth, age 15 to 24, were sampled from established afterschool and community programs in Malaysia to explore the contribution of Y–AP (operationalized as having two components: youth voice in decision-making and supportive adult relationships) to empowerment, agency and community connections. As hypothesized, hierarchical regressions indicated that program quality (Y–AP, safe environment and program engagement) contributed to agency, empowerment and community connections beyond the contribution of family, school and religion. Additionally, the Y–AP measures contributed substantially more variance than the other measures of program quality on each outcome. Interaction effects indicated differences by age for empowerment and agency but not for community connections. The primary findings in this inquiry replicate those found in previous interview and observational-oriented studies. The data suggests fertile ground for future research while demonstrating that Y–AP may be an effective practice for positive youth development outside of Western settings.

  9. Design for a Performance Based Adult Education Community Coordinating Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    A plan is described for a project to establish an adult education coordinating and change agency in the New Haven, Connecticut area to coordinate activities of existing organizations; provide a research staff to establish a computerized data base; disseminate information and provide technological services to local agencies; set up a communications…

  10. Developing a Trusting Community: Dilemmas in ESL Adult Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Marsha

    1994-01-01

    The example of an adult teacher of English as a Second Language illustrates that, in attempting to build learner trust, dilemmas between creating a safe learning environment and holding students academically accountable are normal. Multiple forms of trusting relationships may conflict; educators should view trust as not only establishing rapport…

  11. Working Adults in Accelerated Cohorts: More than a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Robin; Duff, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    There are 54 million working adults in the United States without bachelor's degrees (Pusser et al., 2007). Many would like to obtain a college degree but need an educational program that fits their needs. A viable alternative to a traditional college program is an accelerated program in a cohort format. This article highlights best practices for…

  12. Predictors of Adult Education Program Satisfaction in Urban Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; López, Erick B.; Keene, Jennifer R.; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning is receiving greater attention due to population aging in modern societies. Lifelong learning benefits individuals by supporting their physical, psychological, social, and economic well-being. However, older adults generally have lower motivation for learning than younger adults, and facilitating long-term participation in…

  13. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  14. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  15. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations

    PubMed Central

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  16. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks.

  17. Feeding guild of non-host community members affects host-foraging efficiency of a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    De Rijk, Marjolein; Yang, Daowei; Engel, Bas; Dicke, Marcel; Poelman, Erik H

    2016-06-01

    Interactions between predator and prey, or parasitoid and host, are shaped by trait- and density-mediated processes involving other community members. Parasitoids that lay their eggs in herbivorous insects locate their hosts through infochemicals such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) and host-produced kairomones. Hosts are frequently accompanied by non-host herbivores that are unsuitable for the parasitoid. These non-hosts may interfere with host location primarily through trait-mediated processes, by their own infochemicals, and their induction of the emission of plant volatiles. Although it is known that single non-hosts can interfere with parasitoid host location, it is still unknown whether the observed effects are due to species specific characteristics or to the feeding habits of the non-host herbivores. Here we addressed whether the feeding guild of non-host herbivores differentially affects foraging of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata for its common host, caterpillars of Pieris brassicae feeding on Brassica oleracea plants. We used different phloem-feeding and leaf-chewing non-hosts to study their effects on host location by the parasitoid when searching for host-infested plants based on HIPVs and when searching for hosts on the plant using infochemicals. To evaluate the ultimate effect of these two phases in host location, we studied parasitism efficiency of parasitoids in small plant communities under field-tent conditions. We show that leaf-chewing non-hosts primarily affected host location through trait-mediated effects via plant volatiles, whereas phloem-feeding non-hosts exerted trait-mediated effects by affecting foraging efficiency of the parasitoid on the plant. These trait-mediated effects resulted in associational susceptibility of hosts in environments with phloem feeders and associational resistance in environments with non-host leaf chewers. PMID:27459770

  18. Developing Partnerships for Adult Literacy Training: College/Community Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L.; And Others

    The Corpus Christi Literacy Council (CCLC) is an independent, non-profit educational organization operating through joint partnership and grant activities with Del Mar College (DMC) and community and government organizations in the Corpus Christi (Texas) area. The major purposes of the council are to establish comprehensive reading programs for…

  19. Developing Community Expectations: The Critical Role of Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David; Miller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life in a community is directly tied to the capital available to its citizenry. The idea of capital refers to the resources related to the population--the wealth, the open-minded nature of individuals, the potential for jobs, and putting skills and talents to use to earn a living. There have been a wide range of studies and efforts…

  20. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults' Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Meena; D'Souza, Sebestina A

    2016-03-01

    Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10% of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities. PMID:26706252

  1. [Summary of the Consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    2005-08-01

    This is an update of the Consensus for treatment of community acquired pneumonia in adults, prepared by the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases and the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases. These norms were prepared by thirty specialists in respiratory diseases, internal medicine, infectious diseases, microbiology, intensive medicine and radiology. The purpose of the document is to norm the management of immunocompetent adults with community acquired pneumonia, by the public and private health systems of our country. The complete document will be published in June, in the respective journals of the Societies of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases. This is a summary to obtain a better diffusion of these norms among internists and general practitioners.

  2. Community belonging and sedentary behavior among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of income.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L; Copeland, Jennifer L; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how income and community belonging may interact to influence leisure sedentary behavior among Indigenous adults. Data were obtained from 1,304 First Nations adults who completed the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2012. Among average-income earners, a strong sense of belonging to local community was associated with less sedentary behavior, a finding also documented in the general population. Among low-income earners, a strong sense of belonging to local community was associated with more sedentary behavior, a finding that is novel in the literature. These associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic covariates and mental and physical health, suggesting other factors are influencing this correlation. PMID:27668591

  3. Aging in community: mobilizing a new paradigm of older adults as a core social resource.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathy; Dobbs, Debra; Young, Tiffany L

    2015-03-01

    Dignity and independence are widely considered as core concepts to aging well, yet little research has explored how older adults perceive these issues in the context of community life. Moreover, little is known regarding the ways in which the broader public views and enhances aging with dignity and independence with their older residents. Using participatory action research, multiple methods of qualitative inquiry, and tenets of appreciative inquiry, this article reports on a community-based initiative aimed to better understand the positive aspects of aging with dignity and independence. Synthesized findings yielded 6 "actionable themes": (1) meaningful involvement, (2) aging in place, (3) respect and inclusion, (4) communication and information, (5) transportation and mobility, and (6) health and well-being. The findings invoke a new paradigm for community aging that highlights the unique contributions of older adults as a core social resource. Implications for mobilizing community action to promote aging with dignity and independence are discussed. PMID:25681387

  4. The Trainer in Community Development; Adult Education in Three Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Robert N.

    1970-01-01

    Quaker community development efforts and approaches in rural Mexico; use of Hooponopono" (frank expression of differences and grievances) by VISTA volunteer trainees in Hawaii; and a similar confrontation technique for resolving grievances between Negro and Mexican American communtiy action board members. (LY)

  5. Five-year follow-up study of multi-domain cognitive training for healthy elderly community members

    PubMed Central

    FENG, Wei; LI, Chunbo; CHEN, You; CHENG, Yan; WU, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive training, a safe non-pharmacological intervention, may help mitigate cognitive decline and prevent the development of dementia in elderly individuals. Objective Evaluate the long-term effects of cognitive training among healthy elderly community members. Methods Healthy individuals 70 years of age or older from one urban community in Shanghai were screened and the 151 individuals who met inclusion criteria were assigned either to an intervention group (n=90) or a control group (n=61). The intervention involved twice-weekly training in reasoning, memory, and strategy that continued for 12 weeks (a total of 24 sessions). Participants were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks, and 5 years after enrollment using the Chinese versions of the Neuropsychological Test Battery for Elderly persons (NTBE), the Stroop Color-Word Test, and a general health questionnaire. Results Forty-nine (54%) intervention group subjects and 33 (54%) control group subjects completed the 5-year follow-up. There were few differences in the baseline neurocognitive measures of those who did and did not complete the 5-year follow-up, and there were few differences between those who dropped out of the intervention group compared to those who dropped out of the control group. At the 5-year follow-up, individuals in the intervention group performed better than those in the control group on only 5 measures (in the Trails Making A Test and the Cancellation Test 3) of the 61 measures assessed by NTBE and the Stroop tests, but none of these differences met the pre-determined required level of statistical significance (p=0.0008). Conclusion We do not confirm the results of previous studies that report long-term benefits of brief cognitive training courses for elderly community residents. Our failure to identify differences in cognitive functioning five years after cognitive training is not likely due to differential dropout between the intervention and control groups but may be related

  6. Caring for adults with a learning disability in the community.

    PubMed

    Powrie, E

    A recurring theme within the literature is gaps in the delivery of services for people with a learning disability living in the community. These gaps occur between health professionals, primary and secondary care and specialisms within nursing. Gaps also exist between social service policy and implementation, health and social care. Recent national and local reports have sought to address these issues by promoting ways for health and social services to work in partnership. The theme of health promotion is highlighted in all these documents, but implementation of health promotion has been firmly placed within the boundaries of primary care. This poses a dilemma for primary care: does the primary care team or a more specialist community learning disability team provide better care for people with a learning disability? This article summarizes strategies and policies within the literature and difficulties that need to be considered when offering a service to people with a learning disability. PMID:11927898

  7. Local Medicaid home- and community-based services spending and nursing home admissions of younger adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.

  8. Local Medicaid Home- and Community-Based Services Spending and Nursing Home Admissions of Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states’ efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue. PMID:25211711

  9. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  10. Synergy in Urban Relationships--Public School Adult Education, Community Colleges, and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.

    The presentation reviews selected developments in inter-organizational cooperation and coordination at the local, State, and national levels in order to provide a basis for identifying major questions and issues faced by the National Council of Urban Administrators of Adult Education (NCUAAE) as they strive for synergy in adult education. Trends…

  11. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  12. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education. Special Issue in Memory of CIHED Advisory Board Member J. Roby Kidd.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CIHED Newsletter, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This newsletter deals with lifelong learning and adult and continuing education. Included in the issue are the following articles: "The Learning Society," by Solveig M. Turner; "Adult Education at the Beginning of the 1980s," by J. Roby Kidd; "Lifelong Learning in an International Perspective: Selected Case Studies," by J. Roby Kidd; "Continuing…

  13. Leadership from Within: Rural Community Revitalisation and the School-Community Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Susan; Kilpatrick, Sue; Falk, Ian; Mulford, Bill

    A case study of a rural community in Western Australia examined factors responsible for the progress made in breaking down barriers between youth and adults and building community cohesiveness. Community documents and interviews with school personnel, students, and community members revealed that the high school worked with the community to build…

  14. A Study of the Relationship of Highly Effective California Community Colleges and Their Board of Trustee Members' Characteristics, Behaviors, and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Among the identified highly effective California community colleges, the purpose of the study was to ascertain the degree of importance for the six competencies of board effectiveness as determined by the Chait et al. (1993, 1996) Board Self-Assessment Questionnaire (BSAQ) as self-reported by board members. Methodology: The design for…

  15. Assessing the Student, Faculty, and Community Partner in Academic Service-Learning: A Categorization of Surveys Posted Online at Campus Compact Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Susan; Anderson-Lain, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Service-learning is an instructional strategy used by faculty at hundreds of institutions, including those that are members of Campus Compact, an organization committed to service-learning and community/civic engagement. For this study, researchers examined a variety of online survey assessment tools used in service-learning projects. The…

  16. Challenges of Knowledge Management and Creation in Communities of Practice Organisations of Deaf and Non-Deaf Members: Requirements for a Web Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego Roberto; Garcia, Laura Sanchez; Lopes da Silva, Rafaella Aline; Fernandes, Sueli

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a…

  17. A Survey of Navajo Community School Board Members Including Their Legal Status and Election or Appointment to Federally Operated Schools on the Navajo Indian Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Marjorie T.

    After surveying the historical background and the development of Navajo education, the study investigates the socioeconomic characteristics, the educational status, the length of service, and the selection of Navajo Community School Board (NCSB) members for the federally operated schools on the Navajo Reservation. A 22 item questionnaire, designed…

  18. The Quest for Continuous Improvement: A Qualitative Study on Diffusion of Outcomes Assessment among Career and Technical Education Faculty Members at Rocky Mountain States Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The following qualitative multicase study presents an examination of outcomes assessment adoption as it relates to Career and Technical Education faculty at community colleges and outlines recommendations for postsecondary education administration as they introduce innovations to faculty members. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  19. The Social Dialogue in the Member States of the European Community in the Field of Vocational Training and Continuing Training--Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, B.; And Others

    This document describes the current links between the world of work (employees, employers, industrial sectors, and companies) and the world of vocational training (in-company, inter-company, and school-based training bodies) in member states of the European Community; and the degree and nature of the involvement of the social partners in the…

  20. The Arts--A Missing Link in the Basic Curriculum. A Process Manual to Integrate the Arts into the Elementary School Curriculum for Administrators, Teachers and Community Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Kathryn Gerlach

    Cited as a model project for the state of Vermont, this process model helps administrators, teachers, and community members integrate the arts into the elementary school curriculum. Arranged into 10 sections, the introduction in part 1 outlines the development of the program. Three major project goals are stated in section 2 and section 3 is an…

  1. Role Perceptions of the Cooperative Extension Service in Non-Metropolitan Counties as Perceived by County Extension Agents, Voluntary Association Members and Community Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Mike

    A study was conducted to measure the role perceptions of the Georgia Extension Service in rural counties as viewed by three relevant sample groups: members of voluntary associations, leaders of the Harris County community, and professional County Extension Service personnel serving rural counties. Mailed surveys were answered by 69 voluntary…

  2. Older adults with Alzheimer's disease in a faith community.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Catherine j; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2008-01-01

    In the first phase of this study, focus groups were conducted with 12 clergy to explore how to meet the needs of Alzheimer's disease patients and their families. The clergy reported that although they do reach out to these families, they have not received formal training, so they often do not know what families need. Members of their congregations who are trained in working with Alzheimer's patients need to partner with the clergy in reaching out to these families. Although this article mainly focuses on the clergy's perspective, in the second phase of the study, caregivers and early-stage Alzheimer's patients were asked to describe their experiences of spiritual connections related to Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Organ S values and effective doses for family members exposed to adult patients following I-131 treatment: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Brown, Tracy L. Y.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To calculate organ S values (mGy/Bq-s) and effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv/Bq-s) for pediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult male or female patient treated with I-131 using a series of hybrid computational phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport technique.Methods: A series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantoms were employed in the study. Three different exposure scenarios were considered: (1) standing face-to-face exposures between an adult patient and pediatric or adult family phantoms at five different separation distances; (2) an adult female patient holding her newborn child, and (3) a 1-yr-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient. For the adult patient model, two different thyroid-related diseases were considered: hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with corresponding internal distributions of {sup 131}I. A general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNPX v2.7, was used to perform the Monte Carlo radiation transport.Results: The S values show a strong dependency on age and organ location within the family phantoms at short distances. The S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from the adult female patient phantom are relatively high at shorter distances and to younger family phantoms. At a distance of 1 m, effective doses per time-integrated activity are lower than those values based on the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) by a factor of 2 for both adult male and female patient phantoms. The S values to target organs from the hyperthyroid-patient source distribution strongly depend on the height of the exposed family phantom, so that their values rapidly decrease with decreasing height of the family phantom. Active marrow of the 10-yr-old phantom shows the highest S values among family phantoms for the DTC-patient source distribution. In the exposure scenario of mother and baby, S values and effective doses per time-integrated activity to

  4. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  5. The Development of Adult and Community Education Policy in New Zealand: Insights from Popper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which all post-compulsory education in New Zealand has become integrated under one administrative structure, the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC), with the intention of developing a single coordinated system of tertiary education. In particular, adult and community education (ACE), the least formal and…

  6. The Social Value of Community-Based Adult Education in Limerick City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Patricia; O'Dwyer, Maria; Power, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a qualitative study into the social value of community-based adult education in Limerick City. The article demonstrates that participants experience significant improvements in numerous facets of their lives and we argue that it is crucial that we recognise the multiple and inter-connected social impacts that…

  7. An Analysis of the Educational Preferences among Adult Residents of Arapahoe Community College's Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.; Hart, Sharon

    In May 1985, a study was conducted by Arapahoe Community College (ACC) to determine the preferences of service area adults for educational opportunities. Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected households and distributed by local libraries, recreation centers, and other nonprofit organizations, soliciting information on interest in…

  8. Multiple Images, Common Threads. Case Studies of Good Practice in Adult Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia

    This document presents 10 case studies of adult community education programs (ACE) in the state of Victoria, Australia, in the mid 1990s, that were identified as exemplifying the following principles of good practice in ACE: expansiveness, integration, responsiveness, innovation, belonging, explicitness, autonomy, accessibility, synthesis, and…

  9. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  10. Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…

  11. Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…

  12. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection in human adults. From three rural communities in Derango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is scarce information concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people of rural Mexico. Anti-T. Gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 462 adult inhabitants from 3 rural communities of Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 110 (23.8% of ...

  13. Managing Staff Development in Adult and Community Learning: Reflection to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, David

    This document is intended to assist individuals responsible for managing staff development in adult and community learning (ACL) in the United Kingdom. The guide presents step-by-step advice for designing and implementing an approach based on the belief that staff development should do the following things: (1) relate holistically to the…

  14. Involving Tutors and Support Staff in the Adult and Community Learning Quality Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David

    This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…

  15. Responding to the Mental Health and Well-Being Agenda in Adult Community Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…

  16. Self-Assessment and Development Planning for Adult and Community Learning Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Mike; Reisenberger, Anna

    This document is designed to help adult and community learning (ACL) services across the United Kingdom complete the annual self-assessment reports (SARs). The guide begins with background information on the purposes of self-assessment, the new context of ACL and the elements and format of the new SARs. The remaining four sections examine the…

  17. Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommering, Thomas L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of a 10-week aerobic exercise program on 14 community-based adults with mental retardation found a 91.3% attendance rate and significant increases in maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, maximum ventilation, exercise stress test duration, and flexibility. However, no significant changes were observed in weight or body composition.…

  18. Adult and Community Education Policy in Aotearoa New Zealand 2000-2014: Neoliberal Influences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tertiary education policy in Aotearoa New Zealand in the last decade have impacted on adult and community education (ACE). Marginalized and understood as non-formal education at the turn of the century, ACE is now part of the "tertiary landscape". It is explicitly steered by education policy, its role severely narrowed, its…

  19. Differential Outcomes for American College Students Engaged in Community Service-Learning Involving Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…

  20. Teaching Community Survival Skills to Mentally Retarded Adults: A Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on training mentally retarded adults in the following community survival skills: travel training, money management, meal preparation, clothing and personal care, telephone skill, housekeeping, self-medication, leisure skills, social skills, and conversation. Results are said to indicate the value of behavioral…

  1. TRAINING FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING, A COMMUNITY PROGRAM FOR SEVERELY RETARDED ADULTS. A THREE YEAR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOBIAS, JACK

    AN OCCUPATIONAL DAY CENTER FOR MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE COMMUNITY SERVICES FOR RETARDED PERSONS WHO LIVE AT HOME AND, ALTHOUGH BEYOND SCHOOL AGE, ARE UNABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN SHELTERED WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES. THE STAFF INCLUDES A DIRECTOR, A SOCIAL WORKER, FIVE INSTRUCTORS, A TRAINING SUPERVISOR, AN OFFICE WORKER, AND A…

  2. Expanding Resources for Working Adults: A College/Community/Hospital Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Stephen M.; West, Betty

    In response to the critical need for nurses in New York City, the Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC), with support from two local unions and a foundation, initiated the Evening/Weekend Program designed for working adult nursing students in fall, 1989. While the 3-year, part-time program was open to any qualified BMCC student, a special…

  3. Program Completion and Recidivism Outcomes among Adult Offenders Ordered to Complete a Community Service Sentence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Muftic, Lisa R.

    2006-01-01

    Relatively little research has examined the outcomes (either program completion or recidivism) of community service (CS) sentences among adult offenders in the United States, despite the fact that this form of alternative sanction has been employed in the United States for nearly 40 years. What little research exists, primarily from Europe,…

  4. Community-Based Juvenile Reentry Services: The Effects of Service Dosage on Juvenile and Adult Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Terry, Diane; Franke, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the influence of length of participation in a community-based reentry program on the odds of reconviction in the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. A structured telephone survey of reentry program alumni was conducted with 75 transition-age (18-25 year-old) young men. Binary logistic regression analysis…

  5. Screening for Osteoporosis in Community-Dwelling Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Carl V., Jr.; Snyder, Clint W.; Zyzanski, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis screening of 107 adults, ages 40 to 60, with mental retardation who attended community-based training centers found 21 percent had osteoporosis and 34 percent had osteopenia. The most significant predictor of lower bone mineral densities were Down syndrome, mobility status, and race. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  6. Promoting Literacy for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in a Community-Based Service Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Karen B.; Jobling, Anne; Morgan, Michelle; Lloyd, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of and advocacy for developing literacy skills for successful and rewarding participation in the community, there remains a common perception that becoming literate is not possible for people with intellectual disabilities. Until recently, limited research has been undertaken to investigate the literacy skills of adults with…

  7. Experiences of Adult Students in Multi-Generational Community College Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Kathleen Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study is a basic interpretative inquiry studying the experiences of fourteen adult students 45 years of age or older in a multi-generational community college classroom. The study is informed by social constructivism, social constructionism and andragogy. It focused on how students viewed their experiences in the…

  8. Education Community Dialogue towards Building a Policy Agenda for Adult Education: Reflections Drawn from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Tatiana Lotierzo; Giannecchini, Laura; Magalhaes, Giovanna Mode; Munhoz, Fabiola; Croso, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we share the experience of the "Amplifying Voices" initiative. Held by the Latin American Campaign for the Right to Education (CLADE) within the scope of public policy advocacy, "Amplifying Voices" applies the principles of consultation and dialogue in youth and adult education communities, aiming at a stronger…

  9. Community College Graduates' Perceptions of Adult Learning Instructional Practices Employed in Continuing Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkson, Chandris Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine continuing education students' perceptions of adult education instructional practices at an urban community college. The continuing education students recently graduated from programs of law enforcement, truck driving, and health occupations. Perception analysis was based on the six principles…

  10. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  11. Social Dynamics in Adult and Community Education Networks: Insights from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollhausen, Karin; Alke, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Implementing network type structures has become a widely appreciated strategy to promote actor-relationships in the field of adult and community education and to coordinate them purposefully. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on how a "successful" coordination of actor-relationships can actually be achieved. This paper offers…

  12. Food Security in Older Adults: Community Service Provider Perceptions of Their Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Edwards, Vicki; Senson, Christine; Edward, H. Gayle

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food…

  13. Using Quality Schemes in Adult and Community Learning: A Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, David; Watters, Kate

    This document examines adult and community learning (ACL) and quality programs across England. The difficulties faced by local education agencies' ACL services in delivering quality are noted, along with ways quality improvement has been supported. Quality programs--whether internal or external, based on awards, or used as diagnostic tools--are…

  14. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  15. Journey to Healthy Aging: Impact of Community Based Education Programs on Knowledge and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarry, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if community based health education programs increased knowledge and health behavior in older adults. The study was a pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 111 independent community dwelling older adults. Participants received two disease prevention education presentations: type 2…

  16. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  17. Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

  18. Community-Dwelling Adults versus Older Adults: Psychopathology and the Continuum Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, Carmine; Boncori, Lucia; Cruciani, Anna Clara

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between "normal" personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of…

  19. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p < .0001). Demographic characteristics, including age, gender, race, education, and employment status, also demonstrated varied degrees of capability for predicting the different HELP scales (e.g., Exercise, Diet, Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  20. Borderline personality pathology and insomnia symptoms in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Oltmanns, Joshua R.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has associated BPD with sleep problems, but the relationship has been explored primarily in small clinical samples of younger adults. Findings from our lab have demonstrated that borderline symptoms remain present in later middle age and are associated with several negative life outcomes. A representative community sample of older adults (N = 633, Mage = 62.3) was obtained from the St Louis area, and interviewer-reports, self-reports, and informant-reports of personality pathology were completed along with an insomnia symptoms questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that symptoms from all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were significantly correlated with insomnia symptoms. However, after statistically controlling for major depression, body-mass index, race and gender, only borderline personality pathology remained significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Our results demonstrate that in addition to other negative health outcomes, borderline personality pathology is uniquely associated with sleep problems in later middle-aged adults in the community. PMID:24574136

  1. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  2. Caregiver Abuse of Chicago Chinese Older Adults in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xin Qi; Li, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of elder abuse reported by adult children among U.S Chinese populations. Method A community-based participatory research approach was implemented. A total of 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and over participated in this study. Elder abuse reported by adult children was assessed using Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Results This study found a prevalence of 59.8%for elder abuse among 548 adult children. Younger age (r = −0.10, p < .05), higher level of education (r = 0.20, p < .001), higher income (r = 0.14, p < .01), more years in the U.S. (r = 0.12, p < .05), not born in Mainland China (r = −0.13, p < .01), and English-speaking (r = 0.16, p < .001) were positively correlated with elder abuse reported by adult children. Discussion Elder abuse by adult children is prevalent among U.S. Chinese populations. It is necessary for researchers, health care providers and policy makers to put more attention on elder abuse by adult children. Longitudinal research is needed to explore the risk factors associated with elder abuse by adult children. Health care providers should improve detection of elder abuse and support at-risk caregivers. Policy makers may consider cultural sensitive approaches to address elder abuse. PMID:27606358

  3. Cable Technology: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palchinsky, Jo

    The penetration of cable television throughout American communities makes it a potentially significant tool for improving the quality and accessibility of adult education. As cities begin to include in the cable franchise allotment monies for access by community members, adult educators need to become actively involved during the development of a…

  4. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe abortion: experiences from community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia counties Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Yegon, Erick Kiprotich; Kabanya, Peter Mwaniki; Echoka, Elizabeth; Osur, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rate of unsafe abortions in Kenya has increased from 32 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 to 48 per 1000 women in 2012. This is one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Kenya changed its Constitution to include a more enabling provision regarding the provision of abortion services. Abortion-related stigma has been identified as a key driver in silencing women's ability to reproductive choice leading to seeking to unsafe abortion. We sought to explore abortion-related stigma at the community level as a barrier to women realizing their rights to a safe, legal abortion and compare manifestations of abortion stigma at two communities from regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion. Methods A qualitative study using 26 focus group discussions with general community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. We used thematic and content analysis to analyze and compare community member's responses regarding abortion-related stigma. Results Although abortion is recognized as being very common within communities, community members expressed various ways that stigmatize women seeking an abortion. This included being labeled as killers and are perceived to be a bad influence for women especially young women. Women reported that they were poorly treated by health providers in health facilities for seeking abortion especially young unmarried women. Institutionalization of stigma especially when Ministry of Health withdrew of standards and guidelines only heightened how stigma presents at the facilities and drives women seeking an abortion to traditional birth attendants who offer unsafe abortions leading to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of abortion-related complications. Conclusion Community members located in counties in regions with high incidence of unsafe abortion also reported higher levels of how they would stigmatize a woman seeking an abortion compared to community members from counties in low incidence

  5. Relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie L; Mefford, Linda; Groër, Maureen; Thomas, Sandra P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults in the southeastern United States. Four assessment tools were completed by 82 older adults (mean age = 74, age range = 65 to 91): the Perceived Stress Scale, the Carr Infection Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality, and a demographic form. A significant correlation was found between stress and SCL scores; however, four dimensions of religiousness/spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and infection. Older adults who were unable to forgive themselves or forgive others, or feel forgiven by God, were more likely to have had an infection in the previous month. Increased infections also occurred when older participants did not feel they had religious support from their congregations. Using these findings, gerontological nurses are well positioned to deliver tailored stress management and forgiveness interventions when older adults report increased stress.

  6. Recruitment of rural community-dwelling older adults: barriers, challenges, and strategies.

    PubMed

    Dibartolo, M C; McCrone, S

    2003-03-01

    The significant increase in the number of older adults in the USA, particularly in rural areas, has signaled the need for more research to address the health care needs of this complex, heterogeneous, and vulnerable population. However, accessing older adults in rural areas presents an especially difficult challenge for gerontological researchers. Barriers can include the normal physiological changes that accompany aging, prevalence of chronic illness and medication use, lower literacy rates, transportation issues, and a distrust of 'outsiders' and research in general. Specific strategies that may facilitate participation include the use of gatekeepers to gain entry, increased personal contact by researchers sensitive to the unique needs of older adults, and other media approaches tailored to the rural community. Understanding the characteristics of rural older adults, along with careful planning of recruitment strategies, is crucial to obtaining adequate participation and the acceptance of future research efforts. PMID:12745386

  7. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.; Self, W.H.; Wunderink, R.G.; Fakhran, S.; Balk, R.; Bramley, A.M.; Reed, C.; Grijalva, C.G.; Anderson, E.J.; Courtney, D.M.; Chappell, J.D.; Qi, C.; Hart, E.M.; Carroll, F.; Trabue, C.; Donnelly, H.K.; Williams, D.J.; Zhu, Y.; Arnold, S.R.; Ampofo, K.; Waterer, G.W.; Levine, M.; Lindstrom, S.; Winchell, J.M.; Katz, J.M.; Erdman, D.; Schneider, E.; Hicks, L.A.; McCullers, J.A.; Pavia, A.T.; Edwards, K.M.; Finelli, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radio-graphically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among adults 18 years of age or older in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville. Patients with recent hospitalization or severe immunosuppression were excluded. Blood, urine, and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for culture, serologic testing, antigen detection, and molecular diagnostic testing. Study radiologists independently reviewed chest radiographs. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization according to age and pathogen. RESULTS From January 2010 through June 2012, we enrolled 2488 of 3634 eligible adults (68%). Among 2320 adults with radiographic evidence of pneumonia (93%), the median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range, 46 to 71); 498 patients (21%) required intensive care, and 52 (2%) died. Among 2259 patients who had radio-graphic evidence of pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a pathogen was detected in 853 (38%): one or more viruses in 530 (23%), bacteria in 247 (11%), bacterial and viral pathogens in 59 (3%), and a fungal or mycobacterial pathogen in 17 (1%). The most common pathogens were human rhinovirus (in 9% of patients), influenza virus (in 6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 5%). The annual incidence of pneumonia was 24.8 cases (95% confidence interval, 23.5 to 26.1) per 10,000 adults, with the highest rates among adults 65 to 79 years of age (63.0 cases per 10,000 adults) and those 80 years of age or older (164.3 cases per 10,000 adults). For each pathogen, the incidence increased with age. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia

  8. Addressing Hearing Health Care Disparities among Older Adults in a US-Mexico Border Community

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Maia; Marrone, Nicole; Sanchez, Daisey Thalia; Sander, Alicia; Navarro, Cecilia; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Colina, Sonia; Harris, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a U.S.–Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with community health workers (CHWs) from a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n = 20) and focus groups with their family/friends (n = 27) and with members of the community-at-large (n = 47). The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n = 12). Individuals experienced depression, sadness, and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socioeconomic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. CHWs can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics. PMID:27574602

  9. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  10. College Advisor, Student, and Senior Staff Member Perceptions of Academic Advising Modalities and Types: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning, their senior staff members, and advisors are always striving to create advising modalities and utilize matching advising types that work best for the individual student. This qualitative single-case study was conducted to examine perceptions of the students, advisors, and senior staff members of the advising…

  11. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  12. From Community Presence to Sense of Place: Community Experiences of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam

    1999-01-01

    A study of seven adults with developmental disabilities found that they commonly spent time in places designated for people with disabilities versus the general public, in public versus private places, and in places characterized by business transactions versus social interactions. Strategies for increasing opportunities for positive community…

  13. Adult and Community Education in the 1980's. A Compendium of Lectures from Series in Adult Education at the University of New Mexico (1979-1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, S. Gregory, Ed.

    This compendium contains lectures on programs, administration, and services and on teaching and learning in adult and community education. The following lectures are included: "Working Effectively with Adults: What Research and Practice Tell Us," by Mark Rossman; "Learning How to Learn," by Robert Smith; "Assessing Teaching Style in Adult…

  14. An Investigation of the Factors That Motivate Adults to Participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) Classes at a Southeastern Wisconsin Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump-Phillips, Maureen R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the plausibility of using Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the factors that motivate adults to participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes at a Southeast Wisconsin Community College. The original TPB (Ajzen, 1991) attests that planned behaviors are determined by behavioral intentions which are…

  15. [Discussion between informal and formal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M T; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H

    2014-04-01

    Current Dutch policy on long-term care is aimed at a stronger connection between formal home care and informal care. We examined if formal and informal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults discuss the care and whether this is related to characteristics of the older adult, the care network and the individual caregivers. Data are derived from 63 community-dwelling older adults, including their health, their perceived control of the care and their care network. In addition, 79 informal and 90 formal caregivers are interviewed on their motives and vision on caregiving. The 112 dyads between those formal and informal caregivers are the units of analysis in the current study. Bivariate analyses reveal that informal caregivers are more likely to discuss the care with formal caregivers when they are residing with the older adult, when they provide a lot of care and/or when they are strongly motivated to keep the older adult at home. This is particularly the case when the care demands are high. Characteristics of the formal caregivers were not important. In conclusion, discussion of care between non-resident informal caregivers and formal caregivers is not self-evident and requires more effort to be established.

  16. Community Adult Education; Evidence Submitted to the Russell Committee on Adult Education in England and Wales by the Workers' Educational Association (West Lancashire & Cheshire District) and the Liverpool Educational Priority Area Action/Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, T. O.

    This paper discusses six roles which an adult education agency can fill in an Educational Priority Area and illustrates each one with examples from the Liverpool E.P.A. Project. These roles are: (1) adult education cum community development; (2) adult education as a resource in community development work; (3) adult education as an aid to parents…

  17. Does Older Adults' Cognitive Function Disrupt the Malleability of Their Attitudes toward Outgroup Members?: An fMRI Investigation.

    PubMed

    Krendl, Anne C; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    In the current study we examine how individual differences in older adults' global cognitive function impacts the extent to which their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals are malleable. Because prior research has elucidated the neural processes that are involved in evaluating stigmatized individuals who are responsible or not responsible for their condition, a cognitive neuroscience approach may be well-suited to answer this question. In the current study, 36 older and 17 young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating images of homeless people who were described as being responsible or not responsible for their condition. They also indicated how much pity they felt for each of the individuals in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes were malleable (e.g., more pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible individuals). Participants' cognitive function and baseline measure of their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals (including homeless individuals) were assessed. Results revealed that although older adults' attitudes were malleable, the extent to which this was true varied due to individual differences in their global cognitive function. Specifically, the difference in the magnitude of older adults' self-reported pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was predicted by their global cognitive function. Moreover, the difference in pity that older adults expressed toward not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was related to activity in the left insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (regions implicated in empathy). These results suggest that attitude malleability is affected by individual differences in global cognitive function. PMID:27074046

  18. The drug-crime nexus in a community sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, M D; Galaif, E R; Carmona, V

    2001-09-01

    The authors tested several theories using prospective data to explain the associations between drug abuse and crime in a community sample of 470 adults. Polydrug problems in early adulthood predicted both criminal behavior and polydrug problems in adulthood. Consequences of drug problems as a young adult included arrests and convictions for drug-related offenses, property damage, and driving under the influence of other drugs. Predictors of later polydrug problems included thefts, driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, arrests and convictions for drug-related offenses, and a lack of support for drug problems. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. The Prevalence of Medical Conditions Among U.S. Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of medical conditions is increasing among U.S. older adults, yet we have very limited knowledge about medical conditions among Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of medical conditions and its sociodemographic and health-related correlates within the context of a population-based cohort study of U.S. Chinese older adults. Method. Using a community-based participatory research approach, community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed between 2011 and 2013. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were female and the mean age was 72.8 years. In total, 84.3% of older adults had one or more medical condition, 24.6% reported two conditions, 19.5% had three conditions, and 17.0% reported four or more conditions. A sizeable percentage of older adults had never been screened for dyslipidemia (24.4%) or had never been screened for diabetes mellitus (35.7%).For those who reported high cholesterol, 73.0% were taking medications when compared with 76.1% of those who reported having diabetes and 88.3% of those who reported having high blood pressure. Various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics were correlated with medical conditions. Conclusion. Medical conditions were common among U.S. Chinese older adults, yet screening and treatment rates were fairly low. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to better understand the risk and protective factors associated with medical conditions. PMID:25378445

  20. Survey of a Pelvic Health Physiotherapy Community of Practice: A Pilot Study to Gain Member Input to Help Sustain and Advance the Group

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To gather input and perspectives from members of the Calgary Pelvic Health Physiotherapists' Community of Practice (PHPT CoP) to ensure common goals that help sustain and advance the group. Method: An online survey grounded in CoP theory was used to elicit feedback from 23 PHPTs. Descriptive statistics summarized survey results. Results: The response rate was 96%; all respondents worked in women's pelvic health. Respondents expressed interest in continuing regular face-to-face meetings, a speaker series, case studies, and connecting with other PHPTs. Conclusion: The findings suggest continuation of regular meetings, with a focus on clinical skill development, and an annual Alberta PHPT conference. Members of this community of practice seek a strategy to promote PHPT to the public and develop referral sources. PMID:25931649

  1. Developmental Plan Handbook for Community Skills Training (TACL, Training Adults for Community Living).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Martin R.; Hermus, Gary P.

    Based on behavioral principles, the handbook is designed as both an assessment tool and curriculum guide for training community living skills to mentally retarded and developmentally disabled individuals. Behavioral Programing Scales are provided to record baseline data, where the client receives no assistance. These scales cover all program…

  2. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Benefits and Risks in Secondary Use of Digitized Clinical Data: Views of Community Members Living in a Predominantly Ethnic Minority Urban Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Robert J.; Kearney, Joan; Cortes, Yamnia; Arcia, Adriana; Appelbaum, Paul; Fernández, Roberto Lewis; Luchsinger, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background There is potential to increase the speed of scientific discovery and implement personalized health care by using digitized clinical data collected on the patient care experience. The use of these data in research raises concerns about the privacy and confidentiality of personal health information. This study explored community members’ views on the secondary use of digitized clinical data to (1) recruit participants for clinical studies; (2) recruit family members of persons with an index condition for primary studies; and (3) conduct studies of information related to stored biospecimens. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the bioethical issues outlined from the perspective of urban-dwelling community members. Focus groups were used for data collection, and emergent content analysis was employed to organize and interpret the data. Results Thirty community members attended one of four focus groups ranging in size from 4 to 11 participants. Five critical themes emerged from the focus-group material: (1) perceived motivators for research participation; (2) objective or “real-life” barriers to research participation; (3) a psychological component of uncertainty and mistrust; (4) preferred mechanisms for recruitment and participation; and (5) cultural characteristics that can impact understanding and willingness to engage in research. Conclusions The overriding concern of community members regarding research participation and/or secondary clinical and nonclinical use of digitized information was that their involvement would be safe and the outcome would be meaningful to them and to others. According to participants, biospecimens acquired during routine clinical visits or for research are no longer possessions of the participant. Although the loss of privacy was a concern for participants, they preferred that researchers access their personal health information using a digitized clinical file rather than through a paper

  4. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself. PMID:26955925

  5. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself.

  6. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  7. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  8. Building Communities: ACE, Lifelong Learning and Social Capital. An Anthology of Word Portraits Reporting Research Conducted for the Adult, Community and Further Education Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian; Golding, Barry; Balatti, Josephine

    The 10 portraits, or case studies, in this book are intended to show how locally-owned adult education turns everyday learning into social and economic well-being. Taken alone, each portrait tries to give a particular insight into the daily transformation of adults and their local communities. Together, the group portrait shows how strongly adult…

  9. Sleep Quality, Pain and Self-Efficacy among Community-Dwelling Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to report the findings of a study examining relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes of community-dwelling adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sleep difficulty has been self-reported among adults with chronic pain. Past studies have demonstrated that chronic pain results in sleep difficulties and other complications that threaten effective functioning. Community-dwelling adults with SCD are living longer and need to be evaluated for sleep quality, pain, and self-efficacy. Little is known about whether adults with SCD-related pain have disturbances in sleep and self-efficacy, and if these disturbances are affected by age and/or gender. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes among community-dwelling adults with SCD, and who use support services of state SCD Associations in the United States. For this secondary data analysis, the study was conducted from June, 2014 to December, 2014 and used a descriptive correlational design to analyze data from a primary study of a convenience sample of 90 subjects with SCD, who were 18 years of age and older. Linear regression was used to compute the relationship between dependent and independent variables. All measures were self-reported. It was found that gender did not significantly affect reports of sleep, pain, or self-efficacy. Self-efficacy accounted for direct relationships with sleep and inverse relationships with pain. Some individuals (16.7%) reported sleeping very well, however, the majority (83.3%) was not sleeping very well, and a greater number of individuals (93.3%) reported having some pain. Among adults with chronic SCD pain, self-efficacy is important in maintaining a stable quality of health. Future assessments, interventions, and research should include comprehensive sleep and pain evaluations, and measures to improve self-efficacy and sleep

  10. Predicting sarcopenia from functional measures among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michelle; Glenn, Jordan M; Binns, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as age-related lean tissue mass (LTM) loss resulting in reduced muscular strength, physical function, and mobility. Up to 33 % of older adults currently are sarcopenic, with likely many more undiagnosed. The purpose of this investigation was to predict sarcopenia status from easily accessible functional measures of community-dwelling older adults. Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (n = 32 females and n = 11 males) participated in the present investigation. Inclusion criteria included ≥65 years of age, mini-mental state examination score ≥24, and no falls within previous 12 months. All subjects completed their appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were categorized as either sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic. Physical assessments included 10-m usual walk, hand-grip (HG) strength, 6-min walk, 8-ft up-and-go, 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, and sit-to-stand muscular power. A forward, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, sex, weight, height, 10-m walk, HG, and sit-to-stand muscular power account for 96.1 % of the variance in ASM. The area under the curve was 0.92 for correctly identifying sarcopenic participants compared to their actual classification. This is the first prediction model used to identify sarcopenia based on parameters of demographic and functional fitness measures in community-dwelling older adults. The ability to accurately identify sarcopenia in older adults is imperative to their quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  11. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ≥ 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults.

  12. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  13. Spatial measurement of mobility barriers: improving the environment of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Jong; Matsuoka, Rodney H; Tsai, Kun-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Mobility barriers can impede physical activity, increase the fear of falling, and pose a threat to the ability of older adults to live independently. This study investigated outdoor mobility barriers within a nonretirement public housing community located in Tainan, Taiwan. Site observations and interviews with older adult residents determined that parked motor scooters, potted plants, the rubber tiles of play areas, and a set of steps were the most important barriers. In addition, the space syntax parameters of control value and mean depth were effectively able to quantitatively measure improvements in walkability resulting from the hypothesized removal of these four barriers. These measures of improved walkability can be included in a cost-benefit analysis of spatial improvement factors to help policymakers address the mobility and accessibility needs of older adults.

  14. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults.

  15. [The ethiology structure of community-acquried pneumonia of young adults in closed communities].

    PubMed

    Nosach, E S; Skryl', S V; Kulakova, N V; Martynova, A V

    2012-01-01

    Despite of success in ethiology evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and instant improvement of diagnostic methods microbiological spectrum of CAP is still remaining underestimated and is still the problem for the routine clinical practice. In our study we estimated the role of fastidious bacteria which cause atypical CAP such as Chlamydophilla pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila. Furthermore we also defined the role of viral pathogens in ethiology of CAP.

  16. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement. PMID:26770532

  17. Memory performance and affect: are there gender differences in community-residing older adults?

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham Joseph; Pituch, Keenan A; Stanton, Marietta P; Chang, Wanchen

    2014-08-01

    After age 65, the incidence of episodic memory decline in males is greater than in females. We explored the influence of anxiety and depression on objective and subjective memory performance in a diverse sample of community-residing older adults. The study was a secondary analysis of data on three samples of adults from two states, Ohio and Texas: a community sample (n = 177); a retirement community sample (n = 97); and the SeniorWISE Study (n = 265). The sample of 529 adults was 74% female, the average age was 76.58 years (range = 59-100 years), and educational attainment was 13.12 years (±3.68); 68% were Caucasian, and 17% had depressive symptoms. We found no memory performance differences by gender. Males and females were similarly classified into the four memory performance groups, with almost half of each gender in the poor memory category. Even though males had greater years of education, they used fewer compensatory memory strategies. The observed gender differences in memory were subjective evaluations, specifically metamemory. Age was not a significant predictor of cognition or memory performance, nor did males have greater memory impairment than females.

  18. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement.

  19. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF A COMMUNITY HOSPITAL CLOSURE ON OLDER ADULTS: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults. PMID:24448403

  20. Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony W F; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life trauma is a known risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the relative contributions of early life versus adult trauma in predicting levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults. 1209 nonclinical community adults (18-70 years; 45% male) were assessed for mental health status, early life stressors, lifetime trauma exposure, and self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. A subset of the full sample subjected to group comparisons (n = 1088) indicated that early life stressor exposure primarily accounted for significantly higher depressive and anxiety symptom scores when compared against adults reporting to be free of childhood stressor or adult trauma exposure. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses of this subset using five distinct early life stressor types, namely 'Interpersonal violation', 'Family breakup', 'Disasters/war', 'Familial health trauma/death' and 'Personal health trauma' derived from principal component analysis of a wide range of self-reported early stressor events in the full sample, showed childhood 'Interpersonal violation' differentially predicted higher self-reported depressive and anxiety symptom scores in both males and females. Adult trauma exposure did not significantly predict these symptom scores. These findings underline the relative importance of exposure to 'interpersonal violation' relative to other types of early life stressors and adult trauma in the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults.

  1. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  2. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  3. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  4. Peace-building and reconciliation dividends of integrated health services delivery in post-conflict Burundi: qualitative assessments of providers and community members.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Cathryn; Edward, Anbrasi

    2015-01-01

    While demonstrating causality remains challenging, several 'health-peace' mechanisms have been proposed to describe how health systems contribute to peace-building and stability in post-conflict settings. A qualitative study was undertaken in southern Burundi to identify drivers of social tension and reconciliation in the catchment area of Village Health Works, a health services organisation. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in early 2014 with a total of one hundred and twenty community members and staff representing a range of conflict and recovery experience. Themes emerging from these interviews indicated mechanisms at the individual, household, community, and regional levels through which health provision mitigates tensions and promotes social cohesion. This peace dividend was amplified by the clinic's integrated model, which facilitates further community interaction through economic, agricultural and education programmes. Land pressure and the marginalisation of repatriated refugees were cited as drivers of local tension.

  5. Peace-building and reconciliation dividends of integrated health services delivery in post-conflict Burundi: qualitative assessments of providers and community members.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Cathryn; Edward, Anbrasi

    2015-01-01

    While demonstrating causality remains challenging, several 'health-peace' mechanisms have been proposed to describe how health systems contribute to peace-building and stability in post-conflict settings. A qualitative study was undertaken in southern Burundi to identify drivers of social tension and reconciliation in the catchment area of Village Health Works, a health services organisation. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in early 2014 with a total of one hundred and twenty community members and staff representing a range of conflict and recovery experience. Themes emerging from these interviews indicated mechanisms at the individual, household, community, and regional levels through which health provision mitigates tensions and promotes social cohesion. This peace dividend was amplified by the clinic's integrated model, which facilitates further community interaction through economic, agricultural and education programmes. Land pressure and the marginalisation of repatriated refugees were cited as drivers of local tension. PMID:25875719

  6. Delta Activity at Sleep Onset and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Gould, Christine E.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Jordan, Josh T.; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) has long been considered to be an abnormal variant in the electroencephalogram (EEG) among older adults. Prior work also indicates a predominance of slow wave EEG activity among patients with dementia. However, instability of state control occurring with aging generally and among many neurodegenerative diseases raises the possibility that FIRDA might represent the intrusion of sleep related elements of the EEG into the waking state. We examined delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in community-dwelling, older adults without dementia, and examined whether this activity is related to poorer cognitive performance. Methods: 153 community-dwelling, older adults without dementia underwent overnight polysomnography and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, and visuospatial ability. Delta activity during sleep/wake transitions (scored either as Waking or N1) was analyzed visually. Results: Participants were 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 y. DASO was present in 30 participants (19.6%). Age, years of education, sex, and body mass index did not differ between DASO (+) and (−) groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated faster reading of the Stroop color words in DASO (+) subjects (P = 0.007). None of the other cognitive domains differed between the two groups. Conclusions: DASO was relatively common in our sample of community-dwelling, older adults without dementia. DASO was not associated with poorer performance on any cognitive domain. Instead, individuals with DASO demonstrated better performance on a simple reading task. Although these findings suggest that an abnormal EEG activity may represent normal variation, our work underscores the importance of distinguishing DASO from FIRDA when examining sleep in older adults. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 725. Citation

  7. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Lamer, Tim J; Twyner, Channing

    2015-06-01

    The hyperalgesic effects of long-term opioid use in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain have not been widely reported. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between opioid use and heat pain (HP) perception in a sample of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain. The study cohort involved 187 adults (85 opioid and 102 nonopioid) with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Heat pain perception was assessed using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. An effect of opioid use was observed for nonstandardized (P = 0.004) and standardized (P = 0.005) values of HP 5-0.5 in which values of the opioid group were lower (more hyperalgesic) compared with those of the nonopioid group. HP 5-0.5 is a measure of the slope of the line connecting HP 0.5 (HP threshold) and HP 5 (intermediate measure of HP tolerance). In univariable (P = 0.019) and multiple variable (P = 0.003) linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower (more hyperalgesic) nonstandardized values of HP 5-0.5. Similarly, in univariable (P = 0.004) and multiple variable (P = 0.011) linear regression analyses (adjusted for work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower standardized values of HP 5-0.5. In this sample of community-dwelling adults, these observations suggest that long-term opioid use was associated with hyperalgesia independent of other clinical factors known to influence HP perception.

  8. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Lamer, Tim J; Twyner, Channing

    2015-06-01

    The hyperalgesic effects of long-term opioid use in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain have not been widely reported. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between opioid use and heat pain (HP) perception in a sample of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain. The study cohort involved 187 adults (85 opioid and 102 nonopioid) with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Heat pain perception was assessed using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. An effect of opioid use was observed for nonstandardized (P = 0.004) and standardized (P = 0.005) values of HP 5-0.5 in which values of the opioid group were lower (more hyperalgesic) compared with those of the nonopioid group. HP 5-0.5 is a measure of the slope of the line connecting HP 0.5 (HP threshold) and HP 5 (intermediate measure of HP tolerance). In univariable (P = 0.019) and multiple variable (P = 0.003) linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower (more hyperalgesic) nonstandardized values of HP 5-0.5. Similarly, in univariable (P = 0.004) and multiple variable (P = 0.011) linear regression analyses (adjusted for work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower standardized values of HP 5-0.5. In this sample of community-dwelling adults, these observations suggest that long-term opioid use was associated with hyperalgesia independent of other clinical factors known to influence HP perception. PMID:25815431

  9. Study of the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Individual Objective Performance within a University Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Shontarius D.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and individual objective performance. While the LMX literature suggests a positive correlation between LMX and performance, a closer look at the research examined showed that the performance measurements were based on subjective measurements rather than objective…

  10. Correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in community-dwelling older adults: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Camila Astolphi; Soares, Wuber Jefferson de Souza; Bilton, Tereza Loffredo; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Ferrioll, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) imposes a wide range of adverse health-related outcomes in older people, such as disability, which impair everyday activities and may increase the risk of fall. Few studies have explored EDS in Brazilian older people living in the community who are typically cared in primary health services. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of EDS and its sociodemographic, physical and mental health correlates among community-dwelling older adults. This is an exploratory, population-based study derived from Frailty in Brazilian Older Adults (FIBRA) study including adults aged 65 years and older. Participants with a score ≥ 11 points on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered as having excessive daytime sleepiness. A structured, multidimensional questionnaire was used to investigate sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and self-rated health variables. The sample was composed of 776 older adults, of whom 21% (n = 162) presented excessive daytime sleepiness. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that EDS is associated with obesity (OR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.02 - 2.20), urinary incontinence (OR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.01 - 2.31), poor self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.06 - 2.24), and depression symptoms (OR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.00 - 2.20). Our results suggest that healthcare professionals should identify older adults with EDS and implement intervention strategies to minimize the negative impact of the co-occurrence of this condition with obesity, depression and urinary incontinence over health and quality of life.

  11. Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parents, Support Staff, and a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Bryde, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…

  12. Goals, Principles, and Practices for Community-Based Adult Education through the Lens of a Hatcher-Assagioli Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayvazian, Andrea S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how adult education can facilitate learning towards the full realization of human potential. It synthesizes two theories of human development, and applies this to the practice of community-based adult education carried out by trained facilitators who do not have formal degrees in the field of mental health. The first part of…

  13. One Facility's Experience Using the Community Readiness Model to Guide Services for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laurie A.; Harper, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Service provision to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) older adults is a dynamic and sensitive area, requiring rigorous and extensive inquiry and action. Examining the readiness and assets of organizations serving GLBT older adults requires not only heart and sensitivity but also resources and a clear vision. The Community Readiness…

  14. The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction As It Relates to Learning Disabled Adults in California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Mary Jo

    A study was conducted to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with learning disabled (LD) adults attending California community colleges. A questionnaire survey of the directors of the LD programs solicited information on the availability of CAI for LD adults, methods of course advertisement,…

  15. Balancing Power in Communities of Practice: An Examination of Increasing Student Voice through School-Based Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how power imbalances influence the formation of student voice initiatives, which are defined as school-based youth-adult partnerships that consist of youth and adults contributing to decision making processes, learning from one another, and promoting change. Using the concept of "community of practice" as a lens, the paper…

  16. Enhancing Psychosocial Outcomes for Young Adult Childhood CNS Cancer Survivors: Importance of Addressing Vocational Identity and Community Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years…

  17. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  18. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  19. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  20. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  1. Outcomes of Clinicians, Caregivers, Family Members and Adults with Spina Bifida Regarding Receptivity to use of the iMHere mHealth Solution to Promote Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Andrea D.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Datt, Nicole; Garver, Amanda; Parmanto, Bambang; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding the receptivity of clinicians, caregivers and family members, and adults with spina bifida (SB) to the use of a mHealth application, iMobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere) system. Surveys were administered to end user groups in conjunction with a conference presentation at the Spina Bifida Association’s 38th Annual Conference. The survey results were obtained from a total of 107 respondents. Likert scale and qualitative results are provided in consideration of future application of the iMHere system in clinical practice. The results of this survey indicate respondents were receptive and supportive with regard to adopting such a system for personal and professional use. Challenges likely to be encountered in the introduction of the iMHere system are also revealed and discussed. PMID:25945209

  2. Modeling of radon and its short-lived decay products emanating from tap water used inside a house: dose to adult members of the public.

    PubMed

    Ouabi, H

    2009-01-01

    Radon concentrations are measured in the tap water collected in different areas in Marrakech (Morocco) by using liquid scintillation techniques. The concentrations due to radon and its short-lived decay products emanating from the tap water used inside different compartments of the house were determined. Alpha activities due to the (218)Po and (214)Po short-lived radon decay products were evaluated in various compartments of the respiratory tract of adult members of the public. The committed equivalent doses due to the (218)Po and (214)Po short-lived progeny of radon were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract by the frequencies of using the various parts of the house. PMID:18789711

  3. Conceptualizing and measuring youth-adult partnership in community programs: a cross national study.

    PubMed

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Collura, Jessica; Lucchesi, Micaela; Sulaiman, Abdul Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Youth participation in program and community decision making is framed by scholars as an issue of social justice, a platform for positive youth development and effective citizenry, and a strategy for nation building. Recent literature reviews have consistently identified youth-adult partnership (Y-AP) as an effective type of youth participation across highly diverse contexts. These same reviews, however, note that indicators of Y-AP have not been conceptualized and validated for measurement purposes. The present study addresses this limitation by developing a brief measure of Y-AP that is explicitly grounded in current theory, research, and community practice. The measure was administered to youth in the United States, Malaysia, and Portugal (N = 610). Validation was assessed through factor analysis and tests of factorial, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Results confirmed the two predicted dimensions of the Y-AP measure: youth voice in decision making and supportive adult relationships. These two dimensions were also found to be distinct from other measures of program quality: safety and engagement. As predicted, they also significantly correlated with measures of agency and empowerment. It is concluded that the measure has the potential to support community efforts to maximize the quality of youth programs.

  4. Strength in Numbers: A Community Education Program to Prevent Falls in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Yount, John

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and consequences of falls for older adults are well documented and well known to home care clinicians. In the absence of a falls-prevention program targeting older adults living in the community, home healthcare professionals at Cooley Dickinson VNA & Hospice in Northampton, MA, observed a high rate of falls and hip fractures. The clinicians designed a falls reduction program titled Strength in Numbers, an evidence-informed, multifaceted approach offered in community settings such as local senior centers and retirement communities. Physical and occupational therapists presented sessions that addressed risk factors for falls: fear of falling, strength, balance, medications, vision, and home safety. This article describes the program, its evolution and expansion, and outcomes. Between 2008 and 2015, 1,974 people received falls-prevention education through one of several variations of Strength in Numbers. Nearly 20% of those returning for a follow-up session who had fallen before did not fall again after completing it. Presenters recorded statistically significant improvement for participants in Single-Leg Standing, Timed Up and Go, and Functional Reach tests. PMID:27348030

  5. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  6. Care Management's Challenges and Opportunities to Reduce the Rapid Rehospitalization of Frail Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Adam G.; Tewary, Sweta; Dang, Stuti; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based frail older adults, burdened with complex medical and social needs, are at great risk for preventable rapid rehospitalizations. Although federal and state regulations are in place to address the care transitions between the hospital and nursing home, no such guidelines exist for the much larger population of community-dwelling…

  7. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  8. Ability of Institutionalized and Community-Based Adults with Retardation to Respond to Questions in an Interview Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Adults with mild and moderate levels of retardation (20 living in institutions and 20 in the community) answered simulated job interview questions. The community group produced a greater number of appropriate answers to both simple and complex questions than did the institutional group. (Author/JDD)

  9. Screening for Tuberculosis at an Adult Education Center: Results of a Community-Based Participatory Process

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jennifer A.; Olney, Marilynn W.; Alemán, Marty; Sullivan, Susan; Millington, Kendra; O'Hara, Connie; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to plan and implement free TB skin testing at an adult education center to determine the efficacy of CBPR with voluntary tuberculosis (TB) screening and the prevalence of TB infection among immigrant and refugee populations. Methods. We formed a CBPR partnership to address TB screening at an adult education center that serves a large immigrant and refugee population in Rochester, Minnesota. We conducted focus groups involving educators, health providers, and students of the education center, and used this input to implement TB education and TB skin testing among the center's students. Results. A total of 259 adult learners volunteered to be skin-tested in April 2009; 48 (18.5%) had positive TB skin tests. Conclusions. Our results imply that TB skin testing at adult education centers that serve large foreign-born populations may be effective. Our findings also show that a participatory process may enhance the willingness of foreign-born persons to participate in TB skin-testing efforts. PMID:21653249

  10. Association Between Social and Physical Activities and Insomnia Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Endeshaw, Yohannes W.; Yoo, Wonsuk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between organized social activity, walking exercise, and insomnia symptoms. Material and Method Data for analysis are derived from the National Health Aging Trends Study (NHATS). At baseline, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, sleep-related problems, and health status were assessed using questionnaires. Results Data for 7,162 community-dwelling older adults were available for analysis. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and both insomnia symptoms were reported by 12%, 5%, and 11% of the participants, respectively. The proportion of participants who reported engaging in organized social activity, walking exercise, and both activities were 11%, 35%, and 26%, respectively. Participants who reported engaging in organized social activity and/or walking exercise were significantly less likely to report insomnia symptoms. Conclusion These results have important implications for future studies that plan to implement nonpharmacological interventions for management of insomnia among older adults. PMID:26690253

  11. Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; McKee, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Adapted tango dancing improves mobility and balance in older adults and additional populations with balance impairments. It is composed of very simple step elements. Adapted tango involves movement initiation and cessation, multi-directional perturbations, varied speeds and rhythms. Focus on foot placement, whole body coordination, and attention to partner, path of movement, and aesthetics likely underlie adapted tango’s demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. In this paper, we describe the methodology to disseminate the adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and to implement the adapted tango by the trainees in the community for older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Efficacy in improving mobility (measured with the Timed Up and Go, Tandem stance, Berg Balance Scale, Gait Speed and 30 sec chair stand), safety and fidelity of the program is maximized through targeted instructor and volunteer training and a structured detailed syllabus outlining class practices and progression. PMID:25548831

  12. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A

    2011-02-01

    Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.

  13. Training Community Members to Serve as Paraprofessionals in an Evidence-Based, Prevention Program for Parents of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzada, Esther J.; Caldwell, Melissa B.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Brown, Elissa J.; Wallace, Scyatta A.; McQuaid, Jennifer H.; Rojas-Flores, Lisseth; O'Neal, Colleen R.

    2005-01-01

    Widespread dissemination of evidence-based programs for underserved populations may require non-traditional means of service provision. Collaboration with paraprofessionals from communities that are targeted for intervention holds promise as a delivery strategy that may make programs more accessible and acceptable, especially to parents living in…

  14. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  15. Community Development by American Indian Tribes: Five Case Studies of Establishing Policy for Tribal Members with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Kathy; Fowler, LaDonna; Seekins, Tom; Locust, Carol; Clay, Julie

    2000-01-01

    The Tribal Disability Actualization Process used culturally appropriate deliberation processes and particpatory action research in considering policies for American Indians with disabilities. Talking circles on five reservations were used to achieve consensus on the needs of people with disabilities and derive community-driven solutions that are…

  16. Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

  17. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  18. Total Water Intakes of Community-Living Middle-Old and Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Kathy Jo; Wernette, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Literature reporting total daily water intake of community-dwelling older adults is limited. We evaluated differences in total water intake, water sources, water from meal and snack beverages, timing of beverage consumption, and beverage selection for three older age groups (young-old, 65–74 years; middle-old, 75–84 years; and oldest-old, ≥85 years). Methods Data for 2,054 older adults from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for this study. Multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, race–ethnicity, education, and marital status were conducted to determine differences in water intake variables across the age groups. Results Total water intakes found for the middle-old and oldest-old age groups were significantly lower than those found for the young-old age group. The relative contributions of beverages to total water intake were 40.8%, 38.3%, and 36.4% for the young-old, middle-old, and oldest-old, respectively. The water intakes from beverages consumed at snack occasions were significantly lower for the middle-old and oldest-old groups than those for the young-old group. All groups consumed the greatest amount of water in the morning. Coffee was the predominant source of water from beverages for all groups. Conclusions This study fills a gap in the literature by providing an analysis of the daily water intake of middle-old and oldest-old adults. We found that the total water intake for the middle-old and oldest-old was significantly lower than that for the young-old. Future research needs to investigate the clinical outcomes associated with declining water intakes of community-dwelling older adults. PMID:19213852

  19. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. PMID:26868539

  20. Nutrition education intervention with community-dwelling older adults: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Beverly P

    2014-08-01

    This study critically reviewed empirical literature examining nutrition education intervention studies with community-dwelling older adults over the period 2003-2012 to: (1) determine the number, (2) evaluate the research designs, and (3) report the study outcomes. A search of online databases yielded 74 studies six of which met our criteria. The studies reported favorable intervention outcomes. Because of the number, variability in the types, designs, measures, scope, educational and behavioral strategies, results can only inform future studies and encourage scholars to use strong evaluation design. We recommend the utilization of an ecological conceptual model when conducting nutrition interventions studies and discussed implications in terms of research and practice. PMID:24368631

  1. Helping members of a community-based health insurance scheme access quality inpatient care through development of a preferred provider system in rural Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    RANSON, M. KENT; SINHA, TARA; GANDHI, FENIL; JAYSWAL, RUPAL; MILLS, ANNE J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and analyse the experience of piloting a preferred provider system (PPS) for rural members of Vimo SEWA, a fixed-indemnity, community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme run by the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA). The objectives of the PPS were (i) to facilitate access to hospitalization by providing financial benefits at the time of service utilization; (ii) to shift the burden of compiling a claim away from members and towards Vimo SEWA staff; and (iii) to direct members to inpatient facilities of acceptable quality. The PPS was launched between August and October 2004, in 8 subdistricts covering 15 000 insured. The impact of the scheme was analysed using data from a household survey of claimants and qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The PPS appears to have been successful in terms of two of the three primary objectives—it has transferred much of the burden of compiling a health insurance claim onto Vimo SEWA staff, and it has directed members to inpatient facilities with acceptable levels of technical quality (defined in terms of structural indicators). However, even under the PPS, user fees pose a financial barrier, as the insured have to mobilize funds to cover the costs of medicines, supplies, registration fee, etc. before receipt of cash payment from Vimo SEWA. Other barriers to the success of the PPS were the geographic inaccessibility of some of the selected hospitals, lack of awareness about the PPS among members and a variety of administrative problems. This pilot project provides useful lessons relating to strategic purchasing by CBHI schemes and, more broadly, managed care in India. In particular, the pragmatic approach taken to assessing hospitals and identifying preferred providers is likely to be useful elsewhere. PMID:17203684

  2. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20597731

  3. Community Engagement: An Essential Component of Well-Being in Older African-American Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or “participation” mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit. PMID:24340874

  4. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, L.R.; Stewart, S.M.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R.; Hellyer, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4

  5. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions.

    PubMed

    Kogan, L R; Stewart, S M; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R; Hellyer, P W

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate's coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee's immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4-year

  6. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions.

    PubMed

    Kogan, L R; Stewart, S M; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R; Hellyer, P W

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate's coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee's immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4-year

  7. A Handbook for University-Community Discussion of Urban Problems. A Model for Urban Study Programs Involving College Students and Community Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William, Comp.; Cohen, Larry, Comp.

    Techniques employed in a "Joint University-Community Urban Problem-Solving Course" in promoting discussion among two diverse sets of population are described in this handbook. The course, offered during the Fall 1971 and Spring 1972 semesters at Syracuse University, comprised approximately 30 undergraduates from the university and 30 members of…

  8. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression.

  9. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  10. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910–0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879–0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944–0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  11. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J; Wallendal, Maggie S; Hyde, Trevor F; Larsen, Janet D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  12. A Model for Partnering First-Year Student Pharmacists With Community-Based Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Andrea L.; Shawl, Lauren; Motl Moroney, Susannah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of an introductory pharmacy practice experience intended to redefine first-year student pharmacists’ views on aging and medication use through their work with a healthy, community-based older-adult population. Design. All students (N = 273) completed live skills training in an 8-hour boot camp provided during orientation week. Teams were assigned an independently living senior partner, completed 10 visits and reflections, and documented health-related information using an electronic portfolio (e-portfolio). Assessment. As determined by pre- and post-experience survey instruments, students gained significant confidence in 7 skill areas related to communication, medication interviews, involving the partner in health care, and applying patient-care skills. Student reflections, in-class presentations, and e-portfolios documented that personal attitudes toward seniors changed over time. Senior partners enjoyed mentoring and interacting with students and many experienced health improvements as a result of the interaction. Conclusions. The model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults improved students’ skills and fostered their connections to pharmacist roles and growth as person-centered providers. PMID:22761526

  13. Adult Education and Social Change: The European Network. Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes. Report of a Seminar (El Escorial, Spain, April 24-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Science, Madrid (Spain).

    These proceedings report on a seminar to review the Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes as it had been operating in Spain since 1986. An opening address (Jose Cartagena) discusses achievements to date, including making the most of available resources and introducing new working methods through the established liaison…

  14. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Brett J.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of the Acetothermia (OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylum Parcubacteria (OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, including Microgenomates (OP11), Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, and Marinimicrobia (SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. PMID:26787827

  15. COMMUNITY MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION FOR CONTROL OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN RURAL AND URBAN TANZANIA.

    PubMed

    Kisoka, William J; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowsky; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Mushi, Declare L

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases with severely disabling and stigmatizing manifestations that are referred to as 'neglected diseases of poverty'. It is a mosquito-borne disease found endemically and exclusively in low-income contexts where, concomitantly, general public health care is often deeply troubled and fails to meet the basic health needs of impoverished populations. This presents particular challenges for the implementation of mass drug administration (MDA), which currently is the principal means of control and eventual elimination. Several MDA programmes face the dilemma that they are unable to attain and maintain the required drug coverage across target groups. In recognition of this, a qualitative study was conducted in the Morogoro and Lindi regions of Tanzania to gain an understanding of community experiences with, and perceptions of, the MDA campaign implemented in 2011 by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme. The study revealed a wide variation of perceptions and experiences regarding the aim, rationale and justification of MDA. There were positive sentiments about the usefulness of the drugs, but many study participants were sceptical about the manner in which MDA is implemented. People were particularly disappointed with the limited attempts by implementers to share information and mobilize residents. In addition, negative sentiments towards MDA for lymphatic filariasis reflected a general feeling of desertion and marginalization by the health care system and political authorities. However, the results suggest that if the communities are brought on board with genuine respect for their integrity and informed self-determination, there is scope for major improvements in community support for MDA-based control activities. PMID:25790081

  16. The Health Literacy and ESL Study: A Community-Based Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Adults

    PubMed Central

    MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA

    2015-01-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  17. The Health Literacy and ESL study: a community-based intervention for Spanish-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  18. Synthetic Cannabinoids: Use and predictors in a Community Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caviness, Celeste M.; Tzilos, Golfo; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a class of drugs of abuse with deleterious consequences. Despite governmental regulations related to distribution and sale, SC variants are still available online. More research is needed to determine SC use prevalence and factors associated with SC use, especially among young adults. Methods: One thousand eighty individuals, 18-25 years old, were surveyed, between January 2012 and July 2013, during recruitment for a randomized controlled trial investigating health behaviors in young adults. Advertisements were placed online and in community locations seeking individuals “who had recently used marijuana or alcohol.” Respondents were queried about their use of alcohol and drugs, including SCs, in the last month. Results: Participants averaged 21.4 years old and were 53.4% male. Nearly 59% were Non-Hispanic White, 15% were African American, 15% were Hispanic, 11% identified as Other. Approximately 9% reported SC use in the last month, a level higher than the reported use of opioids, cocaine, or hallucinogens. SC use was significantly associated with male gender, not being enrolled in school, and with use of cigarettes, binge alcohol drinking, daily and weekly marijuana use, and other drugs of abuse. There was a significant decrease in SC use after the federal ban in July, 2012. Conclusions: SC use was common in the past month and often overlaps with other drug use, particularly marijuana use, and should be asked about during clinical encounters with young adults. PMID:25222129

  19. Predictors of handgrip strength among adults of a rural community in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moy, Foong-Ming; Darus, Azlan; Hairi, Noran Naqiah

    2015-03-01

    Handgrip strength is useful for screening the nutritional status of adult population as it is strongly associated with physical disabilities and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to determine the predictors of handgrip strength among adults of a rural community in Malaysia using a cross-sectional study design with multistage sampling. All adults aged 30 years and older from 1250 households were invited to our study. Structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, occupation history, lifestyle practices, and measurements, including anthropometry and handgrip strength were taken. There were 2199 respondents with 55.2% females and majority were of Malay ethnicity. Their mean (standard deviation) age was 53.4 (13.2) years. The response rate for handgrip strength was 94.2%. Females had significantly lower handgrip strength than males (P < .05). In the multiple linear regression models, significant predictors of handgrip strength for males were age, height, job groups, and diabetes, while for females, the significant predictors were age, weight, height, and diabetes.

  20. Validity of the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener in a representative sample of health plan members

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard; Gruber, Michael J.; Sarawate, Chaitanya A.; Spencer, Thomas; Van Brunt, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the 6-question World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was assessed in a sample of subscribers to a large health plan in the US. A convenience sub-sample of 668 subscribers was administered the ASRS Screener twice to assess test-retest reliability and then a third time in conjunction with a clinical interviewer for DSM-IV adult ADHD. The data were weighted to adjust for discrepancies between the sample and the population on socio-demographics and past medical claims. Internal consistency reliability of the continuous ASRS Screener was in the range .63–.72 and test-retest reliability (Pearson correlations) in the range .58–.77. A four-category version The ASRS Screener had strong concordance with clinician diagnoses, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of .90. The brevity and ability to discriminate DSM-IV cases from non-cases make the 6-question ASRS Screener attractive for use both in community epidemiological surveys and in clinical outreach and case-finding initiatives. PMID:17623385

  1. The Accessibility of Literacy Upgrading in the Community for Adults with Disabilities. A Study of the Needs Which Surround Literacy Upgrading for Adults with Disabilities and the Extent to Which These Needs Are Being Addressed by the Programs Responsible for the Delivery of Adult Basic Literacy Tutoring in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Jeffrey D.

    A study was conducted to identify the literacy needs of adults with disabilities and to examine the extent to which these needs are being met by community-based adult basic literacy programs in the metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, Canada area. Data for the study were gathered through questionnaires used to interview 15 potential adult learners with…

  2. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

  3. Asymptomatic and Submicroscopic Carriage of Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Household and Community Members of Clinical Cases in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Nuin, Nor Afizah; Betson, Martha; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M; Yeo, Tsin W; Cox, Jonathan; Ying, Lau Tiek; Drakeley, Chris J

    2016-03-01

    Although asymptomatic carriage of human malaria species has been widely reported, the extent of asymptomatic, submicroscopic Plasmodium knowlesi parasitemia is unknown. In this study, samples were obtained from individuals residing in households or villages of symptomatic malaria cases with the aim of detecting submicroscopic P. knowlesi in this population. Four published molecular assays were used to confirm the presence of P. knowlesi. Latent class analysis revealed that the estimated proportion of asymptomatic individuals was 6.9% (95% confidence interval, 5.6%-8.4%). This study confirms the presence of a substantial number of asymptomatic monoinfections across all age groups; further work is needed to estimate prevalence in the wider community. PMID:26433222

  4. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  5. Postcard intervention for depression in community-dwelling older adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hissei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Wada, Taizo; Fukutomi, Eriko; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-ling; Tanaka, Mire; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-09-30

    Depression in older adults erodes their health, quality of life and the economy. Existing interventions are not feasible for broad application at the community. Postcard intervention only requires a few resources, and previous studies have shown its effectiveness for patients following drug overdose, self-harm and hospitalisation for major depression. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a postcard intervention. Participants were community-dwelling individuals, aged 65 or older, who eat meals alone and with the score of 4 or higher on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). We enrolled 184 eligible participants, with 93 in the intervention and 91 in the control arm. Postcards were sent to participants once a month for eight months. Primary outcome was the GDS-15 score at post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were quality of life and activities of daily living. There was no significant difference in primary and secondary outcomes between completers of the intervention and the control arm. However, most of the participants who received intervention thought the intervention was effective. The postcard intervention for depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan is neither feasible nor effective. However, the descriptive results suggest that the intervention may be effective given different parameters.

  6. Gender Differences in Community-acquired Meningitis in Adults: Clinical Presentations and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Lavanya; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired meningitis is a serious disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences involved with the clinical presentations of and prognostic factors for this disease. We conducted a retrospective study of 619 adults diagnosed with community-acquired meningitis in Houston, Texas, who were hospitalized between 2005 and 2010. Patients were categorized as male or female. Those who were evaluated to have a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of four or less were classified to have an adverse clinical outcome. Males consisted of 47.2% (292/619) of the total cohort, and more often presented with coexisting medical conditions, fever, abnormal microbiology results, and abnormalities on head computed tomography. Females more often presented with nuchal rigidity. On logistic regression, fever, CSF glucose <45 mg/dL, and an abnormal neurological examination were predictors of an adverse outcome in male patients, while age greater than 60 years and an abnormal neurological examination were associated with a poor prognosis in female patients. Thus, community-acquired meningitis in males differs significantly from females in regards to comorbidities, presenting symptoms and signs, abnormal laboratory and imaging analysis, and predictors of adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:27500284

  7. Severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults: chest radiographic and CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dingyu; Fu, Yangyang; Wang, Zhiwei; Cao, Jian; Walline, Joseph; Zhu, Huadong

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe adenovirus pneumonia and its associated imaging features are well-described in immunocompromised patients but are rare and poorly understood in immunocompetent adults. We sought to describe the radiographic and CT findings of severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in eight immunocompetent adults. Methods We reviewed systematically chest imaging manifestations of laboratory-confirmed severe adenovirus pneumonia in eight immunocompetent adults from April 2012 to April 2014. Results All patients showed abnormal results on initial chest radiograph and CT, with the exception of one normal initial chest radiograph. The abnormalities of the initial chest radiographs were unilateral (n=4) or bilateral (n=3), including consolidation (n=4), dense patchy opacity (n=3), ground glass opacity (GGO) (n=1), and pleural effusion (n=1). The initial CT findings consisted of unilateral (n=5) and bilateral (n=3) abnormalities, including consolidation (n=8), GGO (n=2), pleural effusion (n=3) and small nodules (n=1). Focal consolidation was the predominant finding in six patients whose initial CT scans were examined within one week after illness onset. Follow-up radiologic findings showed rapid development of bilateral consolidation within ten days after illness onset, usually accompanied by adjacent ground-glass opacity and pleural effusion. The parenchymal abnormalities began to absorb around two weeks after illness onset, with no appearances of fibrosis. Conclusions Severe adenovirus CAP in immunocompetent adults mainly appears as focal consolidation followed by rapid progression to bilateral consolidation, usually accompanied by adjacent GGO and pleural effusion, which may resemble bacterial pneumonia. Adenovirus should be considered in severe pneumonia cases with negative cultures and failure to respond to antibiotics. PMID:27162658

  8. The Mobile College Community: A Study of Adult Learners' Adoption and Use of Digital Communication Technologies on the Campuses of Florida's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidert, John William

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advancements in technology and the proliferation of mobile communication devices available in the marketplace require that community college administrators and teachers better understand levels of digital communication technology adoption and how adult learners currently use them. Such an understanding is necessary to developing the…

  9. Feasibility of a Brief Community-Based Train-the-Trainer Lesson to Reduce the Risk of Falls among Community Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Katherine B.; John, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    The Better Balance, Better Bones, Better Bodies (B-Better©) program was developed to disseminate simple home-based strategies to prevent falls and improve functional health of older adults using a train-the-trainer model. Delivered by Family & Community Education Study Group program volunteers, the lesson stresses the importance of a…

  10. Diversity and Seasonal Fluctuations of the Dominant Members of the Bacterial Soil Community in a Wheat Field as Determined by Cultivation and Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Gommans, Suzanne; van den Broek, Jan; van Mil, Saskia; Wernars, Karel

    2001-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on microbial community diversity and naturally occurring seasonal variations in agricultural soil. For this purpose the soil microbial community of a wheat field on an experimental farm in The Netherlands was studied by using both cultivation-based and molecule-based methods. Samples were taken in the different seasons over a 1-year period. Fatty acid-based typing of bacterial isolates obtained via plating revealed a diverse community of mainly gram-positive bacteria, and only a few isolates appeared to belong to the Proteobacteria and green sulfur bacteria. Some genera, such as Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, and Corynebacterium were detected throughout the year, while Bacillus was found only in July. Isolate diversity was lowest in July, and the most abundant species, Arthrobacter oxydans, and members of the genus Pseudomonas were found in reduced numbers in July. Analysis by molecular techniques showed that diversity of cloned 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences was greater than the diversity among cultured isolates. Moreover, based on analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, there was a more even distribution among five main divisions, Acidobacterium, Proteobacteria, Nitrospira, cyanobacteria, and green sulfur bacteria. No clones were found belonging to the gram-positive bacteria, which dominated the cultured isolates. Seasonal fluctuations were assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Statistical analysis of the banding patterns revealed significant differences between samples taken in different seasons. Cluster analysis of the patterns revealed that the bacterial community in July clearly differed from those in the other months. Although the molecule- and cultivation-based methods allowed the detection of different parts of the bacterial community, results from both methods indicated that the community present in July showed the largest difference from the communities of the other months. Efforts were made to use the sequence data

  11. Defining the Functional Potential and Active Community Members of a Sediment Microbial Community in a High-Arctic Hypersaline Subzero Spring

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Chih-Ying; Mykytczuk, Nadia C. S.; Yergeau, Étienne; Lamarche-Gagnon, Guillaume; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lost Hammer (LH) Spring is the coldest and saltiest terrestrial spring discovered to date and is characterized by perennial discharges at subzero temperatures (−5°C), hypersalinity (salinity, 24%), and reducing (≈−165 mV), microoxic, and oligotrophic conditions. It is rich in sulfates (10.0%, wt/wt), dissolved H2S/sulfides (up to 25 ppm), ammonia (≈381 μM), and methane (11.1 g day−1). To determine its total functional and genetic potential and to identify its active microbial components, we performed metagenomic analyses of the LH Spring outlet microbial community and pyrosequencing analyses of the cDNA of its 16S rRNA genes. Reads related to Cyanobacteria (19.7%), Bacteroidetes (13.3%), and Proteobacteria (6.6%) represented the dominant phyla identified among the classified sequences. Reconstruction of the enzyme pathways responsible for bacterial nitrification/denitrification/ammonification and sulfate reduction appeared nearly complete in the metagenomic data set. In the cDNA profile of the LH Spring active community, ammonia oxidizers (Thaumarchaeota), denitrifiers (Pseudomonas spp.), sulfate reducers (Desulfobulbus spp.), and other sulfur oxidizers (Thermoprotei) were present, highlighting their involvement in nitrogen and sulfur cycling. Stress response genes for adapting to cold, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress were also abundant in the metagenome. Comparison of the composition of the functional community of the LH Spring to metagenomes from other saline/subzero environments revealed a close association between the LH Spring and another Canadian high-Arctic permafrost environment, particularly in genes related to sulfur metabolism and dormancy. Overall, this study provides insights into the metabolic potential and the active microbial populations that exist in this hypersaline cryoenvironment and contributes to our understanding of microbial ecology in extreme environments. PMID:23563939

  12. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Pillai, Sharmila GK; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA), a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests. Methods One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males), aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61), participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST), short physical performance battery (SPPB), functional reach test (FRT), static balance test (SBT), TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS), and gait speed test (GST) were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests) with falls risk (dependent variable). Results Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05) were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01) weak correlation was found between PPA and TST (r=0.25), TUG (r=0.27), SBT (r=0.23), SPPB (r=−0.33), and FRT (r=−0.23). Binary logistic regression results demonstrated that SBT measuring postural sways objectively using a balance board was the only significant predictor of physiological falls risk (P<0.05, odds ratio of 2.12). Conclusion The

  13. Untangling the Effect of Fatty Acid Addition at Species Level Revealed Different Transcriptional Responses of the Biogas Microbial Community Members.

    PubMed

    Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zhu, Xinyu; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, RNA-sequencing was used to elucidate the change of anaerobic digestion metatranscriptome after long chain fatty acids (oleate) exposure. To explore the general transcriptional behavior of the microbiome, the analysis was first performed on shotgun reads without considering a reference metagenome. As a second step, RNA reads were aligned on the genes encoded by the microbial community, revealing the expression of more than 51 000 different transcripts. The present study is the first research which was able to dissect the transcriptional behavior at a single species level by considering the 106 microbial genomes previously identified. The exploration of the metabolic pathways confirmed the importance of Syntrophomonas species in fatty acids degradation, and also highlighted the presence of protective mechanisms toward the long chain fatty acid effects in bacteria belonging to Clostridiales, Rykenellaceae, and in species of the genera Halothermothrix and Anaerobaculum. Additionally, an interesting transcriptional activation of the chemotaxis genes was evidenced in seven species belonging to Clostridia, Halothermothrix, and Tepidanaerobacter. Surprisingly, methanogens revealed a very versatile behavior different from each other, even among similar species of the Methanoculleus genus, while a strong increase of the expression level in Methanosarcina sp. was evidenced after oleate addition.

  14. Educating for wellness: a wellness education group intervention for adults with chronic severe mental illness living in the community.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Laura; Chiappetta, Laurel; Siedel, Bethany; Fan, Tracy; Mitchell, Ann M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic severe mental illness (CSMI) is a common disorder in the United States associated with numerous adverse health effects. Health promotion educational interventions can be beneficial. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate a community-based educational program for adults with CSMI. Analyses of quantitative and qualitative data showed overall satisfaction with the program and achievement of some specific consumer health modifications. Three primary areas of interest and benefit included socialization and support, education and information, and motivation to change. The Wellness Education Group Intervention (WEGI) can serve as a model for wellness education with adults in similar communities. PMID:21736463

  15. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  16. Molecular epidemiologic study of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene among family members in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yuki; Ito, Teruyo; Ogawa, Yu; Hirotaki, Shintaro; Shoji, Takayo; Tame, Tomoyuki; Horikoshi, Yuho; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-09-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the worldwide concerns of antimicrobial chemotherapy. An accumulation of ten patients in five families (A-E) suffering from skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) of CA-MRSA was experienced in 2012, in Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan. Molecular epidemiological investigation was performed for the 10 MRSA strains obtained from 8 children and 2 of their parents to assess endemic patterns of CA-MRSA in the community. Results of molecular typing, presence of toxin genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were analyzed combined with the patients' clinical information. Each family had its own unique MRSA strain: A, ST30-SCCmec IVd; B, ST8-SCCmec IVd; C, ST8-SCCmec IVa; D, ST8-SCCmec IVl; E, ST8-SCCmec IVl and ST858-SCCmec IVl. Seven strains from the families A-C carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Three strains from the families D and E carried toxic shock syndrome toxin gene. Strains belonged to the same family demonstrated genetically related banding patterns of pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis. The family C experienced intrafamilial transmission of USA300-0114. Our data showed the MRSA clones disseminating in this community were highly diverse. They contained USA300-0114 clone, the rapidly distributing clone in the world, as well as MRSA clones identified in Japan. Our results suggested intrafamilial transmission of MRSA could be initial phenomenon of wide transmission in a community, therefore CA-MRSA SSTI in children and their family members should be monitored closely in order to notice the spread of highly pathogenic and transmittable strains. PMID:26091885

  17. Molecular epidemiologic study of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene among family members in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yuki; Ito, Teruyo; Ogawa, Yu; Hirotaki, Shintaro; Shoji, Takayo; Tame, Tomoyuki; Horikoshi, Yuho; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-09-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the worldwide concerns of antimicrobial chemotherapy. An accumulation of ten patients in five families (A-E) suffering from skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) of CA-MRSA was experienced in 2012, in Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan. Molecular epidemiological investigation was performed for the 10 MRSA strains obtained from 8 children and 2 of their parents to assess endemic patterns of CA-MRSA in the community. Results of molecular typing, presence of toxin genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were analyzed combined with the patients' clinical information. Each family had its own unique MRSA strain: A, ST30-SCCmec IVd; B, ST8-SCCmec IVd; C, ST8-SCCmec IVa; D, ST8-SCCmec IVl; E, ST8-SCCmec IVl and ST858-SCCmec IVl. Seven strains from the families A-C carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Three strains from the families D and E carried toxic shock syndrome toxin gene. Strains belonged to the same family demonstrated genetically related banding patterns of pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis. The family C experienced intrafamilial transmission of USA300-0114. Our data showed the MRSA clones disseminating in this community were highly diverse. They contained USA300-0114 clone, the rapidly distributing clone in the world, as well as MRSA clones identified in Japan. Our results suggested intrafamilial transmission of MRSA could be initial phenomenon of wide transmission in a community, therefore CA-MRSA SSTI in children and their family members should be monitored closely in order to notice the spread of highly pathogenic and transmittable strains.

  18. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  19. Individual and community resilience factors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and questioning youth and adults in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Antebi, Nadav; Mor, Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on resilience theories, this study examined the individual and community factors of Israeli lesbians, gays, bisexuals, queers, and questioning (LGBQs) that contribute to positive mental health and the degree to which individual and community protective factors mitigate the adverse effect of risk factors for poor mental health. Differences in resilience factors between LGBQ youth and adults were explored. Data were collected on 890 LGBQ youth and adults. Findings emphasize the role of community-level resilience factors in the lives of LGBQs, and that these support systems differ slightly between the two age groups. Among youth, family support was both a strong predictor for well-being and a protective factor for mental distress. Although family support was found as a resilience factor among adults as well, other community-level factors (friends' support, LGBT connectedness and having steady partner) were found as protective factors for poorer mental health. These findings suggest for efforts on fostering familial support for LGBQ youth and a multi-level system that offers support at the familial, peer, relationship and community levels for both LGBQ youth and adults.

  20. Individual and community resilience factors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and questioning youth and adults in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Antebi, Nadav; Mor, Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on resilience theories, this study examined the individual and community factors of Israeli lesbians, gays, bisexuals, queers, and questioning (LGBQs) that contribute to positive mental health and the degree to which individual and community protective factors mitigate the adverse effect of risk factors for poor mental health. Differences in resilience factors between LGBQ youth and adults were explored. Data were collected on 890 LGBQ youth and adults. Findings emphasize the role of community-level resilience factors in the lives of LGBQs, and that these support systems differ slightly between the two age groups. Among youth, family support was both a strong predictor for well-being and a protective factor for mental distress. Although family support was found as a resilience factor among adults as well, other community-level factors (friends' support, LGBT connectedness and having steady partner) were found as protective factors for poorer mental health. These findings suggest for efforts on fostering familial support for LGBQ youth and a multi-level system that offers support at the familial, peer, relationship and community levels for both LGBQ youth and adults. PMID:25510593

  1. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda)

    PubMed Central

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS–LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  2. Second Community Pilot Project Programme: Transition of Young People from School to Adult and Working Life: Results and Prospects. Dossier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    During 1983-87 the Commission of the European Communities helped fund 30 pilot projects that were intended to help young people aged 14-18 make the transition from school to work in 10 member states. The objective of these projects was to use local initiative to identify and develop innovative solutions to the problems facing young people. The…

  3. Knowledge about schizophrenia and social distance toward individuals with schizophrenia: a survey among predominantly low-income, urban, African American community members.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Compton, Michael T; McGee, Robin; Shim, Ruth; Hochman, Karen

    2008-03-01

    This study surveyed 111 urban African American community members regarding their level of familiarity with mental illness, knowledge about schizophrenia, and social distance toward individuals with schizophrenia. The participants were predominantly Protestant, with relatively low educational attainment and low income. Knowledge and social distance scores were not significantly correlated. Independently significant predictors of knowledge about schizophrenia, which accounted for 49% of the variance in scores, included level of educational attainment, gender, having a friend with a history of psychiatric treatment, and having known someone with schizophrenia. Independent predictors of social distance scores included family history of psychiatric treatment and family history of schizophrenia, which accounted for 14% of variance in scores. Further research involving specific racial, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic groups is needed to better understand the complex associations underlying knowledge about schizophrenia and stigma.

  4. Governance and Management Structures for Community Partnerships: Experiences from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Community Partnerships for Older Adults Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolda, Elise J.; Saucier, Paul; Maddux, George L.; Wetle, Terrie; Lowe, Jane Isaacs

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes early efforts of four community partnerships in Boston, El Paso, Houston, and Milwaukee to address governance and management structures in ways that promote the sustainability of innovative community-based long-term care system improvements. The four communities are grantees of the Community Partnerships for Older…

  5. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, WB; Hammell, KW; Luts, A; Soles, C; Miller, WC

    2015-01-01

    Background Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. Aims/Objectives A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. Methods A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu’s theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Results Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. Conclusion/Significance These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible. PMID:26027749

  6. Perceived Need for Mental Health Care Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L.; Kaas, Merrie; Kane, Rosalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than half of respondents with depression or anxiety perceived a need for care. Perceived need was greater for respondents with more symptoms of depression regardless of whether they met diagnostic criteria for a mental illness. History of chronic physical conditions, history of depression or anxiety, and more severe mental illness were associated with greater perceived need for MHC. Future studies of perceived need should account for individual perceptions of mental illness and treatment and the influence of social networks. PMID:19820231

  7. Incremental Validity of Mindfulness Skills in relation to Emotional Dysregulation among a Young Adult Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Bernstein, Amit; McKee, Laura G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation examined the incremental predictive validity of mindfulness skills, as measured by the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), in relation to multiple facets of emotional dysregulation, as indexed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), above and beyond variance explained by negative affectivity, anxiety sensitivity, and distress tolerance. Participants were a non-clinical community sample of 193 young adults (106 women; Mage = 23.91). The KIMS - Accepting without Judgment subscale was incrementally negatively predictive of all facets of emotional dysregulation, as measured by the DERS. Furthermore, KIMS - Acting with Awareness was incrementally negatively related to Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Directed Behavior. Additionally, both Observing and Describing mindfulness skills were incrementally negatively related to Lack of Emotional Awareness, and Describing skills also were incrementally negatively related to a Lack of Emotional Clarity. Findings are discussed in relation to advancing scientific understanding of emotional dysregulation, from a mindfulness skills-based framework. PMID:20182933

  8. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    % versus ↓12%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.081). Patterns of change in SF-36, systemic inflammation biomarkers, and the 6-minute walk test did not differ significantly between groups during the 8-week study Conclusions Results from this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled community trial support the use of the Instaflex™ dietary supplement in alleviating joint pain severity in middle-aged and older adults, with mitigation of difficulty performing daily activities most apparent in subjects with knee pain. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01956500 PMID:24274358

  9. Reducing depression among community-dwelling older adults using life-story review: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Leong, Katherine S P; Heng, Boon Ling; Mathew, Blessy Koottappal; Khan, Sher Banu A L; Lourdusamy, Sumathi Sagayamary; Nagapan, Mina; Woo, Sook Fan; Chee, Wai Yan; Ho, Roger C M; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2014-01-01

    A life-story review can serve as an effective intervention to express one's inner feelings and provide emotional catharsis. The research aim was to examine the effects of life-story review on depression levels in community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. This pilot experimental pre-post-follow-up study was conducted from July 2012 to February 2013. Twenty-nine older Malays aged 60 and above, with mild to moderate depression, were randomly allocated to the life-story review (intervention) group (n = 15) or the non life-story review (control) group (n = 14). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and collected five times over eight weeks. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of the intervention on the elders' depression levels, controlled for age, gender, medication use, existence of chronic disease, and diary writing experience. Reductions in depression scores were found in the intervention group from week 1 (Mean ± SD 5.9 ± 2.3) to week 8 (1.9 ± 1.6) compared with the control group (week 1: 5.0 ± 1.3; week 8: 3.5 ± 1.5). At week 8, the intervention group showed a significantly lower level of depression than the control group (χ(2) = 14.61, p < 0.001). This study adds to prior research supporting the use of life story review in improving depression levels in cognitively intact community dwelling older adults.

  10. Community perceptions on the significant extension of life: an exploratory study among urban adults in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mair; Bartlett, Helen P; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne D

    2009-02-01

    Some researchers in the field of ageing claim that significant extension of the human lifespan will be possible in the near future. While many of these researchers have assumed that the community will welcome this technology, there has been very little research on community attitudes to life extension. This paper presents the results of an in-depth qualitative study of community attitudes to life extension across age groups and religious boundaries. There were 57 individual interviews, and 8 focus groups (totalling 72 focus group participants) conducted with community members in Brisbane, Australia. Community attitudes to life extension were more varied and complex than have been assumed by some biogerontologists and bioethicists. While some participants would welcome the opportunity to extend their lives others would not even entertain the possibility. This paper details these differences of opinion and reveals contrasting positions that reflect individualism or social concern among community members. The findings also highlight the relationship between Christianity, in particular belief in an afterlife, and attitudes to life extension technology. Overall, the study raises questions about the relationship between interest in life extension, the medicalisation of ageing and the increasing acceptability of enhancement technologies that need to be addressed in more representative samples of the community.

  11. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    ter Borg, Sovianne; Verlaan, Sjors; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Mijnarends, Donja M; Schols, Jos M G A; Luiking, Yvette C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-04-28

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial for guiding future interventions. We carried out a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Observational cohort and longitudinal studies presenting the habitual dietary intakes of older adults (≥65 years) were included. Sex-specific mean (and standard deviation) habitual micronutrient intakes were extracted from each article to calculate the percentage of older people who were at risk for inadequate micronutrient intakes using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. The percentage at risk for inadequate micronutrient intakes from habitual dietary intakes was calculated for twenty micronutrients. A total of thirty-seven articles were included in the pooled systematic analysis. Of the twenty nutrients analysed, six were considered a possible public health concern: vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, Ca, Mg and Se. The extent to which these apparent inadequacies are relevant depends on dynamic factors, including absorption and utilisation, vitamin and mineral supplement use, dietary assessment methods and the selection of the reference value. In light of these considerations, the present review provides insight into the type and magnitude of vitamin and mineral inadequacies.

  12. Loneliness and mental health in a representative sample of community-dwelling Spanish older adults.

    PubMed

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Angel; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Research seems to support loneliness as a risk factor for mental health problems in the elderly. Most studies analyzing the effects of loneliness on older adults' mental health have relied on convenience samples. In this study, the prevalence and predictors of feelings of loneliness were studied in a representative sample of 272 community-dwelling Spanish older adults. The potential of feelings of loneliness to significantly contribute to the explanation of mental health of the elderly was also explored. The percentage of people reporting feelings of loneliness was 23.1%. Being a woman, being older, living alone, having fewer economic resources, having lower perceived health, and being dissatisfied with the frequency of contact with relatives and friends were found to be significant predictors of feelings of loneliness. Loneliness contributed significantly to the explanation of mental health, even when other significant variables were statistically controlled. The results of this study suggest that loneliness is a relevant factor for the analysis and understanding of mental health in the elderly.

  13. Association Between Kidney Dysfunction and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Community-Based Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiang; Fang, Xianghua; Hua, Yang; Tang, Zhe; Ji, Xunming; Guan, Shaochen; Wu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Beibei; Wang, Chunxiu; Zhang, Zhongying

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the association between kidney dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis in community-based older adults. This study consisted of 1257 participants, aged 55 years and older and free of cardiovascular disease. Kidney dysfunction was classified as mild, moderate, and severe (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively). We found that the mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) progressively increased with decrement in kidney function (P < .001). Even mild kidney dysfunction was significantly associated with CCA-IMT thickening (CCA-IMT ≥1.0 mm; odds ratio [OR] 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.99) compared to normal kidney function. A significantly increased presence of heterogeneous plaque was observed in relation to decreased kidney function (P for trend = .011), that is, even a mild kidney dysfunction was a potential independent risk factor for heterogeneous plaque (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.04-1.98). Mild kidney dysfunction may be a predictor of early or accelerated carotid atherosclerosis in older adults.

  14. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  15. Sleep and Cognition in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Glenna S.; Varrasse, Miranda; Rowe, Meredeth

    2015-01-01

    Changes in sleep and cognition occur with advancing age. While both may occur independently of each other, it is possible that alterations in sleep parameters may increase the risk of age-related cognitive changes. This review aimed to understand the relationship between sleep parameters (sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep duration, general sleep complaints) and cognition in community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older without sleep disorders. Systematic, computer-aided searches were conducted using multiple sleep and cognition-related search terms in PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Twenty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Results suggest an inconsistent relationship between sleep parameters and cognition in older adults and modifiers such as depressive symptoms, undiagnosed sleep apnea and other medical conditions may influence their association. Measures of sleep and cognition were heterogeneous. Future studies should aim to further clarify the association between sleep parameters and cognitive domains by simultaneously using both objective and subjective measures of sleep parameters. Identifying which sleep parameters to target may lead to the development of novel targets for interventions and reduce the risk of cognitive changes with aging. PMID:27066397

  16. Muscle weakness is related to slip-initiated falls among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Yang, Feng

    2016-01-25

    The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between muscle weakness and slip-related falls among community-dwelling older adults, and (2) to determine optimal cut-off values with respect to the knee strength capacity which can be used to identify individuals at high risk of falls. Thirty-six healthy older adults participated in this study. Their muscle strength (torque) was assessed at the right knee under maximum voluntary isometric (flexion and extension) contractions. They were then moved to a special treadmill. After walking regularly five times on the treadmill, they experienced an identical and unannounced slip during walking on the treadmill with the protection of a safety harness. This treadmill could be considered a standardized platform, inducing an unexpected slip. Accuracy of predicting slip outcome (fall vs. recovery) was examined for both strength measurements (i.e., the strength capacity of knee extensor and flexor) using univariate logistic regressions. The optimal cutoff values for the two strength measurements were determined by the receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results showed that fallers displayed significantly lower knee strength capacities compared to their recovery counterpart (1.10 vs. 1.44Nm/kg, p<0.01, effect size Cohen׳s d=0.95 for extensor; 0.93 vs. 1.13Nm/kg, p<0.05, d=0.69 for flexor). Such results suggested that muscle weakness contributes to falls initiated by a slip during gait. Our findings could provide guidance to identify individuals at increased risk of falling using the derived optimal cutoff values of knee strength capacity among older adults.

  17. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Brett J.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2016-01-19

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to bemore » the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of theAcetothermia(OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylumParcubacteria(OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, includingMicrogenomates(OP11),Atribacteria(OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, andMarinimicrobia(SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. The activities of microorganisms in oil reservoirs impact petroleum resource quality and the global carbon cycle. In conclusion, we show that

  18. Developing a personal health record for community-dwelling older adults and clinicians: technology and content.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L; Paitich, Nadine; Ekstrom, Dawn; Mehle, Susan C; Kaeding, Maggie; Abdo, Sajeda; Natarajan, Gowtham; Ruddarraju, Uday Kumar Raju

    2012-07-01

    To empower older consumers and improve health outcomes, a consumer-friendly personal health record (PHR) is needed. The purpose of this article was to evaluate PHR technology and content for older community-dwelling consumers. Specific aims were to: (a) develop a secure, web-based application for a PHR to enable interoperable exchanges of data between consumers and clinicians; (b) develop structured, evidence-based shared care plan content for the PHR using an interface terminology standard; and (c) validate the shared care plans with consumers. An interoperable web-based form was developed. The standardized PHR content was developed by expert panel consensus using the Omaha System problem list and care plans, and validated by consumer interviews. Evidence-based shared care plans for 21 problems common among community-dwelling older adults were developed and encoded with Omaha System terms for data capture in the PHR. An additional problem, Neighborhood-workplace safety, was identified by consumers and will be added to the care plans.

  19. Intervention of multi-modal activities for older adults with dementia translation to rural communities.

    PubMed

    La Rue, Asenath; Felten, Kristen; Turkstra, Lyn

    2015-08-01

    A Language-Enriched Exercise Plus Socialization (LEEPS) Program for older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) was implemented in rural Wisconsin communities. Patterned after a university-based research intervention, (1) the LEEPS protocol entailed ongoing weekly to biweekly sessions with a trained volunteer and an individual with dementia, with exercise and language stimulation sessions interspersed with social or volunteer outings. Of 64 persons with ADRD who enrolled, 29 completed an initial follow-up assessment at an average of 10.65 months, and 8 completed a second follow-up at an average of 20.55 months. Results generally show stability in cognition, mood, and physical performance. Improvement was noted at the initial retest on 1 of the 3 physical fitness measures (arm curls; t = 2.61, P = .015), but self-rated quality of life declined slightly from baseline to the first retest (t = -2.09, P = .048). Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination at the first and second follow-ups (mean = +0.18 and -1.0, respectively) was negligible. The maintenance of function observed with LEEPS is an encouraging outcome, given the progressive nature of ADRD, but controlled investigations are needed to establish the efficacy of LEEPS. Barriers to implementation of an intensive activities-focused intervention in rural communities are discussed.

  20. Use of instruments to measure quality of life among healthy and ill adults in community settings.

    PubMed

    Kalfoss, Mary

    2016-05-01

    International interest in quality of life (QoL) has been affected by patients' prolonged survival, the increasingly aging population, the increase in chronic conditions and the increasing costs of health care. This has also led to the development of QoL instruments that meet the psychometric criteria necessary for reliable and valid outcome measures in research, health policy decision-making and, increasingly, in clinical practice. Despite the proliferation of QoL instruments available to inform best practice, clinicians seldom routinely apply them. One of the barriers to using QoL instruments is the unfamiliarity nurses have with existing instruments. In order to increase community health nurses' familiarity with existing QoL assessments, the aim of this paper is to describe five instruments and modules that have been developed by the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment Group for the assessment of QoL among healthy and ill adults and to describe how their applicability could enhance evidence-based practice in community nursing. PMID:27170407