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Sample records for adult community sample

  1. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  2. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  3. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  4. The drug-crime nexus in a community sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, M D; Galaif, E R; Carmona, V

    2001-09-01

    The authors tested several theories using prospective data to explain the associations between drug abuse and crime in a community sample of 470 adults. Polydrug problems in early adulthood predicted both criminal behavior and polydrug problems in adulthood. Consequences of drug problems as a young adult included arrests and convictions for drug-related offenses, property damage, and driving under the influence of other drugs. Predictors of later polydrug problems included thefts, driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, arrests and convictions for drug-related offenses, and a lack of support for drug problems. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parents, Support Staff, and a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Bryde, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…

  6. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J; Wallendal, Maggie S; Hyde, Trevor F; Larsen, Janet D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  7. Loneliness and mental health in a representative sample of community-dwelling Spanish older adults.

    PubMed

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Angel; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Research seems to support loneliness as a risk factor for mental health problems in the elderly. Most studies analyzing the effects of loneliness on older adults' mental health have relied on convenience samples. In this study, the prevalence and predictors of feelings of loneliness were studied in a representative sample of 272 community-dwelling Spanish older adults. The potential of feelings of loneliness to significantly contribute to the explanation of mental health of the elderly was also explored. The percentage of people reporting feelings of loneliness was 23.1%. Being a woman, being older, living alone, having fewer economic resources, having lower perceived health, and being dissatisfied with the frequency of contact with relatives and friends were found to be significant predictors of feelings of loneliness. Loneliness contributed significantly to the explanation of mental health, even when other significant variables were statistically controlled. The results of this study suggest that loneliness is a relevant factor for the analysis and understanding of mental health in the elderly.

  8. Incremental Validity of Mindfulness Skills in relation to Emotional Dysregulation among a Young Adult Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Bernstein, Amit; McKee, Laura G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation examined the incremental predictive validity of mindfulness skills, as measured by the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), in relation to multiple facets of emotional dysregulation, as indexed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), above and beyond variance explained by negative affectivity, anxiety sensitivity, and distress tolerance. Participants were a non-clinical community sample of 193 young adults (106 women; Mage = 23.91). The KIMS - Accepting without Judgment subscale was incrementally negatively predictive of all facets of emotional dysregulation, as measured by the DERS. Furthermore, KIMS - Acting with Awareness was incrementally negatively related to Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Directed Behavior. Additionally, both Observing and Describing mindfulness skills were incrementally negatively related to Lack of Emotional Awareness, and Describing skills also were incrementally negatively related to a Lack of Emotional Clarity. Findings are discussed in relation to advancing scientific understanding of emotional dysregulation, from a mindfulness skills-based framework. PMID:20182933

  9. Substance Use and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders in a Community Sample of Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgender people have elevated substance use prevalence compared with the U.S. general population, however no studies have comprehensively examined the relationship of psychosocial risk factors to substance use and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment among both male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. Methods Secondary data analysis of a 2013 community-based survey of transgender adults in Massachusetts (N=452) was conducted. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were fit to examine the relationship of four risk factor domains with SUD treatment history and recent substance use: (1) demographics; (2) gender-related characteristics; (3) mental health; (4) socio-structural factors. Adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Ten percent of the sample reported lifetime SUD treatment. Factors associated with significant increase in odds of lifetime SUD treatment alongside recent substance use (all p<0.05) were: (1) older age (aOR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01–1.04), higher educational attainment (aOR=3.59; 95% CI=2.35–5.50), low income (aOR=0.58; 95% CI=0.39–0.86); (2) MTF identity (aOR=3.03; 95% CI=1.95–4.67), gender-affirming medical care (aOR=1.99; 95% CI=1.32–3.00); (3) intimate partner violence (aOR=1.68; 95% CI=1.13–2.49), posttraumatic stress disorder (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI=1.69–3.88), depression (aOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.58–3.35), mental health treatment (aOR=1.65; 95% CI=1.11–2.45); (4) discrimination (aOR=1.90; 95% CI=1.22–2.95), unstable housing (aOR=1.80; 95% CI=1.21–2.67), and sex work (aOR=2.48; 95% CI=1.24–4.95). Conclusions Substance use and SUD treatment among transgender adults are associated with demographic, gender-related, mental health, and socio-structural risk factors. Studies are warranted that identify SUD treatment barriers, and integrate SUD treatment with psychosocial and structural interventions for a diverse spectrum of transgender adults

  10. Sexuality in a Community Based Sample of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Laura; Schalomon, P. Melike; Smith, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the sexual attitudes and behaviours of individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in community settings. A total of 82 (55 female and 17 male) adults with autism were contrasted with 282 members of the general population on their responses to an online survey of sexual knowledge and…

  11. Synthetic Cannabinoids: Use and predictors in a Community Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caviness, Celeste M.; Tzilos, Golfo; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a class of drugs of abuse with deleterious consequences. Despite governmental regulations related to distribution and sale, SC variants are still available online. More research is needed to determine SC use prevalence and factors associated with SC use, especially among young adults. Methods: One thousand eighty individuals, 18-25 years old, were surveyed, between January 2012 and July 2013, during recruitment for a randomized controlled trial investigating health behaviors in young adults. Advertisements were placed online and in community locations seeking individuals “who had recently used marijuana or alcohol.” Respondents were queried about their use of alcohol and drugs, including SCs, in the last month. Results: Participants averaged 21.4 years old and were 53.4% male. Nearly 59% were Non-Hispanic White, 15% were African American, 15% were Hispanic, 11% identified as Other. Approximately 9% reported SC use in the last month, a level higher than the reported use of opioids, cocaine, or hallucinogens. SC use was significantly associated with male gender, not being enrolled in school, and with use of cigarettes, binge alcohol drinking, daily and weekly marijuana use, and other drugs of abuse. There was a significant decrease in SC use after the federal ban in July, 2012. Conclusions: SC use was common in the past month and often overlaps with other drug use, particularly marijuana use, and should be asked about during clinical encounters with young adults. PMID:25222129

  12. Adult baby/diaper lovers: an exploratory study of an online community sample.

    PubMed

    Hawkinson, Kaitlyn; Zamboni, Brian D

    2014-07-01

    This internet-based study provided descriptive information and exploratory analyses on 1,795 male and 139 female members of the Adult Baby/Diaper Lover (ABDL) community. Based on prior research, some research questions focused on the degree to which ABDL behavior was associated with negative mood states, parental relationships, and attachment style. Based on clinical experience, a second research question focused on discerning two possible subgroups within the ABDL community: persons focused on role play behavior and persons who were primarily interested in sexual arousal in their ABDL behavior. The results showed modest support for the former research questions, but notable support for the last research question. Because of some overlap between the two hypothesized subgroups, additional subgroups may exist. Males in the ABDL community identified their ABDL interests earlier than females and these males may be more focused on sexual aspects of ABDL practices. Both males and females perceived being dominated as important in their ABDL behavior. Most participants were comfortable with their ABDL behavior and reported few problems. ABDL behavior may represent a sexual subculture that is not problematic for most of its participants. PMID:24473941

  13. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  14. Polytobacco use and multiple-product smoking among a random community sample of African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154

  15. Ramelteon for Insomnia Symptoms in a Community Sample of Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Paul K.; Nourse, Rosemary; Wasser, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Prior research confirms the relationship between insomnia and psychiatric disorders, particularly anxiety and depression. The effectiveness and tolerability of ramelteon was examined in adult generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients with insomnia symptoms. Methods: Twenty-seven adults with sleep disturbance meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for GAD and partially responsive on an SSRI or SNRI by randomization visit (as signified by a Hamilton Anxiety scale [HAMA] maximum score of 15 and minimum of 8, Clinical Global Impressions Severity of Illness [CGI-S] scale of ≤ 4 and ≥ 2 [measuring anxiety symptoms], CGI-S of ≥ 4 [measuring insomnia symptoms], ≥ 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI], and ≥ 10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]) were treated openly for 10 weeks on ramelteon 8 mg at bedtime. Analysis was conducted using repeated measures methodology. Patient reported sleep diaries were maintained throughout the study. Results: Significant symptom reduction was observed on all scales (HAMA, ESS, CGI-I, CGI-S), with subjects falling asleep faster and sleeping longer. Headache upon stopping ramelteon, daytime tiredness, agitation, and depression were the most commonly reported side effects and were cited as transient. Conclusion: Data from this 12-week open-label study suggests ramelteon is an effective and generally well tolerated treatment for insomnia symptoms in this community sample of adults with GAD. Citation: Gross PK; Nourse R; Wasser TE. Ramelteon for insomnia symptoms in a community sample of adults with generalized anxiety disorder: an open label study. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(1):28–33. PMID:19317378

  16. Association of telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in a community sample of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Carpenter, Linda L; Kao, Hung-Teh; Porton, Barbara; Philip, Noah S; Ridout, Samuel J; Ridout, Kathryn K; Price, Lawrence H

    2015-06-01

    Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were divided into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of early life adversity and lifetime psychopathology: No Adversity/No Disorder, n=136; Adversity/No Disorder, n=91; No Adversity/Disorder, n=46; Adversity/Disorder, n=119. Telomere length and mtDNA copy number were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There was a positive correlation between mtDNA and telomere length in the entire sample (r=0.120, p<0.001) and in each of the four groups of participants (No Adversity/No Disorder, r=0.291, p=0.001; Adversity/No Disorder r=0.279, p=0.007; No Adversity/Disorder r=0.449, p=0.002; Adversity/Disorder, r=0.558, p<0.001). These correlations remained significant when controlling for age, smoking, and body mass index and establish an association between mtDNA and telomere length in a large group of women and men both with and without early adversity and psychopathology, suggesting co-regulation of telomeres and mitochondrial function. The mechanisms underlying this association may be important in the pathophysiology of age-related medical conditions, such as heart disease and cancer, as well as for stress-associated psychiatric disorders.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an adult community sample in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Salokangas, Raimo K. R.; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Patterson, Paul; von Reventlow, Heinrich Graf; Heinimaa, Markus; From, Tiina; Luutonen, Sinikka; Hankala, Juha; Kotimäki, Mika; Tuominen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among individuals who experience mental disorder and that childhood trauma experiences are associated with adult psychopathology. Although several interview and self-report instruments for retrospective trauma assessment have been developed, many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb) rather than on multiple types of trauma or adversity. Methods Within the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) was developed as a new self-report assessment of multiple types of childhood trauma and distressing experiences. The TADS includes 43 items and, following previous measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, focuses on five core domains: emotional neglect (EmoNeg), emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical neglect (PhyNeg), physical abuse (PhyAb), and SexAb. This study explores the psychometric properties of the TADS (internal consistency and concurrent validity) in 692 participants drawn from the general population who completed a mailed questionnaire, including the TADS, a depression self-report and questions on help-seeking for mental health problems. Inter-method reliability was examined in a random sample of 100 responders who were reassessed in telephone interviews. Results After minor revisions of PhyNeg and PhyAb, internal consistencies were good for TADS totals and the domain raw score sums. Intra-class coefficients for TADS total score and the five revised core domains were all good to excellent when compared to the interviewed TADS as a gold standard. In the concurrent validity analyses, the total TADS and its all core domains were significantly associated with depression and help-seeking for mental problems as proxy measures for traumatisation. In addition, robust cutoffs for the total TADS and its domains were calculated. Conclusions Our results suggest the TADS as a valid, reliable, and clinically useful instrument for assessing

  18. Relationships between Childhood and Adult Physical Activity Patterns in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.; Polkinghorne, Ori

    This study examined the relationship between adult physical activity levels and patterns of activity that were established during childhood. A random digit telephone survey was conducted of noninstitutionalized residents in a medium sized California city. Subjects ages 18 and over who volunteered to participate were questioned about their…

  19. Factors Associated with Paranoid Symptoms in a Community Sample of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Dan G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates paranoia in older adults. In cross-sectional analyses, symptoms were strongly associated with black race, lower income and education, less exercise, and more depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analysis, three years following initial interview, symptoms were predicted by baseline paranoid symptoms, education and depressive symptoms…

  20. Illicit Use of Buprenorphine in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is growing evidence about illicit use of buprenorphine in the U.S. The study aims to: 1) identify prevalence and predictors of illicit buprenorphine use in a community sample of 396 young adult (18-23 years old) non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids; 2) describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviors linked to illicit buprenorphine use as reported by a qualitative sub-sample (n=51). METHODS Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Qualitative interview participants were selected from the larger sample. The sample (n=396) was 54% male and 50% white; 7.8% reported lifetime illicit use of buprenorphine. RESULTS Logistic regression analysis results indicate that white ethnicity, intranasal inhalation of pharmaceutical opioids, symptoms of opioid dependence, and a greater number of pharmaceutical opioids used in lifetime were statistically significant predictors of illicit buprenorphine use. Qualitative interviews revealed that buprenorphine was more commonly used by more experienced users who were introduced to it by their “junkie friends.” Those who used buprenorphine to self-medicate withdrawal referred to it as a “miracle pill.” When used to get high, reported experiences ranged from “the best high ever” to “puking for days.” Participants reported using buprenorphine/naloxone orally or by intranasal inhalation. Injection of buprenorphine without naloxone was also reported. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that illicit buprenorphine use is gaining ground primarily among whites and those who are more advanced in their drug use careers. Continued monitoring is needed to better understand evolving patterns and trends of illicit buprenorphine use. PMID:22036303

  1. Prevalence of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder in two community samples: 6,330 English 11-year-olds and 34,653 American adults.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Horwood, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter; Waylen, Andrea; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Grant, Bridget F

    2011-10-01

    This study had two main objectives. The first was to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder and its constituent symptoms in a community sample of late-latency children. The second was to compare these rates to those found in a community sample of American adults. A birth cohort of 6,330 11-year-old children in Bristol, England, was interviewed concerning borderline psychopathology in 2002-2004. A community sample of 34,653 American adults was interviewed about borderline psychopathology in 2004-2005. Rates of chronic emptiness, physically self-damaging acts, and stormy relationships were very similar in both samples (<2% difference). However, a significantly higher percentage of children than adults reported being angry and moody. In contrast, a significantly higher percentage of adults than children reported being paranoid/dissociated, having a serious identity disturbance, being impulsive, and making frantic efforts to avoid abandonment. In addition, a significantly higher percentage of adults than children met DSM-IV criteria for BPD (5.9% vs. 3.2%). Statistically significant but clinically minor gender differences were also found between girls and boys as well as men and women. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that late-latency children are about half as likely as adults to meet DSM-IV criteria for BPD. They also suggest that gender does not play a defining role in symptom expression.

  2. Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

  3. Prevalence and heritability of skin picking in an adult community sample: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Cherkas, Lynn; Harris, Juliette; Keuthen, Nancy; Mataix-Cols, David

    2012-07-01

    Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition that can lead to skin damage and other medical complications. Epidemiological data is scarce and its causes are unknown. The present study examined the prevalence and heritability of skin-picking symptoms in a large sample of twins. A total of 2,518 twins completed a valid and reliable self-report measure of skin-picking behavior. The prevalence of clinically significant skin picking was established using empirically derived cut-offs. Twin modeling methods were employed to decompose the variance in the liability to skin picking into additive genetic and shared and non-shared environmental factors. A total of 1.2% of twins scored above the cut-off, indicative of clinically significant skin picking. All these participants were women. Univariate model-fitting analyses (female twins only, N = 2,191) showed that genetic factors accounted for approximately 40% (95% CI 19-58%) of the variance in skin picking, with non-shared environmental factors and measurement error accounting for the remaining variance (60% [95% CI 42-81%]). Shared environmental factors were negligible. It is concluded that pathological skin picking is relatively prevalent problem, particularly among women, and that it tends to run in families primarily due to genetic factors. Non-shared environmental factors are also likely to play an important role in its etiology. PMID:22619132

  4. E-Mental Health Care Among Young Adults and Help-Seeking Behaviors: A Transversal Study in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, Aude; Menard, Estelle; Melchior, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely used by young people and could serve to improve insufficient access to mental health care. Previous information on this topic comes from selected samples (students or self-selected individuals) and is incomplete. Objective In a community sample of young adults, we aimed to describe frequency of e-mental health care study-associated factors and to determine if e-mental health care was associated with the use of conventional services for mental health care. Methods Using data from the 2011 wave of the TEMPO cohort study of French young adults (N=1214, aged 18-37 years), we examined e-mental health care and associated factors following Andersen’s behavioral model: predisposing factors (age, sex, educational attainment, professional activity, living with a partner, children, childhood negative events, chronic somatic disease, parental history of depression), enabling factors (social support, financial difficulties, parents’ income), and needs-related factors (lifetime major depression or anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, ADHD, cannabis use). We compared traditional service use (seeking help from a general practitioner, a psychiatrist, a psychologist; antidepressant or anxiolytics/hypnotics use) between participants who used e-mental health care versus those who did not. Results Overall, 8.65% (105/1214) of participants reported seeking e-mental health care in case of psychological difficulties in the preceding 12 months and 15.7% (104/664) reported psychological difficulties. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of e-mental health care was positively associated with 2 needs-related factors, lifetime major depression or anxiety disorder (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.36-4.09) and lifetime suicidal ideation (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.40-2.60), and negatively associated with a predisposing factor: childhood life events (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.93). E-mental health care did not hinder traditional care, but was associated with face

  5. Social resources and disordered living conditions: evidence from a national sample of community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    York Cornwell, Erin

    2014-07-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement--but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. Although socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as coresidential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this article, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low-income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a coresident partner, more nonresidential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well-being in later life. PMID:25651314

  6. The Impact of the Nature of Relationships on Perceived Burdensomeness and Suicide Ideation in a Community Sample of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahn, Danielle R.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2011-01-01

    Older adults die by suicide at very high rates, and previous research indicates that perceived burdensomeness may contribute to deaths by suicide. In this study, the impact of the nature of relationships on perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation was examined. Results indicated that older adults' perceptions of burden on younger generations…

  7. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Powers, Abigail D; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience stressful life events at a higher frequency than those without BPD. It is less clear what specific types of events are involved in this effect, and it has not been determined whether some features of BPD are more important than others in accounting for this effect. The latter issue is important in light of the heterogeneous nature of this diagnostic construct. These issues were examined in a large, representative community sample of men and women, ages 55-64. Ten Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders were assessed at baseline using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality: SIDP-IV (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press). Life events were measured at three sequential assessments following baseline at 6-month (N = 1,294), 12-month (N = 1,070), and 18-month (N = 837) follow-ups. Stressful life events were identified using a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire: A subset of prescribed life events with considerable long-term contextual threat by T. Brugha, C. Bebbington, P. Tennant, and J. Hurry, 1985, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194.) followed by a telephone interview. Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of BPD were largely responsible for this connection: unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and chronic feelings of emptiness (negative association). Symptoms of avoidant and schizoid personality disorders were associated with a reduced number of stressful life events that are considered to be outside a person's control (e.g., serious illness, injury, or death of a loved one). None of the personality disorders predicted an increase in the number of

  8. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  9. Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

  10. Community and Cluster Centre Residential Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability: Long-Term Results from an Australian-Matched Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Changes in residential accommodation models for adults with intellectual disability (ID) over the last 20 years in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States have involved relocation from institutions primarily into dispersed homes in the community. But an evolving alternative service style is the cluster centre. Methods: This…

  11. Psychometric properties of the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale: A Spanish-language version in a community sample of Puerto Rican adults

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Pastrana, María C.; González, Rafael A.; Cardona, Javier Rodríguez; Baerga, Paloma Purcell; Rodríguez, Ángel Alicea; Levin, Frances R.

    2015-01-01

    Performance-based measures have shown some limitation in the assessment of Executive Functions (EF) and rating scales have been proposed as an alternative. Our aim was to conduct a comprehensive psychometric evaluation of the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), as administered in 452 Latino community adults (65.5% female). The BDEFS was back-translated into Spanish. We performed exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to assess the structure of the translated BDEFS and to compare it with the original 5-factor structure based on the English language version. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to test the original language structure of the instrument, and also a modified version with items that loaded equally in both versions. The Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to screen for ADHD symptoms. We assessed invariance on the latent factor’s mean by age and gender, and to estimate associations with ADHD symptom dimensions. The 5-factor structure of the BDEFS was partially supported by EFA/CFA, in which 78 out of 89 items loaded similar to the original English language structure. Factor scores were significantly associated with ADHD symptom dimensions. Model-based contrasts revealed that inattention was primarily associated with disorganization, time-management and motivational aspects of EF; hyperactivity was predominantly related to self-restraint and self-regulation factors. The BDEFS seemingly assesses similar dimensions of the EF construct in English and in the present Spanish language versions. Factor scores were differentially associated with ADHD subtypes. Replication and confirmation of the Spanish language BDEFS in a larger sample is advised. PMID:26302104

  12. The relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetes self-management in a population-based community sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Feil, Denise G; Zhu, Carolyn W; Sultzer, David L

    2012-04-01

    Although nearly one-third of older diabetics are cognitively impaired, their diabetes management remains poorly understood. To examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetes self-management in a population-based community sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional observational analysis. 1,398 persons with diabetes, aged 60 years or older, who responded to the 2003 Health and Retirement Study Diabetes Survey. We conducted logistic regressions on the effects of cognitive impairment on respondents' self-management ability after controlling for diabetes comorbidities, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Participants with greater cognitive impairment were less likely to adhere to exercise (Adjusted Odds ratio [AOR] = 0.725 and 0.712 for moderate and severe cognitive impairment, both P < 0.05), and to diet (AOR = 0.906 and 0.618 for moderate and severe cognitive impairment, both P < 0.01). Cognitive impairment is associated with worse self-care and may pose challenges to diabetic older persons, notably in diet and exercise. Cognitive screening may be indicated in this high risk group.

  13. Impact of a Mobile Phone Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Businelle, Michael S; Ma, Ping; High, Robin R; Cuate, Erica L; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Rios, Debra M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Swartz, Michael D; Wetter, David W

    2016-01-01

    Background Greater time spent sedentary is linked with increased risk of breast, colorectal, ovarian, endometrial, and prostate cancers. Given steadily increasing rates of mobile phone ownership, mobile phone interventions may have the potential to broadly influence sedentary behavior across settings. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term impact of a mobile phone intervention that targeted sedentary time in a diverse community sample. Methods Adults participated in a quasi-experimental evaluation of a mobile phone intervention designed to reduce sedentary time through prompts to interrupt periods of sitting. Participants carried mobile phones and wore accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Intervention participants additionally received mobile phone prompts during self-reported sitting and information about the negative health impact of prolonged sedentariness. The study was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in Dallas, Texas. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of the intervention on daily accelerometer-determined estimates of sedentary and active time. Results Participants (N=215) were predominantly female (67.9%, 146/215) and nonwhite (black: 50.7%, 109/215; Latino: 12.1%, 26/215; other: 5.6%, 12/215). Analyses revealed that participants who received the mobile phone intervention had significantly fewer daily minutes of sedentary time (B=–22.09, P=.045) and more daily active minutes (B=23.01, P=.04) than control participants. Conclusions A simple mobile phone intervention was associated with engaging in less sedentary time and more physical activity. Findings underscore the potential impact of mobile phone interventions to positively influence sedentary behavior and physical activity. PMID:26810027

  14. Adult Education and Community Development in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Edwin

    1984-01-01

    Describes and discusses adult education and community development in Nigeria, specifically in the Bendel State. Provides a brief history of adult education and community development and describes several programs, methods, and techniques. Highlights the Mass Literacy Campaign as the major priority. (CT)

  15. Adult School and Community College Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This document represents the completion of the first phase of a study of adult and continuing education in California. The current method of funding community colleges in general, and adult/continuing education programs offered by community colleges and school districts specifically, are examined, their shortcomings noted, and alternatives to the…

  16. Final Thoughts on Community in Adult ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrott, Clarena

    2009-01-01

    Community building is an important, if not essential, element of adult English as a second language (ESL) learning. Communities, whether civic, work, religious, or identity-based, are the contexts within which people cease to be alone and become connected with others. Language is the main tool for communicating with others in communities. For…

  17. Childhood trauma, parental death, and their co-occurrence in relation to current suicidality risk in adults: a nationwide community sample of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Lee, Christina; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Shim, Eun-Jung; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Hong; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that childhood trauma and parental death are strongly associated with suicidality in adulthood, it is still unclear how these factors interact within the same population. A total of 1396 adults were recruited through nationwide multistage probability sampling in South Korea. Subjects were evaluated through face-to-face interviews using the Suicidality Module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form. Among the 1396 adults, the group that experienced both childhood trauma and parental death had the highest current suicidality risks (F = 12.16, p < 0.0001) and lifetime suicide attempt (χ2 = 35.81, p < 0.0001) compared with the other groups, which were only childhood trauma, only parental death, and neither. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that middle-to-high current suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt were significantly associated with concurrent childhood trauma and parental death (odds ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-6.65) as well as with only childhood trauma (odds ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.87), after adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, household monthly income, and living area. Emotional abuse was the only type of childhood trauma significantly associated with higher current suicidality scores in those who experienced childhood parental death than in those who did not (F = 3.26, p = 0.041). Current suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt are associated with experiencing both parental death and trauma, especially emotional abuse, in childhood, whereas experiencing only childhood parental death is associated with neither.

  18. Adult Women in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Janene

    This digest reviews some of the recent literature about adult female students at community colleges. Their motivations, unique needs, and barriers to entry are discussed, as well as ways institutions can enhance the educational experience for adult women. Female students have outnumbered male students in higher education for nearly 30 years. In…

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Bupropion Extended Release in Treating a Community Sample of Hispanic and African American Adults With Major Depressive Disorder: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Paul K.; Nourse, Rosemary; Wasser, Thomas E.; Bukenya, Deo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Many publications and federal agencies call for more trials and research on the effectiveness of medications and treatment needs in diverse patient populations with psychiatric disorders. This study investigates the effectiveness of bupropion extended release (XL) on a community sample of men and women of either Hispanic or African American heritage with major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Twenty-six patients of Hispanic or African American descent with MDD as diagnosed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders were required to have a score of 20 or greater on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (17-item) (HAM-D-17) at baseline and prior to randomization. Patients were also required to have a score of 4 or greater on the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) at baseline and prior to initiation of treatment. Patients were treated openly for an optimum of 9 weeks. Bupropion XL was initiated at 150 mg daily and then increased to 300 mg daily after 1 week and 450 mg daily 4 weeks later if judged clinically necessary by the investigator. Tools utilized for repeated-measures methodology indicating efficacy were the HAM-D-17, CGI-S, Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I), Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ), and the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory. The study was conducted from February 9, 2005, to March 23, 2006. Results: Efficacy was demonstrated on the HAM-D-17, CGI-S, CGI-I, and CSFQ (p < .05). Mean times ranged from 50% symptom reduction in about 2 weeks to 90% symptom reduction in less than 2 months. Dry mouth, transient stomach discomfort, and headache were the most commonly reported side effects. Conclusions: Data from this 10-week open-label study suggest bupropion XL is an effective and well tolerated treatment for depressive symptoms in the moderately to markedly ill Hispanic and African American community. PMID:17607332

  20. Competency-Based Adult Education Sample Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.; Bryant, Nerissa

    For use by adult basic education teachers, this curriculum guide is intended as a frame of reference for building a total instructional program designed around a competency-based and skill-based curriculum. The 104 sample activities are categorized under subheadings of the following topics: Occupational Knowledge, Health, Government and Law,…

  1. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  2. Use and Perception of Technology: Sex and Generational Differences in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele; Stapley, Janice C.; Malter, Johnna

    2013-01-01

    A community sample of 431 adults (175 men and 256 women) ages 18 to 91 across three generations (young adults, adults, and older adults) were recruited for the current study. Participants completed a demographic and technology use questionnaire that ascertained their attitudes toward, and use of, various types of technology--such as cellular…

  3. Adult Outcomes in Autism: Community Inclusion and Living Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kylie M.; Keating, Caroline M.; Taffe, John R.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Reardon, Tessa C.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and…

  4. Adult and Community Learning Fund Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2002

    2002-01-01

    Twelve articles describe projects supported by Britain's Adult and Community Learning Fund, including employment skills and information technology for disadvantaged groups, heritage restoration skills, alcohol rehabilitation, basic skills through media-based learning, guidance for female ex-offenders, access to learning for socially excluded…

  5. Getting It Together: Serving the Adult Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a community needs assessment survey conducted by the College of DuPage (Illinois) which served to advertise existing programs, provide public relations for the adult education council, and obtain measures of need for existing or expanded educational and leisure activities. (MB)

  6. Community College Older Adult Program Development Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getskow, Veronica

    This guide provides information and suggestions for developing programs that meet the needs of older adults at community colleges. Recommended procedures are presented for the following stages of program development: (1) leadership influences, highlighting the process of hiring effective leaders, key leadership skills, and leaders'…

  7. Childhood trauma and personal mastery: their influence on emotional reactivity to everyday events in a community sample of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Rivers, Crystal T; Reich, John; Zautra, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with premature declines in health in midlife and old age. Pathways that have been implicated, but less studied include social-emotional regulation, biological programming, and habitual patterns of thought and action. In this study we focused on childhood trauma's influence via alterations in social-emotional regulation to everyday life events, a pathway that has been linked to subsequent health effects. Data from a 30-day daily diary of community residents who participated in a study of resilience in Midlife (n = 191, Mage = 54, SD = 7.50, 54% women) was used to examine whether self-reports of childhood trauma were associated with daily well-being, as well as reported and emotional reactivity to daily negative and positive events. Childhood trauma reports were associated with reporting lower overall levels of and greater variability in daily well-being. Childhood trauma was linked to greater reports of daily negative events, but not to positive events. Focusing on emotional reactivity to daily events, residents who reported higher levels of childhood trauma showed stronger decreases in well-being when experiencing negative events and also stronger increases in well-being with positive events. For those reporting childhood trauma, higher levels of mastery were associated with stronger decreases in well-being with negative events and stronger increases in well-being with positive events, suggesting that mastery increases sensitivity to daily negative and positive events. Our results suggest that childhood trauma may lead to poorer health in midlife through disturbances in the patterns of everyday life events and responses to those events. Further, our findings indicate that mastery may have a different meaning for those who experienced childhood trauma. We discuss social-emotional regulation as one pathway linking childhood trauma to health, and psychosocial resources to consider when building resilience-promoting interventions for

  8. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chi, Iris; Xu, Ling

    2013-06-01

    Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  9. The Mental Health Impact of Computer and Internet Training on a Multi-ethnic Sample of Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results of a Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; García, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We preliminarily explored the effects of computer and internet training in older age and attempted to address the diversity gap in the ethnogeriatric literature, given that, in our study’s sample, only one-third of the participants self-identified as White. The aim of this investigation was to compare two groups - the control and the experimental conditions - regarding theme 1) computer attitudes and related self-efficacy, and theme 2) self-esteem and depressive symptomatology. Methods: Sixty non-institutionalized residents of Los Angeles County (mean age ± SD: 69.12 ± 10.37 years; age range: 51-92) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=30) or the waitlist/control group (n=30). The experimental group was involved in 6 weeks of one-on-one computer and internet training for one 2-hour session per week. The same training was administered to the control participants after their post-test. Outcome measures included the four variables, organized into the two aforementioned themes. Results: There were no significant between-group differences in either post-test computer attitudes or self-esteem. However, findings revealed that the experimental group reported greater computer self-efficacy, compared to the waitlist/control group, at post-test/follow-up [F(1,56)=28.89, p=0.001, η2=0.01]. Additionally, at the end of the computer and internet training, there was a substantial and statistically significant decrease in depression scores among those in the experimental group when compared to the waitlist/control group [F(1,55)=9.06, p<0.004, η2=0.02]. Conclusions: There were significant improvements in favour of the experimental group in computer self-efficacy and, of noteworthy clinical relevance, in depression, as evidenced by a decreased percentage of significantly depressed experimental subjects from 36.7% at baseline to 16.7% at the end of our intervention. PMID:24151452

  10. Internet Gambling Among Community Adults and University Students in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high availability of offline gambling in Macao, China, Internet gambling may remain attractive to many gamblers due to its anonymity and convenience. Given the scarcity of relevant research, this study aims to not only investigate the public attitude and prevalence of Internet gambling but also identify the demographic and psychological characteristics of Internet gamblers in Macao. We recruited 952 community adults with the random residential number dialing method and 427 university students through convenience sampling. Only 5.4% of the community adult respondents preferred online gambling compared to offline gambling, and the past-year prevalence of online gambling was about 1%. As hypothesized, Internet gambling was found to be positively associated with pathological gambling in both community and student samples. It was also associated with casino employment across samples. Moreover, we found that male gender, casino employment, materialism, and life dissatisfaction were significant risk factors of pathological gambling among Chinese gamblers. The findings provide insights on future designs of preventive measures and research direction for Internet gambling and pathological gambling in Chinese communities.

  11. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  12. Adult outcomes in autism: community inclusion and living skills.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kylie M; Keating, Caroline M; Taffe, John R; Brereton, Avril V; Einfeld, Stewart L; Reardon, Tessa C; Tonge, Bruce J

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood. Social outcomes in relation to community inclusion and living skills were examined, including the predictive role of a range of individual factors and the environment (socio-economic disadvantage). Overall, the degree of community inclusion and living skills was restricted for the majority, and while childhood IQ was an important determinant of these outcomes, it was not the sole predictor. The implications of these findings in relation to interventions are discussed.

  13. Becoming an Adult in a Community of Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes developmental needs of emerging young adults and how they are often met, or not met, in faith communities. The author offers recommendations for creating better connections with today's emerging young adults.

  14. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  15. ODD, ADHD, versus ODD+ADHD in Clinic and Community Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne; Nolan, Edith E.; Schwartz, Joseph; Weiss, Margaret D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To seek evidence for the validity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a behavioral syndrome in adults. Method: Two samples of adults, mental health outpatient clinic referrals (N = 490) and community controls (N = 900), completed a "Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders"--referenced rating scale and a brief…

  16. Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries ... full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ...

  17. Adult Community Education: A Model for Regional Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The adult community education (ACE) sector in the state of Victoria provides an example of best practice in regional rural policy in Australia that may serve as a model for other areas of government effort. In 1997, 309,000 Victorians enrolled in adult and community education courses, such as business and technical skills development, literacy and…

  18. Young & ACE: Young Unemployed People and Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    Pilot projects designed to increase the access of young unemployed Australians to adult and community education (ACE) were undertaken in one rural and one metropolitan adult, community and further education region with significant rates of unemployment among individuals aged 15-24 years. Two consortia were selected to conduct the pilot programs,…

  19. Community Schools--Adults and Children: A Cumbrian AAE Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    1977-01-01

    Examines the role of the "community school", particularly in reference to Cumberland County, England. Notes that a greater effort needs to be made to ensure that the adult part of the community is adequately considered and provided for, and that the adult education center should not be regarded as merely an adjunct of the secondary school. (WL)

  20. Creating Adult Learning Communities through School-College Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Holly C.; Brimijoin, Kay; Alouf, James L.; Mayhew, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Given the challenges of time and economics in education today, what are practical models for creating adult learning communities that improve teaching and learning in today's diverse classrooms? How do Americans foster and nurture adult learning communities once they are established? The authors have found that carefully crafted partnerships…

  1. The Adult Community Education Administrator Position. A Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmino, Lucy M.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to explore in depth the adult/community education administrator position as it exists in Florida in order to gain as much information as possible about the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to do the job well. A special focus was on the skills needed by adult/community educators to a greater extent than K-12…

  2. Adult Communication and Teen Sex: Changing a Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Walker, Karen E.; Kotloff, Lauren J.; Pepper, Sarah

    The Plain Talk initiative, developed by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, was designed to increase the amount and quality of communication that parents and community adults provided youth regarding responsible sexual decision making. It offered parents and other community adults information and skills necessary to communicate more effectively with…

  3. An Investigation of Selected Community College Programs for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dib, Elias L.

    The special needs of older adults in relation to community colleges were studied with the intent to (1) identify Southern California community colleges which have a special program for older adults, (2) identify and report the characteristics of selected programs, and (3) delineate the effect of Proposition 13 and under-financing for programs. Of…

  4. Adult Resource Center--A Community/University Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegso, Kathryn A.

    Cooperative planning, based upon a decade of reentry programs for adults, culminated in the establishment of a public service known as the Adult Resource Center at the University of Akron (Ohio). Located in a renovated building between the campus and the downtown community, the Adult Resource Center serves as a liaison with social service…

  5. A Study of Adult Education Opportunities for an Underprivileged Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbury, Harry Douglas

    This study aimed at describing: the forced attachment of two suburban districts and the extension of adult education opportunities to a disadvantaged community, the process and actions involved in establishing the Carver School Adult Education Program, and the attempt to provide educational opportunities for the adults of the Carver School area.…

  6. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  7. Cardiovascular and Diabetes Risk Perception in a Hispanic Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Vanessa A.; Mainous, Arch G.; Williamson, Deborah; Johnson, Sharleen P.; Knoll, Michele E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined perceptions of 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk or likelihood of having undiagnosed diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) with actual risk in a community sample of Hispanic adults. Methods We conducted a survey of 183 Hispanic adults (≥18 years) recruited at community events around Charleston, SC. Likelihood of having undiagnosed diabetes/IFG as well as 10-year CHD risk were calculated. Perceived risk was assessed with questions based on the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus. Results Over half of respondents (54.8%) underestimated their likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes/IFG and 14.8% underestimated their 10-year CHD risk. Older and overweight respondents were more likely to underestimate their likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes/IFG. Respondents with family history of diabetes were the least likely to underestimate their likelihood of current undiagnosed diabetes/IFG. Respondents with diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol or a family history of heart attack were more likely to underestimate their 10-year CHD risk. Men were more likely to underestimate their risk for diabetes/IFG and CHD risk. Conclusions Health education to improve accurate risk perception could improve health promotion for this population. PMID:22774302

  8. Journey to Healthy Aging: Impact of Community Based Education Programs on Knowledge and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarry, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if community based health education programs increased knowledge and health behavior in older adults. The study was a pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 111 independent community dwelling older adults. Participants received two disease prevention education presentations: type 2…

  9. Transitioning Adult Education Students into Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Bryce Ralph

    2012-01-01

    At both a national and state level there is a growing need for skilled workers in the labor force. Educating low skilled adults is one way to address this need. Adult education programs teach low skilled adults basic academic skills to prepare them for work and life in U.S. society. Until recently little attention was paid to transitioning…

  10. The Adult Illiterate in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, R. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers is intended to provide adult educators and administrators information that will assist in making decisions about, initiating, financing, and evaluating adult literacy programs in England. Papers in the first part of the book focus on definitions of adult literacy, examining the dimensions of the problem, the potential…

  11. Adult Learning in Community: Themes and Threads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.; Imel, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes theme articles on learning communities: place is important, learning content is situated in daily life; knowledge is locally produced; and learning communities may be power structures. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  12. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  13. Adult Student Identity in an Intergenerational Community College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol

    2005-01-01

    What is the nature of an adult student identity? Based in social constructivist theory, this study explored coconstructed understandings of culturally and socially mediated student identities through a select group of adult undergraduates in intergenerational community college classroom contexts. Key findings elaborated the coconstruction of two…

  14. Adult and Adolescent Perceptions of Their Community's Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Reese; And Others

    This study identified differences and similarities among the perceptions of adult and adolescent community members regarding drug use patterns and practices. A written questionnaire was administered to 5,128 adolescents from grades 7 through 12 in the rural inland northwest, and a similar questionnaire was administered to over 900 adults in the…

  15. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  16. COMPARISON OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of ecological communities to make taxon richness (TR) or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Sample representativeness literally means the similarity in species composition and relative abundance between a ...

  17. Functional Communication in Adult Education: A Learning Community Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ken W.

    Functional communication emphasizes the uses that communication serves in everyday interaction and places particular importance on the context in which the functions are performed. A practical means for integrating functional communication instruction into adult education environments is the learning community method. Learning community students…

  18. Youth-Adult Partnerships: A Powerful Force for Community Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Shuan

    2004-01-01

    Shuan Butcher is director of the Center for Youth as Resources in Washington, DC, a national organization that connects youth to their communities through local Youth as Resources (YAR) programs, which engage youth as problem solvers, partners, and stakeholders in positive community change. In YAR, young people and adults work together as equal…

  19. The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marti M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

  20. Theme with Variations: Social Policy, Community Care and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)

  1. Building partnerships to continue older adults' residence in the community.

    PubMed

    Beeber, Anna Song

    2008-01-01

    Current care of older adults focuses on maintenance of independence and frames assessment and decision making about when to intervene. This conceptualization focuses on older adults' deficits and how to compensate for loss of function. Instead of considering independence to continue community residence, an alternative-interdependence-provides a conceptualization that focuses on older adults in the family context and on supportive services, which are the main components of community residence. This article presents the concept of interdependence by analyzing the current research, practice, and policy literature. The article concludes with a discussion of the application of interdependence in gerontological nursing practice and research.

  2. Continuity of Functional-Somatic Symptoms from Late Childhood to Young Adulthood in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the course of functional-somatic symptoms from late childhood to young adulthood and the associations of these symptoms with young adult psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected in a large community sample at three different points in time (1994, 1997, and 2001). Functional-somatic symptoms…

  3. Older adults in the division of domestic labor in communities on the outskirts of Beirut

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The gendered division of domestic labor has been widely studied over the last three decades. However, older adults' contribution to housework, especially in patriarchal communities in the Middle East, has been largely overlooked. This article examined the participation of older members of the household in domestic labor in three communities in the outskirts of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon. Drawing on a sample of 2,797 households, the results revealed that three salient factors seemed to have the major impact on older adults' participation in domestic labor; these were the presence of adult women (18–59 years old) in the household, the marital status and age of older adults. Older men's participation in domestic labor was much lower than that of older women, suggesting that a gender divide exists among older adults in the patriarchal setting of the study. Housework remains feminized in the later stage of life. PMID:17515949

  4. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities.

  5. Engaging Black Learners in Adult and Community Education. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lenford

    This guide explains how adult and community education (ACE) providers across Great Britain can engage black learners in ACE by making their learning programs relevant, challenging, and appropriate to adult learners from black and minority groups. The following topics are discussed: (1) the importance of engaging black and minority learners in ACE;…

  6. Local Knowledge and Adult Learning in Environmental Adult Education: Community-Based Ecotourism in Southern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…

  7. Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

  8. Youth–adult partnership: exploring contributions to empowerment, agency and community connections in Malaysian youth programs.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Collura, Jessica; Zeldin, Shepherd; Ortega, Adriana; Abdullah, Haslinda; Sulaiman, Abdul Hadi

    2014-09-01

    Youth–adult partnership (Y–AP) has emerged as a key practice for enacting two features of effective developmental settings: supportive adult relationships and support for efficacy and mattering. Previous studies have shown that when youth, supported by adults, actively participate in organizational and community decision making they are likely to show greater confidence and agency, empowerment and critical consciousness, and community connections. Most of the extant research on Y–AP is limited to qualitative studies and the identification of organizational best practices. Almost all research focuses on Western sociocultural settings. To address these gaps, 299 youth, age 15 to 24, were sampled from established afterschool and community programs in Malaysia to explore the contribution of Y–AP (operationalized as having two components: youth voice in decision-making and supportive adult relationships) to empowerment, agency and community connections. As hypothesized, hierarchical regressions indicated that program quality (Y–AP, safe environment and program engagement) contributed to agency, empowerment and community connections beyond the contribution of family, school and religion. Additionally, the Y–AP measures contributed substantially more variance than the other measures of program quality on each outcome. Interaction effects indicated differences by age for empowerment and agency but not for community connections. The primary findings in this inquiry replicate those found in previous interview and observational-oriented studies. The data suggests fertile ground for future research while demonstrating that Y–AP may be an effective practice for positive youth development outside of Western settings.

  9. Field sampling of unfed adults of Amblyomma hebraeum Koch.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Yunker, C E; Butler, J F

    1987-08-01

    No methods have previously been available for the field sampling of unfed adults of Amblyomma hebraeum. We released 2000 unfed adults into a 5-m2 area in mopane woodland in southeastern Zimbabwe. The ticks sought shelter beneath the debris on the soil surface but emerged and became active in host seeking when stimulated. Effective stimuli were the odours of cattle and sheep and high concentrations of carbon dioxide from dry ice. The ticks did not respond to low concentrations of carbon dioxide, vibrations generated by stamping the ground with poles, or two volatile components of ox breath known to attract tsetse flies. The presence of humans in the release area also had little or no effect in stimulating the ticks. As adults of A. hebraeum are large and conspicuous they can easily be collected from the soil surface, either manually or using a vacuum device, after stimulation by cattle or the release of high concentrations of carbon dioxide.

  10. Borderline personality pathology and insomnia symptoms in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Oltmanns, Joshua R.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has associated BPD with sleep problems, but the relationship has been explored primarily in small clinical samples of younger adults. Findings from our lab have demonstrated that borderline symptoms remain present in later middle age and are associated with several negative life outcomes. A representative community sample of older adults (N = 633, Mage = 62.3) was obtained from the St Louis area, and interviewer-reports, self-reports, and informant-reports of personality pathology were completed along with an insomnia symptoms questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that symptoms from all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were significantly correlated with insomnia symptoms. However, after statistically controlling for major depression, body-mass index, race and gender, only borderline personality pathology remained significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Our results demonstrate that in addition to other negative health outcomes, borderline personality pathology is uniquely associated with sleep problems in later middle-aged adults in the community. PMID:24574136

  11. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  12. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country. PMID:16163422

  13. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country.

  14. A Living Spiral of Understanding: Community-Based Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueva, Melany

    2010-01-01

    What does it mean to provide community-based health education that respects adults of diverse cultures and ways of being in the world? How does one nurture meaningful learning opportunities that awaken possibilities as a catalyst for understanding, conversation, and action? In this article, nurturing place, sharing power, heart listening, talking…

  15. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  16. Motivators of Adult Women Enrolled in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Connie Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe what motivates adult women enrolled in a community college to pursue higher education. Utilizing profile analysis and multiple regression analyses, this study investigated the extent to which gender, English as a first language, and age predicted the seven factors of the Education Participation Scale (A-form)…

  17. Youth-Adult Partnership: Impacting Individuals and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Petrokubi, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Youth-adult partnership (Y-AP) in community decision making and collective action has gained momentum as a key element of prevention programming. There is now a solid body of evidence demonstrating that these partnerships have developmental benefits for youth. There is also an increasing awareness that Y-AP may also produce positive…

  18. Evaluating Adult Literacy Programs at the Community Provider Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseman, John; Sutton, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Details the design and implementation of a rolling review process for community-based adult literacy programs. Describes four steps: documentation to become "review ready," collection of feedback from participants and key informants, site visit by reviewers, and use of the evaluation report as a planning tool. (SK)

  19. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…

  20. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  1. Services for Learning Disabled Adults in California's Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostertag, Bruce A.; And Others

    During the 1980's, a series of studies have been conducted to examine assessment strategies, teaching methodologies, core services, and delivery systems for Learning Disabled Average (LDA) adults in California's community colleges. Study findings included the following: (1) between 1981-82 and 1985-86, the number of formal programs for LDA adults…

  2. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  3. Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

    This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

  4. A Community Based Study of Adult Literacy in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Yevonne S.; And Others

    A North Carolina study examined the problem of adult illiteracy in Spring 1988. Secondary data for the service areas of eight community colleges chosen as study sites indicated that approximately 25 percent of North Carolinans aged 25 years and older had completed less than the ninth grade in 1980 and the majority of them were unemployed. A review…

  5. Outcomes and Pathways in Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    A project examined the outcomes and pathways of 1992 participants in adult and community education (ACE) courses in Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia. It explored participant characteristics, vocational skills gained from completing ACE courses, educational and employment outcomes, and personal benefits and benefits to families and…

  6. Community Based Learning with Adults: Bridging Efforts in Multiple Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara; Robinson, Gail

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the diverse ways in which community based learning strategies are used to enhance further development of adults, raising their levels of educational attainment and increasing their involvement in public and civic activities. There are two social and demographic dynamics at the heart of this topic: the aging…

  7. Worry in older community-residing adults.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n = 310). Findings showed that that those people under 75 years of age had a higher risk of worrying (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1) compared to the older age groups. Women worried more than men and an important finding was that those with chronic health conditions such as arthritis of the hip and knee were more prone to worry than those who were healthy or had acute conditions (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.9). This latter finding suggests the importance placed on the role of the hip and knee in maintaining functional capacity to perform life skills. PMID:21977675

  8. Flint Photovoice: community building among youths, adults, and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline C; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Hutchison, Peter M; Bell, Lee; Pestronk, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Flint Photovoice represents the work of 41 youths and adults recruited to use a participatory-action research approach to photographically document community assets and concerns, critically discuss the resulting images, and communicate with policymakers. At the suggestion of grassroots community leaders, we included policymakers among those asked to take photographs. In accordance with previously established photovoice methodology, we also recruited at the project's outset another group of policymakers and community leaders to provide political will and support for implementing photovoice participants' policy and program recommendations. Flint Photovoice enabled youths to express their concerns about neighborhood violence to policymakers and was instrumental in acquiring funding for local violence prevention. We note salutary outcomes produced by the inclusion of policymakers among adults who took photographs.

  9. Flint Photovoice: Community Building Among Youths, Adults, and Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline C.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Hutchison, Peter M.; Bell, Lee; Pestronk, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Flint Photovoice represents the work of 41 youths and adults recruited to use a participatory-action research approach to photographically document community assets and concerns, critically discuss the resulting images, and communicate with policymakers. At the suggestion of grassroots community leaders, we included policymakers among those asked to take photographs. In accordance with previously established photovoice methodology, we also recruited at the project’s outset another group of policymakers and community leaders to provide political will and support for implementing photovoice participants’ policy and program recommendations. Flint Photovoice enabled youths to express their concerns about neighborhood violence to policymakers and was instrumental in acquiring funding for local violence prevention. We note salutary outcomes produced by the inclusion of policymakers among adults who took photographs. PMID:15249287

  10. SAMPLING EFFORT AFFECTS MULTIVARIATE COMPARISONS OF STREAM COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estimation of ecological trends and patterns is often dependent on the size of individual samples from each site (sample size) or spatial scale in general. Multivariate analysis is widely used for determining patterns of community structure, inferring species-environment rela...

  11. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults' Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Meena; D'Souza, Sebestina A

    2016-03-01

    Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10% of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities. PMID:26706252

  12. Could Integrating Development Education into Adult and Community Education Create More Space for Critical Adult and Community Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    From 2008-2009 the author was commissioned by AONTAS in partnership with Irish Aid to carry out a piece of research which aimed to examine how there could be a strategic focus on the integration of development education, or incorporating a global dimension to learning, into adult and community education in Ireland. It also examined whether or not…

  13. [Severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Arancibia H, Francisco; Díaz P, Orlando

    2005-01-01

    Patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) need continuous surveillance and monitoring at intensive care units (ICU), where they can receive specialized support as mechanical ventilation and/or hemodynamic support. Patients that require ICU admittance represent 10 to 30% of all patients interned because a pneumonia. In this category, high complication rate, prolonged hospital stay and high mortality rate are the rule. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for severe pneumonia establishes the following main criteria: necessity of mechanical ventilation and presence of septic shock; minor criteria: systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, radiological multilobar involvement and PaO2/FiO2 < 250 mmHg. British Thoracic Society (BTS) criteria for severe CAP are: respiratory rate over 30 breaths/min, diastolic blood pressure under 60 mmHg, BUN > 20 mg/dl and mental confusion. In all patients with CAP it is recommended the evaluation of its severity at admission. This evaluation should be done in conjunction with an experienced physician, and if criteria for poor prognosis are met, an early admission to ICU is recommended. ATS and BTS modified criteria (CURB) are useful in this procedure. In severely ill patients with CAP it is recommended to perform the following microbiological analysis: sputum Gram stain and culture, blood culture, pleural fluid Gram stain and culture, if present and tapped, Legionella pneumophila urine antigen test, influenza A and B antigen detection tests (epidemic period: autumn and winter), and serology for atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae).

  14. Memory performance and affect: are there gender differences in community-residing older adults?

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham Joseph; Pituch, Keenan A; Stanton, Marietta P; Chang, Wanchen

    2014-08-01

    After age 65, the incidence of episodic memory decline in males is greater than in females. We explored the influence of anxiety and depression on objective and subjective memory performance in a diverse sample of community-residing older adults. The study was a secondary analysis of data on three samples of adults from two states, Ohio and Texas: a community sample (n = 177); a retirement community sample (n = 97); and the SeniorWISE Study (n = 265). The sample of 529 adults was 74% female, the average age was 76.58 years (range = 59-100 years), and educational attainment was 13.12 years (±3.68); 68% were Caucasian, and 17% had depressive symptoms. We found no memory performance differences by gender. Males and females were similarly classified into the four memory performance groups, with almost half of each gender in the poor memory category. Even though males had greater years of education, they used fewer compensatory memory strategies. The observed gender differences in memory were subjective evaluations, specifically metamemory. Age was not a significant predictor of cognition or memory performance, nor did males have greater memory impairment than females.

  15. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings.

  16. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings. PMID:25520209

  17. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M.; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Zytynska, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis

  18. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis

  19. Community-dwelling older adults with memory loss

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Karen; Surprenant, Aimee; Tracey, Anne-Marie; Godwin, Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the health-related needs of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Setting A large community in Newfoundland. Participants Twenty-two adults between the ages of 58 and 80 years. Methods This needs assessment used a qualitative methodology of collecting and analyzing narrative data to develop an understanding of the issues, resources, and constraints of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Data were collected through semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenologic analysis. Main findings Three constitutive patterns with relational themes and subthemes were identified: forgetting and remembering, normalizing yet questioning, and having limited knowledge of resources. Participants described many examples of how their daily lives were affected by forgetfulness. They had very little knowledge of resources that provided information or support. Most of the participants believed they could not discuss their memory problems with their family doctors. Conclusion It is important for older adults with mild memory loss to have access to resources that will assist them in understanding their condition and make them feel supported. PMID:23486801

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Demographic Index of Cultural Exposure (DICE) in Two Mexican-Origin Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Rick A.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Reliability and validity evidence is provided for the Demographic Index of Cultural Exposure (DICE), consisting of six demographic proxy indicators of acculturation, within two community samples of Mexican-origin adults (N= 497 for each sample). Factor analytic procedures were used to examine the common variance shared between the six demographic…

  1. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p < .0001). Demographic characteristics, including age, gender, race, education, and employment status, also demonstrated varied degrees of capability for predicting the different HELP scales (e.g., Exercise, Diet, Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  2. Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony W F; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life trauma is a known risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the relative contributions of early life versus adult trauma in predicting levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults. 1209 nonclinical community adults (18-70 years; 45% male) were assessed for mental health status, early life stressors, lifetime trauma exposure, and self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. A subset of the full sample subjected to group comparisons (n = 1088) indicated that early life stressor exposure primarily accounted for significantly higher depressive and anxiety symptom scores when compared against adults reporting to be free of childhood stressor or adult trauma exposure. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses of this subset using five distinct early life stressor types, namely 'Interpersonal violation', 'Family breakup', 'Disasters/war', 'Familial health trauma/death' and 'Personal health trauma' derived from principal component analysis of a wide range of self-reported early stressor events in the full sample, showed childhood 'Interpersonal violation' differentially predicted higher self-reported depressive and anxiety symptom scores in both males and females. Adult trauma exposure did not significantly predict these symptom scores. These findings underline the relative importance of exposure to 'interpersonal violation' relative to other types of early life stressors and adult trauma in the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults.

  3. Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344

  4. "We Who Are Dark...:" The Black Community According to Black Adults in America--An Exploratory Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayman, Nyasha

    2009-01-01

    The author explored the meaning of the Black community according to a purposeful sample of 60 Black adults in the mid-Atlantic United States. Purposeful stratified sampling resulted in equal numbers of participants along the lines of locale (Brooklyn, New York; Wilmington, Delaware; and Washington, D.C.), gender, and generational affiliation…

  5. Perceptions of Community College Adult Basic Education Faculty regarding Faculty Professional Development in Alabama Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty professional development is an integral part of the overall mission of the Adult Basic Education programs that are operated under the auspices of the Alabama Community College System. Since their realignment within the ACCS in 2004, there has been a continual process underway to increase professional development activities at both the…

  6. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  7. Associations between Exposure to Alienating Behaviors, Anxiety, and Depression in an Italian Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Baker, Amy J L; Bernet, William

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between exposure to alienating behaviors (ABs) and anxiety and depression as mediated through psychological maltreatment and parental bonding in a sample of Italian adults in the community. Five hundred and nine adults were given a measure of exposure to ABs, the Baker Strategy Questionnaire; the Psychological Maltreatment Measure; the Parental Bonding Instrument; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y; and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Exposure to ABs was associated with psychological maltreatment, which was associated with parental bonding, which was associated with each of the three mental health outcomes: depression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety. The authors conclude that exposure to ABs in childhood represents a risk factor for subsequent poor mental health.

  8. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized. PMID:26563413

  9. Community-Level Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Button, Mark; Weber, Kela; Nivala, Jaime; Aubron, Thomas; Müller, Roland Arno

    2016-03-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) using BIOLOG® EcoPlates™ has become a popular method for characterizing and comparing the functional diversity, functional potential, and metabolic activity of heterotrophic microbial communities. The method was originally developed for profiling soil communities; however, its usage has expanded into the fields of ecotoxicology, agronomy, and the monitoring and profiling of microbial communities in various wastewater treatment systems, including constructed wetlands for water pollution control. When performing CLPP on aqueous samples from constructed wetlands, a wide variety of sample characteristics can be encountered and challenges may arise due to excessive solids, color, or turbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different sample preparation methods on CLPP performed on a variety of aqueous samples covering a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics. The results show that using filter paper, centrifugation, or settling helped clarify samples for subsequent CLPP analysis, however did not do so as effectively as dilution for the darkest samples. Dilution was able to provide suitable clarity for the darkest samples; however, 100-fold dilution significantly affected the carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs), particularly with samples that were already partially or fully clear. Ten-fold dilution also had some effect on the CSUPs of samples which were originally clear; however, the effect was minimal. Based on these findings, for this specific set of samples, a 10-fold dilution provided a good balance between ease of use, sufficient clarity (for dark samples), and limited effect on CSUPs. The process and findings outlined here can hopefully serve future studies looking to utilize CLPP for functional analysis of microbial communities and also assist in comparing data from studies where different sample preparation methods were utilized.

  10. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  11. PARCS: A Safety Net Community-Based Fitness Center for Low-Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole; de Groot, Mary; Mi, Deming; Alexander, Kisha; Kaiser, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and fitness are critical to maintaining health and avoiding chronic disease. Limited access to fitness facilities in low-income urban areas has been identified as a contributor to low PA participation and poor fitness. Objectives This research describes community-based fitness centers established for adults living in low-income, urban communities and characterizes a sample of its members. Methods The community identified a need for physical fitness opportunities to improve residents’ health. Three community high schools were host sites. Resources were combined to renovate and staff facilities, acquire equipment, and refer patients to exercise. The study sample included 170 members ≥ age 18yr who completed demographic, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life surveys and a fitness evaluation. Neighborhood-level U.S. Census data were obtained for comparison. Results The community-based fitness centers resulted from university, public school, and hospital partnerships offering safe, accessible, and affordable exercise opportunities. The study sample mean BMI was 35 ± 7.6 (Class II obesity), mean age was 50yr ± 12.5, 66% were black, 72% were female, 66% completed some college or greater, and 71% had an annual household income < $25K and supported 2.2 dependents. Participants had moderate confidence for exercise participation and low fitness levels. When compared to census data, participants were representative of their communities. Conclusion This observational study reveals a need for affordable fitness centers for low-income adults. We demonstrate a model where communities and organizations strategically leverage resources to address disparities in physical fitness and health. PMID:27346764

  12. Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Dillon, Colleen O; Rhodes, Jean E; Zwiebach, Liza

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling "somewhat like an adult," and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent's home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

  13. Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

  14. Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tracy; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Mash, Eric J.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has recently emerged as an important area of research, little attention has been given to the family functioning of women with ADHD, particularly in their role as mothers. We examined parenting self-esteem, locus of control, and disciplinary styles in a community sample of mothers…

  15. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ≥ 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults.

  16. Lifeline Work: Community-Based Adult Learning and Learners' Personal Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Janis

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores learner progression for participants in community-based adult learning (CBAL) provision in Scotland. It focuses on learners' perceptions of progression drawn from analysis of life history interviews carried out with ten adults who had participated in community-based adult learning. The analysis of data was undertaken in three…

  17. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults.

  18. Learning from the Past, Organizing for the Future: Adult and Community Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion; Tobias, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses key events in the history of adult and community education in Aotearoa New Zealand. It draws on historical sources to examine the role of grassroots community activism and local and national networking in upholding a broad vision of adult and community-based education, in the face of a hostile policy climate. The authors…

  19. Education of Older Adults in Communities with Varying Levels of Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krašovec, Sabina Jelenc; Kump, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the education of older adults in communities with different levels of well-being. We are interested in whether the educational offerings for older adults depend on the well-being of the local community. We also examine how the educational offerings differ depending on whether the community is primarily rural or urban. In…

  20. Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

  1. Learning to Be Drier: A Case Study of Adult and Community Learning in the Australian Riverland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Schulz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the adult and community learning associated with "learning to be drier" in the Riverland region of South Australia. Communities in the Riverland are currently adjusting and making changes to their understandings and practices as part of learning to live with less water. The analysis of adult and community learning derived…

  2. Facilitating Responsibility for Learning in Adult Community College Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Cynthia Lake

    This digest discusses adult students in community colleges, focusing on their learning expectations and needs. In 1997, nearly a third of community college students were age 30 or older. Adult students often have realistic, practical goals for their education and bring valuable life experience to the community college classroom. However, adults…

  3. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  4. Sleep apnoea, anxiety, depression and somatoform pain: a community-based high-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Hrubos-Strøm, Harald; Einvik, Gunnar; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Randby, Anna; Pallesen, Ståle; Moum, Torbjørn; Omland, Torbjørn; Dammen, Toril

    2012-08-01

    Community-based studies that measure both psychiatric diagnoses and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are lacking. This study reports current psychiatric disorders in community-dwelling adults at high risk for OSA identified by the Berlin Questionnaire. Furthermore, associations between OSA and current psychiatric disorders, unadjusted and adjusted for putative confounders, are reported. A subsample of the Akershus Sleep Apnoea Project consisting of 290 adults, aged 30-65 yrs, with positive Berlin Questionnaire screening underwent the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version IV and polysomnography. Auxiliary analyses of depression are provided. The median apnoea/hypopnoea index score in the sample was 7.7 (interquartile range 2.4-22.2). Major depressive disorder, current anxiety and somatoform pain disorder were diagnosed in 12.4%, 14.8% and 19.3% of participants, respectively. At least one psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 110 participants. The odds ratio of participants with OSA having a psychiatric disorder compared with participants without OSA was 0.54 (95% CI 0.33-0.88). A negative association did not exist among Berlin Questionnaire low-risk participants. In conclusion, more than one-third of participants in a community-based, Berlin Questionnaire high-risk sample were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. A negative association between OSA and psychiatric morbidity was found.

  5. Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Sexual Minority Adults by Study Sampling Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Laura; Rhodes, Anne E.; Brennan, David J.; Gesink, Dionne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous reviews have demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempts for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (sexual minorities), compared with heterosexual groups, but these were restricted to general population studies, thereby excluding individuals sampled through LGB community venues. Each sampling strategy, however, has particular methodological strengths and limitations. For instance, general population probability studies have defined sampling frames but are prone to information bias associated with underreporting of LGB identities. By contrast, LGB community surveys may support disclosure of sexuality but overrepresent individuals with strong LGB community attachment. Objectives. To reassess the burden of suicide-related behavior among LGB adults, directly comparing estimates derived from population- versus LGB community–based samples. Search methods. In 2014, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for articles addressing suicide-related behavior (ideation, attempts) among sexual minorities. Selection criteria. We selected quantitative studies of sexual minority adults conducted in nonclinical settings in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Data collection and analysis. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed for a difference in prevalence of suicide-related behavior by sample type, adjusted for study or sample-level variables, including context (year, country), methods (medium, response rate), and subgroup characteristics (age, gender, sexual minority construct). We examined residual heterogeneity by using τ2. Main results. We pooled 30 cross-sectional studies, including 21 201 sexual minority adults, generating the following lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide attempts: 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%, 5%) for heterosexual respondents to population surveys, 11% (95% CI = 8%, 15%) for LGB respondents to population surveys, and 20% (95% CI

  6. Community services' involvement in the discharge of older adults from hospital into the community

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Michelle; Grimmer, Karen; Kumar, Saravana

    2013-01-01

    Background Community services are playing an increasing role in supporting older adults who are discharged from hospital with ongoing non-acute care needs. However, there is a paucity of information regarding how community services are involved in the discharge process of older individuals from hospital into the community. Methods Twenty-nine databases were searched from 1980 to 2012 (inclusive) for relevant primary published research, of any study design, as well as relevant unpublished work (e.g. clinical guidelines) which investigated community services' involvement in the discharge of older individuals from hospital into the community. Data analysis and quality appraisal (using McMaster critical appraisal tools) were undertaken predominately by the lead author. Data was synthesised qualitatively. Results Twelve papers were eligible for inclusion (five randomised controlled trials, four before and after studies and three controlled trials), involving a total of 8440 older adults (>65 years). These papers reported on a range of interventions. During data synthesis, descriptors were assigned to four emergent discharge methods: Virtual Interface Model, In-reach Interface Model, Out-reach Interface Model and Independent Interface Model. In each model, the findings were mixed in terms of health care and patient and carer outcomes. Conclusions It is plausible that each model identified in this systematic review has a role to play in successfully discharging different cohorts of older adults from hospital. Further research is required to identify appropriate population groups for various discharge models and to select suitable outcome measures to determine the effectiveness of these models, considering all stakeholders' involved. PMID:24179455

  7. Sample storage for soil enzyme activity and bacterial community profiles.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, K; Rita, H; Simpanen, S; Mikkonen, A; Niemi, R M

    2010-04-01

    Storage of samples is often an unavoidable step in environmental data collection, since available analytical capacity seldom permits immediate processing of large sample sets needed for representative data. In microbiological soil studies, sample pretreatments may have a strong influence on measurement results, and thus careful consideration is required in the selection of storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of prolonged (up to 16 weeks) frozen or air-dried storage for divergent soil materials. The samples selected to this study were mineral soil (clay loam) from an agricultural field, humus from a pine forest and compost from a municipal sewage sludge composting field. The measured microbiological parameters included functional profiling with ten different hydrolysing enzyme activities determined by artificial fluorogenic substrates, and structural profiling with bacterial 16S rDNA community fingerprints by amplicon length heterogeneity analysis (LH-PCR). Storage of samples affected the observed fluorescence intensity of the enzyme assay's fluorophor standards dissolved in soil suspension. The impact was highly dependent on the soil matrix and storage method, making it important to use separate standardisation for each combination of matrix type, storage method and time. Freezing proved to be a better storage method than air-drying for all the matrices and enzyme activities studied. The effect of freezing on the enzyme activities was small (<20%) in clay loam and forest humus and moderate (generally 20-30%) in compost. The most dramatic decreases (>50%) in activity were observed in compost after air-drying. The bacterial LH-PCR community fingerprints were unaffected by frozen storage in all matrices. The effect of storage treatments was tested using a new statistical method based on showing similarity rather than difference of results.

  8. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Lamer, Tim J; Twyner, Channing

    2015-06-01

    The hyperalgesic effects of long-term opioid use in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain have not been widely reported. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between opioid use and heat pain (HP) perception in a sample of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain. The study cohort involved 187 adults (85 opioid and 102 nonopioid) with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Heat pain perception was assessed using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. An effect of opioid use was observed for nonstandardized (P = 0.004) and standardized (P = 0.005) values of HP 5-0.5 in which values of the opioid group were lower (more hyperalgesic) compared with those of the nonopioid group. HP 5-0.5 is a measure of the slope of the line connecting HP 0.5 (HP threshold) and HP 5 (intermediate measure of HP tolerance). In univariable (P = 0.019) and multiple variable (P = 0.003) linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower (more hyperalgesic) nonstandardized values of HP 5-0.5. Similarly, in univariable (P = 0.004) and multiple variable (P = 0.011) linear regression analyses (adjusted for work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower standardized values of HP 5-0.5. In this sample of community-dwelling adults, these observations suggest that long-term opioid use was associated with hyperalgesia independent of other clinical factors known to influence HP perception.

  9. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Lamer, Tim J; Twyner, Channing

    2015-06-01

    The hyperalgesic effects of long-term opioid use in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain have not been widely reported. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between opioid use and heat pain (HP) perception in a sample of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain. The study cohort involved 187 adults (85 opioid and 102 nonopioid) with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Heat pain perception was assessed using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. An effect of opioid use was observed for nonstandardized (P = 0.004) and standardized (P = 0.005) values of HP 5-0.5 in which values of the opioid group were lower (more hyperalgesic) compared with those of the nonopioid group. HP 5-0.5 is a measure of the slope of the line connecting HP 0.5 (HP threshold) and HP 5 (intermediate measure of HP tolerance). In univariable (P = 0.019) and multiple variable (P = 0.003) linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower (more hyperalgesic) nonstandardized values of HP 5-0.5. Similarly, in univariable (P = 0.004) and multiple variable (P = 0.011) linear regression analyses (adjusted for work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower standardized values of HP 5-0.5. In this sample of community-dwelling adults, these observations suggest that long-term opioid use was associated with hyperalgesia independent of other clinical factors known to influence HP perception. PMID:25815431

  10. Adults' Views on Mathematics Education: A Midwest Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brez, Caitlin C.; Allen, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, few studies have addressed public opinions regarding math education. The current study surveyed adults in a Midwestern town in the United States to assess opinions regarding math and math education. Overall, we found that adults believe that math is useful and that math education is important. We found that parents who currently have a…

  11. Sleep Quality, Pain and Self-Efficacy among Community-Dwelling Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to report the findings of a study examining relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes of community-dwelling adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sleep difficulty has been self-reported among adults with chronic pain. Past studies have demonstrated that chronic pain results in sleep difficulties and other complications that threaten effective functioning. Community-dwelling adults with SCD are living longer and need to be evaluated for sleep quality, pain, and self-efficacy. Little is known about whether adults with SCD-related pain have disturbances in sleep and self-efficacy, and if these disturbances are affected by age and/or gender. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes among community-dwelling adults with SCD, and who use support services of state SCD Associations in the United States. For this secondary data analysis, the study was conducted from June, 2014 to December, 2014 and used a descriptive correlational design to analyze data from a primary study of a convenience sample of 90 subjects with SCD, who were 18 years of age and older. Linear regression was used to compute the relationship between dependent and independent variables. All measures were self-reported. It was found that gender did not significantly affect reports of sleep, pain, or self-efficacy. Self-efficacy accounted for direct relationships with sleep and inverse relationships with pain. Some individuals (16.7%) reported sleeping very well, however, the majority (83.3%) was not sleeping very well, and a greater number of individuals (93.3%) reported having some pain. Among adults with chronic SCD pain, self-efficacy is important in maintaining a stable quality of health. Future assessments, interventions, and research should include comprehensive sleep and pain evaluations, and measures to improve self-efficacy and sleep

  12. Community Engagement: An Essential Component of Well-Being in Older African-American Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or “participation” mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit. PMID:24340874

  13. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-06-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes.

  14. Hospital study of adult community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, J T; Finch, R G; Ward, M J; Macrae, A D

    1982-07-31

    The cause of primary pneumonia was diagnosed in 124 of 127 consecutive adult patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired illness. Pneumococcal infection was found in 96 (76%) patients and legionnaries' disease was the second commonest infection identified (15%). Other bacterial infections were uncommon. 11 patients had atypical pneumonia, including 7 with psittacosis. There were several mixed infections and most of the 11 patients with viral infections also had bacterial pneumonia. 19 patients died (15%) and mortality was associated with increasing age, the presence of coexisting disease, and the cause of the pneumonia. Recognition of the most likely causes of severe pneumonia allows logical initial antibiotic treatment for such patients admitted to hospital. PMID:6124681

  15. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  16. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

  17. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culture-dependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25373236

  18. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. Findings: We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural and attitudinal differences exist between Boomers and older residents, and (c) shared age matters less than shared interests. Implications: Our data clearly show the operation of ageism in this community and an equating of being old with being sick. The conflict between these two age cohorts suggests that cohort consciousness among Boomers carries elements of age denial, shared by the older old. It also challenges the Third Age concept as a generational phenomenon. PMID:22391870

  19. Weirs: Counting and sampling adult salmonids in streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Zabkar, Laura M.; Johnson, David H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Weirs—which function as porous barriers built across stream—have long been used to capture migrating fish in flowing waters. For example, the Netsilik peoples of northern Canada used V-shaped weirs constructed of river rocks gathered onsite to capture migrating Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus (Balikci 1970). Similarly, fences constructed of stakes and a latticework of willow branches or staves were used by Native Americans to capture migrating salmon in streams along the West Coast of North America (Stewart 1994). In modern times, weirs have also been used in terminal fisheries and to capture brood fish for use in fish culture. Weirs have been used to gather data on age structure, condition, sex ratio, spawning escapement, abundance, and migratory patterns of fish in streams. One of the critical elements of fisheries management and stock assessment of salmonids is a count of adult fish returning to spawn. Weirs are frequently used to capture or count fish to determine status and trends of populations or direct inseason management of fisheries; generally, weirs are the standard against which other techniques are measured. To evaluate fishery management actions, the number of fish escaping to spawn is often compared to river-specific target spawning requirements (O’Connell and Dempson 1995). A critical factor in these analyses is the determination of total run size (O’Connell 2003). O’Connell compared methods of run-size estimation against absolute counts from a rigid weir and concluded that, given the uncertainty of estimators, the absolute counts obtained at the weir wer significantly better than modeled estimates, which deviated as much as 50–60% from actual counts. The use of weirs is generally restricted to streams and small rivers because of construction expense, formation of navigation barriers, and the tendency of weirs to clog with debris, which can cause flooding and collapse of the structure (Hubert 1996). When feasible, however, weirs are

  20. Delta Activity at Sleep Onset and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Gould, Christine E.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Jordan, Josh T.; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) has long been considered to be an abnormal variant in the electroencephalogram (EEG) among older adults. Prior work also indicates a predominance of slow wave EEG activity among patients with dementia. However, instability of state control occurring with aging generally and among many neurodegenerative diseases raises the possibility that FIRDA might represent the intrusion of sleep related elements of the EEG into the waking state. We examined delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in community-dwelling, older adults without dementia, and examined whether this activity is related to poorer cognitive performance. Methods: 153 community-dwelling, older adults without dementia underwent overnight polysomnography and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, and visuospatial ability. Delta activity during sleep/wake transitions (scored either as Waking or N1) was analyzed visually. Results: Participants were 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 y. DASO was present in 30 participants (19.6%). Age, years of education, sex, and body mass index did not differ between DASO (+) and (−) groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated faster reading of the Stroop color words in DASO (+) subjects (P = 0.007). None of the other cognitive domains differed between the two groups. Conclusions: DASO was relatively common in our sample of community-dwelling, older adults without dementia. DASO was not associated with poorer performance on any cognitive domain. Instead, individuals with DASO demonstrated better performance on a simple reading task. Although these findings suggest that an abnormal EEG activity may represent normal variation, our work underscores the importance of distinguishing DASO from FIRDA when examining sleep in older adults. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 725. Citation

  1. Comorbid Problem Gambling and Major Depression in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Leanne; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C; Dobson, Keith S; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Currie, Shawn R; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2015-12-01

    Major depression is among the most common comorbid conditions in problem gambling. However, little is known about the effects of comorbid depression on problem gambling. The present study examined the prevalence of current major depression among problem gamblers (N = 105) identified from a community sample of men and women in Alberta, and examined group differences in gambling severity, escape motivation for gambling, family functioning, childhood trauma, and personality traits across problem gamblers with and without comorbid depression. The prevalence of major depression among the sample of problem gamblers was 32.4%. Compared to problem gamblers without depression (n = 71), problem gamblers with comorbid depression (n = 34) reported more severe gambling problems, greater history of childhood abuse and neglect, poorer family functioning, higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Furthermore, the problem gamblers with comorbid depression had greater levels of childhood abuse and neglect, worse family functioning, higher neuroticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness than a comparison sample of recreational gamblers with depression (n = 160). These findings underscore the need to address comorbid depression in assessment and treatment of problem gambling and for continued research on how problem gambling is related to frequently co-occurring disorders such as depression.

  2. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A

    2011-02-01

    Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.

  3. Congregational Participation of a National Sample of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Kleinert, Harold L.; LoBianco, Tony F.; Sheppard-­Jones, Kathleen; Butler, Laura N.; Tyree, Milton S.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to thrive requires careful consideration of multiple avenues of community involvement. Yet little attention has focused on the place of faith community participation in the lives of adults with IDD. We examined attendance at religious services using National Core Indicator…

  4. Measurement of community reintegration in sample of severely wounded servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Gray, Melissa; Borgia, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The Community Reintegration of Servicemembers (CRIS) is a new measure of community reintegration. The purpose of this study was to test the CRIS with seriously injured combat veterans. Subjects were 68 patients at the Center for the Intrepid. Each patient completed three CRIS subscales, the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey for Veterans (SF-36V), the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS), and two Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique subscales at visit 1 and the 3-month follow-up. Of the patients, 11 also completed the measures within 2 weeks of visit 1. We abstracted diagnoses and activities of daily living from the medical record. We evaluated test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We evaluated concurrent validity with Pearson product moment correlations. We used multivariate analyses of variance to compare scores for subjects with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and depression. Responsiveness analyses evaluated floor and ceiling effects, percent achieving minimal detectable change (MDC), effect size (ES), and the standardized response mean (SRM). CRIS subscale ICCs were 0.90 to 0.91. All subscales were moderately or strongly correlated with QOLS and SF-36V subscales. CRIS subscale scores were lower in PTSD and TBI groups (p < 0.05). CRIS Extent of Participation and Satisfaction with Participation subscales were lower for subjects with depression (p < 0.05). Of the sample, 17.4% to 23.2% had change greater than MDC. The ES ranged from 0.227 to 0.273 (SRM = 0.277-0.370), showing a small effect between visit 1 and the 3-month follow-up. Results suggest that the CRIS is a psychometrically sound choice for community reintegration measurement in severely wounded servicemembers.

  5. The Experiences of Older Adult Dislocated Workers in Community College Non-Credit Workforce Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stelfanie Sherrell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of older adult dislocated workers who participated in community college non-credit workforce training programs. The research questions guiding the study were: (a) what are the experiences of older adult dislocated workers who attend community college non-credit workforce…

  6. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  7. Learning for the Future: Neighborhood Renewal through Adult and Community Learning. A Guide for Local Authorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan; Turner, Cheryl; Ward, Jane; White, Lenford

    This guide is intended to assist managers within England's local authority adult and community education services in supporting neighborhood renewal through adult and community learning (ACL). The guide's overall aim is to promote the skills, knowledge, and understanding that underpin the following items: (1) identification and development of…

  8. The First-Generation Adult Community College Student: A Case Study of Persistence Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    All college students face new challenges and transitions, but for first-generation adult community college students, those challenges are more pervasive than those of their second-generation peers. The problem addressed is that first-generation adult community college students are at greater risk than their second-generation peers of dropping out…

  9. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  10. The Intersection of Black Lives Matter and Adult Education: One Community College Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian; Schwartz, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is a call to action for adult educators to critically engage the Black Lives Matter Movement through pedagogy, community engagement and scholarly activism. It explores the intersection of the Black Lives Matter movement and adult education by highlighting the response of one community college initiative.

  11. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  12. The Development and Recovery of Social Capital through Community-Based Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Janis

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between participation in community-based adult learning (CBAL) and the development of social capital. It is based on a life-history study of participation in community-based adult learning opportunities undertaken in two local authority areas in Scotland. A life-history approach was chosen in order to ensure that…

  13. "Turning the Sugar": Adult Learning and Cultural Repertoires of Practice in a Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…

  14. Perception of Quality of Life for Adults with Hearing Impairment in the LGBT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the this study was to examine the perception of both generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) in adults with hearing impairment who are members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Eighty-three adults who self-identified as having hearing impairment and as being members of the LGBT community and…

  15. Effect of short-term room temperature storage on the microbial community in infant fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yong; Li, Sheng-Hui; Kuang, Ya-Shu; He, Jian-Rong; Lu, Jin-Hua; Luo, Bei-Jun; Jiang, Feng-Ju; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Papasian, Christopher J.; Xia, Hui-Min; Deng, Hong-Wen; Qiu, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Sample storage conditions are important for unbiased analysis of microbial communities in metagenomic studies. Specifically, for infant gut microbiota studies, stool specimens are often exposed to room temperature (RT) conditions prior to analysis. This could lead to variations in structural and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities. To estimate such effects of RT storage, we collected feces from 29 healthy infants (0–3 months) and partitioned each sample into 5 portions to be stored for different lengths of time at RT before freezing at −80 °C. Alpha diversity did not differ between samples with storage time from 0 to 2 hours. The UniFrac distances and microbial composition analysis showed significant differences by testing among individuals, but not by testing between different time points at RT. Changes in the relative abundance of some specific (less common, minor) taxa were still found during storage at room temperature. Our results support previous studies in children and adults, and provided useful information for accurate characterization of infant gut microbiomes. In particular, our study furnished a solid foundation and justification for using fecal samples exposed to RT for less than 2 hours for comparative analyses between various medical conditions. PMID:27226242

  16. Hospital to community transitions for adults: discharge planners and community service providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Rosemary Kennedy; Chandran, Devyani; Sergeant, Julie F; Koenig, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    Discharges from the hospital to community-based settings are more difficult for older adults when there is lack of communication, resource sharing, and viable partnerships among service providers in these settings. The researchers captured the perspectives of three different groups of participants from hospitals, independent living centers, and Area Agencies on Aging, which has rarely been done in studies on discharge planning. Findings include identification of barriers in the assessment and referral process (e.g., timing of discharge, inattention to client goals, lack of communication and partnerships between hospital discharge planners and community providers), and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Implications are discussed including potential for Medicaid and Medicare cost reductions due to fewer re-hospitalizations.

  17. Correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in community-dwelling older adults: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Camila Astolphi; Soares, Wuber Jefferson de Souza; Bilton, Tereza Loffredo; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Ferrioll, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) imposes a wide range of adverse health-related outcomes in older people, such as disability, which impair everyday activities and may increase the risk of fall. Few studies have explored EDS in Brazilian older people living in the community who are typically cared in primary health services. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of EDS and its sociodemographic, physical and mental health correlates among community-dwelling older adults. This is an exploratory, population-based study derived from Frailty in Brazilian Older Adults (FIBRA) study including adults aged 65 years and older. Participants with a score ≥ 11 points on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered as having excessive daytime sleepiness. A structured, multidimensional questionnaire was used to investigate sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and self-rated health variables. The sample was composed of 776 older adults, of whom 21% (n = 162) presented excessive daytime sleepiness. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that EDS is associated with obesity (OR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.02 - 2.20), urinary incontinence (OR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.01 - 2.31), poor self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.06 - 2.24), and depression symptoms (OR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.00 - 2.20). Our results suggest that healthcare professionals should identify older adults with EDS and implement intervention strategies to minimize the negative impact of the co-occurrence of this condition with obesity, depression and urinary incontinence over health and quality of life.

  18. Adult roles in community-based youth empowerment programs: implications for best practices.

    PubMed

    Messias, Deanne K Hilfinger; Fore, Elizabeth M; McLoughlin, Kerry; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Current literature on community-based youth empowerment programs provides few specific operational descriptions of adult roles. This research addressed that gap by exploring the perspectives and experiences of adults actively engaged with youth empowerment programs. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews, field observations, and interactive group discussions with adult program leaders. The following dimensions of adults' work were identified: putting youth first; raising the bar for youth performance; creating the space and making things happen; being in relationships; exerting influence, control, and authority; and communicating and connecting with the broader community. These findings provide guidance for the development of best practices in community-based youth empowerment programs.

  19. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. PMID:26868539

  20. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  1. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  2. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  3. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  4. Beyond Traditional Art Education: Transformative Lifelong Learning in Community-Based Settings with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Pamela Harris; La Porte, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Quality community-based art education programs for older adults over the age of 50 should exploit the broad range of interests and cognitive abilities of participants by utilizing adult education theory, brain research, and the best practices of adult art education programs. We consider a developing paradigm on the cognitive abilities of the…

  5. An Assessment of the Adult Learners' Needs at Gateway Community-Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Wilson

    A study was conducted to assess the needs of adult learners at Gateway Community-Technical College (GCTC), in North Haven, Connecticut. An extended literature review resulted the choice of the three-part Adult Learner Needs Assessment Survey (ALNAS). In spring 1993, the ALNAS was administered to adult learners in classes at GCTC, resulting in 400…

  6. Descriptive Assessment of Sleep Patterns among Community-Living Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…

  7. Program Evaluation of a Community College Adult Program for Underprepared Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watta, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a program evaluation of a community college adult program for underprepared learners in the eastern lower peninsula of Michigan. The purpose of the program is to make postsecondary education more accessible to those adults who typically would not consider postsecondary education an option. Guided by Cross's adult learning…

  8. Understanding older adults' usage of community green spaces in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pleson, Eryn; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Lee, Karen K; Chaddah, Anuradha; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Schopflocher, Donald

    2014-02-01

    As the world's population ages, there is an increasing need for community environments to support physical activity and social connections for older adults. This exploratory study sought to better understand older adults' usage and perceptions of community green spaces in Taipei, Taiwan, through direct observations of seven green spaces and nineteen structured interviews. Descriptive statistics from observations using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) confirm that older adults use Taipei's parks extensively. Our analyses of interviews support the following recommendations for age-friendly active living initiatives for older adults: make green spaces accessible to older adults; organize a variety of structured activities that appeal to older adults particularly in the morning; equip green spaces for age-appropriate physical activity; and, promote the health advantages of green spaces to older adults. PMID:24473116

  9. Adult-Child Incest: A Sample of Substantiated Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes adult-child incest involving 16 victims. Cases were analyzed and discussed in relationship to previous studies. Emphasis is placed on replicated and newly identified risk factors including alcohol dependency, spouse abuse, other (nonsexual) child abuse or neglect, inadequate housing, social isolation, birth order, and other family…

  10. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  11. Evaluating clinical supervision in community homes and teams serving adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Malin, N A

    2000-03-01

    Evaluating clinical supervision in community homes and teams serving adults with learning disabilities This paper provides a discussion of some of the professional and policy outcomes associated with implementing clinical supervision within a community service for adults with learning disabilities. It is based upon a small qualitative study whose aim was to examine how clinical supervision was operating, its strengths, its weaknesses and where improvements might be made. The study followed the introduction of clinical supervision 9 months earlier for nurses and carers employed in three community homes and one community multiprofessional team. The method consisted of direct observation of individual and group supervision and staff completing critical incident questionnaires, followed by semi-structured, audio-taped interviews with seven registered nurses and four community team members, including a social worker, psychologist and physiotherapist. Outcomes were expressed in two ways: in terms of the benefits of clinical supervision or of its ambivalence. The range of matters brought for discussion, or resolution, in supervision reflected some of the difficulties or dilemmas staff faced working in this area, for example promoting empowerment and assisting clients to make choices, and dealing with clients' challenging and inappropriate behaviours. As for the role of supervisor there was some evidence of nurses expressing apprehension or unpreparedness, also a perceived general concern over the relatively low status of clinical supervision, thought to be due to absence of visible management approval or failure to articulate properly the objective of supervision. A limitation of the study was its small subject sample although considerable data were gathered in each of the units through relatively long-term contact.

  12. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a sample of portuguese adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is scarce evidence regarding the association between diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Portuguese population. We aim to evaluate the association between a posteriori dietary patterns (DPs) and MetS and its features. Methods Using random digit dialing, a sample of 2167 adults was selected between 1999 and 2003, in Porto. During a face-to-face interview, a questionnaire was applied, anthropometric measures were taken, blood pressure measured and a fasting blood sample collected. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and four DPs were identified in each sex by multivariate finite mixture models. Results After adjustment for age and daily energy intake, comparing to the “healthy” DP, women with the “low fruit and vegetables” DP had a higher odds of high waist circumference (OR = 1.88 95% CI 1.17-3.01) and low HDL-cholesterol (OR = 1.78 95% IC 1.12-2.82) and women in the “red meat and alcohol” DP had higher odds of high waist circumference (OR = 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.07) and of MetS (OR = 1.57 95% CI 1.07-2.29); men with the “fish” DP had a higher odds of high triglycerides (OR = 1.57 95% CI 1.05-2.35). After further adjustments (education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, BMI, and menopausal status) no significant associations remained. Conclusions Four distinct DPs were identified in a community sample of Portuguese adults and there was no association with the prevalence of MetS. PMID:22943133

  13. What community resources do older community-dwelling adults use to manage their osteoarthritis? A formative examination.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Schoster, Britta; Woodard, Janice; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-10-01

    Community resources can influence health outcomes, yet little research has examined how older individuals use community resources for osteoarthritis (OA) management. Six focus groups were conducted with 37 community-dwelling older adult African Americans and Caucasians who self-reported OA and resided in Johnston County, North Carolina. Descriptive analyses and qualitative constant comparison methodology revealed individuals use local recreational facilities, senior centers, shopping centers, religious organizations, medical providers, pharmacies and their social network for OA management. Participants also identified environmental characteristics (e.g., sidewalk conditions, curb-cuts, handicapped parking, automatic doors) that both facilitated and hindered use of community resources for OA management. Identified resources and environmental characteristics were organized around Corbin & Strauss framework tasks: medical/behavioral, role, and emotional management. As older Americans live with multiple chronic diseases, better understanding of what community resources are used for disease management may help improve the health of community-dwelling adults, both with and without OA.

  14. What community resources do older community-dwelling adults use to manage their osteoarthritis? A formative examination

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Schoster, Britta; Woodard, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Community resources can influence health outcomes, yet little research has examined how older individuals use community resources for osteoarthritis (OA) management. Six focus groups were conducted with 37 community-dwelling older adult African Americans and Caucasians who self-reported OA and resided in Johnston County, North Carolina. Descriptive analyses and qualitative constant comparison methodology revealed individuals use local recreational facilities, senior centers, shopping centers, religious organizations, medical providers, pharmacies and their social network for OA management. Participants also identified environmental characteristics (e.g., sidewalk conditions, curb-cuts, handicapped parking, automatic doors) that both facilitated and hindered use of community resources for OA management. Identified resources and environmental characteristics were organized around Corbin & Strauss framework tasks: medical/behavioral, role, and emotional management. As older Americans live with multiple chronic diseases, better understanding of what community resources are used for disease management may help improve the health of community-dwelling adults, both with and without OA. PMID:23049159

  15. Promoting Community Wellbeing: The Case for Lifelong Learning for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha

    2014-01-01

    Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…

  16. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  17. Sampling strategy in molecular microbial ecology: influence of soil sample size on DNA fingerprinting analysis of fungal and bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Lionel; Lejon, David P H; Mougel, Christophe; Schehrer, Lucie; Merdinoglu, Didier; Chaussod, Rémi

    2003-11-01

    Assessing soil microbial community structure by the use of molecular techniques requires a satisfactory sampling strategy that takes into account the high microbial diversity and the heterogeneous distribution of microorganisms in the soil matrix. The influence of the sample size of three different soil types (sand, silt and clay soils) on the DNA yield and analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure were investigated. Six sample sizes from 0.125 g to 4 g were evaluated. The genetic community structure was assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (A-RISA fingerprint). Variations between bacterial (B-ARISA) and fungal (F-ARISA) community structure were quantified by using principal component analysis (PCA). DNA yields were positively correlated with the sample size for the sandy and silty soils, suggesting an influence of the sample size on DNA recovery, whereas no correlation was observed in the clay soil. B-ARISA was shown to be consistent between the different sample sizes for each soil type indicating that the sampling procedure has no influence on the assessment of bacterial community structure. On the contrary for F-ARISA profiles, strong variations were observed between replicates of the smaller samples (<1 g). Principal component analysis analysis revealed that sampling aliquots of soil > or =1 g are required to obtain robust and reproducible fingerprinting analysis of the genetic structure of fungal communities. However, the smallest samples could be adequate for the detection of minor populations masked by dominant ones in larger samples. The sampling strategy should therefore be different according to the objectives: rather large soil samples (> or =1 g) for a global description of the genetic community structure, or a large number of small soil samples for a more complete inventory of microbial diversity.

  18. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  19. Depuration of tetrodotoxin and changes in bacterial communities in Pleurobranchea maculata adults and egg masses maintained in captivity.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susanna A; Casas, Margaux; Taylor, David I; McNabb, Paul; Salvitti, Lauren; Ogilvie, Shaun; Cary, S Craig

    2012-11-01

    Depuration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was investigated in adult grey side-gilled sea slugs, Pleurobranchaea maculata, maintained in captivity on a TTX-free diet. Three adults were harvested every 21 days for 126 days, and TTX concentrations were measured in organs/tissues and egg masses. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was used to investigate bacterial community structure in selected samples. Linear modeling of adult data demonstrated a decline (P<0.001) in average total TTX concentrations over time. Temporal data obtained from a wild population showed similar depuration rates, indicating that once adults reach a certain size, or sexual maturity, TTX is no longer produced or acquired substantially. Depuration rates differed among organs, with concentrations in the heart declining the fastest. The gonads had the slowest and least significant depuration rate indicating, at most, weak depuration of this tissue. There was a strong correlation (R(2)=0.66) between TTX concentrations in the first-laid egg masses and total TTX in the corresponding adult. These data suggest that adult P. maculata transfer TTX to their offspring, and presumably that functions as a chemical defense. ARISA data showed a shift in bacterial community structure within 3 weeks of introduction to captivity. Based on the combined data, the exact origin of TTX in P. maculata is unclear, with evidence both in favor and against a dietary source, and endogenous or bacterial production.

  20. The Health Literacy and ESL Study: A Community-Based Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Adults

    PubMed Central

    MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA

    2015-01-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  1. The Health Literacy and ESL study: a community-based intervention for Spanish-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  2. Predictors of handgrip strength among adults of a rural community in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moy, Foong-Ming; Darus, Azlan; Hairi, Noran Naqiah

    2015-03-01

    Handgrip strength is useful for screening the nutritional status of adult population as it is strongly associated with physical disabilities and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to determine the predictors of handgrip strength among adults of a rural community in Malaysia using a cross-sectional study design with multistage sampling. All adults aged 30 years and older from 1250 households were invited to our study. Structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, occupation history, lifestyle practices, and measurements, including anthropometry and handgrip strength were taken. There were 2199 respondents with 55.2% females and majority were of Malay ethnicity. Their mean (standard deviation) age was 53.4 (13.2) years. The response rate for handgrip strength was 94.2%. Females had significantly lower handgrip strength than males (P < .05). In the multiple linear regression models, significant predictors of handgrip strength for males were age, height, job groups, and diabetes, while for females, the significant predictors were age, weight, height, and diabetes.

  3. Developing Shared Youth and Adult Leadership within Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Timothy; Branham, Dan

    This paper proposes a model in which the rural school becomes an active agent in community economic development through leadership development and civic education. Families, school, and community are the three pillars of public education, and the concept of community engagement is crucial to rebuilding this educational partnership and creating an…

  4. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage.

  5. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

  6. Unpacking Sleep and Suicide in Older Adults in a Combined Online Sample

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Shea; Nadorff, Michael R.; Winer, E. Samuel; Ward, Kathryn Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Duration of insomnia symptoms and nightmares are related to suicidal risk in young adults independent of current symptoms of insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, depression, and PTSD. However, this relation has yet to be examined among older adults, despite older adults being at higher risk of suicidal behavior. Further, the current study aims to replicate previous research among younger adults showing that insomnia symptoms and nightmares are associated with suicide risk independent of the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS). Methods: The present study utilized 167 participants age 55 and older obtained by combining two independent mTurk data collections of adults in the United States. Results: In the current sample, duration of nightmares was associated with suicide risk in older adults independent of symptoms of current insomnia and nightmares, duration of insomnia, and symptoms of PTSD, anhedonia, and the IPTS. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the duration of nightmares (i.e., how long someone has been experiencing nightmares) predict substantial variance in suicide risk among older adults in addition to the risk factors typically examined. Thus, assessment of sleep dysfunction is important when assessing suicide risk among older adults. Citation: Golding S, Nadorff MR, Winer ES, Ward KC. Unpacking sleep and suicide in older adults in a combined online sample. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1385–1392. PMID:26194726

  7. Gender differences in a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Spencer, T; Wilens, T; Mick, E; Lapey, K A

    1994-07-01

    Although originally conceptualized as a childhood disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also be an adult disorder. However, despite increasing media attention to adult ADHD, its validity has only recently been studied in a systematic fashion. The overrepresentation of females in adult samples in comparison to pediatric samples of ADHD raises additional questions about the validity of this disorder in adults. The goal of this article is to explore whether ADHD is a valid clinical entity in female subjects and whether it is expressed differently in male and female adults. To this end, we examined the clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of 128 referred adult ADHD cases of both sexes. Each subject had a clinical diagnosis of childhood-onset ADHD confirmed by structured interview. The male and female ADHD adults were similar to one another but more disturbed and impaired than non-ADHD adult control subjects. Compared with normal control females, ADHD women had higher rates of major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder; and more evidence of school failure and cognitive impairment. The consistency of these findings in both genders further supports the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Our results stress the viability and importance of identification of female subjects with ADHD. The underidentification and undertreatment of females with ADHD may have substantial mental health and educational implications, suggesting that research is needed to develop a better understanding of clinical indicators of ADHD in females.

  8. Radical Learning for Liberation. Maynooth Adult and Community Education Occasional Series Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Brid, Ed.; Fleming, Ted, Ed.; McCormack, David, Ed.; Ryan, Anne, Ed.

    The six articles in this first issue comprise a critical discourse about theories, practices, and research with the intent of realizing the potential of adult learning to bring about social change. "Adult Education and Empowerment for Individual and Community Development" (Jack Mezirow) outlines and updates the author's transformation theory of…

  9. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  10. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  11. Responsible Adult Culture (RAC): Cognitive and Behavioral Changes at a Community-Based Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Renee S.; Gibbs, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examined cognitive and behavioral changes among participants in Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a cognitive-behavioral (especially, cognitive restructuring) treatment program in use at the Franklin County Community-Based Correctional Facility (CBCF). Participants were adult felony offenders (approximately three-fourths male). A…

  12. Making a Difference: Leading and Managing for Quality Improvement in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark; Kenway, Mike

    This guide looks at demands on leaders and managers in adult and community learning (ACL) in the roles and issues they face in the context of quality improvement (QI). It suggests practical approaches for improving the quality of provision for adults. The guide's design builds on current practice toward the desired state of excellence in all…

  13. Accounting for Change: Adult and Community Education Organisations and the GST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelade, Sue; Harris, Roger; Mason, Deb

    A study examined impact of the adult and community education (ACE) Amendment to the Goods and Services Tax (GST) on Australian adult and continuing education (ACE) providers. Telephone interviews were held with representatives of 232 ACE organizations. Most were small businesses; almost half had less than $100,000 annual revenue; two-thirds had…

  14. A Randomized Trial of a Multifaceted Intervention to Reduce Falls among Community-Dwelling Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Laurie; Tonner, Chris; Stevens, Judy A.; Fineman, Norman; Ross, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a fall prevention intervention to reduce falls among adults in a community-based health promotion program. Adults aged 65 and older within two counties were recruited (control n = 257; intervention n = 286). After 12 months, there was a significant decrease in the number of falls in…

  15. Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

  16. Nutrition Education and Support Program for Community-Dwelling Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To test the efficacy, acceptability, and appropriateness of a nutrition education and support program, 4 community-based group homes for adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities participated in a pilot intervention with extended baseline period and pre--post-test design. Adults (N = 32) with intellectual or developmental…

  17. High School 21+: A Competency-Based Diploma for Adults. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Adults who lack a high school diploma now have a new way to get a second chance. It's called "High School 21+," a competency-based high school diploma offered at Washington's community and technical colleges. Adults 21 years old and older can go to participating colleges to earn a high school diploma. An advisor will look at transcripts…

  18. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

  19. Adult Education, Social Inclusion and Cultural Diversity in Regional Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of recent research into adult education programs and experiences in the Shire of Campaspe, a region in northern Victoria. Research data of people from diverse cultural backgrounds reveal how individuals can utilize adult education as a space to explore their own social and cultural isolation in a regional…

  20. Community College Adult Literacy Programs: Moving toward Collaboration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Gigi

    The National Education Goals Panel has not met its goal of having every adult American literate by the year 2000. There are many adults who "slipped through the cracks," and have only rudimentary reading and writing skills. The large number of foreign born residents who do not have the necessary reading and writing skills to communicate…

  1. Emotional Wellness Needs: Older Adults in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Randall

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…

  2. Everything in Moderation: The Effects of Adult Moderators in Online Youth Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Meg; Zutty, Debbie; Foucault, Brooke; Huffaker, David; Derby, Dustin; Cassell, Justine

    There is considerable debate over the appropriate role for adults in youth online communities. Although many within the mass media argue for adult supervision of youth online, our research suggests that many young people are using the Internet to communicate productively with peers, to solve problems and learn collaboratively online. However, without studies that explicitly explore the positive aspects of youth online community involvement and the actual effects of adult intervention and oversight, only misguided and chilling stories may hit the news. In this study, we examine the 1998 Junior Summit, a well-studied, early example of a large-scale international community for youth, in order to look at the effects of moderator involvement on several measures of positive youth involvement. Children who participated in the Junior Summit were asked to identify and write white-papers about the ways in which technology could help young people. We have selected the Junior Summit as our community of focus because we have access to data that is mostly otherwise unavailable to researchers — the content of all of the community's posts as well as information about each participant, follow-up interviews five year's after the community's launch, and questionnaire data about self-efficacy and wellbeing. In this study, we compare the content of three different sub-forums, with different adult moderators and different involvement levels, in order to evaluate the impact of adult moderation on the community.

  3. Perceived Need for Mental Health Care Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L.; Kaas, Merrie; Kane, Rosalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than half of respondents with depression or anxiety perceived a need for care. Perceived need was greater for respondents with more symptoms of depression regardless of whether they met diagnostic criteria for a mental illness. History of chronic physical conditions, history of depression or anxiety, and more severe mental illness were associated with greater perceived need for MHC. Future studies of perceived need should account for individual perceptions of mental illness and treatment and the influence of social networks. PMID:19820231

  4. Factors associated with the 6-minute walk test in nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Caballer, Vicent-Benavent; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Segura-Orti, Eva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main objective of this study was to determine the contributions and extent to which certain physical measurements explain performance in the 6-minute walk test in healthy older adults living in a geriatric nursing home and for older adults dwelling in the community. [Subjects] The subjects were 122 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment who were independent in their daily activities. [Methods] The 6-minute walk test, age, body mass index, walking speed, chair stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, rectus femoris cross-sectional area, Short Physical Performance Battery, and hand-grip strength were examined. [Results] Strong significant associations were found between mobility, lower-limb function, balance, and the 6-minute walk test. A stepwise multiple regression on the entire sample showed that lower-limb function was a significant and independent predictor for the 6-minute walk test. Additionally, lower-limb function was a strong predictor for the 6-minute walk test in our nursing home group, whereas mobility was found to be the best predictor in our community-dwelling group. [Conclusion] Better lower-limb function, balance, and mobility result in a higher distance covered by healthy older adults. Lower-limb function and mobility appeared to best determine walking performance in the nursing home and community-dwelling groups, respectively. PMID:26696740

  5. Branchfall as a Demographic Filter for Epiphyte Communities: Lessons from Forest Floor-Based Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento Cabral, Juliano; Petter, Gunnar; Mendieta-Leiva, Glenda; Wagner, Katrin; Zotz, Gerhard; Kreft, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Local variation in the abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes is often attributed to environmental characteristics such as substrate and microclimate. Less is known, however, about the impacts of tree and branch turnover on epiphyte communities. To address this issue, we surveyed branches and epiphytes found on the forest floor in 96 transects in two forests (Atlantic rainforest in Brazil and Caribbean rainforest in Panama). In the Brazilian forest, we additionally distinguished between edge and core study sites. We quantified branch abundance, epiphyte abundance, richness and proportion of adults to investigate the trends of these variables over branch diameter. Branches <2 cm in diameter comprised >90% of all branches on the forest floor. Abundance and richness of fallen epiphytes per transect were highest in the Brazilian core transects and lowest in the Panamanian transects. The majority of epiphytes on the floor (c. 65%) were found attached to branches. At all three study sites, branch abundance and branch diameter were negatively correlated, whereas epiphyte abundance and richness per branch, as well as the proportion of adults were positively correlated with branch diameter. The relationship between branch diameter and absolute epiphyte abundance or richness differed between study sites, which might be explained by differences in forest structure and dynamics. In the Panamanian forest, epiphytes had been previously inventoried, allowing an evaluation of our surveying method by comparing canopy and forest floor samplings. Individuals found on the forest floor corresponded to 13% of all individuals on branches <10 cm in diameter (including crowns), with abundance, richness and composition trends on forest floor reflecting canopy trends. We argue that forest floor surveys provide useful floristic and, most notably, demographic information particularly on epiphytes occurring on the thinnest branches, which are least accessible. Here, branchfall acts as an

  6. Defining Rural Community(ies): Future Considerations for Informal and Nonformal Adult Education in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The study and practice of adult education takes place in many forms and contexts, so much so that it is sometimes asked, "What isn't adult education?" For the purposes of this chapter, informal and nonformal adult education include just about any endeavor adults undertake to learn and work together outside formal classroom, workplace, or…

  7. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems.

  8. Rec Club: A Community Centered Approach to Recreational Development for Adults with Mild to Moderate Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A community-centered recreational program that has served 12 mentally retarded young adults is described. Major features of the Rec Club include specific skill training activities and enhancement of independent recreational activities conducted in commercial community settings (e.g., bowling alley). Assistance is reduced as participants' skills…

  9. Participation in Adult Education for Community Development: A Critical Discourse Analysis of "Training for Transformation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupar, Allyson M.; Prins, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Participation has become so central to adult education for community development that even the World Bank supports participatory programming. This article analyses how participation is conceptualised in "Training for Transformation" (TfT), a Freirean-inspired curriculum used in international community development settings. TfT seeks to…

  10. Working for Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning: Leadership, Representation and Racialised "Outsiders within"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Shona

    2006-01-01

    This article uses empirical material from a qualitative study of adult and community learning (ACL) to explore issues around leading for equality and diversity in educational organisations. What the author is interested in is the way that the commitment to a "community" context in ACL opens up (or keeps open) certain possibilities for "diverse"…

  11. Neighborhood Renewal: Case Studies & Conversations Focusing on Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lenford

    This document explores the themes of sustainability, rural poverty, community activism, and challenging racism in the United Kingdom. The book presents 21 case studies demonstrating ways in which 18 organizations and 3 activists in the United Kingdom have worked successfully with adult learners to empower their communities, develop capacity, and…

  12. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  13. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-06-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147

  14. Race/Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J.; Reyes, Angela G.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multi-stage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured Telomere Length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents’ TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial/ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race/ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally-rooted biopsychosocial processes. PMID:25930147

  15. Wise Choices: Nutrition and Exercise for Older Adults: A Community-Based Health Promotion Intervention.

    PubMed

    Turk, Melanie T; Elci, Okan U; Resick, Lenore K; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interventions for older adults are needed to address lifestyle behaviors linked to chronic illnesses. We implemented a 12-week group behavioral intervention for 118 racially diverse older adults at 6 community-based senior centers to improve eating and physical activity. Assessments were completed pre- and postintervention, with 85.6% retention. We documented increases in fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; pace of walking; number of city blocks walked; daily steps walked; functional mobility; and self-rated general health (P < .05). Findings indicate that a relatively low-intensity lifestyle intervention can effectively be implemented for community-dwelling older adults. Further development of this approach is warranted.

  16. Wise Choices: Nutrition and Exercise for Older Adults: A Community-Based Health Promotion Intervention.

    PubMed

    Turk, Melanie T; Elci, Okan U; Resick, Lenore K; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interventions for older adults are needed to address lifestyle behaviors linked to chronic illnesses. We implemented a 12-week group behavioral intervention for 118 racially diverse older adults at 6 community-based senior centers to improve eating and physical activity. Assessments were completed pre- and postintervention, with 85.6% retention. We documented increases in fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; pace of walking; number of city blocks walked; daily steps walked; functional mobility; and self-rated general health (P < .05). Findings indicate that a relatively low-intensity lifestyle intervention can effectively be implemented for community-dwelling older adults. Further development of this approach is warranted. PMID:27536931

  17. Adult Learning, Community Education, and Public Health: Making the Connection through Community Health Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Community health education does more than educate communities about health. In the most basic form, community health education seeks to enable citizens to assume responsibility for their own and their community's health through an understanding of their community's health problems and the societal influences that act upon them. Many community…

  18. Evaluation of a Rural-Based Community Aged Intensive Recovery Program for Older Adults With Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Paul; McIlvena, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Community Aged Intensive Recovery (CAIR) programs are an integral part of Aged Persons Mental Health Services (APMHS); however, no study has investigated whether a rural-based intensive program benefits older clients with severe mental illness. The current sample comprised 119 older adults who were being managed by a CAIR program from July 2011 to June 2013. Three key results were found: (a) approximately three quarters of clients admitted to the CAIR program remained treated in the community; (b) the program assisted in significantly reducing the level of psychiatric symptom severity from CAIR entry to CAIR exit; and (c) the APMHS team with the CAIR program had a lower psychiatric inpatient rate compared to the APMHS team without the program. The current study highlights the importance of delivering effective rural-based CAIR programs to older adults experiencing severe mental illness.

  19. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence in a Nonrisk Sample: Associations with Child Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Neena M.

    2008-01-01

    Limited data exist on the unique, additive, and interactive effects of exposure to domestic and community violence on children's functioning, particularly in community samples. This study examined relations between children's violence exposure, at home and in the community, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems. Parents reported…

  20. Inattention, Working Memory, and Goal Neglect in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Elisa, Rebecca N.; Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Parris, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function deficits have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been theorized that the symptom inattention is specifically related to problems with complex verbal working memory (WM). Using the Conners Adult ADHD rating scale, adults aged 18–35 were assessed for ADHD symptoms, and completed tasks designed to tap verbal and spatial aspects of WM (Experiment 1). Results showed that high inattention predicted poor performance on both simple and complex verbal WM measures. Results relating to spatial WM were inconclusive. In a follow up experiment based on the theory that those with inattention have problems receiving verbal instructions, a measure of goal neglect assessing integration of information into a task model in WM was employed (Experiment 2). Results showed that high inattention uniquely predicted performance on this task, representing the first reported association between inattention and the phenomenon of goal neglect. The results from both experiments lend support to the WM theory of inattention. PMID:27713716

  1. Community Living and Housing Options for Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Data indicates that people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are increasingly receiving community based services in lieu of institutionalization. The Research and Training Center on Community Living at the University of Minnesota reports that the number of people living in large state run institutions decreased from 117,147…

  2. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  3. A Comparison of Men Who Committed Different Types of Sexual Assault in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining predictors of different types of sexual assault perpetration in a community sample. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 163 men in one large urban community. As hypothesized, many variables that are significant predictors of sexual assault perpetration in…

  4. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims. PMID:26724825

  5. Multiple online victimization of Spanish adolescents: Results from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Irene; Carbonell, Enrique; Pereda, Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about online victimization of Spanish adolescents. The present study aims to determine the past-year prevalence of online victimization in a community sample of Spanish adolescents. The final sample consisted of 3,897 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M=14.45, SD=1.59), 1,836 males and 2,049 females, recruited from 39 secondary schools in the east of Spain. The Cuestionario de victimización juvenil mediante internet y/o teléfono móvil (hereinafter, Juvenile Online Victimization Questionnaire, JOV-Q, Montiel & Carbonell, 2012) was applied for the assessment of eight types of online victimization grouped in two major domains: sexual (sexual coercion, sexual pressure, online grooming by an adult, unwanted exposure to sexual content and violation of privacy); and nonsexual victimization (online harassment, happy slapping, pressure to obtain personal information). Sixty-one percent of adolescents reported online victimization during the last year. Online sexual victimization was reported by 39.5% of adolescents and nonsexual victimization by 53.4% of them, whereas 31% of youth reported having experienced online victimization in both domains. The highest prevalence rates were recorded for online harassment (50%), unwanted exposure to sexual content (24.4%), pressure to obtain personal information (18.4%) and online grooming by an adult (17.2%), and the lowest for sexual coercion (6.7%) and happy slapping (2.2%). Thirty-five percent of the adolescents were considered online polyvictims and most of them experienced victimization in both sexual and nonsexual domains (88%). This study illustrates that Spanish adolescents experience high levels of online victimization and that multiple online victimization appears to be the norm among cybervictims.

  6. Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors among a Community Sample in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ammouri, Ali A.; Tailakh, Ayman; Isac, Chandrani; Kamanyire, Joy K.; Muliira, Joshua; Balachandran, Shreedevi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Omani adults regarding conventional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and to identify demographic variables associated with these knowledge levels. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was carried out among a convenience sample of 130 adults attending a health awareness fair held in a local shopping mall in Muscat, Oman, in November 2012. A modified version of the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire in both English and Arabic was used to assess knowledge of CHD risk factors. Scores were calculated by summing the correct answers for each item (range: 0–21). Inadequate knowledge was indicated by a mean score of <70%. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to establish the participants’ knowledge levels and identify associated demographic variables. Results: A total of 114 subjects participated in the study (response rate: 87.7%). Of these, 69 participants (60.5%) had inadequate mean CHD knowledge scores. Knowledge of CHD risk factors was significantly associated with body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 0.739; P = 0.023), marital status (OR = 0.057; P = 0.036) and education level (OR = 9.243; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Low knowledge levels of CHD risk factors were observed among the studied community sample in Oman; this is likely to limit the participants’ ability to engage in preventative practices. These findings support the need for education programmes to enhance awareness of risk factors and prevention of CHD in Oman. PMID:27226910

  7. Spatial pattern and sequential sampling of squash bug (Heteroptera: Coreidae) adults in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Giles, Kristopher; Edelson, J V

    2006-04-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of adult squash bugs were determined in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, during 2001 and 2002. Results of analysis using Taylor's power law regression model indicated that squash bugs were aggregated in watermelon. Taylor's power law provided a good fit with r2 = 0.94. A fixed precision sequential sampling plan was developed for estimating adult squash bug density at fixed precision levels in watermelon. The plan was tested using a resampling simulation method on nine and 13 independent data sets ranging in density from 0.15 to 2.52 adult squash bugs per plant. Average estimated means obtained in 100 repeated simulation runs were within the 95% CI of the true means for all the data. Average estimated levels of precision were similar to the desired level of precision, particularly when the sampling plan was tested on data having an average mean density of 1.19 adult squash bugs per plant. Also, a sequential sampling for classifying adult squash bug density as below or above economic threshold was developed to assist in the decision-making process. The classification sampling plan is advantageous in that it requires smaller sample sizes to estimate the population status when the population density differs greatly from the action threshold. However, the plan may require excessively large sample sizes when the density is close to the threshold. Therefore, an integrated sequential sampling plan was developed using a combination of a fixed precision and classification sequential sampling plans. The integration of sampling plans can help reduce sampling requirements. PMID:16686160

  8. Identification with mainstream culture and preference for alternative alcohol treatment approaches in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Dillworth, Tiara M; Kaysen, Debra; Montoya, Heidi D; Larimer, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    Although various treatment approaches are available for alcohol problems, less than 25% of individuals with alcohol use disorders obtain treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate interest in attending alternative alcohol treatments, such as meditation and acupuncture, compared to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). A community sample of 156 adult participants concerned about their drinking were recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements to complete a Web-based survey assessing identification with mainstream culture, sexual identity, and likelihood to attend alternative alcohol treatments. Participants reported higher likelihood of attending alternative treatments as compared to AA, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants (28.2% of the sample) were more likely to attend alternative treatments than heterosexual participants. A series of regression analyses were conducted to test whether the relationship between sexual identity and likelihood to attend alternative treatments was mediated by identification with mainstream culture. Participants who were less strongly identified with mainstream culture, regardless of sexual identity, reported higher likelihood of attending alternative treatments. These findings highlight that, for certain subgroups of the population, alternative treatments for alcohol misuse are appealing and suggest the need for future research testing the efficacy of alternative treatments for alcohol problems.

  9. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change. PMID:23022426

  10. Adult and Community Education: A Snapshot of the Conditions and Circumstances of Being a Community-Based Adult Community Education (ACE) Provider in South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria from September to December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwencke, Helen

    This report compiles information from a study tour to identify the current status, development, and issues of nonprofit organizations with voluntary boards of management that provide adult and community-based education (ACE) in Australia. An overview of the community-based ACE sector covers organizations in South Australia, Western Australia,…

  11. Administering Successful Programs for Adults. Promoting Excellence in Adult, Community, and Continuing Education. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Michael W.; And Others

    This book provides a practical orientation as well as a conceptual framework for understanding the administrative process by examining the primary elements, functions, and processes involved with effective administration of adult, community, and continuing education agencies and organizations. The book is organized in nine chapters. Chapter 1…

  12. Quality of life (QOL) of older adult community choral singers in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julene K; Louhivuori, Jukka; Stewart, Anita L; Tolvanen, Asko; Ross, Leslie; Era, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Background Enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults is an international area of focus. Identifying factors and experiences that contribute to QOL of older adults helps promote optimal levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between perceived benefits associated with choral singing and quality of life (QOL) among community-dwelling older adults. Methods One hundred and seventeen older adults who sing in community choirs in Jyväskylä, Finland completed self-report measures of QOL (WHOQOL-Bref), depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire about the benefits of singing in choir. Correlational analyses and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the benefits of singing in choir and QOL. Results Both correlation and regression analyses found significant relationships between the benefits of choral singing and three QOL domains: psychological, social relationships, and environment but not physical. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, older choral singers who reported greater benefits of choir singing had higher QOL in multiple domains. The older choral singers in the study also reported few symptoms of depression and high overall QOL and satisfaction with health. Conclusion Results suggest that singing in a community choir as an older adult may positively influence several aspects of QOL. These results suggest that community choral singing may one potential avenue for promoting quality of life in older adults. PMID:23574947

  13. Sampling approach for characterization of the Scarboro Community, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Scarboro Community is a small urban community in the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is located approximately 457 m northwest of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant along the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary. The purpose of this investigation is to validate measurements taken at the perimeter air monitor 46 (located in the Scarboro Community) and external gamma data collected during past flyover surveys. Five sampling tasks will be performed to validate these measurements. These tasks include biased sampling of residential properties, random sampling of residential properties, ORR boundary sampling, focused soil sampling in the Scarboro saddle, and surface water and sediment sampling in the Scarboro tributaries. Additionally, a radiological walkover of representative areas of the Scarboro Community will be performed. The two contaminants of concern are mercury and radionuclides.

  14. Design for a Performance Based Adult Education Community Coordinating Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    A plan is described for a project to establish an adult education coordinating and change agency in the New Haven, Connecticut area to coordinate activities of existing organizations; provide a research staff to establish a computerized data base; disseminate information and provide technological services to local agencies; set up a communications…

  15. Developing a Trusting Community: Dilemmas in ESL Adult Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Marsha

    1994-01-01

    The example of an adult teacher of English as a Second Language illustrates that, in attempting to build learner trust, dilemmas between creating a safe learning environment and holding students academically accountable are normal. Multiple forms of trusting relationships may conflict; educators should view trust as not only establishing rapport…

  16. Working Adults in Accelerated Cohorts: More than a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Robin; Duff, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    There are 54 million working adults in the United States without bachelor's degrees (Pusser et al., 2007). Many would like to obtain a college degree but need an educational program that fits their needs. A viable alternative to a traditional college program is an accelerated program in a cohort format. This article highlights best practices for…

  17. Predictors of Adult Education Program Satisfaction in Urban Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; López, Erick B.; Keene, Jennifer R.; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning is receiving greater attention due to population aging in modern societies. Lifelong learning benefits individuals by supporting their physical, psychological, social, and economic well-being. However, older adults generally have lower motivation for learning than younger adults, and facilitating long-term participation in…

  18. Understanding the use of a community-based drive-home service after alcohol consumption among young adults.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, M; Godin, G; Valois, P

    1999-06-01

    To know and understand the intention of young adults to use, during the Christmas and New Year's period, the community drive-home service after drinking alcohol, that is, to phone for oneself when they are the driver or when they are the passenger to suggest to a friend who is the driver to phone for the service. This study was conducted in the Province of Quebec, Canada, among a representative sample of 544 young adults aged 18 to 24 years. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by mail. Young adults showed a very good knowledge of the drive home service and had a very positive attitude toward its use. Among those who reported having experienced drinking too much alcohol during the Christmas and New Year's period, 17 percent had phoned when they were the driver and 36 percent had, when they were a passenger, suggested to a friend who was the driver to phone the community drive-home service. Nonetheless, more than half of them intended to use or to recommend its use to a friend in the future. Several factors identified in this study might be useful for increasing this drive-home service and therefore, contribute to lowering the risk of injury related to alcohol-impaired driving among young adults.

  19. Ability of institutionalized and community-based adults with retardation to respond to questions in an interview context.

    PubMed

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M

    1994-04-01

    This study examined the ability of adults with mild and moderate levels of retardation to respond to simple and complex questions. The sample consisted of 20 subjects living in an institutional setting and 20 subjects living in the community. A 30-minute language sample, structured as a job interview, was elicited from each subject by an investigator. During the interview, the investigator asked a number of questions interspersed within the conversation. Two levels of questions were presented: simple and complex. Ten questions were presented at each level. Responses were scored in terms of how informative and truthful the subject was (specific scoring conventions were based upon the work of Grice, 1975). The community group produced a significantly greater number of appropriate answers to both simple and complex questions than did the institutional group. Group differences were observed along both parameters of informativeness and truthfulness.

  20. Are Sleep Onset/Maintenance Difficulties Associated with Medical or Psychiatric Comorbidities in Nondemented Community-Dwelling Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bigal, Marcelo E.; Katz, Mindy J.; Derby, Carol A.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Older adults frequently report disruptions in their ability to initiate and maintain sleep. It remains unclear whether these sleep problems are consequent to associated medical comorbidities or if they represent primary sleep disturbances that exist independent of other disorders of senescence. Herein we describe sleep characteristics and associated medical and psychiatric comorbidities among ethnically diverse nondemented older adults. Methods: The cross-sectional sample consisted of 702 participants drawn from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of aging. Sleep onset/maintenance difficulties (SO/MD) were ascertained using responses from the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS). Participants also completed assessments of medical history, psychological symptoms, and medication use. Results: Participants were an average of 80 ± 5.5 years of age and had 14 ± 3.4 years of education. Older adults reported sleeping an average of 6.5 ± 1.2 h/night. Mild SO/MD was reported in 43% of participants, while moderate/severe SO/MD was reported in 12% of participants. Sleep problems were associated with measures of obesity and symptoms of depression and anxiety. SO/MD was not associated with history of common medical conditions. Use rates of insomnia medication were low (0% to 3%). Conclusions: The prevalence of SO/MD is high in the elderly community-dwelling population and is associated with common psychiatric disorders. With the exception of obesity, SO/MD is not associated with common medical disorders. Further study is necessary to disentangle the nature of the relationship between sleep disturbance and psychiatric comorbidity among older adults. Citation: Zimmerman ME; Bigal ME; Katz MJ; Derby CA; Lipton RB. Are sleep onset/maintenance difficulties associated with medical or psychiatric comorbidities in nondemented community-dwelling older adults? J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):363-369. PMID:23585752

  1. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  2. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  3. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations

    PubMed Central

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  4. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks.

  5. The latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Norris, Alyssa L; Coccaro, Emil F

    2012-06-01

    The vast majority of studies that have examined the latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents have concluded that ADHD has a dimensional latent structure. In other words, ADHD symptomatology exists along a continuum and there is no natural boundary or qualitative distinction (i.e., taxon) separating youth with ADHD from those with subclinical inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems. Although adult ADHD appears to be less prevalent than ADHD in youth (which could suggest a more severe adult ADHD taxon), researchers have yet to examine the latent structure of ADHD in adults. The present study used a sample (N = 600) of adults who completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms. The taxometric analyses revealed a dimensional latent structure for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ADHD. These findings are consistent with previous taxometric studies that examined ADHD in children and adolescents, and with contemporary polygenic and multifactorial models of ADHD.

  6. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  7. Developing Partnerships for Adult Literacy Training: College/Community Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L.; And Others

    The Corpus Christi Literacy Council (CCLC) is an independent, non-profit educational organization operating through joint partnership and grant activities with Del Mar College (DMC) and community and government organizations in the Corpus Christi (Texas) area. The major purposes of the council are to establish comprehensive reading programs for…

  8. Developing Community Expectations: The Critical Role of Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David; Miller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life in a community is directly tied to the capital available to its citizenry. The idea of capital refers to the resources related to the population--the wealth, the open-minded nature of individuals, the potential for jobs, and putting skills and talents to use to earn a living. There have been a wide range of studies and efforts…

  9. Attributions of Cancer ‘Alarm’ Symptoms in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Katriina L.; Scott, Suzanne E.; Winstanley, Kelly; Macleod, Una; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Attribution of early cancer symptoms to a non-serious cause may lead to longer diagnostic intervals. We investigated attributions of potential cancer ‘alarm’ and non-alarm symptoms experienced in everyday life in a community sample of adults, without mention of a cancer context. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 4858 adults (≥50 years old, no cancer diagnosis) through primary care, asking about symptom experiences in the past 3 months. The word cancer was not mentioned. Target 'alarm' symptoms, publicised by Cancer Research UK, were embedded in a longer symptom list. For each symptom experienced, respondents were asked for their attribution (‘what do you think caused it'), concern about seriousness (‘not at all’ to ‘extremely’), and help-seeking (‘did you contact a doctor about it’: Yes/No). Results The response rate was 35% (n = 1724). Over half the respondents (915/1724; 53%) had experienced an ‘alarm’ symptom, and 20 (2%) cited cancer as a possible cause. Cancer attributions were highest for ‘unexplained lump’; 7% (6/87). Cancer attributions were lowest for ‘unexplained weight loss’ (0/47). A higher proportion (375/1638; 23%) were concerned their symptom might be ‘serious’, ranging from 12% (13/112) for change in a mole to 41% (100/247) for unexplained pain. Just over half had contacted their doctor about their symptom (59%), although this varied by symptom. Alarm symptoms were appraised as more serious than non-alarm symptoms, and were more likely to trigger help-seeking. Conclusions Consistent with retrospective reports from cancer patients, ‘alarm’ symptoms experienced in daily life were rarely attributed to cancer. These results have implications for understanding how people appraise and act on symptoms that could be early warning signs of cancer. PMID:25461959

  10. [Summary of the Consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    2005-08-01

    This is an update of the Consensus for treatment of community acquired pneumonia in adults, prepared by the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases and the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases. These norms were prepared by thirty specialists in respiratory diseases, internal medicine, infectious diseases, microbiology, intensive medicine and radiology. The purpose of the document is to norm the management of immunocompetent adults with community acquired pneumonia, by the public and private health systems of our country. The complete document will be published in June, in the respective journals of the Societies of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases. This is a summary to obtain a better diffusion of these norms among internists and general practitioners.

  11. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.

  12. Community belonging and sedentary behavior among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of income.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L; Copeland, Jennifer L; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how income and community belonging may interact to influence leisure sedentary behavior among Indigenous adults. Data were obtained from 1,304 First Nations adults who completed the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2012. Among average-income earners, a strong sense of belonging to local community was associated with less sedentary behavior, a finding also documented in the general population. Among low-income earners, a strong sense of belonging to local community was associated with more sedentary behavior, a finding that is novel in the literature. These associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic covariates and mental and physical health, suggesting other factors are influencing this correlation. PMID:27668591

  13. Aging in community: mobilizing a new paradigm of older adults as a core social resource.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathy; Dobbs, Debra; Young, Tiffany L

    2015-03-01

    Dignity and independence are widely considered as core concepts to aging well, yet little research has explored how older adults perceive these issues in the context of community life. Moreover, little is known regarding the ways in which the broader public views and enhances aging with dignity and independence with their older residents. Using participatory action research, multiple methods of qualitative inquiry, and tenets of appreciative inquiry, this article reports on a community-based initiative aimed to better understand the positive aspects of aging with dignity and independence. Synthesized findings yielded 6 "actionable themes": (1) meaningful involvement, (2) aging in place, (3) respect and inclusion, (4) communication and information, (5) transportation and mobility, and (6) health and well-being. The findings invoke a new paradigm for community aging that highlights the unique contributions of older adults as a core social resource. Implications for mobilizing community action to promote aging with dignity and independence are discussed. PMID:25681387

  14. Epigenetic and inflammatory marker profiles associated with depression in a community-based epidemiologic sample

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, M.; Koenen, K. C.; Aiello, A. E.; Wildman, D. E.; de los Santos, R.; Galea, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent work suggests that epigenetic differences may be associated with psychiatric disorders. Here we investigate, in a community-based sample, whether methylation profiles distinguish between individuals with and without lifetime depression. We also investigate the physiologic consequences that may be associated with these profiles. Method Using whole blood-derived genomic DNA from a subset of participants in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), we applied methylation microarrays to assess genome-wide methylation profiles for over 14 000 genes in 33 persons who reported a lifetime history of depression and 67 non-depressed adults. Bioinformatic functional analyses were performed on the genes uniquely methylated and unmethylated in each group, and inflammatory biomarkers [interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP)] were measured to investigate the possible functional significance of the methylation profiles observed. Results Uniquely unmethylated gene sets distinguished between those with versus without lifetime depression. In particular, some processes (e.g. brain development, tryptophan metabolism) showed patterns suggestive of increased methylation among individuals with depression whereas others (e.g. lipoprotein) showed patterns suggestive of decreased methylation among individuals with depression. IL-6 and CRP levels were elevated among those with lifetime depression and, among those with depression only, IL-6 methylation showed an inverse correlation with circulating IL-6 and CRP. Conclusions Genome-wide methylation profiles distinguish individuals with versus without lifetime depression in a community-based setting, and show coordinated signals with pathophysiological mechanisms previously implicated in the etiology of this disorder. Examining epigenetic mechanisms in concert with other dynamic markers of physiologic functioning should improve our understanding of the neurobiology of depression. PMID:20836906

  15. Adult Education--Adequacy of Provision. Chapter 7. The Part-Time Tutor Sample Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Educ (London), 1970

    1970-01-01

    Part of the report of the survey by the National Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales), this chapter provides information gathered from questionnaires distributed to the tutors of classes in the areas from which the student sample was drawn. (NL)

  16. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  17. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  18. Stress, Social Support, and Outcomes in Two Probability Samples of Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…

  19. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  20. Variations in Criterion A and PTSD Rates in a Community Sample of Women

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Samantha; Frazier, Patricia; Frankfurt, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    We assessed PTSD prevalence and symptoms as a function of whether participants’ worst lifetime event met Criterion A1 for PTSD (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) and whether the event was directly or indirectly experienced in a community sample of adult women (N = 884). Exposure to both non-Criterion A1 and Criterion A1 events was systematically assessed. PTSD was assessed with regard to participants’ self-nominated worst event using the PTSD module of the SCID-I/NP (First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997). There were no differences in PTSD prevalence rates between Criterion A1 and non-A1 events; however, directly-experienced worst events were significantly more likely to meet PTSD criteria than were indirectly-experienced worst events. Non-Criterion A1 and directly-experienced worst events were associated with significantly more PTSD symptoms than were Criterion A1 or indirectly-experienced events, respectively. Criterion A2 (experiencing fear, helplessness, or horror) had little effect on PTSD rates. PMID:20888184

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE: COMORBIDITY, TREATMENT UTILIZATION, AND GENERAL FUNCTIONING

    PubMed Central

    Tomko, Rachel L.; Trull, Timothy J.; Wood, Phillip K.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides estimates of the prevalence and demographic features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a community sample as well as BPD comorbidity rates with Axis I and II disorders. In addition, the authors provide data on general functioning and treatment seeking among individuals with BPD. Data from 34,481 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analyzed. Results suggest that 2.7% of adults in the United States meet diagnostic criteria for BPD, with slightly higher rates of the disorder in females, people in lower income brackets, people younger than 30, and individuals who are separated or divorced. Racial/ethnic differences were evident, with Native Americans (5.0%) and Blacks (3.5%) having significantly higher rates of the disorder, on average, and Asians having significantly lower rates (1.2%). Individuals with a BPD diagnosis were likely to have co-occurring lifetime mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and other personality disorders. Specifically, 84.8% of individuals with BPD also had a lifetime anxiety disorder, 82.7% had a lifetime mood disorder/episode, and 78.2% were diagnosed with a lifetime substance use disorder. Individuals with BPD showed significant impairment in functioning and were highly likely to seek therapy or receive medication for mental health concerns. PMID:25248122

  2. Variations in Criterion A and PTSD rates in a community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Anders, Samantha L; Frazier, Patricia A; Frankfurt, Sheila B

    2011-03-01

    We assessed PTSD prevalence and symptoms as a function of whether participants' worst lifetime event met Criterion A1 for PTSD (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) and whether the event was directly or indirectly experienced in a community sample of adult women (N=884). Exposure to both non-Criterion A1 and Criterion A1 events was systematically assessed. PTSD was assessed with regard to participants' self-nominated worst event using the PTSD module of the SCID-I/NP (First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997). There were no differences in PTSD prevalence rates between Criterion A1 and non-A1 events; however, directly experienced worst events were significantly more likely to meet PTSD criteria than were indirectly experienced worst events. Non-Criterion A1 and directly experienced worst events were associated with significantly more PTSD symptoms than were Criterion A1 or indirectly experienced events, respectively. Criterion A2 (experiencing fear, helplessness, or horror) had little effect on PTSD rates. PMID:20888184

  3. Caring for adults with a learning disability in the community.

    PubMed

    Powrie, E

    A recurring theme within the literature is gaps in the delivery of services for people with a learning disability living in the community. These gaps occur between health professionals, primary and secondary care and specialisms within nursing. Gaps also exist between social service policy and implementation, health and social care. Recent national and local reports have sought to address these issues by promoting ways for health and social services to work in partnership. The theme of health promotion is highlighted in all these documents, but implementation of health promotion has been firmly placed within the boundaries of primary care. This poses a dilemma for primary care: does the primary care team or a more specialist community learning disability team provide better care for people with a learning disability? This article summarizes strategies and policies within the literature and difficulties that need to be considered when offering a service to people with a learning disability. PMID:11927898

  4. Local Medicaid home- and community-based services spending and nursing home admissions of younger adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.

  5. Local Medicaid Home- and Community-Based Services Spending and Nursing Home Admissions of Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states’ efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue. PMID:25211711

  6. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  7. Synergy in Urban Relationships--Public School Adult Education, Community Colleges, and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.

    The presentation reviews selected developments in inter-organizational cooperation and coordination at the local, State, and national levels in order to provide a basis for identifying major questions and issues faced by the National Council of Urban Administrators of Adult Education (NCUAAE) as they strive for synergy in adult education. Trends…

  8. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  9. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p < 0.05). In hierarchical regression analyses, total cumulative stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  10. Sampling for evaluation. Issues and strategies for community-based HIV prevention programs.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A A

    2000-06-01

    Sampling methods are an important issue in the evaluation of community-based HIV prevention initiatives because it is through responsible sampling procedures that a valid model of the population is produced and reliable estimates of behavior change determined. This article provides an overview on sampling with particular focus on the needs of community-based organizations (CBOs). As these organizations continue to improve their capacity for sampling and program evaluation activities, comparisons across CBOs can become more rigorous, resulting in valuable information collectively regarding the effectiveness of particular HIV prevention initiatives. The author reviews several probability and non-probability sampling designs; discusses bias, cost, and feasibility factors in design selection; and presents six guidelines designed to encourage community organizations to consider these important sampling issues as they plan their program evaluations.

  11. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  12. Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults.

    PubMed

    Watt, James P; O'Brien, Katherine L; Katz, Scott; Bronsdon, Melinda A; Elliott, John; Dallas, Jean; Perilla, Mindy J; Reid, Raymond; Murrow, Laurel; Facklam, Richard; Santosham, Mathuram; Whitney, Cynthia G

    2004-11-01

    Several studies have shown that nasopharyngeal sampling is more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling for the detection of pneumococcal carriage in children. The data for adults are limited and conflicting. This study was part of a larger study of pneumococcal carriage on the Navajo and White Mountain Apache Reservation following a clinical trial of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Persons aged 18 years and older living in households with children enrolled in the vaccine trial were eligible. We collected both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens by passing a flexible calcium alginate wire swab either nasally to the posterior nasopharynx or orally to the posterior oropharynx. Swabs were placed in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin medium and frozen at -70 degrees C. Pneumococcal isolation was performed by standard techniques. Analyses were based on specimens collected from 1,994 adults living in 1,054 households. Nasopharyngeal specimens (11.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8 and 12.6%) were significantly more likely to grow pneumococci than were oropharyngeal specimens (5.8%; 95% CI, 4.8 to 6.9%) (P < 0.0001). Few persons had pneumococcal growth from both specimens (1.7%). Therefore, both tests together were more likely to identify pneumococcal carriage (15.2%; 95% CI, 13.7 to 16.9%) than either test alone. Although we found that nasopharyngeal sampling was more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling, nasopharyngeal sampling alone would have underestimated the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in this adult population. Sampling both sites may give more accurate results than sampling either site alone in studies of pneumococcal carriage in adults. PMID:15528682

  13. Women in addictions treatment: comparing VA and community samples.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tania M; Carpenter, Kelly M; Malte, Carol A; Carney, Molly; Chambers, Sharon; Saxon, Andrew J

    2002-07-01

    Despite increasing awareness of gender issues in substance use treatment, women with substance use disorders (SUD) and gender-specific treatment remain understudied. This study examines differences, including identification of comorbid issues and patients' perceived treatment needs, between women in different SUD treatment settings: an intensive VA outpatient program (VA; N = 76) and a private residential/outpatient program (Residence XII; N = 308). In both settings the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was administered at intake; ASI data were collected from retrospective chart review. Results support previous findings that women entering SUD treatment endorse high rates of psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and past abuse. Women in VA SUD treatment experienced more impairment on indices of medical, psychiatric, and employment issues whereas the private agency sample had higher alcohol and family/social composite scores. The differences between and similarities among the two treatment groups have implications for design of women-specific SUD treatment programs.

  14. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested.

  15. Methods for sampling fish communities as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Fish community structure is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The objective of the National Water-Quality Assessment characterization of fish community structure is to relate fish community characteristics to physical, chemical, and other biological factors to assess water-quality conditions. To accomplish this, fish community structure is described at sites representing selected environmental settings. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in fish community structure are examined at local, regional, and national levels. A representative sample of the fish community is collected by sampling a stream reach using two complementary methods. The primary collection method is electrofishing using backpack, towed, or boat-operated electrofishing gear; seining is a secondary technique. Other secondary techniques may be substituted after careful consideration of sampling efficiency and consultation with local fish ecologists. Before fish sampling is conducted, careful consideration must be given to collecting permits; protecting endangered, threatened, and special-concern species; and coordinating sampling efforts with other fish ecologists. After the sample is collected, individual fish are identified to species by ichthyologists. Length and weight measurements are taken, and the presence of external anomalies are recorded.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern. PMID:24850143

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern.

  18. Evaluation of water sampling methodologies for amplicon-based characterization of bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Wang, Ping; Phillips, Jane; Cotner, James B; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Reduction in costs of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed unprecedented characterization of bacterial communities from environmental samples including aquatic ecosystems. However, the extent to which extrinsic factors including sampling volume, sample replication, DNA extraction kits, and sequencing target affect the community structure inferred are poorly explored. Here, triplicate 1, 2, and 6L volume water samples from the Upper Mississippi River were processed to determine variation among replicates and sample volumes. Replicate variability significantly influenced differences in the community α-diversity (P=0.046), while volume significantly changed β-diversity (P=0.037). Differences in phylogenetic and taxonomic community structure differed both among triplicate samples and among the volumes filtered. Communities from 2L and 6L water samples showed similar clustering via discriminant analysis. To assess variation due to DNA extraction method, DNA was extracted from triplicate cell pellets from four sites along the Upper Mississippi River using the Epicentre Metagenomic DNA Isolation Kit for Water and MoBio PowerSoil kit. Operational taxonomic units representing ≤14% of sequence reads differed significantly among all sites and extraction kits used, although differences in diversity and community coverage were not significant (P≥0.057). Samples characterized using only the V6 region had significantly higher coverage and lower richness and α-diversity than those characterized using V4-V6 regions (P<0.001). Triplicate sampling of at least 2L of water provides robust representation of community variability, and these results indicate that DNA extraction kit and sequencing target displayed taxonomic biases that did not affect the overall biological conclusions drawn. PMID:25956022

  19. The Development of Adult and Community Education Policy in New Zealand: Insights from Popper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which all post-compulsory education in New Zealand has become integrated under one administrative structure, the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC), with the intention of developing a single coordinated system of tertiary education. In particular, adult and community education (ACE), the least formal and…

  20. The Social Value of Community-Based Adult Education in Limerick City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Patricia; O'Dwyer, Maria; Power, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a qualitative study into the social value of community-based adult education in Limerick City. The article demonstrates that participants experience significant improvements in numerous facets of their lives and we argue that it is crucial that we recognise the multiple and inter-connected social impacts that…

  1. An Analysis of the Educational Preferences among Adult Residents of Arapahoe Community College's Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.; Hart, Sharon

    In May 1985, a study was conducted by Arapahoe Community College (ACC) to determine the preferences of service area adults for educational opportunities. Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected households and distributed by local libraries, recreation centers, and other nonprofit organizations, soliciting information on interest in…

  2. Multiple Images, Common Threads. Case Studies of Good Practice in Adult Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia

    This document presents 10 case studies of adult community education programs (ACE) in the state of Victoria, Australia, in the mid 1990s, that were identified as exemplifying the following principles of good practice in ACE: expansiveness, integration, responsiveness, innovation, belonging, explicitness, autonomy, accessibility, synthesis, and…

  3. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  4. Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…

  5. Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…

  6. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection in human adults. From three rural communities in Derango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is scarce information concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people of rural Mexico. Anti-T. Gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 462 adult inhabitants from 3 rural communities of Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 110 (23.8% of ...

  7. Managing Staff Development in Adult and Community Learning: Reflection to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, David

    This document is intended to assist individuals responsible for managing staff development in adult and community learning (ACL) in the United Kingdom. The guide presents step-by-step advice for designing and implementing an approach based on the belief that staff development should do the following things: (1) relate holistically to the…

  8. Involving Tutors and Support Staff in the Adult and Community Learning Quality Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David

    This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…

  9. Responding to the Mental Health and Well-Being Agenda in Adult Community Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…

  10. Self-Assessment and Development Planning for Adult and Community Learning Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Mike; Reisenberger, Anna

    This document is designed to help adult and community learning (ACL) services across the United Kingdom complete the annual self-assessment reports (SARs). The guide begins with background information on the purposes of self-assessment, the new context of ACL and the elements and format of the new SARs. The remaining four sections examine the…

  11. Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommering, Thomas L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of a 10-week aerobic exercise program on 14 community-based adults with mental retardation found a 91.3% attendance rate and significant increases in maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, maximum ventilation, exercise stress test duration, and flexibility. However, no significant changes were observed in weight or body composition.…

  12. Adult and Community Education Policy in Aotearoa New Zealand 2000-2014: Neoliberal Influences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tertiary education policy in Aotearoa New Zealand in the last decade have impacted on adult and community education (ACE). Marginalized and understood as non-formal education at the turn of the century, ACE is now part of the "tertiary landscape". It is explicitly steered by education policy, its role severely narrowed, its…

  13. Differential Outcomes for American College Students Engaged in Community Service-Learning Involving Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…

  14. Teaching Community Survival Skills to Mentally Retarded Adults: A Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on training mentally retarded adults in the following community survival skills: travel training, money management, meal preparation, clothing and personal care, telephone skill, housekeeping, self-medication, leisure skills, social skills, and conversation. Results are said to indicate the value of behavioral…

  15. TRAINING FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING, A COMMUNITY PROGRAM FOR SEVERELY RETARDED ADULTS. A THREE YEAR REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOBIAS, JACK

    AN OCCUPATIONAL DAY CENTER FOR MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE COMMUNITY SERVICES FOR RETARDED PERSONS WHO LIVE AT HOME AND, ALTHOUGH BEYOND SCHOOL AGE, ARE UNABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN SHELTERED WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES. THE STAFF INCLUDES A DIRECTOR, A SOCIAL WORKER, FIVE INSTRUCTORS, A TRAINING SUPERVISOR, AN OFFICE WORKER, AND A…

  16. Expanding Resources for Working Adults: A College/Community/Hospital Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Stephen M.; West, Betty

    In response to the critical need for nurses in New York City, the Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC), with support from two local unions and a foundation, initiated the Evening/Weekend Program designed for working adult nursing students in fall, 1989. While the 3-year, part-time program was open to any qualified BMCC student, a special…

  17. Program Completion and Recidivism Outcomes among Adult Offenders Ordered to Complete a Community Service Sentence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Muftic, Lisa R.

    2006-01-01

    Relatively little research has examined the outcomes (either program completion or recidivism) of community service (CS) sentences among adult offenders in the United States, despite the fact that this form of alternative sanction has been employed in the United States for nearly 40 years. What little research exists, primarily from Europe,…

  18. Community-Based Juvenile Reentry Services: The Effects of Service Dosage on Juvenile and Adult Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Terry, Diane; Franke, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the influence of length of participation in a community-based reentry program on the odds of reconviction in the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. A structured telephone survey of reentry program alumni was conducted with 75 transition-age (18-25 year-old) young men. Binary logistic regression analysis…

  19. Screening for Osteoporosis in Community-Dwelling Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Carl V., Jr.; Snyder, Clint W.; Zyzanski, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis screening of 107 adults, ages 40 to 60, with mental retardation who attended community-based training centers found 21 percent had osteoporosis and 34 percent had osteopenia. The most significant predictor of lower bone mineral densities were Down syndrome, mobility status, and race. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  20. Promoting Literacy for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in a Community-Based Service Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Karen B.; Jobling, Anne; Morgan, Michelle; Lloyd, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of and advocacy for developing literacy skills for successful and rewarding participation in the community, there remains a common perception that becoming literate is not possible for people with intellectual disabilities. Until recently, limited research has been undertaken to investigate the literacy skills of adults with…

  1. Experiences of Adult Students in Multi-Generational Community College Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Kathleen Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study is a basic interpretative inquiry studying the experiences of fourteen adult students 45 years of age or older in a multi-generational community college classroom. The study is informed by social constructivism, social constructionism and andragogy. It focused on how students viewed their experiences in the…

  2. Education Community Dialogue towards Building a Policy Agenda for Adult Education: Reflections Drawn from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Tatiana Lotierzo; Giannecchini, Laura; Magalhaes, Giovanna Mode; Munhoz, Fabiola; Croso, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we share the experience of the "Amplifying Voices" initiative. Held by the Latin American Campaign for the Right to Education (CLADE) within the scope of public policy advocacy, "Amplifying Voices" applies the principles of consultation and dialogue in youth and adult education communities, aiming at a stronger…

  3. Community College Graduates' Perceptions of Adult Learning Instructional Practices Employed in Continuing Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkson, Chandris Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine continuing education students' perceptions of adult education instructional practices at an urban community college. The continuing education students recently graduated from programs of law enforcement, truck driving, and health occupations. Perception analysis was based on the six principles…

  4. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  5. Social Dynamics in Adult and Community Education Networks: Insights from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollhausen, Karin; Alke, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Implementing network type structures has become a widely appreciated strategy to promote actor-relationships in the field of adult and community education and to coordinate them purposefully. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on how a "successful" coordination of actor-relationships can actually be achieved. This paper offers…

  6. Food Security in Older Adults: Community Service Provider Perceptions of Their Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Edwards, Vicki; Senson, Christine; Edward, H. Gayle

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food…

  7. Using Quality Schemes in Adult and Community Learning: A Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, David; Watters, Kate

    This document examines adult and community learning (ACL) and quality programs across England. The difficulties faced by local education agencies' ACL services in delivering quality are noted, along with ways quality improvement has been supported. Quality programs--whether internal or external, based on awards, or used as diagnostic tools--are…

  8. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  9. [An oral-ruminal probe for rumen sampling in the adult sheep].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Gitzel, A

    1995-12-01

    Ten adult (height: 63-85 cm) rumen-fistulated sheep were used to test the usefulness of an ororuminal probe and a suction pump for the acquisition of ruminal fluid. The use of these instruments in 50 samplings rendered 200 ml of ruminal fluid each time. The introduction of the probe took 18 +/- 6.5 s, whereby the probe was inserted to a length of 91.3 +/- 3.5 cm. The collection of 200 ml of ruminal fluid took 7.4 +/- 2.2 s. The sampling location was the ventral ruminal sack. By comparing the fluid taken by the ororuminal probe with samples taken via ruminal fistula by a tube-like probe no significant differences in regard to pH, total acidity, reduction potential, ammonia, acetate, L-lactate, sodium and chloride concentrations were found. However, significant differences between ororuminal probe samples and fistula samples were observed in regards to the concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, propionate, n-butyrate, i-butyrate, n-valeriate, i-valeriate, calcium, phosphate, magnesium and potassium. The differences were independent of the sampling order (ororuminal probe prior to fistula and vice versa). These results indicate that samples taken by the ororuminal probe do not contain sampling-dependent saliva residues. Those samples collected via fistula had consistently higher concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, propionate, n-butyrate, i-butyrate, n-valeriate, and i-valeriate, as well as higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, magnesium and potassium than samples taken with the ororuminal probe. These results indicate that samples taken via fistula originated from more dorsal regions than the samples taken by ororuminal probe from the ventral ruminal sack. The ororuminal probe and the suction pump used proved to be useful for the collection of ruminal fluid from the ventral ruminal sack in adult sheep (height: 63-85 cm).

  10. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  11. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  12. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  13. Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

  14. TIME PERSPECTIVE AND SMOKING, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, LC; Lessl, K; Ochi, O; Ward, MM

    2014-01-01

    Objective Time perspective, a psychological construct reflecting guidance by present or future concerns, may motivate engagement in health behaviors. We examined associations between time perspective and smoking, body mass index, and exercise. Methods In this community-based survey, adults reported smoking and exercise habits and weight and height, and completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Results Subjects (N = 265) who were more future-oriented reported more frequent exercise, but were more likely to smoke. Fatalistic and hedonistic present orientations were not associated with smoking, obesity, or exercise. Conclusions Time perspective is not consistently associated with common health behaviors in adults. PMID:23026098

  15. Physical activity, quality of life and symptoms of depression in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Alfonso; Martínez-García, Raquel; Molinero, Olga; Márquez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression in community dwelling and institutionalized elderly. The sample was a cohort of 436 elderly (234 women and 202 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. 58% were community-dwellers and 42% were institutionalized in senior residences. Participants completed measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36) and symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). All SF-36 domains, except role-emotional, were significantly correlated with the YPAS activity dimension summary index. Physical function, role-physical, general health and vitality correlated with total time activity, and correlations were observed between weekly energy expenditure and physical function, role physical, vitality and mental health. Depressive symptom scores correlated significantly with the YPAS activity dimension summary index and the weekly energy expenditure. Scores for various domains of the SF-36 and for depressive symptoms significantly differed among less and more active individuals of the same sex and institutionalization category. Differences generally reached a higher extent in institutionalized subjects in comparison to community dwellers. In conclusion, physical activity was related to different domains of both the physical and mental components of HRQoL and to decreased depressive symptoms. Results emphasize the positive effects of physical activity in both community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

  16. Community-Dwelling Adults versus Older Adults: Psychopathology and the Continuum Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, Carmine; Boncori, Lucia; Cruciani, Anna Clara

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between "normal" personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of…

  17. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  18. Efficacy of Nutrition Education-Based Cooking Workshops in Community-Dwelling Adults Aged 50 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Mireille; Plourde, Hugues; Hendrickson-Nelson, Mary; Martin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition interventions offer an opportunity to meet the nutritional needs of community-dwelling older adults. This retrospective qualitative observational study aimed to determine if nutrition education-based cooking workshops offered in Southern Quebec helped improve dietary habits and nutrition-related knowledge, autonomy, and confidence among older adults. Participants (n = 144) in an 8-session cooking workshop program completed pre- and post-workshop session questionnaires. Baseline nutritional risk (n = 116) and body mass index (n = 112) were assessed using the Elderly Nutrition Screening Questionnaire. Paired sample t-tests and McNemar analyses were performed to determine changes over time for knowledge, autonomy, confidence and dietary habits, and specific dietary behaviors, respectively. Pearson correlation tests were performed to assess associations between variables. Significant improvements were observed over time in knowledge, confidence, and desired dietary habits but not in autonomy. At the end of the intervention a greater proportion of participants reported always consuming recommended amounts of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, water, and milk or milk alternatives. A significant association was observed between confidence and dietary habits and between knowledge and confidence. Food skills interventions that link nutrition knowledge with cooking competence offer the opportunity to improve dietary habits among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26571355

  19. The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Homnick, Tamara D; Henning, Kim M; Swain, Charlene V; Homnick, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Equine assisted activities (hippotherapy and therapeutic riding) improve balance in patients with disabilities such as cerebral palsy, but have not been systematically studied in older adults, at risk of falls due to balance deficits. We conducted a 10-week, single blind, controlled trial of the effect of a therapeutic horseback riding course on measures of balance in community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. Nine riders and six controls completed the trial. Controls were age matched to riders and all participants were recruited from the local community. Both groups showed improvements in balance during the trial, but did not reach statistical significance. Sample size was small, participants had relatively high initial balance scores, and controls tended to increase their physical activities, likely influencing outcomes. No adverse events occurred and the supervised therapeutic riding program appeared to be a safe and effective form of exercise to improve balance in older adults. A power analysis was performed to estimate numbers of participants needed for a larger study.

  20. The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Homnick, Tamara D; Henning, Kim M; Swain, Charlene V; Homnick, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Equine assisted activities (hippotherapy and therapeutic riding) improve balance in patients with disabilities such as cerebral palsy, but have not been systematically studied in older adults, at risk of falls due to balance deficits. We conducted a 10-week, single blind, controlled trial of the effect of a therapeutic horseback riding course on measures of balance in community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. Nine riders and six controls completed the trial. Controls were age matched to riders and all participants were recruited from the local community. Both groups showed improvements in balance during the trial, but did not reach statistical significance. Sample size was small, participants had relatively high initial balance scores, and controls tended to increase their physical activities, likely influencing outcomes. No adverse events occurred and the supervised therapeutic riding program appeared to be a safe and effective form of exercise to improve balance in older adults. A power analysis was performed to estimate numbers of participants needed for a larger study. PMID:25548091

  1. Caregiver Abuse of Chicago Chinese Older Adults in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xin Qi; Li, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of elder abuse reported by adult children among U.S Chinese populations. Method A community-based participatory research approach was implemented. A total of 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and over participated in this study. Elder abuse reported by adult children was assessed using Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Results This study found a prevalence of 59.8%for elder abuse among 548 adult children. Younger age (r = −0.10, p < .05), higher level of education (r = 0.20, p < .001), higher income (r = 0.14, p < .01), more years in the U.S. (r = 0.12, p < .05), not born in Mainland China (r = −0.13, p < .01), and English-speaking (r = 0.16, p < .001) were positively correlated with elder abuse reported by adult children. Discussion Elder abuse by adult children is prevalent among U.S. Chinese populations. It is necessary for researchers, health care providers and policy makers to put more attention on elder abuse by adult children. Longitudinal research is needed to explore the risk factors associated with elder abuse by adult children. Health care providers should improve detection of elder abuse and support at-risk caregivers. Policy makers may consider cultural sensitive approaches to address elder abuse. PMID:27606358

  2. Use of buccal swabs for sampling DNA from nestling and adult birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells fromsmall (2‐ to 13‐g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4‐ to 8‐day‐old) black‐capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from6 4‐day‐old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica). We compared DNA from buccal epithelial samples to that fromblood samples from the same individuals. We extracted sufficient quantities of DNA for analysis from all buccalsamples, and samples remained viable even after being stored in original plastic sampling tubes at room temperature for up to 18 months. Yields were equivalent whether extracted using the proprietary quick‐extraction solution provided with buccal swab kits or using a salt‐extraction process with inexpensive reagents. Yields of DNA from buccal samples were consistently lower than those from blood samples, but quantities were sufficient for all analyses. Assignment of sex, based on DNA extracted from paired buccal and blood samples, was identical for all 87 birds. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from buccal and blood samples for 12 individuals tested using 5 microsatellite loci and found perfect concordance in sequencing of an 823‐base‐pair segment within the control region of mitochondrial DNA for 7 individuals tested. Use of buccal swabs is highly recommended as a rapid, noninvasive technique for sampling avian genomic DNA, especially for extremely young altricial nestlings or small‐bodied adults, or for any birds for which blood sampling may be impossible or stressful.

  3. Neighborhood Food Environment and Obesity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Individual and Neighborhood Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Gupta, Adarsh K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested hypotheses about the relationship between neighborhood-level food sources and obesity, controlling for individual-level characteristics. Methods. Data (collected November 2006–April 2008) derived from a random-digit-dial sample of 5688 community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 74 years residing in 1644 census tracts in New Jersey. Using multilevel structural equation models, we created latent constructs representing density of fast-food establishments and storefronts (convenience stores, bars and pubs, grocery stores) and an observed indicator for supermarkets at the neighborhood level, simultaneously modeling obesity and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race, education, household income) at the individual level. Results. When we controlled for individual-level age, gender, race, education, and household income, densities of fast-food establishments and storefronts were positively associated with obesity. Supermarkets were not associated with obesity. Conclusions. Because people living in neighborhoods with a higher density of fast food and storefronts are more likely to be obese, these neighborhoods may be optimal sites for interventions. PMID:24625148

  4. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  5. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08), followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09) and sexual abuse (OR=2.07). Conclusions The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations. Highlights of the article Child maltreatment is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in a nationally representative sample of young Danish adults. Co-occurring (multiple) types of maltreatment display stronger associations with ADHD symptoms with attenuated effects for sexual abuse. Males confer stronger associations with ADHD symptoms than females. Findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of childhood trauma in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:27306866

  6. Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids: Problems and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Li, Linna; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Carlson, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) has been promoted as a superior method in recruiting hard-to-reach and hidden populations. Although its application has expanded enormously, there remains a need for empirical data evaluating the performance of RDS in different settings. This study describes the application of RDS to recruit a community sample (N=396) of young adults (18–23 years old) into a natural history study of non-medical pharmaceutical opioid use. Since recruitment targeted non-dependent pharmaceutical opioid users, and applied other eligibility restrictions, several modifications had to be made to make RDS work with this narrowly-defined target population. RDS recruitment was less efficient than expected, and produced greater numbers of African American recruits than anticipated. Although the sampling quota was met, sample analysis revealed a lack of equilibrium in terms of ethnic composition and very strong in-group recruitment tendencies among White and African American respondents. This study contributes potentially helpful insights into the strengths and limitations of using RDS which may benefit future studies. PMID:21885213

  7. Extension of the Contingency Naming Test to adult assessment: psychometric analysis in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Tara; Suhr, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The Contingency Naming Test (CNT; Taylor, Albo, Phebus, Sachs, & Bierl, 1987) was initially designed to assess aspects of executive functioning, such as processing speed and response inhibition, in children. The measure has shown initial utility in identifying differences in executive function among child clinical groups; however, there is an absence of adequate psychometric data for use with adults. The current study expanded psychometric data upward for use with a college student sample and explored the measure's test-retest reliability and factor structure. Performance in the adult sample showed continued improvement above child norms, consistent with theories of executive function development. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the CNT is most closely related to measures of processing speed, as well as elements of response inhibition within the latter trials. Overall, results from the current study provide added support for the utility of the CNT as a measure of executive functioning in young adults. However, more research is needed to determine patterns of performance among adult clinical groups, as well as to better understand how performance patterns may change in a broader age range, including middle and older adulthood.

  8. Relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie L; Mefford, Linda; Groër, Maureen; Thomas, Sandra P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults in the southeastern United States. Four assessment tools were completed by 82 older adults (mean age = 74, age range = 65 to 91): the Perceived Stress Scale, the Carr Infection Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality, and a demographic form. A significant correlation was found between stress and SCL scores; however, four dimensions of religiousness/spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and infection. Older adults who were unable to forgive themselves or forgive others, or feel forgiven by God, were more likely to have had an infection in the previous month. Increased infections also occurred when older participants did not feel they had religious support from their congregations. Using these findings, gerontological nurses are well positioned to deliver tailored stress management and forgiveness interventions when older adults report increased stress.

  9. Recruitment of rural community-dwelling older adults: barriers, challenges, and strategies.

    PubMed

    Dibartolo, M C; McCrone, S

    2003-03-01

    The significant increase in the number of older adults in the USA, particularly in rural areas, has signaled the need for more research to address the health care needs of this complex, heterogeneous, and vulnerable population. However, accessing older adults in rural areas presents an especially difficult challenge for gerontological researchers. Barriers can include the normal physiological changes that accompany aging, prevalence of chronic illness and medication use, lower literacy rates, transportation issues, and a distrust of 'outsiders' and research in general. Specific strategies that may facilitate participation include the use of gatekeepers to gain entry, increased personal contact by researchers sensitive to the unique needs of older adults, and other media approaches tailored to the rural community. Understanding the characteristics of rural older adults, along with careful planning of recruitment strategies, is crucial to obtaining adequate participation and the acceptance of future research efforts. PMID:12745386

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Factors Inventory on a Community College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Merril A.; Tovar, Esau

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 4.0 to validate the 21-item Career Factors Inventory on a community college student sample. The multidimensional inventory assesses types and levels of career indecision antecedents. The sample consisted of 512 ethnically diverse freshmen students; 46% were men and 54% were women.…

  11. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  12. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Binge Eating in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the prevalence and psychological correlates of binge eating among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 708 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14 years). Adolescents reporting loss of control over eating (17% of the sample) reported more eating pathology and…

  15. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  16. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  17. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  18. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.; Self, W.H.; Wunderink, R.G.; Fakhran, S.; Balk, R.; Bramley, A.M.; Reed, C.; Grijalva, C.G.; Anderson, E.J.; Courtney, D.M.; Chappell, J.D.; Qi, C.; Hart, E.M.; Carroll, F.; Trabue, C.; Donnelly, H.K.; Williams, D.J.; Zhu, Y.; Arnold, S.R.; Ampofo, K.; Waterer, G.W.; Levine, M.; Lindstrom, S.; Winchell, J.M.; Katz, J.M.; Erdman, D.; Schneider, E.; Hicks, L.A.; McCullers, J.A.; Pavia, A.T.; Edwards, K.M.; Finelli, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radio-graphically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among adults 18 years of age or older in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville. Patients with recent hospitalization or severe immunosuppression were excluded. Blood, urine, and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for culture, serologic testing, antigen detection, and molecular diagnostic testing. Study radiologists independently reviewed chest radiographs. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization according to age and pathogen. RESULTS From January 2010 through June 2012, we enrolled 2488 of 3634 eligible adults (68%). Among 2320 adults with radiographic evidence of pneumonia (93%), the median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range, 46 to 71); 498 patients (21%) required intensive care, and 52 (2%) died. Among 2259 patients who had radio-graphic evidence of pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a pathogen was detected in 853 (38%): one or more viruses in 530 (23%), bacteria in 247 (11%), bacterial and viral pathogens in 59 (3%), and a fungal or mycobacterial pathogen in 17 (1%). The most common pathogens were human rhinovirus (in 9% of patients), influenza virus (in 6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 5%). The annual incidence of pneumonia was 24.8 cases (95% confidence interval, 23.5 to 26.1) per 10,000 adults, with the highest rates among adults 65 to 79 years of age (63.0 cases per 10,000 adults) and those 80 years of age or older (164.3 cases per 10,000 adults). For each pathogen, the incidence increased with age. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia

  19. A Comparative Analysis of a Community and General Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fernee, Henk; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Samples recruited at lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) venues have certain benefits, but a major drawback is that these samples are prone to bias as they only contain LGB participants who visit such venues. Empirical data with regard to the potential differences between LGB community samples and LGB general samples may shed some light on the generalizability of research findings from convenience samples recruited through LGB venues. The current study attempted to contribute to existing knowledge by examining differences in social demographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental health between a convenience sample recruited at LGB venues ("community sample," N = 3,403) and an LGB sample recruited from a general research panel in the Netherlands ("panel sample," N = 1,000). Various differences were found. In general, community participants were younger, reported a more exclusive same-sex sexual orientation, were more open about their sexual orientation, had lower levels of internalized homonegativity, and encountered more negative social reactions on their LGB status. They also reported higher levels of psychological distress and suicidality. The Nagelkerke R (2) of the analyses (which were adjusted for sociodemographic differences) ranged from .08 (suicide plans among men) to .27 (sexual attraction among women). However, while the estimates of sociodemographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental well-being differed, the relationships between these constructs were comparable in both samples. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  20. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Ida; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-10-30

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology.

  1. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  2. Assessing skin blood flow dynamics in older adults using a modified sample entropy approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2014-01-01

    The aging process may result in attenuated microvascular reactivity in response to environmental stimuli, which can be evaluated by analyzing skin blood flow (SBF) signals. Among various methods for analyzing physiological signals, sample entropy (SE) is commonly used to quantify the degree of regularity of time series. However, we found that for temporally correlated data, SE value depends on the sampling rate. When data are oversampled, SE may give misleading results. To address this problem, we propose to modify the definition of SE by using time-lagged vectors in the calculation of the conditional probability that any two vectors of successive data points are within a tolerance r for m points remain within the tolerance at the next point. The lag could be chosen as the first minimum of the auto mutual information function. We tested the performance of modified SE using simulated signals and SBF data. The results showed that modified SE is able to quantify the degree of regularity of the signals regardless of sampling rate. Using this approach, we observed a more regular behavior of blood flow oscillations (BFO) during local heating-induced maximal vasodilation period compared to the baseline in young and older adults and a more regular behavior of BFO in older adults compared to young adults. These results suggest that modified SE may be useful in the study of SBF dynamics.

  3. From Community Presence to Sense of Place: Community Experiences of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam

    1999-01-01

    A study of seven adults with developmental disabilities found that they commonly spent time in places designated for people with disabilities versus the general public, in public versus private places, and in places characterized by business transactions versus social interactions. Strategies for increasing opportunities for positive community…

  4. Adult and Community Education in the 1980's. A Compendium of Lectures from Series in Adult Education at the University of New Mexico (1979-1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, S. Gregory, Ed.

    This compendium contains lectures on programs, administration, and services and on teaching and learning in adult and community education. The following lectures are included: "Working Effectively with Adults: What Research and Practice Tell Us," by Mark Rossman; "Learning How to Learn," by Robert Smith; "Assessing Teaching Style in Adult…

  5. An Investigation of the Factors That Motivate Adults to Participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) Classes at a Southeastern Wisconsin Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump-Phillips, Maureen R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the plausibility of using Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the factors that motivate adults to participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes at a Southeast Wisconsin Community College. The original TPB (Ajzen, 1991) attests that planned behaviors are determined by behavioral intentions which are…

  6. [Discussion between informal and formal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M T; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H

    2014-04-01

    Current Dutch policy on long-term care is aimed at a stronger connection between formal home care and informal care. We examined if formal and informal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults discuss the care and whether this is related to characteristics of the older adult, the care network and the individual caregivers. Data are derived from 63 community-dwelling older adults, including their health, their perceived control of the care and their care network. In addition, 79 informal and 90 formal caregivers are interviewed on their motives and vision on caregiving. The 112 dyads between those formal and informal caregivers are the units of analysis in the current study. Bivariate analyses reveal that informal caregivers are more likely to discuss the care with formal caregivers when they are residing with the older adult, when they provide a lot of care and/or when they are strongly motivated to keep the older adult at home. This is particularly the case when the care demands are high. Characteristics of the formal caregivers were not important. In conclusion, discussion of care between non-resident informal caregivers and formal caregivers is not self-evident and requires more effort to be established.

  7. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Sample, Design, and Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Isasi, Carmen; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Design and Setting The Sociocultural Ancillary Study to the HCHS/SOL is a cross-sectional cohort study with future opportunities for prospective investigation. Participants Participants were 5,313 adults, aged 18-74 years, of self-identified Hispanic/Latino descent and representing multiple Hispanic/Latino background groups, recruited from the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Intervention Participants completed an interview-administered sociocultural assessment battery within 9 months of their HCHS/SOL clinical baseline exam. Outcome Measures The primary outcomes are CVD and the metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors. Results The Sociocultural Ancillary Study sample is broadly representative of the HCHS/SOL cohort. Weighted demographics are: 55% male, 56% 18-44 years, 44% 45 years and older, and 37% Mexican, 20% Cuban, 16% Puerto Rican, 12% Dominican, 8% Central American, and 5% South American descent. Conclusions By testing theoretically driven hypotheses concerning sociocultural and psychosocial factors in CVD, the Sociocultural Ancillary Study seeks to inform future prevention and intervention efforts for U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. PMID:24620452

  8. Community Adult Education; Evidence Submitted to the Russell Committee on Adult Education in England and Wales by the Workers' Educational Association (West Lancashire & Cheshire District) and the Liverpool Educational Priority Area Action/Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, T. O.

    This paper discusses six roles which an adult education agency can fill in an Educational Priority Area and illustrates each one with examples from the Liverpool E.P.A. Project. These roles are: (1) adult education cum community development; (2) adult education as a resource in community development work; (3) adult education as an aid to parents…

  9. Frequency of word occurrence in communication samples produced by adult communication aid users.

    PubMed

    Beukelman, D R; Yorkston, K M; Poblete, M; Naranjo, C

    1984-11-01

    Communication samples generated by five nonspeaking adults using Canon Communicators were collected for 14 consecutive days. Samples were analyzed to determine frequency of word occurrence. A core vocabulary of the 500 most frequently occurring words was analyzed further to determine spelling level and proportion of complete communication samples represented by subsets of the core vocabulary list. The 500 core vocabulary words represented 80% of the total words in the combined communication samples for the 5 subjects. Of all messages generated by the subjects, 33% could be communicated in their entirety using words from the core vocabulary list. The communication of the remaining messages required one or more words in addition to the core vocabulary. The spelling grade level of the words in the core vocabulary list did not exceed the seventh grade. The implications of the results for designing and customizing communication aids and for potential user training are discussed.

  10. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J.; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R.; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J.; Wallace, R. John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  11. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  12. Validation of the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire to Screen for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in a Community-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Boeve, Bradley F.; Molano, Jennifer R.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Lin, Siong-Chi; Bieniek, Kevin; Tippmann-Peikert, Maja; Boot, Brendon; St. Louis, Erik K.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Silber, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To validate a questionnaire focused on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a community-based sample. Background: RBD is a parasomnia manifested by recurrent dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. While confirmation of RBD requires the presence of REM sleep without atonia on polysomnography (PSG), a screening measure for RBD validated in older adults would be desirable for clinical and research purposes. Methods: We had previously developed the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) to screen for the presence of RBD and other sleep disorders. We assessed the validity of the MSQ by comparing the responses of subjects' bed partners with the findings on PSG. All subjects recruited from 10/04 to 12/08 in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging—a population-based study of aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota—who had also undergone a previous PSG were the focus of this analysis. Results: The study sample included 128 subjects (104 male; median age 77 years [range 67-90]), with the following clinical diagnoses at baseline assessment: normal (n = 95), mild cognitive impairment (n = 30), and mild Alzheimer disease (n = 3). Nine (5%) subjects had RBD based on history and PSG evidence of REM sleep without atonia. The core question on recurrent dream enactment behavior yielded sensitivity (SN) of 100% and specificity (SP) of 95% for the diagnosis of RBD. The profile of responses on four additional subquestions on RBD improved specificity. Conclusions: These data suggest that the MSQ has adequate SN and SP for the diagnosis of RBD among elderly subjects in a community-based sample. Citation: Boeve BF; Molano JR; Ferman TJ; Lin Siong-Chi; Bieniek K; Tippmann-Peikert M; Boot B; St. Louis EK; Knopman DS; Petersen RC; Silber MH. Validation of the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire to screen for REM sleep behavior disorder in a community-based sample. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):475-480. PMID:23674939

  13. Demographic, Psychological, and Social Characteristics of Self-Identified Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in a US Probability Sample

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Aaron T.; Allen, Thomas J.; Sims, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a US national probability sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports population parameter estimates for a variety of demographic, psychological, and social variables. Special emphasis is given to information with relevance to public policy and law. Compared with the US adult population, respondents were younger, more highly educated, and less likely to be non-Hispanic White, but differences were observed between gender and sexual orientation groups on all of these variables. Overall, respondents tended to be politically liberal, not highly religious, and supportive of marriage equality for same-sex couples. Women were more likely than men to be in a committed relationship. Virtually all coupled gay men and lesbians had a same-sex partner, whereas the vast majority of coupled bisexuals were in a heterosexual relationship. Compared with bisexuals, gay men and lesbians reported stronger commitment to a sexual-minority identity, greater community identification and involvement, and more extensive disclosure of their sexual orientation to others. Most respondents reported experiencing little or no choice about their sexual orientation. The importance of distinguishing among lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men in behavioral and social research is discussed. PMID:20835383

  14. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence in adults in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest that the prevalence in Peru is 22% to 38%. We sought to determine the prevalence of daily smoking in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence. Results We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively. Conclusions Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey), allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time. PMID:22429737

  15. The Prevalence of Medical Conditions Among U.S. Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of medical conditions is increasing among U.S. older adults, yet we have very limited knowledge about medical conditions among Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of medical conditions and its sociodemographic and health-related correlates within the context of a population-based cohort study of U.S. Chinese older adults. Method. Using a community-based participatory research approach, community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed between 2011 and 2013. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were female and the mean age was 72.8 years. In total, 84.3% of older adults had one or more medical condition, 24.6% reported two conditions, 19.5% had three conditions, and 17.0% reported four or more conditions. A sizeable percentage of older adults had never been screened for dyslipidemia (24.4%) or had never been screened for diabetes mellitus (35.7%).For those who reported high cholesterol, 73.0% were taking medications when compared with 76.1% of those who reported having diabetes and 88.3% of those who reported having high blood pressure. Various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics were correlated with medical conditions. Conclusion. Medical conditions were common among U.S. Chinese older adults, yet screening and treatment rates were fairly low. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to better understand the risk and protective factors associated with medical conditions. PMID:25378445

  16. IMPACT OF A SERIOUS GAME FOR HEALTH ON CHRONIC DISEASE SELF-MANAGEMENT: PRELIMINARY EFFICACY AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John M; Pinto, Melissa D; Burant, Christopher; Pignatiello, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Most Americans will acquire a chronic disease during their lifetime. One of the most prevalent chronic diseases that affect Americans is hypertension (HTN). Despite the known comorbidities and increased mortality rate associated with uncontrolled HTN, most community dwelling adults with HTN do not have sufficient blood pressure control Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the preliminary efficacy of a serious game for health to enhance blood pressure control among community dwelling adults with HTN. A nonprobability sample of 116 community dwelling adults with HTN participated in this nonblinded, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to: (1) an intervention arm that consisted of four exposures to a serious game for health known as eSMART-HD; or (2) an attentional control arm that compromised of four exposures to screen-based HTN education. The primary outcome measure for this trial was blood pressure reduction over a four month observational period. In this study, baseline characteristics and blood pressure measurements were similar between participants in each study arm. There was no significant between-group difference in blood pressure reduction over time. However, there were significant within-group reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures across time among favoring participants exposed to eSMART-HD. This study establishes the preliminary efficacy of eSMART-HD that can be easily administered to community dwelling adults and facilitate clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Future studies should assess the influential components of this promising serious game for health (eSMART-HD) combined with medication management in larger and more diverse samples of community dwelling adults with HTN. PMID:26442364

  17. IMPACT OF A SERIOUS GAME FOR HEALTH ON CHRONIC DISEASE SELF-MANAGEMENT: PRELIMINARY EFFICACY AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John M; Pinto, Melissa D; Burant, Christopher; Pignatiello, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Most Americans will acquire a chronic disease during their lifetime. One of the most prevalent chronic diseases that affect Americans is hypertension (HTN). Despite the known comorbidities and increased mortality rate associated with uncontrolled HTN, most community dwelling adults with HTN do not have sufficient blood pressure control Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the preliminary efficacy of a serious game for health to enhance blood pressure control among community dwelling adults with HTN. A nonprobability sample of 116 community dwelling adults with HTN participated in this nonblinded, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to: (1) an intervention arm that consisted of four exposures to a serious game for health known as eSMART-HD; or (2) an attentional control arm that compromised of four exposures to screen-based HTN education. The primary outcome measure for this trial was blood pressure reduction over a four month observational period. In this study, baseline characteristics and blood pressure measurements were similar between participants in each study arm. There was no significant between-group difference in blood pressure reduction over time. However, there were significant within-group reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures across time among favoring participants exposed to eSMART-HD. This study establishes the preliminary efficacy of eSMART-HD that can be easily administered to community dwelling adults and facilitate clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Future studies should assess the influential components of this promising serious game for health (eSMART-HD) combined with medication management in larger and more diverse samples of community dwelling adults with HTN.

  18. Membrane biofouling characterization: effects of sample preparation procedures on biofilm structure and the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zheng; Lu, Huijie; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the quality and reproducibility of results from biofilm structure and microbial community analysis is essential to membrane biofouling studies. This study evaluated the impacts of three sample preparation factors (ie number of buffer rinses, storage time at 4°C, and DNA extraction method) on the downstream analysis of nitrifying biofilms grown on ultrafiltration membranes. Both rinse and storage affected biofilm structure, as suggested by their strong correlation with total biovolume, biofilm thickness, roughness and the spatial distribution of EPS. Significant variations in DNA yields and microbial community diversity were also observed among samples treated by different rinses, storage and DNA extraction methods. For the tested biofilms, two rinses, no storage and DNA extraction with both mechanical and chemical cell lysis from attached biofilm were the optimal sample preparation procedures for obtaining accurate information about biofilm structure, EPS distribution and the microbial community.

  19. Community mapping and respondent-driven sampling of gay and bisexual men’s communities in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Jamie I; Stevenson, Benjamin; Rich, Ashleigh; Michelow, Warren; Pai, Jayaram; Jollimore, Jody; Raymond, H. Fisher; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Literature suggests formative research is vital for those using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to study hidden populations of interest. However, few authors have described in detail how different qualitative methodologies can address the objectives of formative research for understanding the social network properties of the study population, selecting seeds, and adapting survey logistics to best fit the population. In this paper we describe the use of community mapping exercises as a tool within focus groups to collect data on social and sexual network characteristics of gay and bisexual men in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Three key themes emerged from analyzing community maps along with other formative research data: (a) connections between physical spaces and social networks of gay and bisexual men, (b) diversity in communities, and (c) substance use connected with formation of sub-communities. We discuss how these themes informed the planning and operations of a longitudinal epidemiological cohort study recruited by RDS. We argue that using community mapping within formative research is a valuable qualitative tool for characterizing network structures of a diverse and differentiated population of gay and bisexual men in a highly developed urban setting. PMID:24512070

  20. Developmental Plan Handbook for Community Skills Training (TACL, Training Adults for Community Living).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Martin R.; Hermus, Gary P.

    Based on behavioral principles, the handbook is designed as both an assessment tool and curriculum guide for training community living skills to mentally retarded and developmentally disabled individuals. Behavioral Programing Scales are provided to record baseline data, where the client receives no assistance. These scales cover all program…

  1. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself. PMID:26955925

  3. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself.

  4. Typology of club drug use among young adults recruited using time-space sampling.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Grov, Christian; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined patterns of recent club drug use among 400 young adults (18-29) recruited using time-space sampling in NYC. Subjects had used at least one of six club drugs (methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), cocaine, methamphetamine, and D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)) within the prior 3 months. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to estimate latent groups based on patterns of recent club drug use and examined differences in demographic and psychological variables by class. A 3-class model fit the data best. Patterns were: Primary cocaine users (42% of sample), Mainstream users (44% of sample), and Wide-range users (14% of sample). Those most likely to be Primary cocaine users were significantly less likely to be heterosexual males and had higher educational attainment than the other two classes. Those most likely to be Wide-range users were less likely to be heterosexual females, more likely to be gay/bisexual males, dependent on club drugs, had significantly greater drug and sexual sensation seeking, and were more likely to use when experiencing physical discomfort or pleasant times with others compared to the other two groups. Findings highlight the utility of using person-centered approaches to understand patterns of substance use, as well as highlight several patterns of club drug use among young adults. PMID:19939585

  5. Random Sampling Process Leads to Overestimation of β-Diversity of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jizhong; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Deng, Ye; Shi, Zhou; Zhou, Benjamin Yamin; Xue, Kai; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The site-to-site variability in species composition, known as β-diversity, is crucial to understanding spatiotemporal patterns of species diversity and the mechanisms controlling community composition and structure. However, quantifying β-diversity in microbial ecology using sequencing-based technologies is a great challenge because of a high number of sequencing errors, bias, and poor reproducibility and quantification. Herein, based on general sampling theory, a mathematical framework is first developed for simulating the effects of random sampling processes on quantifying β-diversity when the community size is known or unknown. Also, using an analogous ball example under Poisson sampling with limited sampling efforts, the developed mathematical framework can exactly predict the low reproducibility among technically replicate samples from the same community of a certain species abundance distribution, which provides explicit evidences of random sampling processes as the main factor causing high percentages of technical variations. In addition, the predicted values under Poisson random sampling were highly consistent with the observed low percentages of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) overlap (<30% and <20% for two and three tags, respectively, based on both Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indexes), further supporting the hypothesis that the poor reproducibility among technical replicates is due to the artifacts associated with random sampling processes. Finally, a mathematical framework was developed for predicting sampling efforts to achieve a desired overlap among replicate samples. Our modeling simulations predict that several orders of magnitude more sequencing efforts are needed to achieve desired high technical reproducibility. These results suggest that great caution needs to be taken in quantifying and interpreting β-diversity for microbial community analysis using next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:23760464

  6. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Depression Stigma Scale (DSS) and Associations with Personal and Perceived Stigma in a Depressed and Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, P.; Griffiths, K. M.; Kleiboer, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on depression stigma is needed to gain more insight into the underlying construct and to reduce the level of stigma in the community. However, few validated measurements of depression stigma are available in the Netherlands. Therefore, this study first sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Second, we examined which demographic (gender, age, education, partner status) and other variables (anxiety and knowledge of depression) are associated with personal and perceived stigma within these samples. Methods The study population consisted of an adult convenience sample (n = 253) (study 1) and a community adult sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n = 264) (study 2). Factor structure, internal consistency, and validity were assessed. The associations between stigma, demographic variables and anxiety level were examined with regression analyses. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal stigma scale. Internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .70 (study 1) and .77 (study 2)). The results regarding the perceived stigma scale revealed no clear factor structure. Regression analyses showed that personal stigma was higher in younger people, those with no experience with depression, and those with lower education. Conclusions This study established the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal scale in the Netherlands, in a community sample and in people with elevated depressive symptoms. However, additional research is needed to examine the factor structure of the DSS perceived scale and its use in other samples. PMID:27500969

  8. Building Communities: ACE, Lifelong Learning and Social Capital. An Anthology of Word Portraits Reporting Research Conducted for the Adult, Community and Further Education Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian; Golding, Barry; Balatti, Josephine

    The 10 portraits, or case studies, in this book are intended to show how locally-owned adult education turns everyday learning into social and economic well-being. Taken alone, each portrait tries to give a particular insight into the daily transformation of adults and their local communities. Together, the group portrait shows how strongly adult…

  9. Exploring the effect of depressive symptoms and ageing on metamemory in an Italian adult sample.

    PubMed

    Fastame, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of depression and age-related factors on metamemory measures in an Italian adult sample. Fifty-eight healthy participants were recruited in Northern Italy and were, respectively, assigned to the following groups: Young (20-30 years old), old (60-70 years old), and Very Old (71-84 years old). Participants were administered a battery of tests, including a word recall task, self-referent mnestic efficiency scales, general beliefs about memory, and depression measures. General beliefs about memory, self-efficacy, and beliefs about the control of personal memory were predicted by age, education, depression, and mnestic and cognitive efficiency. Finally, age-related differences were found in metamemory measures: the accuracy of mnestic control processes is thought to be lower by very old adults than by old and young individuals. PMID:23731341

  10. Predicting sarcopenia from functional measures among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michelle; Glenn, Jordan M; Binns, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as age-related lean tissue mass (LTM) loss resulting in reduced muscular strength, physical function, and mobility. Up to 33 % of older adults currently are sarcopenic, with likely many more undiagnosed. The purpose of this investigation was to predict sarcopenia status from easily accessible functional measures of community-dwelling older adults. Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (n = 32 females and n = 11 males) participated in the present investigation. Inclusion criteria included ≥65 years of age, mini-mental state examination score ≥24, and no falls within previous 12 months. All subjects completed their appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were categorized as either sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic. Physical assessments included 10-m usual walk, hand-grip (HG) strength, 6-min walk, 8-ft up-and-go, 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, and sit-to-stand muscular power. A forward, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, sex, weight, height, 10-m walk, HG, and sit-to-stand muscular power account for 96.1 % of the variance in ASM. The area under the curve was 0.92 for correctly identifying sarcopenic participants compared to their actual classification. This is the first prediction model used to identify sarcopenia based on parameters of demographic and functional fitness measures in community-dwelling older adults. The ability to accurately identify sarcopenia in older adults is imperative to their quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  11. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology.

  12. Cardiac misconceptions among healthy adults: implications for the promotion of health in the community.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Maria João; Maroco, João; Monteiro, Rita; Caeiro, Raul

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to confirm the structure and to investigate the psychometric properties of an experimental Portuguese version of the York Cardiac Beliefs Questionnaire (YCBQ) in a general population sample. It also set out to identify the prevalent misconceptions in the community and to assess the differences according to socio-demographic characteristics. It involved a cross-sectional survey in which both test and validation samples were collected (n = 476), including participants aged between 18 and 40, recruited via e-mail and social networks. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis on both samples suggested a shorter, three factor version of the YCBQ. Also, misconceptions differed significantly according to sociodemographic variables. The validation of the YCBQ for samples in the community constitutes an important starting point to promote research on misconceptions held in the community by specific groups, as well as to provide key points for health promotion. PMID:25760124

  13. Spatial measurement of mobility barriers: improving the environment of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Jong; Matsuoka, Rodney H; Tsai, Kun-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Mobility barriers can impede physical activity, increase the fear of falling, and pose a threat to the ability of older adults to live independently. This study investigated outdoor mobility barriers within a nonretirement public housing community located in Tainan, Taiwan. Site observations and interviews with older adult residents determined that parked motor scooters, potted plants, the rubber tiles of play areas, and a set of steps were the most important barriers. In addition, the space syntax parameters of control value and mean depth were effectively able to quantitatively measure improvements in walkability resulting from the hypothesized removal of these four barriers. These measures of improved walkability can be included in a cost-benefit analysis of spatial improvement factors to help policymakers address the mobility and accessibility needs of older adults.

  14. [The ethiology structure of community-acquried pneumonia of young adults in closed communities].

    PubMed

    Nosach, E S; Skryl', S V; Kulakova, N V; Martynova, A V

    2012-01-01

    Despite of success in ethiology evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and instant improvement of diagnostic methods microbiological spectrum of CAP is still remaining underestimated and is still the problem for the routine clinical practice. In our study we estimated the role of fastidious bacteria which cause atypical CAP such as Chlamydophilla pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila. Furthermore we also defined the role of viral pathogens in ethiology of CAP.

  15. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement. PMID:26770532

  16. Clinical data analysis of 19 cases of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Mao-Mao; Pu, Zeng-Hui; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement.

  17. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF A COMMUNITY HOSPITAL CLOSURE ON OLDER ADULTS: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults. PMID:24448403

  18. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity.

  19. Brooding and reflection: Rumination predicts suicidal ideation at one-year follow up in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive processes underlying suicidal thinking and behavior are not well-understood. The present study examined brooding and reflection, two dimensions of rumination, as predictors of suicidal ideation among a community sample of 1,134 adults. Participants completed self-report measures of rumination and depression, and a semi-structured clinical interview that included an assessment of suicidal ideation, at baseline and one-year follow up. Brooding was more strongly related to degree of ideation at baseline than was reflection. However, both brooding and reflection predicted whether an individual thought about suicide at one-year follow up, even after adjusting for baseline suicidal ideation. Symptoms of depression mediated the relationship between brooding and ideation but not between reflection and ideation. Implications for the nature of thought processes that result in suicidal thinking are discussed. PMID:17825248

  20. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  1. Composition of the adult digestive tract bacterial microbiome based on seven mouth surfaces, tonsils, throat and stool samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body's greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites. Results The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. Phyla initially identified from environmental samples were detected throughout this population, primarily TM7, SR1, and Synergistetes. Genera with pathogenic members were well-represented among this disease-free cohort. Tooth-associated communities were distinct, but not entirely dissimilar, from other oral surfaces. The Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families were common to all sites, but the distributions of their genera varied significantly. Most metabolic processes were distributed widely throughout the digestive tract microbiota, with variations in metagenomic abundance between body habitats. These included shifts in sugar transporter types between the supragingival plaque, other oral surfaces, and stool; hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide production were also differentially distributed. Conclusions The microbiomes of ten digestive tract sites separated into four types based on composition. A core set of metabolic pathways was present across these diverse digestive tract habitats. These data provide a critical baseline for future studies investigating local and systemic diseases affecting human health. PMID:22698087

  2. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-03-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18-50 years; women: n = 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses' Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p < 0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value <0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  3. Health practice correlates in three adult age groups: results from two community surveys.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Lefebvre, R C; Assaf, A R; Lasater, T M; Carleton, R A

    1990-01-01

    Independently done surveys of a target population can make an important contribution to knowledge about the determinants of personal health behavior by highlighting variables that consistently emerge as significant predictors. This investigation examined the correlates of four health practice and knowledge indices related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in two baseline community surveys of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program (N = 2,413; N = 2,808). An additional dimension was the use of three adult age groups (18-29, 30-49, 50-64) in conducting the analyses. Results of both surveys showed that sex was the strongest correlate of the four indices--knowledge of CVD, encouraging health practice changes in others, dietary intake, and exercise. The four indices related to CVD were also associated with years of education, primary language, and whether or not a recent cholesterol measurement had been obtained, although these relationships were not as consistent as the results for sex. Overall, about half of each survey's significant associations were also found in the other survey (survey 1, 30 of 62; survey 2, 30 of 56). Consistency of significant results between surveys was best for the group ages 30-49. In either survey, it was rare for an association between a predictor and behavioral index to appear in each of the three age groups. This study supports the importance of the subjects' sex in research on personal health practices, suggests the potential for independence even among health-related indices pertinent to a single type of illness, and emphasizes the usefulness of utilizing independent samples to identify important correlates of health behavior. PMID:2120725

  4. Quantitative reverse sample genome probing of microbial communities and its application to oil field production waters

    SciTech Connect

    Voordouw, G.; Shen, Y.; Harrington, C.S.; Teland, A.J. ); Jack, T.R. ); Westlake, W.S. )

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a protocol for quantitative analysis of microbial communities by reverse sample genome probing is presented in which (i) whole community DNA is isolated and labeled in the presence of a known amount of an added internal standard and (ii) the resulting spiked reverse genome probe is hybridized with a master filter on which denatured genomic DNAs from bacterial standards isolated from the target environment were spotted in large amounts (up to 1,500 ng) in order to improve detection sensitivity. This protocol allowed reproducible fingerprinting of the microbial community in oil field production waters at 19 sites from which water and biofilm samples were collected. It appeared that selected sulfate-reducing bacteria were significantly enhanced in biofilms covering the metal surfaces in contact with the production waters.

  5. Integrating Assessment and Evaluation Into Partnership Initiatives: Lessons From the Community Partnerships for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Giunta, Nancy; Thomas, M Lori

    2015-08-01

    Communities nationwide have formed cross-sector partnerships to face the needs of an aging population, particularly for the purpose of improving long-term supportive service systems. Research is limited on how evaluation strategies are incorporated into partnership work, especially in the field of aging. This retrospective qualitative study reviewed administrative and key informant interview data to examine how 15 community partnerships (CPs) within the Community Partnerships for Older Adults (CPFOA) national program incorporated evaluation into their work. The four overarching lessons drawn from our inquiry suggest that effective CPs: (a) incorporate both formative and summative methods into evaluation, (b) use and develop the knowledge and skills of its members, (c) support flexible and creative evaluation methods and strategies, and (d) use internal and external resources to support evaluation efforts, particularly with nontraditional partners. There is a need for continued research to capture the methodological complexity of partnership evaluation.

  6. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Ramirez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegria, Margarita; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chavez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Garcia, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic…

  7. The Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzieblo, Katarzyna; Verschuere, Bruno; Van den Bussche, Eva; Crombez, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) has revealed two factors: Fearless Dominance, and Self-Centered Impulsivity. This study examined the validity of these PPI-R factors in a community sample (N = 675). First, confirmatory factor analyses did not support the two-factor structure. Second, the PPI-R factors showed good…

  8. Characteristics and Hypothesized Functions of Challenging Behavior in a Community-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Esch, John W.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Stewart, Kelise K.

    2010-01-01

    An archival study was conducted to document (a) types of challenging behavior, and (b) functional assessment outcomes, for a sample of persons with developmental disabilities who were referred to community-practicing behavior analysts for assessment and treatment of challenging behavior. Functional assessment reports, prepared by 17 behavior…

  9. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  10. Self-Reported Inattention in Early Adolescence in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…

  11. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  12. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal.

  13. The prevalence of child sexual abuse victimization in an adult sample of Texas residents.

    PubMed

    Kercher, G A; McShane, M

    1984-01-01

    Attempts to identify characteristics of children who have been sexually abused have generally been based on cases reported to clinics, hospitals, law enforcement and social service agencies. In this study a questionnaire was mailed to a representative sample of the adult population in Texas. Child sexual abuse was defined as sexual interaction between a child and an adult or between two minors when the perpetrator is significantly older than the victim or is in a position of power over the victim. A return rate of 53% was obtained. The surveys returned varied from previous studies of the same population in that the respondents were slightly older, more often married and from a slightly higher socioeconomic level. They were, however, closely matched on the variables of sex, race and educational level. Childhood sexual victimization was reported by 7.4% of the respondents. Female victims comprised 82% of this group. The racial/ethnic distribution of victims paralleled that of the Texas census with 77% white, 5% black, and 16% Hispanic. Victimization rates were highest for Hispanic females followed by black and white females in that order. Hispanic and black males reported the lowest victimization rates. Based on these findings, it was estimated that 821,359 adult Texas residents were sexually abused as children. These results were compared with those of other studies along with their implications for policy-making. PMID:6335060

  14. Empathy across the adult lifespan: Longitudinal and experience-sampling findings.

    PubMed

    Grühn, Daniel; Rebucal, Kristine; Diehl, Manfred; Lumley, Mark; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2008-12-01

    This study examined change in self-reported empathy in a four-wave longitudinal study spanning 12 years (1992-2004) and the association between empathy and other measures, including daily reports of relationship experiences. Participants initially ranged in age from 10 years to 87 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of age with empathy revealed divergent patterns. Whereas cross-sectional analyses suggested that older adults scored lower in empathy than younger adults, longitudinal analyses showed no age-related decline in empathy. This combined pattern suggests that the cross-sectional age-differences reflect a cohort rather than an age effect, with older cohorts reporting lower levels of empathy than younger ones. Independent of age, empathy was associated with a positive well-being (e.g., life satisfaction) and interaction profile (e.g., positive relations with others). In addition, a subsample of participants (n = 114) conducted experience-sampling about social interactions for a week. People with high self-reported empathy perceived their interactions as more meaningful, felt more positive in these interactions, and thought that their interaction partner felt also more positive. Thus, self-reported empathy was meaningfully associated with adults' actual social interactions.

  15. Quantifying Ecological Literacy in an Adult Western Community: The Development and Application of a New Assessment Tool and Community Standard

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Sheryn D.; Daniels, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding about how the Earth functions and supports life create the foundation for ecological literacy. Industrialisation, urbanisation and population growth have resulted in changed relationships between many human communities and the natural world. A potential consequence is a compromised capability to make well-informed decisions about how to live sustainably. To gain a measure of ecological literacy within the South Australian community, we collaborated with senior scientists and educators to develop and apply an instrument with the capacity to determine indicative levels of ecological knowledge and understanding. A formal, variable credit, multiple-choice assessment instrument was distributed online to groups and individuals within diverse community sectors and industries. Quantitative analyses of scores indicated that levels of ecological knowledge and understanding within a self-selected sample of over one thousand individuals ranged from very low to extremely high, with the majority of respondents achieving moderate to high scores. This instrument has a demonstrated capacity to determine indicative levels of ecological literacy within and between individuals and groups. It is able to capture mastery of ecological knowledge and understanding achieved through both formal and informal pathways. Using the results, we have been able to establish a range of standards and an aspirational target score for the South Australian community. The value of this work is in its potential to deliver insights into relationships between humans and the rest of the natural world, and into characteristics of eco-literate individuals and communities, that might not otherwise emerge. PMID:26938258

  16. Quantifying Ecological Literacy in an Adult Western Community: The Development and Application of a New Assessment Tool and Community Standard.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Sheryn D; Daniels, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding about how the Earth functions and supports life create the foundation for ecological literacy. Industrialisation, urbanisation and population growth have resulted in changed relationships between many human communities and the natural world. A potential consequence is a compromised capability to make well-informed decisions about how to live sustainably. To gain a measure of ecological literacy within the South Australian community, we collaborated with senior scientists and educators to develop and apply an instrument with the capacity to determine indicative levels of ecological knowledge and understanding. A formal, variable credit, multiple-choice assessment instrument was distributed online to groups and individuals within diverse community sectors and industries. Quantitative analyses of scores indicated that levels of ecological knowledge and understanding within a self-selected sample of over one thousand individuals ranged from very low to extremely high, with the majority of respondents achieving moderate to high scores. This instrument has a demonstrated capacity to determine indicative levels of ecological literacy within and between individuals and groups. It is able to capture mastery of ecological knowledge and understanding achieved through both formal and informal pathways. Using the results, we have been able to establish a range of standards and an aspirational target score for the South Australian community. The value of this work is in its potential to deliver insights into relationships between humans and the rest of the natural world, and into characteristics of eco-literate individuals and communities, that might not otherwise emerge. PMID:26938258

  17. Quantifying Ecological Literacy in an Adult Western Community: The Development and Application of a New Assessment Tool and Community Standard.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Sheryn D; Daniels, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding about how the Earth functions and supports life create the foundation for ecological literacy. Industrialisation, urbanisation and population growth have resulted in changed relationships between many human communities and the natural world. A potential consequence is a compromised capability to make well-informed decisions about how to live sustainably. To gain a measure of ecological literacy within the South Australian community, we collaborated with senior scientists and educators to develop and apply an instrument with the capacity to determine indicative levels of ecological knowledge and understanding. A formal, variable credit, multiple-choice assessment instrument was distributed online to groups and individuals within diverse community sectors and industries. Quantitative analyses of scores indicated that levels of ecological knowledge and understanding within a self-selected sample of over one thousand individuals ranged from very low to extremely high, with the majority of respondents achieving moderate to high scores. This instrument has a demonstrated capacity to determine indicative levels of ecological literacy within and between individuals and groups. It is able to capture mastery of ecological knowledge and understanding achieved through both formal and informal pathways. Using the results, we have been able to establish a range of standards and an aspirational target score for the South Australian community. The value of this work is in its potential to deliver insights into relationships between humans and the rest of the natural world, and into characteristics of eco-literate individuals and communities, that might not otherwise emerge.

  18. Risk Factors of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Logistic Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; Noe, Douglas A.; Bailer, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A novel logistic regression tree-based method was applied to identify fall risk factors and possible interaction effects of those risk factors. Design and Methods: A nationally representative sample of American older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 9,592) in the Health and Retirement Study 2004 and 2006 modules was used.…

  19. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities.

    PubMed

    Mörsdorf, Martin A; Ravolainen, Virve T; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  20. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Ravolainen, Virve T.; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  1. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  2. Population patterns of Mexican corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults indicated by different sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, D W; Esquivel, J F; Suh, C P C

    2004-04-01

    The Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan & Smith, is a serious pest of corn, Zea mays L., in several areas of Texas. Recent demonstrations of areawide adult control suggest this tactic has promise for rootworm management, but additional information regarding treatment thresholds and sampling methodology is needed. In 2000 and 2001 we examined the influence of distance into the field on rootworm captures by CRW and Pherocon AM traps, the fidelity of trap captures to population estimates from visual counts of beetles on plants (whole plant samples), and the seasonal population patterns indicated by each sampling method. Only the CRW trap consistently indicated reduced trap captures at the field margin compared with other distances. However, trends for the AM trap and whole plant samples suggested sampling on the field margin should be avoided. Population estimates at other distances into the field (2-30 m) were usually statistically similar. Thus, monitoring does not require trap placement far into the field. Both trap types indicated population peaks after flowering in corn, whereas plant samples indicated peak populations during tasseling and flowering. Both the CRW trap and plant samples showed the proportion of female beetles increased as the season progressed, but the CRW trap underestimated the proportion of females until after flowering. Regressions relating captures by traps to counts from plant samples indicated efficiency of both traps increased with increasing plant development. Our findings should increase acceptance of the CRW trap by producers and consultants and provide a rationale for development of improved, plant growth stage-specific treatment thresholds.

  3. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  4. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Romo-Perez, Vicente; Souto, Dilia; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity (PI) are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486). The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03), and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes). 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week). According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations. PMID:26886367

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population.

  7. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; MORONI, Raquel Borges; MENDES, Júlio; JUSTINIANO, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; MORONI, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  8. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.

  9. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  10. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-10-28

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted.

  11. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  12. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  13. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  14. Psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in a Hong Kong Chinese community sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Lau, Wai-yee; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a widely used self-report anxiety scale-the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the associated parent-report version (PSCAS)-in a Hong Kong Chinese community sample. While good psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS had been documented in Western cultural contexts (e.g., Australia), no systematic psychometric evaluation of the Chinese-translated SCAS and PSCAS has been published. In this study, psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS were examined with respect to four criteria: (a) factor structure, (b) descriptive statistics, (c) convergent validity with an anxiety cognition measure, and (d) internal consistency. Psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS for a Chinese community sample were found to be highly comparable with those published on Australian samples, thus providing a solid conceptual foundation for use of the Chinese version of SCAS and PSCAS. PMID:21353457

  15. Personality pathology and alcohol dependence at midlife in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54-65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive-compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive-compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and

  16. Goals, Principles, and Practices for Community-Based Adult Education through the Lens of a Hatcher-Assagioli Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayvazian, Andrea S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how adult education can facilitate learning towards the full realization of human potential. It synthesizes two theories of human development, and applies this to the practice of community-based adult education carried out by trained facilitators who do not have formal degrees in the field of mental health. The first part of…

  17. One Facility's Experience Using the Community Readiness Model to Guide Services for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laurie A.; Harper, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Service provision to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) older adults is a dynamic and sensitive area, requiring rigorous and extensive inquiry and action. Examining the readiness and assets of organizations serving GLBT older adults requires not only heart and sensitivity but also resources and a clear vision. The Community Readiness…

  18. The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction As It Relates to Learning Disabled Adults in California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Mary Jo

    A study was conducted to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with learning disabled (LD) adults attending California community colleges. A questionnaire survey of the directors of the LD programs solicited information on the availability of CAI for LD adults, methods of course advertisement,…

  19. Balancing Power in Communities of Practice: An Examination of Increasing Student Voice through School-Based Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how power imbalances influence the formation of student voice initiatives, which are defined as school-based youth-adult partnerships that consist of youth and adults contributing to decision making processes, learning from one another, and promoting change. Using the concept of "community of practice" as a lens, the paper…

  20. Enhancing Psychosocial Outcomes for Young Adult Childhood CNS Cancer Survivors: Importance of Addressing Vocational Identity and Community Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years…

  1. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  2. Zooplankton diversity analysis through single-gene sequencing of a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J; Hashiguchi, Yasuyuki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Nishida, Shuhei

    2009-01-01

    Background Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth's surface and are critical for the homeostasis of the environment. Among the components of the ocean ecosystem, zooplankton play vital roles in energy and matter transfer through the system. Despite their importance, understanding of zooplankton biodiversity is limited because of their fragile nature, small body size, and the large number of species from various taxonomic phyla. Here we present the results of single-gene zooplankton community analysis using a method that determines a large number of mitochondrial COI gene sequences from a bulk zooplankton sample. This approach will enable us to estimate the species richness of almost the entire zooplankton community. Results A sample was collected from a depth of 721 m to the surface in the western equatorial Pacific off Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, with a plankton net equipped with a 2-m2 mouth opening. A total of 1,336 mitochondrial COI gene sequences were determined from the cDNA library made from the sample. From the determined sequences, the occurrence of 189 species of zooplankton was estimated. BLASTN search results showed high degrees of similarity (>98%) between the query and database for 10 species, including holozooplankton and merozooplankton. Conclusion In conjunction with the Census of Marine Zooplankton and Barcode of Life projects, single-gene zooplankton community analysis will be a powerful tool for estimating the species richness of zooplankton communities. PMID:19758460

  3. Repeated sampling reveals differential variability in measures of species richness and community composition in planktonic protists.

    PubMed

    Dolan, John R; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2011-12-01

    Diversity metrics and descriptors of protistan community structure were calculated from 12 samples of 10 l each collected from the Bay of Villefranche in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Variability of the sampling was on scales of minutes and meters. The individual samples were compared with each other and compared with a pooled data set from the total volume of 120 l, considered as the 'true' community. We focused on a single group of planktonic protists, tintinnids, a coherent functional and phylogenetic group in which morpho-species identifications by light microscopy are unambiguous. Tintinnid abundance in the samples ranged from 217 to 321 cells of 16-21 species with the number of rare species in a sample (< 1% of abundance) positively related to species richness of the sample. Rarefaction estimates of total species richness in the 12 samples ranged from 21 ± 3.5 to 37 ± 3.6 compared with the 34 species of the pooled data set. The measures of similarity reflected the differences between samples in both the numbers and identities of the least abundant or rare species. The species abundance distribution using pooled data was best fit by a log-series or geometric distribution; eight species accounted for about 90% of total cells and most species, the remaining 22 out of 34, were 'rare' (concentration < 1% of total cells). Among the samples, 5 were best fit by a geometric model, 1 by a log-series distribution, 2 by a log-normal or log-series model, and 4 could not be clearly assigned a particular distribution. Our results suggest that single sample estimates of species richness are relatively robust compared with measures of taxonomic similarity and species abundance distribution. When measuring differences among populations sample variability should be considered.

  4. Premature death of adult adoptees: analyses of a case-cohort sample.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2005-05-01

    Genetic and environmental influence on risk of premature death in adulthood was investigated by estimating the associations in total and cause-specific mortality of adult Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents. Among all 14,425 non-familial adoptions formally granted in Denmark during the period 1924 through 1947, we selected the study population according to a case-cohort sampling design. As the case-control design, the case-cohort design has the advantage of economic data collection and little loss in statistical efficiency, but the case-cohort sample has the additional advantages that rate ratio estimates may be obtained, and re-use of the cohort sample in future studies of other outcomes is possible. Analyses were performed using Kalbfleisch and Lawless's estimator for hazard ratio, and robust estimation for variances. In the main analyses the sample was restricted to birth years of the adoptees 1924 and after, and age of transfer to the adoptive parents before 7 years, and age at death was restricted to 16 to 70 years. The results showed a higher mortality among adoptees, whose biological parents died in the age range of 16 to 70 years; this was significant for deaths from natural causes, vascular causes and all causes. No influence was seen from early death of adoptive parents, regardless of cause of death.

  5. Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra; Namaky, Nauder; Baldwin, Scott A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity (viewing oneself as a drinker) is a potential risk factor for problematic drinking in US undergraduate samples. Whether that risk extends to a broader, more general US sample is unknown. Additionally, there are critical, unanswered questions with respect to moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship; an important issue for designing prevention efforts. Study aims were to assess the unique associations and interactive effects of implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity on problematic drinking, and to evaluate age and sex as potential moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship. A sample of 11,320 adults aged 18-98 completed measures of implicit and explicit drinking identity and problematic drinking (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT). Implicit and explicit drinking identity had positive, significant associations with AUDIT scores, as expected. Moderation analyses indicated small, but significant, interactions. There was an implicit by explicit identity interaction consistent with a synergistic effect: lower implicit and explicit identity was linked to a greater probability of being a non-drinker. Age moderated explicit but not implicit identity: lower drinking identity appeared to be more protective for younger individuals. Sex moderated implicit but not explicit identity: a weaker positive association with implicit identity and AUDIT scores was observed among men, potentially reflecting stigma against women's drinking. Findings suggest that drinking identity's potential as a risk factor for problematic drinking extends to a more general US sample and that both implicit and explicit identity should be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:27156218

  6. Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra; Namaky, Nauder; Baldwin, Scott A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity (viewing oneself as a drinker) is a potential risk factor for problematic drinking in US undergraduate samples. Whether that risk extends to a broader, more general US sample is unknown. Additionally, there are critical, unanswered questions with respect to moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship; an important issue for designing prevention efforts. Study aims were to assess the unique associations and interactive effects of implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity on problematic drinking, and to evaluate age and sex as potential moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship. A sample of 11,320 adults aged 18-98 completed measures of implicit and explicit drinking identity and problematic drinking (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT). Implicit and explicit drinking identity had positive, significant associations with AUDIT scores, as expected. Moderation analyses indicated small, but significant, interactions. There was an implicit by explicit identity interaction consistent with a synergistic effect: lower implicit and explicit identity was linked to a greater probability of being a non-drinker. Age moderated explicit but not implicit identity: lower drinking identity appeared to be more protective for younger individuals. Sex moderated implicit but not explicit identity: a weaker positive association with implicit identity and AUDIT scores was observed among men, potentially reflecting stigma against women's drinking. Findings suggest that drinking identity's potential as a risk factor for problematic drinking extends to a more general US sample and that both implicit and explicit identity should be targeted in prevention efforts.

  7. Conceptualizing and measuring youth-adult partnership in community programs: a cross national study.

    PubMed

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Collura, Jessica; Lucchesi, Micaela; Sulaiman, Abdul Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Youth participation in program and community decision making is framed by scholars as an issue of social justice, a platform for positive youth development and effective citizenry, and a strategy for nation building. Recent literature reviews have consistently identified youth-adult partnership (Y-AP) as an effective type of youth participation across highly diverse contexts. These same reviews, however, note that indicators of Y-AP have not been conceptualized and validated for measurement purposes. The present study addresses this limitation by developing a brief measure of Y-AP that is explicitly grounded in current theory, research, and community practice. The measure was administered to youth in the United States, Malaysia, and Portugal (N = 610). Validation was assessed through factor analysis and tests of factorial, discriminant, and concurrent validity. Results confirmed the two predicted dimensions of the Y-AP measure: youth voice in decision making and supportive adult relationships. These two dimensions were also found to be distinct from other measures of program quality: safety and engagement. As predicted, they also significantly correlated with measures of agency and empowerment. It is concluded that the measure has the potential to support community efforts to maximize the quality of youth programs.

  8. Strength in Numbers: A Community Education Program to Prevent Falls in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Yount, John

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and consequences of falls for older adults are well documented and well known to home care clinicians. In the absence of a falls-prevention program targeting older adults living in the community, home healthcare professionals at Cooley Dickinson VNA & Hospice in Northampton, MA, observed a high rate of falls and hip fractures. The clinicians designed a falls reduction program titled Strength in Numbers, an evidence-informed, multifaceted approach offered in community settings such as local senior centers and retirement communities. Physical and occupational therapists presented sessions that addressed risk factors for falls: fear of falling, strength, balance, medications, vision, and home safety. This article describes the program, its evolution and expansion, and outcomes. Between 2008 and 2015, 1,974 people received falls-prevention education through one of several variations of Strength in Numbers. Nearly 20% of those returning for a follow-up session who had fallen before did not fall again after completing it. Presenters recorded statistically significant improvement for participants in Single-Leg Standing, Timed Up and Go, and Functional Reach tests. PMID:27348030

  9. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  10. Care Management's Challenges and Opportunities to Reduce the Rapid Rehospitalization of Frail Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Adam G.; Tewary, Sweta; Dang, Stuti; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based frail older adults, burdened with complex medical and social needs, are at great risk for preventable rapid rehospitalizations. Although federal and state regulations are in place to address the care transitions between the hospital and nursing home, no such guidelines exist for the much larger population of community-dwelling…

  11. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  12. Ability of Institutionalized and Community-Based Adults with Retardation to Respond to Questions in an Interview Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Adults with mild and moderate levels of retardation (20 living in institutions and 20 in the community) answered simulated job interview questions. The community group produced a greater number of appropriate answers to both simple and complex questions than did the institutional group. (Author/JDD)

  13. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance. PMID:26859769

  14. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance. PMID:26859769

  15. Protistan community analysis: key findings of a large-scale molecular sampling.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Lars; Jensen, Manfred; Heider, Dominik; Jost, Steffen; Glücksman, Edvard; Hartikainen, Hanna; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Gardner, Michelle; Hoffmann, Daniel; Bass, David; Boenigk, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Protists are perhaps the most lineage-rich of microbial lifeforms, but remain largely unknown. High-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities to screen whole habitats in depth and enable detailed comparisons of different habitats to measure, compare and map protistan diversity. Such comparisons are often limited by low sample numbers within single studies and a lack of standardisation between studies. Here, we analysed 232 samples from 10 sampling campaigns using a standardised PCR protocol and bioinformatics pipeline. We show that protistan community patterns are highly consistent within habitat types and geographic regions, provided that sample processing is standardised. Community profiles are only weakly affected by fluctuations of the abundances of the most abundant taxa and, therefore, provide a sound basis for habitat comparison beyond random short-term fluctuations in the community composition. Further, we provide evidence that distribution patterns are not solely resulting from random processes. Distinct habitat types and distinct taxonomic groups are dominated by taxa with distinct distribution patterns that reflect their ecology with respect to dispersal and habitat colonisation. However, there is no systematic shift of the distribution pattern with taxon abundance.

  16. Prevalence of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease in a Sample of Greek Adults: The Saronikos Study

    PubMed Central

    Gikas, Aristofanis; Lambadiari, Vaia; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pappas, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive data regarding prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated factors in different geographical regions are very important to our understanding of global distribution and evolution of CHD. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of self-reported risk factors and CHD in Greek adult population. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014, during an election day, among residents of Saronikos municipality (Attica region). Data were collected from face-to-face interviews. The study sample included 2636 subjects (men, 49.5%; mean age, 50.5; range 20-95 years), with similar age and sex distribution to the target population. Results: The age-standardized prevalence rates of five major risk factors were as follows: type 2 diabetes 11.1%, hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol>240 mg/dl or using cholesterol-lowering medication) 23.8%, hypertension 27.2%, current smoking 38.9% and physical inactivity 43%. Of the participants, only 21% were free of any of these factors. Clustering of two to five risk factors was more frequent among persons aged 50 years and older as compared with younger ones (60% vs 27%, P=0.000). The age-adjusted prevalence of CHD was 6.3% (in men, 8.9%; in women, 3.8%) and that of myocardial infarction was 3.6% (in men, 5.2%; in women, 2.1%). According to multivariate analysis age, gender, education level, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and ever smoking were strongly associated with CHD. Conclusion: Classic risk factors are highly prevalent and frequently clustered, especially in adults aged 50 years and older. These findings raise concerns about future trends of already increased rates of CHD. Multifactorial and integrated population-based interventions need to be applied to reduce the burden of cardiovascular conditions. PMID:27429668

  17. Screening for Tuberculosis at an Adult Education Center: Results of a Community-Based Participatory Process

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jennifer A.; Olney, Marilynn W.; Alemán, Marty; Sullivan, Susan; Millington, Kendra; O'Hara, Connie; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to plan and implement free TB skin testing at an adult education center to determine the efficacy of CBPR with voluntary tuberculosis (TB) screening and the prevalence of TB infection among immigrant and refugee populations. Methods. We formed a CBPR partnership to address TB screening at an adult education center that serves a large immigrant and refugee population in Rochester, Minnesota. We conducted focus groups involving educators, health providers, and students of the education center, and used this input to implement TB education and TB skin testing among the center's students. Results. A total of 259 adult learners volunteered to be skin-tested in April 2009; 48 (18.5%) had positive TB skin tests. Conclusions. Our results imply that TB skin testing at adult education centers that serve large foreign-born populations may be effective. Our findings also show that a participatory process may enhance the willingness of foreign-born persons to participate in TB skin-testing efforts. PMID:21653249

  18. Association Between Social and Physical Activities and Insomnia Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Endeshaw, Yohannes W.; Yoo, Wonsuk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between organized social activity, walking exercise, and insomnia symptoms. Material and Method Data for analysis are derived from the National Health Aging Trends Study (NHATS). At baseline, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, sleep-related problems, and health status were assessed using questionnaires. Results Data for 7,162 community-dwelling older adults were available for analysis. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and both insomnia symptoms were reported by 12%, 5%, and 11% of the participants, respectively. The proportion of participants who reported engaging in organized social activity, walking exercise, and both activities were 11%, 35%, and 26%, respectively. Participants who reported engaging in organized social activity and/or walking exercise were significantly less likely to report insomnia symptoms. Conclusion These results have important implications for future studies that plan to implement nonpharmacological interventions for management of insomnia among older adults. PMID:26690253

  19. Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; McKee, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Adapted tango dancing improves mobility and balance in older adults and additional populations with balance impairments. It is composed of very simple step elements. Adapted tango involves movement initiation and cessation, multi-directional perturbations, varied speeds and rhythms. Focus on foot placement, whole body coordination, and attention to partner, path of movement, and aesthetics likely underlie adapted tango’s demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. In this paper, we describe the methodology to disseminate the adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and to implement the adapted tango by the trainees in the community for older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Efficacy in improving mobility (measured with the Timed Up and Go, Tandem stance, Berg Balance Scale, Gait Speed and 30 sec chair stand), safety and fidelity of the program is maximized through targeted instructor and volunteer training and a structured detailed syllabus outlining class practices and progression. PMID:25548831

  20. Predictors of Retest Effects in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging in a Diverse Community-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Gross, Alden L; Benitez, Andreana; Shih, Regina; Bangen, Katherine J; Glymour, M Maria M; Sachs, Bonnie; Sisco, Shannon; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-08-01

    Better performance due to repeated testing can bias long-term trajectories of cognitive aging and correlates of change. We examined whether retest effects differ as a function of individual differences pertinent to cognitive aging: race/ethnicity, age, sex, language, years of education, literacy, and dementia risk factors including apolipoprotein E ε4 status, baseline cognitive performance, and cardiovascular risk. We used data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a community-based cohort of older adults (n=4073). We modeled cognitive change and retest effects in summary factors for general cognitive performance, memory, executive functioning, and language using multilevel models. Retest effects were parameterized in two ways, as improvement between the first and subsequent testings, and as the square root of the number of prior testings. We evaluated whether the retest effect differed by individual characteristics. The mean retest effect for general cognitive performance was 0.60 standard deviations (95% confidence interval [0.46, 0.74]), and was similar for memory, executive functioning, and language. Retest effects were greater for participants in the lowest quartile of cognitive performance (many of whom met criteria for dementia based on a study algorithm), consistent with regression to the mean. Retest did not differ by other characteristics. Retest effects are large in this community-based sample, but do not vary by demographic or dementia-related characteristics. Differential retest effects may not limit the generalizability of inferences across different groups in longitudinal research.

  1. Exploring Demographic and Substance Use Correlates of Hookah Use in a Sample of Southern California Community College Students

    PubMed Central

    De Borba-Silva, Maria; Singh, Pramil; dos Santos, Hildemar; Job, Jayakaran S.; Brink, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hookah smoking is a growing young adult phenomenon, particularly among college students. Many users feel that it is safer than other tobacco products, although its health threats are well documented. Little is known about hookah use rates in community colleges that are attended by nearly half of all US college students. This study examined hookah use in a diverse convenience sample of students attending two southern California community colleges. Methods In fall 2011, a cross-sectional, in-classroom survey was administered to 1,207 students. A series of fully adjusted multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to explore demographic, other substance use, and attitudinal correlates of lifetime and current hookah use. Results Lifetime hookah use (56%) was higher than lifetime cigarette use (49%). Gender and personal socioeconomic status were not related to hookah use. Current use (10.8%) was associated with current use of alcohol, cigars, and cigarettes. Compared to African-Americans, Whites were 2.9 times more likely to be current users, and students who perceive hookah to be more socially acceptable were 21 times more likely to currently use. Conclusion Since hookah use rates are high, colleges should offer health education programs to inform incoming students about the health risks of hookah and cessation programs. PMID:26688673

  2. Predictors of Retest Effects in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging in a Diverse Community-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Gross, Alden L; Benitez, Andreana; Shih, Regina; Bangen, Katherine J; Glymour, M Maria M; Sachs, Bonnie; Sisco, Shannon; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-08-01

    Better performance due to repeated testing can bias long-term trajectories of cognitive aging and correlates of change. We examined whether retest effects differ as a function of individual differences pertinent to cognitive aging: race/ethnicity, age, sex, language, years of education, literacy, and dementia risk factors including apolipoprotein E ε4 status, baseline cognitive performance, and cardiovascular risk. We used data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a community-based cohort of older adults (n=4073). We modeled cognitive change and retest effects in summary factors for general cognitive performance, memory, executive functioning, and language using multilevel models. Retest effects were parameterized in two ways, as improvement between the first and subsequent testings, and as the square root of the number of prior testings. We evaluated whether the retest effect differed by individual characteristics. The mean retest effect for general cognitive performance was 0.60 standard deviations (95% confidence interval [0.46, 0.74]), and was similar for memory, executive functioning, and language. Retest effects were greater for participants in the lowest quartile of cognitive performance (many of whom met criteria for dementia based on a study algorithm), consistent with regression to the mean. Retest did not differ by other characteristics. Retest effects are large in this community-based sample, but do not vary by demographic or dementia-related characteristics. Differential retest effects may not limit the generalizability of inferences across different groups in longitudinal research. PMID:26527240

  3. Intra-community coalitionary lethal attack of an adult male southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    PubMed

    Talebi, M G; Beltrão-Mendes, R; Lee, P C

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first evidence of intra-community coalitionary lethal aggression in muriquis (Brachyteles). The event occurred in southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) during a long-term study (>15 years) of two social groups inhabiting mostly pristine Atlantic forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, southern São Paulo State, Brazil. The attack took place deep in the core area of the Group Caetê home range. Tense agonistic behaviors and vocalizations preceded the lethal coalitionary attack, and the tension increased over a 36-48 hr period. One adult female and two unidentified individuals also took part in a coalition led by six adult males. The members of the coalition collectively approached, embraced, immobilized and repeatedly bit the entire body of an adult male, resulting in severe bleeding injuries and the victim's death in less than 1 hr after the attack commenced. Combined ecological, behavioral and spatial data related to the event indicate that this was an intra-community attack and suggest social tensions related to mating competition as the proximate trigger of the coalitionary killing. The attack resembled those reported for chimpanzees, with clear numeric superiority and a low risk of injury to aggressors, resulting in the death of a lone conspecific victim. This observation (n=1) is suggestive of a capacity for escalated aggression in muriquis and reinforces arguments for the potential adaptive significance of intra-community aggression in male philopatric societies, as reported for spider monkeys and chimpanzees. These characteristics challenge the view of the muriquis as a peaceful primate and support the general hypothesis that imbalances of power contribute to intra-specific killing in primates, such as chimpanzees and humans.

  4. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  5. Total Water Intakes of Community-Living Middle-Old and Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Kathy Jo; Wernette, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Literature reporting total daily water intake of community-dwelling older adults is limited. We evaluated differences in total water intake, water sources, water from meal and snack beverages, timing of beverage consumption, and beverage selection for three older age groups (young-old, 65–74 years; middle-old, 75–84 years; and oldest-old, ≥85 years). Methods Data for 2,054 older adults from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for this study. Multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, race–ethnicity, education, and marital status were conducted to determine differences in water intake variables across the age groups. Results Total water intakes found for the middle-old and oldest-old age groups were significantly lower than those found for the young-old age group. The relative contributions of beverages to total water intake were 40.8%, 38.3%, and 36.4% for the young-old, middle-old, and oldest-old, respectively. The water intakes from beverages consumed at snack occasions were significantly lower for the middle-old and oldest-old groups than those for the young-old group. All groups consumed the greatest amount of water in the morning. Coffee was the predominant source of water from beverages for all groups. Conclusions This study fills a gap in the literature by providing an analysis of the daily water intake of middle-old and oldest-old adults. We found that the total water intake for the middle-old and oldest-old was significantly lower than that for the young-old. Future research needs to investigate the clinical outcomes associated with declining water intakes of community-dwelling older adults. PMID:19213852

  6. Funding and expenditure of a sample of community-based organizations in Kenya, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Krivelyova, Anya; Kakietek, Jakub; Connolly, Helen; Bonnel, Rene; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; N'Jie, N'Della; Berruti, Andres; Gregson, Simon; Agrawal, Ruchika

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, international donors, technical specialists, and governments have come to recognize the potential of community-based organizations (CBOs) in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Recent empirical studies suggest that community engagement, including the involvement of CBOs, adds value to the national response to HIV/AIDS. With the emerging evidence of the effectiveness of engaging communities in the fight against AIDS, it is crucial to understand the economic dimension of community engagement. This article provides an analysis of funding and expenditure data collected from CBOs in three African countries: Kenya, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. It presents descriptive information regarding CBO funding and expenditure and examines the factors associated with the total amount of funds received and with the proportions of the funds allocated to programmatic activities and program management and administration. An average CBO in the sample received US$29,800 annually or about US$2480 per month. The highest percentage of CBO funding (37%) came from multilateral organizations. CBOs in the sample spent most of their funds (71%) on programmatic activities including provision of treatment, support, care, impact mitigation, and treatment services.

  7. Nutrition education intervention with community-dwelling older adults: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Beverly P

    2014-08-01

    This study critically reviewed empirical literature examining nutrition education intervention studies with community-dwelling older adults over the period 2003-2012 to: (1) determine the number, (2) evaluate the research designs, and (3) report the study outcomes. A search of online databases yielded 74 studies six of which met our criteria. The studies reported favorable intervention outcomes. Because of the number, variability in the types, designs, measures, scope, educational and behavioral strategies, results can only inform future studies and encourage scholars to use strong evaluation design. We recommend the utilization of an ecological conceptual model when conducting nutrition interventions studies and discussed implications in terms of research and practice. PMID:24368631

  8. Weight loss expectations and goals in a population sample of overweight and obese US adults.

    PubMed

    Fabricatore, Anthony N; Wadden, Thomas A; Rohay, Jeffrey M; Pillitteri, Janine L; Shiffman, Saul; Harkins, Andrea M; Burton, Steven L

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate weight loss expectations and goals in a population sample of US adults who planned to make a weight loss attempt, and to examine predictors of those expectations and goals. Participants were 658 overweight and obese adults (55% women, mean age = 47.9 years, BMI = 31.8 kg/m(2)) who responded to a telephone survey about weight loss. Respondents reported weight loss expectations (i.e., reductions they realistically expected) and goals (i.e., reductions they ideally desired) for an upcoming "serious and deliberate" weight loss attempt. They also reported the expectations they had, and the reductions they actually achieved, in a previous attempt. Respondents' weight loss expectations for their upcoming attempt (8.0% reduction in initial weight) were significantly more modest than their goals for that attempt (16.8%), and smaller than the losses that they expected (12.0%), and achieved (8.9%) in their most recent past attempt (Ps

  9. Violence victimization after HIV infection in a US probability sample of adult patients in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, S; Cunningham, W E; Andersen, R; Shapiro, M F; Nakazono, T; Morton, S; Crystal, S; Stein, M; Turner, B; St Clair, P; Bozzette, S A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of HIV-infected adults who have been assaulted by a partner or someone important to them since their HIV diagnosis and the extent to which they reported HIV-seropositive status as a cause of the violence. METHODS: Study participants were from a nationally representative probability sample of 2864 HIV-infected adults who were receiving medical care and were enrolled in the HIV Costs and Service Utilization Study. All interviews (91% in person, 9% by telephone) were conducted with computer-assisted personal interviewing instruments. Interviews began in January 1996 and ended 15 months later. RESULTS: Overall, 20.5% of the women, 11.5% of the men who reported having sex with men, and 7.5% of the heterosexual men reported physical harm since diagnosis, of whom nearly half reported HIV-seropositive status as a cause of violent episodes. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related care is an appropriate setting for routine assessment of violence. Programs to cross-train staff in antiviolence agencies and HIV care facilities need to be developed for men and women with HIV infection. PMID:10667181

  10. Empathy Across the Adult Lifespan: Longitudinal and Experience-Sampling Findings

    PubMed Central

    Grühn, Daniel; Rebucal, Kristine; Diehl, Manfred; Lumley, Mark; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in self-reported empathy in a four-wave longitudinal study spanning 12 years (1992–2004) and the association between empathy and other measures, including daily reports of relationship experiences. Participants initially ranged in age from 10 years to 87 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of age with empathy revealed divergent patterns. Whereas cross-sectional analyses suggested that older adults scored lower in empathy than younger adults, longitudinal analyses showed no age-related decline in empathy. This combined pattern suggests that the cross-sectional age-differences reflect a cohort rather than an age effect, with older cohorts reporting lower levels of empathy than younger ones. Independent of age, empathy was associated with a positive well-being (e.g., life satisfaction) and interaction profile (e.g., positive relations with others). In addition, a subsample of participants (n= 114) conducted experience-sampling about social interactions for a week. People with high self-reported empathy perceived their interactions as more meaningful, felt more positive in these interactions, and thought that their interaction partner felt also more positive. Thus, self-reported empathy was meaningfully associated with adults’ actual social interactions. PMID:19102586

  11. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20597731

  12. Search for Martian fossil communities: Science strategies, sediment sites, and sample handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy for locating and sampling possible fossilized Martian organisms benefits from our experience with fossil microbial ecosystems on Earth. Evidence of early life is typically preserved as stromatolites in carbonates and cherts, and as microfossils in cherts, carbonates and shales. Stromatolites, which are laminated flat or domal structures built by microbial communities, are very likely the oldest and most widespread relics of early life. These communities flourished in supratidal to subtidal coastal benthic environments, wherever sunlight was available and where incoming sediments were insufficient to bury the communities before they became established. A logical site for such communities on Mars might be those areas in an ancient lake bed which were furthest from sediment input, but were still sufficiently shallow to have received sunlight. Therefore, although some sites within Valles Marineris might have contained ponded water, the possibly abundant sediment inputs might have overwhelmed stromatolite-like communities. Localized depressions which acted as catchment basins for ancient branched valley systems might be superior sites. Perhaps such depressions received drainage which, because of the relatively modest water discharges implied for these streams, was relatively low in transported sediment. Multiple streams converging on a single basin might have been able to maintain a shallow water environment for extended periods of time.

  13. Direct Comparisons of Illumina vs. Roche 454 Sequencing Technologies on the Same Microbial Community DNA Sample

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chengwei; Tsementzi, Despina; Kyrpides, Nikos; Read, Timothy; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used in metagenomic studies of complex microbial communities but whether or not different NGS platforms recover the same diversity from a sample and their assembled sequences are of comparable quality remain unclear. We compared the two most frequently used platforms, the Roche 454 FLX Titanium and the Illumina Genome Analyzer (GA) II, on the same DNA sample obtained from a complex freshwater planktonic community. Despite the substantial differences in read length and sequencing protocols, the platforms provided a comparable view of the community sampled. For instance, derived assemblies overlapped in ∼90% of their total sequences and in situ abundances of genes and genotypes (estimated based on sequence coverage) correlated highly between the two platforms (R2>0.9). Evaluation of base-call error, frameshift frequency, and contig length suggested that Illumina offered equivalent, if not better, assemblies than Roche 454. The results from metagenomic samples were further validated against DNA samples of eighteen isolate genomes, which showed a range of genome sizes and G+C% content. We also provide quantitative estimates of the errors in gene and contig sequences assembled from datasets characterized by different levels of complexity and G+C% content. For instance, we noted that homopolymer-associated, single-base errors affected ∼1% of the protein sequences recovered in Illumina contigs of 10× coverage and 50% G+C; this frequency increased to ∼3% when non-homopolymer errors were also considered. Collectively, our results should serve as a useful practical guide for choosing proper sampling strategies and data possessing protocols for future metagenomic studies. PMID:22347999

  14. The Prevalence of ADHD-Like Symptoms in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy; Elliott, Julian; Holmes, Joni

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in a community sample of children in the United Kingdom. Method: There were 964 ten year olds (55% boys; M = 10.4 years; SD = 0.6) from mainstream schools in the United Kingdom in this study. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, which provides ratings on the frequency of…

  15. Feasibility and Utility of Experience Sampling to Assess Alcohol Consumption Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Paul; Smith, Cristan A.; Harrington, Donna; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Resnick, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on alcohol use and aging, drinking has often been conceptualized as a means of coping with negative feelings, such as stress, yet much of the literature on older adults and drinking has utilized cross-sectional or other data ill-suited for exploring dynamic processes. Experience sampling methods have the ability to measure and analyze dynamic processes in real time, such as relations between alcohol use and mood states. Nonetheless, these approaches are intensive and may burden respondents. Therefore, this study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of a modified daily diary to measure alcohol use and explored alternate methods of collecting diary data. Findings suggest that a modified diary was acceptable and not burdensome. Respondents were reluctant to consider technology (e.g., cellphone)-based means of data collection. Measures of alcohol use showed little within-person variation suggesting that for those who drink at all, drinking is a daily habit. PMID:24652928

  16. Linking typologies of childhood adversity to adult incarceration: Findings from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Roos, Leslie E; Afifi, Tracie O; Martin, Christina Gamache; Pietrzak, Robert H; Tsai, Jack; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Ecologically valid typologies of adverse child experiences (ACEs) were identified to investigate the link between ACEs and adult incarceration. In a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653, age 20+), latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted with childhood maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, interpersonal violence [IPV] exposure, physical neglect) and caregiver maladjustment (substance use, incarceration, mental illness, and suicidal behavior) indicators. LCA identified a 5-typology model (1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; and 5. ). Controlling for sociodemographics and substance use problems, logistic regression analyses determined that, compared with the typology, all typologies (except ) had elevated incarceration risk (adjusted odds ratios: 1.76-4.18). Maltreatment experiences were more predictive of incarceration for women versus men. Childhood maltreatment confers risk for incarceration beyond established risk factors, but caregiver maladjustment, alone, does not. Preventative efforts should focus on understanding and targeting pathways to delinquency for individuals with childhood maltreatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078049

  17. Adult attachment interviews of women from low-risk, poverty, and maltreatment risk samples: comparisons between the hostile/helpless and traditional AAI coding systems.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Costantino, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Elisa; Barone, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of a Hostile-Helpless (HH) state of mind among 67 women belonging to a community sample and two different at-risk samples matched on socio-economic indicators, including 20 women from low-SES population (poverty sample) and 15 women at risk for maltreatment being monitored by the social services for the protection of juveniles (maltreatment risk sample). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) protocols were reliably coded blind to the samples' group status. The rates of HH classification increased in relation to the risk status of the three samples, ranging from 9% for the low-risk sample to 60% for the maltreatment risk sample to 75% for mothers in the maltreatment risk sample who actually maltreated their infants. In terms of the traditional AAI classification system, 88% of the interviews from the maltreating mothers were classified Unresolved/Cannot Classify (38%) or Preoccupied (50%). Partial overlapping between the 2 AAI coding systems was found, and discussion concerns the relevant contributions of each AAI coding system to understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment. PMID:23724955

  18. Eating Disorders Among a Community-based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Granillo, M Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety.

  19. Metatranscriptome analysis of active microbial communities in produced water samples from the Marcellus Shale.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Lipus, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Controlling microbial activity is a primary concern during the management of the large volumes of wastewater (produced water) generated during high-volume hydraulic fracturing. In this study we analyzed the transcriptional activity (metatranscriptomes) of three produced water samples from the Marcellus Shale. The goal of this study was to describe active metabolic pathways of industrial concern for produced water management and reuse, and to improve understanding of produced water microbial activity. Metatranscriptome analysis revealed active biofilm formation, sulfide production, and stress management mechanisms of the produced water microbial communities. Biofilm-formation and sulfate-reduction pathways were identified in all samples. Genes related to a diverse array of stress response mechanisms were also identified with implications for biocide efficacy. Additionally, active expression of a methanogenesis pathway was identified in a sample of produced water collected prior to holding pond storage. The active microbial community identified by metatranscriptome analysis was markedly different than the community composition as identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, highlighting the value of evaluating the active microbial fraction during assessments of produced water biofouling potential and evaluation of biocide application strategies. These results indicate biofouling and corrosive microbial processes are active in produced water and should be taken into consideration while designing produced water reuse strategies. PMID:27457653

  20. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections: convenience vs. random community-based sampling.

    PubMed

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S; Harritshøj, L H; Krogfelt, K A; Linneberg, A; Mølbak, K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of reported infections of non-typhoid Salmonella is affected by biases inherent to passive laboratory surveillance, whereas analysis of blood sera may provide a less biased alternative to estimate the force of Salmonella transmission in humans. We developed a mathematical model that enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in blood donors (90% CrI 85-298) and 77/1000 in the community cohort (90% CrI 45-114). Although the differences between study populations decreased when accounting for different age distributions the estimates depend on the study population. It is important to be aware of this issue and define a certain population under surveillance in order to obtain consistent results in an application of serological measures for public health purposes.

  1. Polytraumatization in an adult national sample and its association with psychological distress and self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Doris; Dahlstöm, Örjan; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. Method A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Linköping Difficult Life Events Scale - Adult - was sent out to a nationally reprative sample and 5062 people chose to participate in the study. Results Results showed that almost everyone (97%) has experienced at least one potential traumatic event and that polytraumatization (the 10% of the participants with most reported traumas) was significantly (Z = 12.57, P < 0.001, r = 0.18) associated with psychological distress and global self-esteem. Gender differences were significant (Z = 8.44, P < 0.001, r = 0.12), in that men experience more noninterpersonal traumas but women report more symptoms. The effect sizes regarding the impact of potential trauma on self-esteem were largest for women with experience of polytraumatization in the age group 18–25 (r = 0.48). There was almost linear increase in psychological distress and linear decrease in self-esteem with increasing number of traumatic events experienced. Conclusion Experience of polytrauma can be considered an important factor to take into account in psychiatric settings as well. PMID:25722950

  2. Population Screening Using Sewage Reveals Pan-Resistant Bacteria in Hospital and Community Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mileguir, Fernando; Azar, Roberto; Smollan, Gill; Belausov, Natasha; Rahav, Galia; Shamiss, Ari; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical samples in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Hospitals and Community sewage had similar percentage of positive samplings for blaKPC and blaNDM-1. VRE was found to be more abundant in sewage in Israel than MRSA but there were more locations positive for MRSA and VRE bacteria in Hospital sewage than in the Community. Therefore, our upgrade of the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates can be a useful tool for routine screening and monitoring of the population for pan-resistant bacteria using sewage. PMID:27780222

  3. Effects of electrofishing gear type on spatial and temporal variability in fish community sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; McIntyre, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Fish community data collected from 24 major river basins between 1993 and 1998 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess multiple-reach (three consecutive reaches) and multiple-year (three consecutive years) variability in samples collected at a site. Variability was assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV; SD/mean) of species richness, the Jaccard index (JI), and the percent similarity index (PSI). Data were categorized by three electrofishing sample collection methods: backpack, towed barge, and boat. Overall, multiple-reach CV values were significantly lower than those for multiple years, whereas multiple-reach JI and PSI values were significantly greater than those for multiple years. Multiple-reach and multiple-year CV values did not vary significantly among electrofishing methods, although JI and PSI values were significantly greatest for backpack electrofishing across multiple reaches and multiple years. The absolute difference between mean species richness for multiple-reach samples and mean species richness for multiple-year samples was 0.8 species (9.5% of total species richness) for backpack samples, 1.7 species (10.1%) for towed-barge samples, and 4.5 species (24.4%) for boat-collected samples. Review of boat-collected fish samples indicated that representatives of four taxonomic families - Catostomidae, Centrarchidae, Cyprinidae, and Ictaluridae - were collected at all sites. Of these, catostomids exhibited greater interannual variability than centrarchids, cyprinids, or ictalurids. Caution should be exercised when combining boat-collected fish community data from different years because of relatively high interannual variability, which is primarily due to certain relatively mobile species. Such variability may obscure longer-term trends.

  4. Candidate SNP Associations of Optimism and Resilience in Older Adults: Exploratory Study of 935 Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Brinda K.; Darst, Burcu F.; Bloss, Cinnamon; Shih, Pei-an Betty; Depp, Colin; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Allison, Matthew; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schork, Nicholas; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Optimism and resilience promote health and well-being in older adults, and previous reports suggest that these traits are heritable. We examined the association of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with optimism and resilience in older adults. Design Candidate gene association study that was a follow-on at the University of California, San Diego sites of two NIH-funded multi-site longitudinal investigations: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and SELenium and vitamin E Cancer prevention Trial (SELECT). Participants 426 Women from WHI older than age 50, and 509 men older than age 55 (age 50 for African-American men) from SELECT. Measurements 65 candidate gene SNPs that were judged by consensus, based on a literature review, as being related to predisposition to optimism and resilience, and 31 ancestry informative marker SNPs, genotyped from blood-based DNA samples and self-report scales for trait optimism, resilience, and depressive symptoms. Results Using a Bonferroni threshold for significant association (p=0.00089), there were no significant associations for individual SNPs with optimism or resilience in single-locus analyses. Exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses with a p-value of <.05, showed an association of optimism with SNPs in MAO-A, IL10, and FGG genes, and an association of resilience with a SNP in MAO-A gene. Conclusions Correcting for Type I errors, there were no significant associations of optimism and resilience with specific gene SNPs in single-locus analyses. Positive psychological traits are likely to be genetically complex, with many loci having small effects contributing to phenotypic variation. Our exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses suggest that larger sample sizes and complementary approaches involving methods such as sequence-based association studies, copy number variation analyses, and pathway-based analyses could be useful for better understanding the genetic basis of these positive psychological traits

  5. Microbial processes and communities in sediment samples along a transect across the Lusi mud volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje; Mazzini, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems. This eruption started in 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake that stroke Java Island. Since then it has been spewing boiling mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Today an area of about 8 km2 is covered by locally dried mud breccia where a network of hundreds of satellite seeping pools is active. Numerous investigations focused on the study of offshore microbial colonies that commonly thrive at offshore methane seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done for onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 and CO2 as well as of heavier liquid hydrocarbons originating from several km below the surface. We conducted a sampling campaign at the Lusi site collecting samples of fresh mud close to the erupting crater using a remote controlled drone. In addition we completed a transect towards outer parts of the crater to collect older, weathered samples for comparison. In all samples active microorganisms were present. The highest activities for CO2 and CH4 production as well as for CH4 oxidation and hydrocarbon degradation were observed in medium-age mud samples collected roughly in the middle of the transect. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade hydrocarbons (oils, alkanes, BTEX tested). The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Currently, the microbial communities in the different sediment samples are analyzed using quantitative PCR and T-RFLP combined with MiSeq sequencing. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage

  6. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression.

  7. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  8. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910–0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879–0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944–0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  9. A Model for Partnering First-Year Student Pharmacists With Community-Based Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Andrea L.; Shawl, Lauren; Motl Moroney, Susannah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of an introductory pharmacy practice experience intended to redefine first-year student pharmacists’ views on aging and medication use through their work with a healthy, community-based older-adult population. Design. All students (N = 273) completed live skills training in an 8-hour boot camp provided during orientation week. Teams were assigned an independently living senior partner, completed 10 visits and reflections, and documented health-related information using an electronic portfolio (e-portfolio). Assessment. As determined by pre- and post-experience survey instruments, students gained significant confidence in 7 skill areas related to communication, medication interviews, involving the partner in health care, and applying patient-care skills. Student reflections, in-class presentations, and e-portfolios documented that personal attitudes toward seniors changed over time. Senior partners enjoyed mentoring and interacting with students and many experienced health improvements as a result of the interaction. Conclusions. The model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults improved students’ skills and fostered their connections to pharmacist roles and growth as person-centered providers. PMID:22761526

  10. Callous-unemotional traits and anxiety in a community sample of 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Sajid; Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Viding, Essi

    2014-01-01

    In forensic samples of adults and adolescents, there is evidence to suggest that there may be distinct variants of psychopathy marked by the presence/absence of significant levels of anxiety. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits can be used to characterize children who share behavioural and neurocognitive features with adult psychopaths. The aims of this paper are to (a) investigate the genetic and environmental influences on CU traits with/without anxiety and (b) explore differences in terms of concurrent and early parenting and adjustment. Discrete groups were formed on the basis of scores in the top 10% of the sample on CU and anxiety scales at age 7. Estimates of group heritability were calculated using a Defries-Fulker (DF) extremes regression model. Follow back analyses of early parenting and adjustment were conducted using multivariate analyses of covariance. There was high group heritability for CU traits with/without anxiety. Children with both high CU and anxiety showed greater levels of adjustment problems than those with CU only at age 7. The two groups did not differ in parenting characteristics. In this general population sample, evidence did not support differences in etiology for the two groups high on CU traits differing in level of anxiety.

  11. Callous-Unemotional Traits and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Viding, Essi

    2013-01-01

    In forensic samples of adults and adolescents, there is evidence to suggest that there may be distinct variants of psychopathy marked by the presence/absence of significant levels of anxiety. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits can be used to characterize children who share behavioural and neurocognitive features with adult psychopaths. The aims of this paper are to (a) investigate the genetic and environmental influences on CU traits with/without anxiety and (b) explore differences in terms of concurrent and early parenting and adjustment. Discrete groups were formed on the basis of scores in the top 10% of the sample on CU and anxiety scales at age 7. Estimates of group heritability were calculated using a Defries-Fulker (DF) extremes regression model. Follow back analyses of early parenting and adjustment were conducted using multivariate analyses of covariance. There was high group heritability for CU traits with/without anxiety. Children with both high CU and anxiety showed greater levels of adjustment problems than those with CU only at age 7. The two groups did not differ in parenting characteristics. In this general population sample, evidence did not support differences in etiology for the two groups high on CU traits differing in level of anxiety. PMID:23879532

  12. Adult Education and Social Change: The European Network. Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes. Report of a Seminar (El Escorial, Spain, April 24-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Science, Madrid (Spain).

    These proceedings report on a seminar to review the Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes as it had been operating in Spain since 1986. An opening address (Jose Cartagena) discusses achievements to date, including making the most of available resources and introducing new working methods through the established liaison…

  13. Comparing brief stress management courses in a community sample: mindfulness skills and progressive muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Agee, John D; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Grant, Christoffer A

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare a five-week mindfulness meditation (MM) course to a five-week course that taught progressive muscle relaxation (PMR). Forty-three adults from the community were randomly assigned to either MM (n = 19) or PMR (n = 24) courses after responding to flyers and other advertisements for a free stress management course. Mindfulness meditation participants practiced meditation significantly more often than PMR participants practiced relaxation during the intervention period (F[1, 43] = 7.42; P < .05). Interestingly, the two conditions did not differ significantly in their posttreatment levels of relaxation or mindfulness. Although there were no differences between groups on any of the primary outcome measures, across both treatment conditions there were statistically significant reductions from pretreatment to posttreatment in general psychological distress. Thus, although MM did not emerge as clearly superior to PMR, results of this study suggest that a brief mindfulness skills course may be effective for stress management.

  14. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. PMID:26726759

  15. Apathy and cognitive and functional decline in community-dwelling older adults: Results from the Baltimore ECA longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Diana E.; Ko, Jean Y.; Lyketsos, Constantine; Rebok, George W.; Eaton, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Apathy, a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, commonly affects patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Prevalence estimates for apathy range widely and are based on cross-sectional data and / or clinic samples. This study examines the relationships between apathy and cognitive and functional declines in non-depressed community-based older adults. Methods Data on 1,136 community-dwelling adults age 50 and older from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study, with 1 and 13 years of follow-up, were used. Apathy was assessed with a subscale of items from the General Health Questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, logistic regression, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to accomplish the study’s objectives. Results The prevalence of apathy at Wave 1 was 23.7%. Compared to those without, individuals with apathy were on average older, more likely to be female, and have lower MMSE scores and impairments in basic and instrumental functioning at baseline. Apathy was significantly associated with cognitive decline (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.60) and declines in instrumental (OR = 4.42; 95% CI = 2.65, 7.38) and basic (OR=2.74; 95%CI= 1.35, 5.57) function at 1 year follow-up, even after adjustment for baseline age, level of education, race, and depression at follow-up. At 13 years of follow-up, apathetic individuals were not at greater risk for cognitive decline but were 2-fold more likely to have functional decline. Incidence of apathy at 1- year follow up and 13- year follow-up was respectively, 22.6% and 29.4%. Conclusions These results underline the public health importance of apathy and the need for further population-based studies in this area. PMID:20478091

  16. Effects of sampling design on the estimation of adult mosquito abundance.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D

    1999-06-01

    During 1994-5, Culex tarsalis comprised 75% of the 902,643 adult female mosquitoes collected by 63 dry-ice-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-style traps operated biweekly in a uniform sampling grid that covered the southern Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California. The ln(y + 1) transformation successfully controlled the variance and normalized the distribution of catch size among trap nights. When tested by analysis of variance, abundance varied significantly among months, years, and trap sites. Although the trap by months interaction was not significant, female distribution changed seasonally as larval habitats shifted from wetlands along the Salton Sea to agriculture to managed duck marshes. Conditional simulations utilized subsets of trap sites to compare sampling designs that required no (uniform, random, and transect designs) or prior (best-estimate and stratified random designs) knowledge of mosquito spatial distribution. All designs provided similar information on population seasonal trends, but a stratified random design provided the most accurate and precise simulation. A uniform trap grid that employed every 2nd trap site subsequently was adopted by the Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District to provide information on focal changes in abundance indicative of missed or newly created larval habitats or control failures. PMID:10412106

  17. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    PubMed

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  18. Direct sampling of resting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults in apple tree canopies and surrounding habitats.

    PubMed

    Epstein, David L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J

    2011-06-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Use among a Sample of Nigerian Semirural Community Dwellers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lasebikan, Victor Olufolahan; Ola, Bolanle Adeyemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of Nigerian semirural community dwellers in Nigeria. Methods. In a single arm nonrandomized intervention study, the assessment of baseline hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated risk factors was conducted in two semirural local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria, with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Participants included 1203 subjects 15 years and older, recruited between October 2010 and April 2011. ASSIST score of 0-10 was classified as lower risk scores, 11-26 as moderate risk, and 27+ as high risk. Results. Prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 57.9% and current alcohol use was 23.7%. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among the younger age group p = 0.02, male gender p = 0.003, unmarried p < 0.01, low educational level p = 0.003, low socioeconomic class p = 0.01, unemployed p < 0.001, and the Christians p < 0.01. Of the current drinkers, the majority (69.1%) were at either moderate or high health risk from alcohol use. Conclusion. Alcohol consumption is prevalent in semirural communities in Nigeria and the majority of these drinkers are at moderate or high health risk. Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment for unhealthy alcohol use should be integrated into community care services in Nigerian rural communities. PMID:27195170

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Use among a Sample of Nigerian Semirural Community Dwellers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of Nigerian semirural community dwellers in Nigeria. Methods. In a single arm nonrandomized intervention study, the assessment of baseline hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated risk factors was conducted in two semirural local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria, with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Participants included 1203 subjects 15 years and older, recruited between October 2010 and April 2011. ASSIST score of 0–10 was classified as lower risk scores, 11–26 as moderate risk, and 27+ as high risk. Results. Prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 57.9% and current alcohol use was 23.7%. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among the younger age group p = 0.02, male gender p = 0.003, unmarried p < 0.01, low educational level p = 0.003, low socioeconomic class p = 0.01, unemployed p < 0.001, and the Christians p < 0.01. Of the current drinkers, the majority (69.1%) were at either moderate or high health risk from alcohol use. Conclusion. Alcohol consumption is prevalent in semirural communities in Nigeria and the majority of these drinkers are at moderate or high health risk. Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment for unhealthy alcohol use should be integrated into community care services in Nigerian rural communities. PMID:27195170