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Sample records for adult compound eye

  1. Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). III. Adult compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Sherk, T E

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of ommatidial diameters and interommatidial angles, as determined by measuring the angles between the optic axes of adjacent ommatidia, are mapped across the surface of the compound eyes of a variety of species selected for different adult behaviors, developmental histories, and taxonomic positions. The size of the visual fields, prey capture foveas, foveas composed of large dorsal ommatidia, and other specializations in the numbers of ommatidia that view various directions in the visual field are discussed in relation to adult behavior. Advanced species have less resemblance between their larval and adult eyes than primitive species. In contrast to their larvae, adults increase the monocular resolution of each eye at the expense of binocular vision. Most species have foveas which view in approximately the anterior direction, instead of in a region of binocular overlap, and many species have foveal bands which view along the horizon. Some advanced perching species, which approach their prey and other odonates from below, have an additional vertical foveal band that views along a vertical plane from the anterior direction to a more dorsal direction. The most unusual foveal band is seen in active flying species. The large dorsal ommatidia of the migratory Anax junius, which cover approximately one third of the eye surface, view a narrow region of the visual field that extends along a plane from the most lateral direction of one eye to a dorsal direction, and continues without interruption to the most lateral direction of the other eye.

  2. Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). IV. Development of the adult compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Sherk, T E

    1978-02-01

    The changes in the directions of view of marked larval ommatidia were observed after the emergence of the adult. Those ommatidia that had been present during the first larval instar had the most posterior directions of view in the adult visual field while the newest ommatidia that had not been functional for vision in the aquatic larva contributed to the anterior and dorsal foveas of the aerial adults. The changes in interommatidial angles at emergence are discussed. Contrary to the general trend for interommatidial angles between retained larval ommatidia to decrease at emergence, the interommatidial angles in the larval fovea of aeshnid visual predators increase at emergence. The modifications in an odonate compound eye at emergence are like an exaggeration of the modifications that occur at the moult from one larval instar to the next, except that the newest ommatidia do not have any compromises in their design for use in the aquatic vision of the larvae. This is in contrast to the ommatidia retained from the earliest larval instars which have to have the most compromises in their design so that they can be adapted for the visual requirements of every larval instar, as well as the adult. This is discussed in relation to the trend among advanced species of odonates to replace the larval ommatidia by an entirely new set of adult ommatidia.

  3. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  4. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  5. Bio-inspired hemispherical compound eye camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-03-01

    Compound eyes in arthropods demonstrate distinct imaging characteristics from human eyes, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. Artificial imaging systems with similar geometries and properties are of great interest for many applications. However, the challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts cannot be met through established planar sensor technologies and conventional optics. We present our recent progress in combining optics, materials, mechanics and integration schemes to build fully functional artificial compound eye cameras. Nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees) with densely packed artificial ommatidia were realized. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, which were fabricated in the planar geometries and then integrated and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  6. Micro-optical artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Duparré, J W; Wippermann, F C

    2006-03-01

    Natural compound eyes combine small eye volumes with a large field of view at the cost of comparatively low spatial resolution. For small invertebrates such as flies or moths, compound eyes are the perfectly adapted solution to obtaining sufficient visual information about their environment without overloading their brains with the necessary image processing. However, to date little effort has been made to adopt this principle in optics. Classical imaging always had its archetype in natural single aperture eyes which, for example, human vision is based on. But a high-resolution image is not always required. Often the focus is on very compact, robust and cheap vision systems. The main question is consequently: what is the better approach for extremely miniaturized imaging systems-just scaling of classical lens designs or being inspired by alternative imaging principles evolved by nature in the case of small insects? In this paper, it is shown that such optical systems can be achieved using state-of-the-art micro-optics technology. This enables the generation of highly precise and uniform microlens arrays and their accurate alignment to the subsequent optics-, spacing- and optoelectronics structures. The results are thin, simple and monolithic imaging devices with a high accuracy of photolithography. Two different artificial compound eye concepts for compact vision systems have been investigated in detail: the artificial apposition compound eye and the cluster eye. Novel optical design methods and characterization tools were developed to allow the layout and experimental testing of the planar micro-optical imaging systems, which were fabricated for the first time by micro-optics technology. The artificial apposition compound eye can be considered as a simple imaging optical sensor while the cluster eye is capable of becoming a valid alternative to classical bulk objectives but is much more complex than the first system.

  7. Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery En Español What kinds of anesthesia are available for adults having eye surgery? A “general”, “local”, or “topical” anesthesia is ...

  8. Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi

    2015-12-01

    In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.

  9. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Mann, Shivani N.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases. PMID:23843879

  10. An artificial compound eye of photon Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenbo; Hu, Song; He, Yu; Bu, Yun

    2015-11-01

    The compound eye of insects has numerous extraordinary optical performances, such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view, and high sensitivity to the incidence light. Inspired by these unique performances, we present a novel artificial compound eye of photon sieves in this paper, where the photon sieves play the roles of insects' ommatidia. These photon sieves have the same focal length. The incidence light can be focused into the same focal plane and produce the superposition effect, the utilization ratio of energy can be largely improved. Through the numerical simulation, the results show that this novel structure has similar focusing performance with the conventional photon sieves, but has higher utilization ratio of energy and wider angle field of view than that of the conventional photon sieves. Our findings provide a new direction for optics and biology researchers, which will be beneficial for medical imaging, astronomy, etc.

  11. Escaping compound eye ancestry: the evolution of single-chamber eyes in holometabolous larvae.

    PubMed

    Buschbeck, Elke K

    2014-08-15

    Stemmata, the eyes of holometabolous insect larvae, have gained little attention, even though they exhibit remarkably different optical solutions, ranging from compound eyes with upright images, to sophisticated single-chamber eyes with inverted images. Such optical differences raise the question of how major transitions may have occurred. Stemmata evolved from compound eye ancestry, and optical differences are apparent even in some of the simplest systems that share strong cellular homology with adult ommatidia. The transition to sophisticated single-chamber eyes occurred many times independently, and in at least two different ways: through the fusion of many ommatidia [as in the sawfly (Hymenoptera)], and through the expansion of single ommatidia [as in tiger beetles (Coleoptera), antlions (Neuroptera) and dobsonflies (Megaloptera)]. Although ommatidia-like units frequently have multiple photoreceptor layers (tiers), sophisticated image-forming stemmata tend to only have one photoreceptor tier, presumably a consequence of the lens only being able to efficiently focus light on to one photoreceptor layer. An interesting exception is found in some diving beetles [Dytiscidae (Coleoptera)], in which two retinas receive sharp images from a bifocal lens. Taken together, stemmata represent a great model system to study an impressive set of optical solutions that evolved from a relatively simple ancestral organization.

  12. Differential scaling within an insect compound eye.

    PubMed

    Perl, Craig D; Niven, Jeremy E

    2016-03-01

    Environmental and genetic influences cause individuals of a species to differ in size. As they do so, organ size and shape are scaled to available resources whilst maintaining function. The scaling of entire organs has been investigated extensively but scaling within organs remains poorly understood. By making use of the structure of the insect compound eye, we show that different regions of an organ can respond differentially to changes in body size. Wood ant (Formica rufa) compound eyes contain facets of different diameters in different regions. When the animal body size changes, lens diameters from different regions can increase or decrease in size either at the same rate (a 'grade' shift) or at different rates (a 'slope' shift). These options are not mutually exclusive, and we demonstrate that both types of scaling apply to different regions of the same eye. This demonstrates that different regions within a single organ can use different rules to govern their scaling, responding differently to their developmental environment. Thus, the control of scaling is more nuanced than previously appreciated, diverse responses occurring even among homologous cells within a single organ. Such fine control provides a rich substrate for the diversification of organ morphology.

  13. An artificial compound eye for stereoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Szema, R; Rastegar, J; Lee, L

    2004-01-01

    A scanning endoscope has been designed with the ability to both project three-dimensional images and provide precise measurements of internal structures. This is beneficial for minimally invasive surgery, where surgeons suffer from a lack of depth perception, limited field of view, and the absence of a reference frame for dimensional measurements. Borrowing from the insect compound eye, the design uses an array of prisms, each facing a different direction but with overlapping fields of view. The prisms redirect their respective images normal to a fibre optic imaging plane and are individually controlled by electro-chromic shutters. The device thereby retains the ability to scan in multiple directions without mechanical parts and uses only a single camera. Comparison of the overlapping images with known prism positions allows for the calculation of absolute coordinates. Results from large-scale models show that the technology is plausible, and fabrication methods for a smaller device are discussed.

  14. Bio-inspired Artificial Apposition Compound Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Youngmin; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John

    2014-03-01

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging system, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. We present ideas in materials, mechanics and integration schemes that enable scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras in nearly full hemispherical shapes with surfaces densely populated by imaging elements (i.e. artificial ommatidia). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, in co-integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated, to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Experimental and theoretical studies reveal key aspects of the materials science and physics of these systems. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing based modeling illustrate essential features of their operation.

  15. Applications of compound eye configurations to smart sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. H.

    1985-02-01

    The application of compound eyes to the design of smart sensors is reviewed. Special attention is given to features of this class of eyes which might be of particular advantage in these applications. It was found that the compound eyes are much more compact than the human eye. It appears that apposition compound eyes are not very promising for application to smart sensors because of their inherent low resolution and sensitivity. The superposition compound eyes might be of more interest if high quality gradient index lens arrays could be obtained in sufficient quality. It does not appear that this is now the case. Some features of insect eyes such as the corneal nipples, and tracheole layer might definitely be of some value in systems design. The present state of knowledge of compound eyes is far from complete. The true functional operation of the clear zone eyes is not a matter of total agreement between all biologists. Several specific suggestions are made for the application of features from compound eyes to smart sensor systems.

  16. Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). II. Development of the larval compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Sherk, T E

    1978-01-01

    The development of the compound eye was analyzed by marking individual ommatidia and by studying naturally occurring pigment band patterns. New ommatidia are added to the eye along its anterior margin. This changes the directions of view of the older ommatidia with the greatest change occurring in the fovea. New ommatidia are added to the fovea medially, and old ones are removed laterally as their interommatidial angles and directions of view in the visual field change. Over one-third of the aeshnid ommatidia are foveal during at least one of the early larval instars, and are then used for peripheral vision later in development. The design of each ommatidium is a compromise so that it is adapted for all stages of development, but sometimes better adapted for one instar than for others. Factors which are balanced for best vision are lens diameter, facet admission function, interommatidial angle, and inclination of the optic axis to the eye surface. Ommatidia are described in terms of these factors throughout their life history, from initial differentiation anteriorly, through passage through the fovea, to their final relatively posterior location.

  17. Distribution of circadian photoreceptors in the compound eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, K; Okada, Y; Chiba, Y

    1990-01-01

    Adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) show a nocturnal circadian locomotor rhythm, which is driven by the pacemaker in the optic lamina-medulla complex and synchronizes to the light-dark (LD) cycle received by the compound eye. To see whether there was any specially differentiated circadian photoreceptor area in the eye, we examined the effect of a partial reduction of various areas of the compound eye, in addition to a removal of the contralateral optic lamina-medulla-compound eye complex, on entrainability of the locomotor rhythm. All operated animals showed a response to the LD cycle in their locomotor rhythm, no matter which area of the eye was left intact: They either stably entrained to an LD cycle or showed a sign of weak entrainment. The capacity for stable entrainment was still retained when only 262 ommatidia were left. Transient cycles needed for re-entrainment, following a 6-hr phase advance of the LD cycle, were measured in 20 reduced-eye animals showing clear stable entrainment. They were in inverse proportion to the number of ommatidia in the reduced eye: The fewer ommatidia there were, the more transient cycles were observed (r = -0.76, p less than 0.001). These results suggest that almost the whole area of the compound eye may contain circadian photoreceptors, and that the photic information from each ommatidium may additively affect the circadian clock to entrain via neural integration mechanisms.

  18. Light emission from compound eye with conformal fluorescent coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Miller, Amy E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    Compound eyes of insects are attractive biological systems for engineered biomimicry as artificial sources of light, given their characteristic wide angular field of view. A blowfly eye was coated with a thin conformal fluorescent film, with the aim of achieving wide field-of-view emission. Experimental results showed that the coated eye emitted visible light and that the intensity showed a weaker angular dependence than a fluorescent thin film deposited on a flat surface.

  19. The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Brigitte

    2013-01-14

    Among the oldest fossil crustaceans are those of the Late Cambrian (Furongian 499 ± 0.3-488.3 ± 1.7 Ma) of Västergötland, central Sweden and the lower Ordovician (Tremadocian 488.3 and 478.6 Ma) of the island of Őland. These are three-dimensionally preserved in nodules from the so called 'stinkstone' ('Orsten') limestone. 'Orsten'-like fossils represent tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline. As a result of phosphatisation, hairs, bristles and even cellular structures up to 0.3 μm are preserved (Walossek, 1993), especially compound eyes, as typical for all visually orientated crustaceans (Schoenemann et al., 2011). We show a miniscule prototype of a compound eye (∼40 μm) in a small crustacean, which lived almost half a billion years ago. The eye is close to but comfortably established above being limited in its resolving power by diffraction, but it is too small to be an apposition eye, normally regarded as the basal form of all compound eyes, as is found in bees, dragonflies, crustaceans and many other arthropods still living today. The facets of this compound eye are ∼8 μm in size, the surface structure indicates the relicts of a tiny lens covering each facet. In order to work functionally and to ensure that that diffraction and waveguide problems were avoided, it seems reasonable to suppose that the compound eye consisted of visual units, each with a single photoreceptor cell directly below a weak lens for capturing and slightly focusing the light. The entire unit has a diameter similar to that of a normal sensory cell as found in compound eyes. Thus, the early compound eye analysed here may be interpreted as a prototype representing the earliest stages of the evolution of crustacean compound eyes.

  20. Recent developments on dry eye disease treatment compounds

    PubMed Central

    Colligris, Basilio; Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Pintor, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common tears and ocular surface multifactorial disease, described by changes in the ocular surface epithelia related to reduced tears quantity and ocular surface sensitivity, leading to inflammatory reaction. Managing the eye inflammation proved helpful to patients with dry eye disease and current treatment is based on the use of topically applied artificial tear products/lubricants, tear retention management, stimulation of tear secretion and using anti-inflammatory drugs. In this article we revise the corresponding literature and patents assembling the new treatment approaches of novel and future pharmaceutical compounds destined for the dry eye disease treatment. The most frequent categories of compounds presented are secretagogues and anti-inflammatory drugs. These compounds are the research outcome of novel therapeutic strategies designed to reduce key inflammatory pathways and restore healthy tear film. PMID:24526854

  1. Variation in compound eye structure: effects of diet and family.

    PubMed

    Merry, Justin W; Kemp, Darrell J; Rutowski, Ronald L

    2011-07-01

    Studies of compound eyes have revealed that variation in eye structure can substantially affect visual performance. Here, we investigate the degree to which a stressful rearing environment, which decreases body size, affects the eye phenotype. Full siblings of the Orange Sulphur butterfly, Colias eurytheme, were collected from known parents and split within families among two diet treatments that varied in quality. In both sexes, individuals reared on the high-quality diet had larger eye height and anterior facet diameter, and therefore, by inference, superior vision. However, relative to their reduced body size, individuals reared on low-quality diet had proportionally larger eyes and facets than individuals reared on high-quality diet. We interpret this finding as evidence that butterflies encountering nutritional stress increased proportional investment in eye development to reduce loss of visual performance. We also found significant broad-sense genetic variation underlying eye structure in both males and females, and report novel heritability estimates for eye height and facet diameter. Surprisingly, there was greater genetic variation in eye height among males than among females, despite apparently stronger directional selection on male vision. We discuss the implications of these data for our understanding of eye development and evolution.

  2. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development.

    PubMed

    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1998-06-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  3. Ultrastructure and Morphology of Compound Eyes of the Scorpionfly Panorpa dubia (Insecta: Mecoptera: Panorpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Xiao; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Mecoptera are unique in holometabolous insects in that their larvae have compound eyes. In the present study the cellular organisation and morphology of the compound eyes of adult individuals of the scorpionfly Panorpa dubia in Mecoptera were investigated by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the compound eyes of adult P. dubia are of the apposition type, each eye comprising more than 1200 ommatidia. The ommatidium consists of a cornea, a crystalline cone made up of four cone cells, eight photoreceptors, two primary pigment cells, and 18 secondary pigment cells. The adult ommatidium has a fused rhabdom with eight photoreceptors. Seven photoreceptors extend from the proximal end of the crystalline cone to the basal matrix, whereas the eighth photoreceptor is shorter, extending from the middle level of the photoreceptor cluster to the basal matrix. The fused rhabdom is composed of the rhabdomeres of different photoreceptors at different levels. The adult ommatidia have the same cellular components as the larval ommatidia, but the tiering scheme is different. PMID:27258365

  4. An artificial compound eye system for large field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Lifang; Shi, Ruiying; Dong, Xiaochun; Deng, Qiling; Du, Chunlei

    2012-11-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, optical imaging system has been widely used, and the performance requirements are getting higher and higher such as lighter weight, smaller size, larger field of view and more sensitive to the moving targets. With the advantages of large field of view, high agility and multi-channels, compound eye is more and more concerned by academia and industry. In this work, an artificial spherical compound eye imaging system is proposed, which is formed by several mini cameras to get a large field of view. By analyzing the relationship of the view field between every single camera and the whole system, the geometric arrangement of cameras is studied and the compound eye structure is designed. By using the precision machining technology, the system can be manufactured. To verify the performance of this system, experiments were carried out, where the compound eye was formed by seven mini cameras which were placed centripetally along a spherical surface so that each camera points in a different direction. Pictures taken by these cameras were mosaiced into a complete image with large field of view. The results of the experiments prove the validity of the design method and the fabrication technology. By increasing the number of the cameras, larger view field even panoramic imaging can be realized by using this artificial compound eye.

  5. Compound eye formation in the termite Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Rose, Taylor C; Ediger, Emily F; Lehman-Schletewitz, Joy; McClane, Nathan W; Schweigert, Kristen C; Alzweideh, Saif; Wadsworth, Lauren; Husseneder, Claudia; Morris, Joshua W; Ziesmann, Jurgen

    2015-07-01

    The postembryonic development and caste differentiation patterns of lower termites have been described multiple times in a variety of different species. However, most of these studies focused on gross ontogeny, without carefully describing the maturation of any particular organ or organ system. The few studies that have attempted to correlate caste development and organ differentiation have produced somewhat inconsistent results, especially in the area of eye formation. Therefore, in order to help further elucidate the relationship between eye formation and postembryonic differentiation in lower termites, we studied eye development in the termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Eye formation in I. minor began in the earliest larvae, with only an eye primordium. However, in all later larval stages, characteristic eye structures were observed and were shown to progressively differentiate through larval and nymphal stages. Curiously, pigmentation began with three to eight groups of cells in early larvae and the number of these pigmented groups increased along the developmental time course. Ultimately, a uniformly pigmented eye area was formed by the early nymphal stage. The overall eye area also gradually increased along with normal caste development, but the characteristic lenses seen in a prototypical insect compound eye did not completely form until after the final nymphal stage. Electrophysiological measurements provided clear evidence that eyes were indeed functional at all stages of development where pigment was present. Based upon this data, the eye development pattern in I. minor appeared to follow a divergent pathway from holometabolous insects and an intermediate pathway between typical hemimetabolous eye development and the heterochronic shift observed in other termite species.

  6. Curved artificial compound-eyes for autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitel, Robert; Brückner, Andreas; Buß, Wolfgang; Viollet, Stéphane; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Mallot, Hanspeter; Bräuer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Natural compound-eyes consist of a large number of ommatidia that are arranged on curved surfaces and thus are able to detect signals from a wide field of view. We present an integrated artificial compound-eye sensor system with enhanced field of view of 180° × 60° due to the introduction of curvature. The system bases on an array of adaptive logarithmic wide-dynamic-range photoreceptors for optical flow detection and compound-eye optics for increasing sensitivity and expanding the field of view. Its assembling is mainly done in planar geometry on a flexible printed circuit board. The separation into smaller ommatidia blocks by dicing enables flexibility and finally allows for mounting on curved surfaces. The signal processing electronics of the presented system is placed together with further sensors into the concavity of the photoreceptor array, and facilitates optical flow computation for navigation purposes.

  7. Functional genomics identifies regulators of the phototransduction machinery in the Drosophila larval eye and adult ocelli.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek Kumar; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Tsachaki, Maria; Fritsch, Cornelia; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory perception of light is mediated by specialized Photoreceptor neurons (PRs) in the eye. During development all PRs are genetically determined to express a specific Rhodopsin (Rh) gene and genes mediating a functional phototransduction pathway. While the genetic and molecular mechanisms of PR development is well described in the adult compound eye, it remains unclear how the expression of Rhodopsins and the phototransduction cascade is regulated in other visual organs in Drosophila, such as the larval eye and adult ocelli. Using transcriptome analysis of larval PR-subtypes and ocellar PRs we identify and study new regulators required during PR differentiation or necessary for the expression of specific signaling molecules of the functional phototransduction pathway. We found that the transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) is enriched in the larval eye and controls PR differentiation by promoting Rh5 and Rh6 expression. We also identified Camta, Lola, Dve and Hazy as key genes acting during ocellar PR differentiation. Further we show that these transcriptional regulators control gene expression of the phototransduction cascade in both larval eye and adult ocelli. Our results show that PR cell type-specific transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool to identify key transcriptional regulators involved during several aspects of PR development and differentiation. Our findings greatly contribute to the understanding of how combinatorial action of key transcriptional regulators control PR development and the regulation of a functional phototransduction pathway in both larval eye and adult ocelli.

  8. Chemical impurity produces extra compound eyes and heads in crickets

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1981-04-03

    A chemical impurity isolated from commercially purchased acridine causes cricket embryos to develop extra compound eyes, branched antennae, extra antennae, and extra heads. Purified acridine does not produce similar duplications of cricket heads or head structures nor do the substituted acridines proflavine, acriflavine, or acridine orange. A dose-response relation exists such that the number and severity of abnormalities increase with increasing concentration of the teratogen.

  9. Characteristics of corneal lens chitin in dragonfly compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Sargin, Idris; Al-Jaf, Ivan; Erdogan, Sevil; Arslan, Gulsin

    2016-08-01

    Chitin in the compound eyes of arthropods serves as a part of the visual system. The quality of chitin in such highly specialised body parts deserves more detailed examination. Chitin in the corneal (ommatidial) lenses of dragonfly (Sympetrum fonscolombii) compound eyes was isolated by using the classical chemical method. The chitin content of the corneal lenses was determined to be quite high (20.3±0.85%). The FT-IR analysis showed that corneal lens chitin was in the α-form as found in all arthropod species where mechanical strength is required. The surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the outer part of corneal lenses consisted of long chitin fibrils with regular arrays of papillary structures while the smoother inner part had concentric lamellated chitin formation with shorter chitin nanofibrils. Chitinase enzymatic digestion studies, elemental analysis results and the degree of acetylation value showed the purity of chitin samples from corneal lens. The maximum degradation temperature value of the corneal lens chitin was observed at 369.2°C. X-ray analysis revealed that corneal lens chitin has high crystallinity index; 96.4%. Identification of chitin found in ommaditia of insect compound eyes can provide insights into insect vision and chitin-based optical material design studies.

  10. Patterning of a compound eye on an extinct dipteran wing.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, April; Rachootin, Stan

    2011-04-23

    We have discovered unexpected similarities between a novel and characteristic wing organ in an extinct biting midge from Baltic amber, Eohelea petrunkevitchi, and the surface of a dipteran's compound eye. Scanning electron microscope images now reveal vestigial mechanoreceptors between the facets of the organ. We interpret Eohelea's wing organ as the blending of these two developmental systems: the formation and patterning of the cuticle in the eye and of the wing. Typically, only females in the genus carry this distinctive, highly organized structure. Two species were studied (E. petrunkevitchi and E. sinuosa), and the structure differs in form between them. We examine Eohelea's wing structures for modes of fabrication, material properties and biological functions, and the effective ecological environment in which these midges lived. We argue that the current view of the wing organ's function in stridulation has been misconstrued since it was described half a century ago.

  11. Lenses matching of compound eye for target positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fang; Zheng, Yan Pei; Wang, Keyi

    2012-10-01

    Compound eye, as a new imaging method with multi-lens for a large field of view, could complete target positioning and detection fastly, especially at close range. Therefore it could be applicated in the fields of military and medical treatment and aviation with vast market potential and development prospect. Yet the compound eye imaging method designed use three layer construction of multiple lens array arranged in a curved surface and refractive lens and imaging sensor of CMOS. In order to simplify process structure and increase the imaging area of every sub-eye, the imaging area of every eye is coved with the whole CMOS. Therefore, for several imaging point of one target, the corresponding lens of every imaging point is unkonown, and thus to identify. So an algorithm was put forward. Firstly, according to the Regular Geometry relationship of several adjacent lenses, data organization of seven lenses with a main lens was built. Subsequently, by the data organization, when one target was caught by several unknown lenses, we search every combined type of the received lenses. And for every combined type, two lenses were selected to combine and were used to calculate one three-dimensional (3D) coordinate of the target. If the 3D coordinates are same to the some combine type of the lenses numbers, in theory, the lenses and the imaging points are matched. So according to error of the 3D coordinates is calculated by the different seven lenses numbers combines, the unknown lenses could be distinguished. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is feasible and can complete matching task for imaging points and corresponding lenses.

  12. Diurnal and circadian rhythm in compound eye of cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus): changes in structure and photon capture efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sakura, Midori; Takasuga, Kyo; Watanabe, Mami; Eguchi, Eisuke

    2003-07-01

    Day-night changes in rhabdom size of compound eyes were investigated in three groups of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus): nymphs and adult males and females. In both adults and nymphs, the rhabdoms were larger at night than during a day. In adults, the mean rhabdom occupation ratios (RORs) of ommatidial retinulae at midnight were about two times greater than the values at midday. This change contributes to control of the photon capture efficiency (PCE) of the eye according to photic environment. The RORs of adult males at midnight were higher than those of both adult females and nymphs. This suggests that the PCE of the compound eye of adult males is the greatest of all groups. Under constant darkness, day-night changes in ROR were detected only in adult males, but neither in adult females nor in nymphs. On the other hand, no day-night changes were detected in any experimental group under constant light. These results suggest that the change in rhabdom size between day and night is an adaptation to the photic environment that is controlled mainly by the light-dark (day-night) cycle. However, the change in male adults is induced by an endogenous circadian clock.

  13. The compound eye in the opaque-eye phenotype of Drosophilia melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Youssef, N N; Gardner, E J

    1975-01-01

    The compound eye of the opaque-eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated by means of electron microscopy to determine the morphological and physical properties of ommatidial elements. These elements in the mutant were found to differ from those of the wild-type flies in the following ways: (1) The cuticular lens was thinner than that of the control and lacked the typical lamellar construction. (2) The Semper cells were irregular in shape and contained many membranous inclusions similar to those found in degenerating cells; also their nuclei contained virus-like particles. (3) The primary pigment cells contained an abundance of drosopterin-containing granules which were lacking in those of wild-type flies. (4) The superior and inferior central photoreceptor cells were misplaced and their rhabdomeres evidenced some degeneration. (5) The secondary pigment cells had only one type of pigment granules instead of the three types found in the control. These morphological changes in ommatidial elements induced physical abnormalities such as the apparent opaqueness of the eye, the lack of a pseudopupil, the probable disability of the photoreceptor cells to respond to light and the inability of the dioptric system to produce utilizable geometric images.

  14. An apposition-like compound eye with a layered rhabdom in the small diving beetle Agabus japonicus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei-Po; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The fine structure of the compound eyes of the adult diving beetle Agabus japonicus is described with light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The eye of A. japonicus is mango-shaped and consists of about 985 ommatidia. Each ommatidium is composed of a corneal facet lens, an eucone type of crystalline cone, a fused layered rhabdom with a basal rhabdomere, seven retinula cells (including six distal cells and one basal cell), two primary pigment cells and an undetermined number of secondary pigment cells that are restricted to the distalmost region of the eye. A clear-zone, separating dioptric apparatus from photoreceptive structures, is not developed and the eye thus resembles an apposition eye. The cross-sectional areas of the rhabdoms are relatively large indicative of enhanced light-sensitivity. The distal and central region of the rhabdom is layered with interdigitating microvilli suggesting polarization sensitivity. According to the features mentioned above, we suggest that 1) the eye, seemingly of the apposition type, occurs in a taxon for which the clear-zone (superposition) eye is characteristic; 2) the eye possesses adaptations to function in a dim-light environment; 3) the eye may be sensitive to underwater polarized light or linearly water-reflected polarized light.

  15. Experience with compound words influences their processing: An eye movement investigation with English compound words.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Barbara J

    2016-11-14

    Recording eye movements provides information on the time-course of word recognition during reading. Juhasz and Rayner [Juhasz, B. J., & Rayner, K. (2003). Investigating the effects of a set of intercorrelated variables on eye fixation durations in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 29, 1312-1318] examined the impact of five word recognition variables, including familiarity and age-of-acquisition (AoA), on fixation durations. All variables impacted fixation durations, but the time-course differed. However, the study focused on relatively short, morphologically simple words. Eye movements are also informative for examining the processing of morphologically complex words such as compound words. The present study further examined the time-course of lexical and semantic variables during morphological processing. A total of 120 English compound words that varied in familiarity, AoA, semantic transparency, lexeme meaning dominance, sensory experience rating (SER), and imageability were selected. The impact of these variables on fixation durations was examined when length, word frequency, and lexeme frequencies were controlled in a regression model. The most robust effects were found for familiarity and AoA, indicating that a reader's experience with compound words significantly impacts compound recognition. These results provide insight into semantic processing of morphologically complex words during reading.

  16. Slow slide servo turning of compound eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Fang, Fengzhou; Yu, LinHui; Jiang, Lili; Guo, Yuewu

    2013-02-01

    Compound eye lens (CEL) is expected to be applied in high-speed object tracking and depth perception. However, it is difficult to fabricate CEL due to the complex shape and structure. We study its mathematic and optical model. Based on the established model, a grid machining method is proposed for the fabrication of a CEL mold. To avoid the shape distortion caused by tool un-alignment, the off-centering machining configuration is proposed, which is also proved to improve the form accuracy. CEL is machined finally by molding technologies using the fabricated mold to avoid the tool interference. Experiments have been implemented to verify the design and fabrication method. The shape accuracy evaluation and optical testing are conducted to prove that the proposed method can be applied well for the machining of CEL.

  17. Absence of rapid eye movements during sleep in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Árnason, B B; Þorsteinsson, H; Karlsson, K Æ

    2015-09-15

    Sleep is not a uniform phenomenon, but is organized in alternating, fundamentally different states, rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have recently emerged as an excellent model for sleep research. Zebrafish are well characterized in terms of development, neurobiology and genetics. Moreover, there are many experimental tools not easily applied in mammalian models that can be readily applied to zebrafish, making them a valuable additional animal model for sleep research. Sleep in zebrafish is defined behaviorally and exhibits the hallmarks of mammalian sleep (e.g. sleep homeostasis and pressure). To our knowledge no attempts have been made to discern if sleep in zebrafish entails alternations of REM-NREM sleep cycles which are critical for further development of the model. In the current experiment we quantify two key REM sleep components, rapid eye movements and respiratory rates, across sleep-wake cycles. We find no sleep-related rapid eye movements. During sleep respiratory rates, however, are reduced and become less regular, further establishing that the behavioral definition used truly captures a change in the fish's physiology. We thus fail to find evidence for REM-NREM sleep cycles in zebrafish but demonstrate a physiological change that occurs concomitantly with the previously defined behavioral state of sleep. We do not rule out that other phasic REM components (e.g. atonia, cardiac arrhythmias, myoclonic twitches or desynchronized EEG) are coherently expressed during sleep but we conclude that adult zebrafish do not have REM-sleep-related rapid eye movements.

  18. Development of a 3D artificial compound eye.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yi, Allen Y

    2010-08-16

    In this research paper, in a major departure from conventional 2D micromachining processes, design and fabrication of a 3D compound eye system consisting of a 3D microprism array, an aperture array, and a microlens array were investigated. Specifically, the 3D microprism array on a curved surface was designed to steer the incident light from all three dimensions to a 2D plane for image formation. For each microprism, there is a corresponding microlens to focus the refracted light on the image plane. An aperture array was also implemented between the microprism array and the microlens array to eliminate cross-talk among the neighboring channels. In this system, 601 individual micro-assemblies consisting of microprisms and microlenses were constructed in a 20 mm diameter area. In this configuration, the maximum light deviation angle was determined to be 18.43 degrees. This research demonstrated an innovative and integrated approach to fabricating true 3D micro and meso scale optical structures. This work also validated the feasibility of using ultraprecision machining process for 3D microoptical device fabrication. The technology demonstrated in this research has high potentials in optical sensing, vision research and many other optical and photonic applications.

  19. Evaluation of a compound eye type tactile endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Sasaki, Nagisa; Takeda, Maki; Shimizu, Sachiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Ohno, Yuko

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques for endoscope become widely used, for example, laparoscopic operation, NOTES (Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery), robotic surgery and so on. There are so many demand and needs for endoscopic diagnosis. Especially, palpation is most important diagnosis on any surgery. However, conventional endoscopic system has no tactile sensibility. There are many studies about tactile sensor for medical application. These sensors can measure object at a point. It is necessary to sense in areas for palpation. To overcome this problem, we propose compound eye type tactile endoscope. The proposed system consists of TOMBO (Thin Observation Module by Bound Optics) and clear silicon rubber. Our proposed system can estimate hardness of target object by measuring deformation of a projected pattern on the silicon rubber. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the proposed system. At first, we introduce approximated models of the silicone and the object. We formulate the stiffness of object, the deformation of silicone, and the whole object. We investigate the accuracy of measured silicone's lower surface for deformation of silicone by prototype system. Finally, we evaluate the calculated stiffness of the soft object.

  20. Improvement on object detection accuracy by using two compound eye systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mengchao; Wang, Keyi

    2014-09-01

    Compound eye is a multiple apertures imaging device, indicates that it can be applied for three-dimensional object detection. In our previous report, an artificial compound eye system was developed for 3D object detection. The system consists of a layer of plano-convex microlenses and a prism-like beam steering lens. An innovative multi-position calibration method is developed to relate the incident light rays and the relevant image points. Theoretically, one compound eye system alone is capable of 3D objects detection. However, the detection accuracy is limited due to the relatively small baseline between the adjacent microlenses. In this work, an equivalent large baseline is obtained by using a two compound eyes system. Preliminary experiments were performed to verify the improvement on the accuracy of 3D object detection. The experimental results with two compound eyes are compared with that obtained by only one compound eye. Experimental results show that the system with two compound eyes can detect an object much more accurately, indicating the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method.

  1. Computational multi-dimensional imaging based on compound-eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horisaki, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Tomoya; Tanida, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Artificial compound-eye optics have been used for three-dimensional information acquisition and display. It also enables us to realize a diversity of coded imaging process in each elemental optics. In this talk, we introduce our single-shot compound-eye imaging system to observe multi-dimensional information including depth, spectrum, and polarization based on compressive sensing. Furthermore it is applicable to increase the dynamic range and field-of-view. We also demonstrate an extended depth-of-field (DOF) cameras based on compound-eye optics. These extended DOF cameras physically or computationally implement phase modulations to increase the focusing range.

  2. Penetration of new azole compounds into the eye and efficacy in experimental Candida endophthalmitis.

    PubMed Central

    Savani, D V; Perfect, J R; Cobo, L M; Durack, D T

    1987-01-01

    We studied the penetration of three azole compounds, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole, into the ocular tissues and fluids of rabbits in the presence and absence of ocular inflammation. Drug concentrations were compared with those found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The rank order of penetration into eye tissue was fluconazole greater than ketoconazole greater than itraconazole. Fluconazole penetrated freely into both inflamed and uninflamed eyes. The presence of inflammation improved penetration of all three compounds into ocular fluids and tissues. Penetration of these azoles into the anterior chamber of uninflamed eyes and into the cerebrospinal fluid was similar. All three azole compounds reduced the number of yeasts found in the eye in hematogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis in rabbits when therapy was initiated within 24 h of inoculation. However, only ketoconazole significantly reduced yeast counts in the eye when therapy was postponed for 7 days. PMID:3032091

  3. Effects of unilateral compound-eye removal on the photoperiodic responses of nymphal development in the cricket Modicogryllus siamensis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    The cricket, Modicogryllus siamensis, shows clear photoperiodic responses at 25 degrees C in nymphal development. Under long-day conditions (LD16:8), nymphs became adults about 50 days after hatching, while under short-day conditions (LD8:16) the duration of nymphal stage extended to more than 130 days. Under constant dark conditions, two developmental patterns were observed: about 60% of crickets became adults slightly slower than under the long-day conditions, and the rest at later than 100 days after hatching, like those under the short-day conditions. When the compound eye was unilaterally removed on the 2nd day of hatching, an increase of molting and an extension of the nymphal period were observed under the long-day conditions, while under the short-day conditions, some crickets developed faster and others slower than intact crickets. These results suggest that this cricket receives photoperiodic information through the compound eye, that a pair of the compound eyes is required for a complete photoperiodic response, and that interaction between bilateral circadian clocks may be also involved in the response.

  4. The Processing of Compound Words in English: Effects of Word Length on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigated morphological processing in English using bilexemic compound words. Long and short compound words were presented in neutral sentences and eye movements were recorded while participants read the sentences to investigate the time course of compound word recognition. In Experiment 1, the frequency of…

  5. Colony-Level Differences in the Scaling Rules Governing Wood Ant Compound Eye Structure

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Craig D.; Niven, Jeremy E.

    2016-01-01

    Differential organ growth during development is essential for adults to maintain the correct proportions and achieve their characteristic shape. Organs scale with body size, a process known as allometry that has been studied extensively in a range of organisms. Such scaling rules, typically studied from a limited sample, are assumed to apply to all members of a population and/or species. Here we study scaling in the compound eyes of workers of the wood ant, Formica rufa, from different colonies within a single population. Workers’ eye area increased with body size in all the colonies showing a negative allometry. However, both the slope and intercept of some allometric scaling relationships differed significantly among colonies. Moreover, though mean facet diameter and facet number increased with body size, some colonies primarily increased facet number whereas others increased facet diameter, showing that the cellular level processes underlying organ scaling differed among colonies. Thus, the rules that govern scaling at the organ and cellular levels can differ even within a single population. PMID:27068571

  6. Development of a low cost high precision three-layer 3D artificial compound eye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Lei; McCray, David L; Scheiding, Sebastian; Naples, Neil J; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas; Yi, Allen Y

    2013-09-23

    Artificial compound eyes are typically designed on planar substrates due to the limits of current imaging devices and available manufacturing processes. In this study, a high precision, low cost, three-layer 3D artificial compound eye consisting of a 3D microlens array, a freeform lens array, and a field lens array was constructed to mimic an apposition compound eye on a curved substrate. The freeform microlens array was manufactured on a curved substrate to alter incident light beams and steer their respective images onto a flat image plane. The optical design was performed using ZEMAX. The optical simulation shows that the artificial compound eye can form multiple images with aberrations below 11 μm; adequate for many imaging applications. Both the freeform lens array and the field lens array were manufactured using microinjection molding process to reduce cost. Aluminum mold inserts were diamond machined by the slow tool servo method. The performance of the compound eye was tested using a home-built optical setup. The images captured demonstrate that the proposed structures can successfully steer images from a curved surface onto a planar photoreceptor. Experimental results show that the compound eye in this research has a field of view of 87°. In addition, images formed by multiple channels were found to be evenly distributed on the flat photoreceptor. Additionally, overlapping views of the adjacent channels allow higher resolution images to be re-constructed from multiple 3D images taken simultaneously.

  7. Shared and distinct mechanisms of atonal regulation in Drosophila ocelli and compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; DeSantis, Dana F; Friedrich, Markus; Pignoni, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has two types of external visual organs, a pair of compound eyes and a group of three ocelli. At the time of neurogenesis, the proneural transcription factor Atonal mediates the transition from progenitor cells to differentiating photoreceptor neurons in both organs. In the developing compound eye, atonal (ato) expression is directly induced by transcriptional regulators that confer retinal identity, the Retinal Determination (RD) factors. Little is known, however, about control of ato transcription in the ocelli. Here we show that a 2kb genomic DNA fragment contains distinct and common regulatory elements necessary for ato induction in compound eyes and ocelli. The three binding sites that mediate direct regulation by the RD factors Sine oculis and Eyeless in the compound eye are also required in the ocelli. However, in the latter, these sites mediate control by Sine oculis and the other Pax6 factor of Drosophila, Twin of eyeless, which can bind the Pax6 sites in vitro. Moreover, the three sites are differentially utilized in the ocelli: all three are similarly essential for atonal induction in the posterior ocelli, but show considerable redundancy in the anterior ocellus. Strikingly, this difference parallels the distinct control of ato transcription in the posterior and anterior progenitors of the developing compound eyes. From a comparative perspective, our findings suggest that the ocelli of arthropods may have originated through spatial partitioning from the dorsal edge of an ancestral compound eye.

  8. Angular distribution of light emission from compound-eye cornea with conformal fluorescent coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Miller, Amy E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-09-01

    The complex morphology of the apposition compound eyes of insects of many species provides them a wide angular field of view. This characteristic makes these eyes attractive for bioreplication as artificial sources of light. The cornea of a blowfly eye was conformally coated with a fluorescent thin film with the aim of achieving wide field-of-view emission. On illumination by shortwave-ultraviolet light, the conformally coated eye emitted visible light whose intensity showed a weaker angular dependence than a fluorescent thin film deposited on a flat surface.

  9. Acute vision in the giant Cambrian predator Anomalocaris and the origin of compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; García-Bellido, Diego C; Lee, Michael S Y; Brock, Glenn A; Jago, James B; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2011-12-07

    Until recently, intricate details of the optical design of non-biomineralized arthropod eyes remained elusive in Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits, despite exceptional preservation of soft-part anatomy in such Konservat-Lagerstätten. The structure and development of ommatidia in arthropod compound eyes support a single origin some time before the latest common ancestor of crown-group arthropods, but the appearance of compound eyes in the arthropod stem group has been poorly constrained in the absence of adequate fossils. Here we report 2-3-cm paired eyes from the early Cambrian (approximately 515 million years old) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, assigned to the Cambrian apex predator Anomalocaris. Their preserved visual surfaces are composed of at least 16,000 hexagonally packed ommatidial lenses (in a single eye), rivalling the most acute compound eyes in modern arthropods. The specimens show two distinct taphonomic modes, preserved as iron oxide (after pyrite) and calcium phosphate, demonstrating that disparate styles of early diagenetic mineralization can replicate the same type of extracellular tissue (that is, cuticle) within a single Burgess-Shale-type deposit. These fossils also provide compelling evidence for the arthropod affinities of anomalocaridids, push the origin of compound eyes deeper down the arthropod stem lineage, and indicate that the compound eye evolved before such features as a hardened exoskeleton. The inferred acuity of the anomalocaridid eye is consistent with other evidence that these animals were highly mobile visual predators in the water column. The existence of large, macrophagous nektonic predators possessing sharp vision--such as Anomalocaris--within the early Cambrian ecosystem probably helped to accelerate the escalatory 'arms race' that began over half a billion years ago.

  10. Replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hefu; Gong, Xianwei; Ni, Qiliang; Zhao, Jingli; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Taisheng; Yu, Weixing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we report the replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose. In the replication, soft lithography method was employed to replicate the compound eye of a fruit fly into a UV-curable polymer. The method was demonstrated to be effective and the compound eye is replicated into the polymer (NOA78) where each ommatidium has a diameter of about 30 μm and a sag height of about 7 μm. To characterize its optical property, the point spread function of the compound eye was tested and a NA of 0.386 has been obtained for the replicated polymeric ommatidium. Comparing with the NA of a real fruit fly ommatidium which was measured to be about 0.212, the replicated polymeric ommatidium has a much larger NA due to the refractive index of NOA78 is much higher than that of the material used to form the real fruit fly ommatidium. Furthermore, the replicated compound eye was used to image a photomask patterned with grating structures to test its imaging property. It is shown that the grating with a line width of 20 μm can be clearly imaged. The image of the grating formed by the replicated compound eye was shrunk by about 10 times and therefore a line width of about 2.2 μm in the image plane has been obtained, which is close to the diffraction limited resolution calculated through the measured NA. In summary, the replication method demonstrated is effective and the replicated compound eye has the great potential in optical imaging.

  11. Replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hefu; Gong, Xianwei; Ni, Qiliang; Zhao, Jingli; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Taisheng; Yu, Weixing

    2014-10-06

    In this work, we report the replication and characterization of the compound eye of a fruit fly for imaging purpose. In the replication, soft lithography method was employed to replicate the compound eye of a fruit fly into a UV-curable polymer. The method was demonstrated to be effective and the compound eye is replicated into the polymer (NOA78) where each ommatidium has a diameter of about 30 μm and a sag height of about 7 μm. To characterize its optical property, the point spread function of the compound eye was tested and a NA of 0.386 has been obtained for the replicated polymeric ommatidium. Comparing with the NA of a real fruit fly ommatidium which was measured to be about 0.212, the replicated polymeric ommatidium has a much larger NA due to the refractive index of NOA78 is much higher than that of the material used to form the real fruit fly ommatidium. Furthermore, the replicated compound eye was used to image a photomask patterned with grating structures to test its imaging property. It is shown that the grating with a line width of 20 μm can be clearly imaged. The image of the grating formed by the replicated compound eye was shrunk by about 10 times and therefore a line width of about 2.2 μm in the image plane has been obtained, which is close to the diffraction limited resolution calculated through the measured NA. In summary, the replication method demonstrated is effective and the replicated compound eye has the great potential in optical imaging.

  12. The sophisticated visual system of a tiny Cambrian crustacean: analysis of a stalked fossil compound eye.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Castellani, Christopher; Clarkson, Euan N K; Haug, Joachim T; Maas, Andreas; Haug, Carolin; Waloszek, Dieter

    2012-04-07

    Fossilized compound eyes from the Cambrian, isolated and three-dimensionally preserved, provide remarkable insights into the lifestyle and habitat of their owners. The tiny stalked compound eyes described here probably possessed too few facets to form a proper image, but they represent a sophisticated system for detecting moving objects. The eyes are preserved as almost solid, mace-shaped blocks of phosphate, in which the original positions of the rhabdoms in one specimen are retained as deep cavities. Analysis of the optical axes reveals four visual areas, each with different properties in acuity of vision. They are surveyed by lenses directed forwards, laterally, backwards and inwards, respectively. The most intriguing of these is the putatively inwardly orientated zone, where the optical axes, like those orientated to the front, interfere with axes of the other eye of the contralateral side. The result is a three-dimensional visual net that covers not only the front, but extends also far laterally to either side. Thus, a moving object could be perceived by a two-dimensional coordinate (which is formed by two axes of those facets, one of the left and one of the right eye, which are orientated towards the moving object) in a wide three-dimensional space. This compound eye system enables small arthropods equipped with an eye of low acuity to estimate velocity, size or distance of possible food items efficiently. The eyes are interpreted as having been derived from individuals of the early crustacean Henningsmoenicaris scutula pointing to the existence of highly efficiently developed eyes in the early evolutionary lineage leading towards the modern Crustacea.

  13. Design of a compound eye system with planar micolens array and curved folded mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mengchao; Gao, Xicheng; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Huaxia

    2016-09-01

    Compound eye has the merits of large FOV (Field of View), high acuity to motion and compact structure. In order to achieve large FOV, most natural compound eyes have curved structures. However, a 3D microlens array alone cannot work properly with a planar image sensor, as a result, very complex relay optical design is required for beam-steering and image formation. On the other hand, artificial compound eyes with planar structure are easy to design and fabricated, but the field of view is very small. To address this issue, an innovated design is presented in this paper. The system comprises of a planar structured microlens array and two curved folded mirrors. A very high fill factor can be achieved by using planar microlens array. The design was verified with Zemax simulation and preliminary experiment. The results show that the system can achieve large FOV imaging without significant lens distortion and ghost image, demonstrating the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method.

  14. Eye movement correlates of younger and older adults' strategies for complex addition.

    PubMed

    Green, Heather J; Lemaire, Patrick; Dufau, Stéphane

    2007-07-01

    This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of carries. Older adults chose strategies less adaptively than young adults. Eye movements were consistent with use of required strategies on no-choice trials and reported strategies on choice trials. Eye movement data also suggested that young adults more successfully distinguished between strategies. Implications of these findings for understanding aging effects in complex arithmetic are discussed.

  15. Opsin evolution and expression in Arthropod compound Eyes and Ocelli: Insights from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Opsins are key proteins in animal photoreception. Together with a light-sensitive group, the chromophore, they form visual pigments which initiate the visual transduction cascade when photoactivated. The spectral absorption properties of visual pigments are mainly determined by their opsins, and thus opsins are crucial for understanding the adaptations of animal eyes. Studies on the phylogeny and expression pattern of opsins have received considerable attention, but our knowledge about insect visual opsins is still limited. Up to now, researchers have focused on holometabolous insects, while general conclusions require sampling from a broader range of taxa. We have therefore investigated visual opsins in the ocelli and compound eyes of the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect. Results Phylogenetic analyses place all identified cricket sequences within the three main visual opsin clades of insects. We assign three of these opsins to visual pigments found in the compound eyes with peak absorbances in the green (515 nm), blue (445 nm) and UV (332 nm) spectral range. Their expression pattern divides the retina into distinct regions: (1) the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area with blue- and UV-opsin, (2) a newly-discovered ventral band of ommatidia with blue- and green-opsin and (3) the remainder of the compound eye with UV- and green-opsin. In addition, we provide evidence for two ocellar photopigments with peak absorbances in the green (511 nm) and UV (350 nm) spectral range, and with opsins that differ from those expressed in the compound eyes. Conclusions Our data show that cricket eyes are spectrally more specialized than has previously been assumed, suggesting that similar adaptations in other insect species might have been overlooked. The arrangement of spectral receptor types within some ommatidia of the cricket compound eyes differs from the generally accepted pattern found in holometabolous insect taxa and awaits a

  16. Barriers to Eye Care Faced by Adult Hispanics with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Trusty, Sharon; Kelley, Emily; Siew-Jin, Lai Keun; Macias, Eduardo P.

    2004-01-01

    Current diabetes vision care guidelines suggest that people receive at least an annual dilated eye examination 5 years after the diagnosis of Type I diabetes and a dilated eye examination at the time of diagnosis of Type II diabetes, and at least annually thereafter. Hispanics in the United States have a three-fold greater prevalence of diabetes…

  17. Drosophila Mcm10 Is Required for DNA Replication and Differentiation in the Compound Eye

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Nicole; Taga, Ayano; Inaba, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Hideki; Cotterill, Sue; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Mini chromosome maintenance 10 (Mcm10) is an essential protein, which is conserved from S. cerevisiae to Drosophila and human, and is required for the initiation of DNA replication. Knockdown of Drosophila Mcm10 (dMcm10) by RNA interference in eye imaginal discs induces abnormal eye morphology (rough eye phenotype), and the number of ommatidia is decreased in adult eyes. We also observed a delay in the S phase and M phase in eye discs of dMcm10 knockdown fly lines. These results show important roles for dMcm10 in the progression of S and M phases. Furthermore, genome damage and apoptosis were induced by dMcm10 knockdown in eye imaginal discs. Surprisingly, when we used deadpan-lacZ and klingon-lacZ enhancer trap lines to monitor the photoreceptor cells in eye discs, knockdown of dMcm10 by the GMR-GAL4 driver reduced the signals of R7 photoreceptor cells. These data suggest an involvement of dMcm10 in R7 cell differentiation. This involvement appears to be independent of the apoptosis induced by dMcm10 knockdown. Together, these results suggest that dMcm10 knockdown has an effect on DNA replication and R7 cell differentiation. PMID:24686397

  18. Drosophila Mcm10 is required for DNA replication and differentiation in the compound eye.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nicole; Taga, Ayano; Inaba, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Hideki; Cotterill, Sue; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Mini chromosome maintenance 10 (Mcm10) is an essential protein, which is conserved from S. cerevisiae to Drosophila and human, and is required for the initiation of DNA replication. Knockdown of Drosophila Mcm10 (dMcm10) by RNA interference in eye imaginal discs induces abnormal eye morphology (rough eye phenotype), and the number of ommatidia is decreased in adult eyes. We also observed a delay in the S phase and M phase in eye discs of dMcm10 knockdown fly lines. These results show important roles for dMcm10 in the progression of S and M phases. Furthermore, genome damage and apoptosis were induced by dMcm10 knockdown in eye imaginal discs. Surprisingly, when we used deadpan-lacZ and klingon-lacZ enhancer trap lines to monitor the photoreceptor cells in eye discs, knockdown of dMcm10 by the GMR-GAL4 driver reduced the signals of R7 photoreceptor cells. These data suggest an involvement of dMcm10 in R7 cell differentiation. This involvement appears to be independent of the apoptosis induced by dMcm10 knockdown. Together, these results suggest that dMcm10 knockdown has an effect on DNA replication and R7 cell differentiation.

  19. Analyzing the reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye with Voronoi diagrams.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Kurt J A; Michielsen, Kristel F L; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2003-12-30

    This paper presents a robust method for the automated segmentation and quantitative measurement of reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye. Digital pictures of the butterfly eye shine recorded with a digital camera are processed to yield binary images from which single facet centers can be extracted using a morphological image analysis procedure. The location of the facet centers is corrected by fitting in-line facet centers to a second-order polynomial. Based on the new centers a Voronoi diagram is constructed. In the case of the eye shine images, the Voronoi diagram defines a hexagonal lattice that overlaps with the original facet borders, allowing instantaneous quantification of the reflections from single ommatidia. We provide two typical examples to demonstrate that the developed technique may be a powerful tool to characterize in vivo the heterogeneity of butterfly eyes and to study the dynamic control of the light flux by the pupil mechanism.

  20. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  1. Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  2. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  3. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolutife A.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Owoaje, Eme T.; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M.; Ajayi, Benedictus G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. Results: The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa. PMID:26957847

  4. Readers in Adult Basic Education: Component Skills, Eye Movements, and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Vorstius, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the reading skills of a sample of 48 adults enrolled in a basic education program in northern Florida, United States. Previous research has reported on reading component skills for students in adult education settings, but little is known about eye movement patterns or their relation to reading skills for this…

  5. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Memory in Children and Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral…

  6. Windows to the Soul: Children and Adults See the Eyes as the Location of the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starmans, Christina; Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Where are we? In three experiments, we explore preschoolers' and adults' intuitions about the location of the self using a novel method that asks when an object is closet to a person. Children and adults judge objects near a person's eyes to be closer to her than objects near other parts of her body. This holds even when considering an alien…

  7. A unique apposition compound eye in the mesopelagic hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis.

    PubMed

    Baldwin Fergus, Jamie L; Johnsen, Sönke; Osborn, Karen J

    2015-02-16

    The mesopelagic habitat is a vast space that lacks physical landmarks and is structured by depth, light penetration, and horizontal currents. Solar illumination is visible in the upper 1,000 m of the ocean, becoming dimmer and spectrally filtered with depth-generating a nearly monochromatic blue light field. The struggle to perceive dim downwelling light and bioluminescent sources and the need to remain unseen generate contrasting selective pressures on the eyes of mesopelagic inhabitants. Hyperiid amphipods are cosmopolitan members of the mesopelagic fauna with at least ten different eye configurations across the family-ranging from absent eyes in deep-living species to four enlarged eyes in mesopelagic individuals. The hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis has a pair of bi-lobed apposition compound eyes, each with a large upward-looking portion and a small lateral-looking portion. The most unusual feature of the P. gracilis eye is that its upward-looking portion is resolved into a discontinuous retina with 12 distinct groups, each serving one transverse row of continuously spaced facets. On the basis of eye morphology, we estimated spatial acuity (2.5° ± 0.11°, SEM; n = 25) and optical sensitivity (30 ± 3.4 μm(2) ⋅ sr, SEM; n = 25). Microspectrophotometry showed that spectral sensitivity of the eye peaked at 516 nm (±3.9 nm, SEM; n = 6), significantly offset from the peak of downwelling irradiance in the mesopelagic realm (480 nm). Modeling of spatial summation within the linear retinal groups showed that it boosts sensitivity with less cost to spatial acuity than more typical configurations.

  8. Changes in the contralateral eye in uncomplicated persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in adults.

    PubMed

    Awan, K J; Humayun, M

    1985-02-15

    In two adults (a 62-year-old man and a 71-year-old woman) uncomplicated full-blown unilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous was diagnosed on the basis of characteristic clinical features and ultrasonography. In the contralateral uninvolved eyes, we found open-angle glaucoma, anomalous blood vessels along the entire circumference of the anterior chamber angle, band keratopathy, and heterochromia iridis. The axial length of one involved eye was about 0.85 mm larger than that of the uninvolved eye.

  9. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system.

    PubMed

    Davis, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  10. Development of an artificial compound eye system for three-dimensional object detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengchao; Guo, Fang; Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi

    2014-02-20

    A compound eye has the advantages of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and compact structure, showing that it can be applicable for 3D object detection. In this work, an artificial compound eye system is developed for 3D object detection, consisting of a layer of lenslets and a prism-like beam-steering lens. A calibration method is developed for this system, with which the correspondences between incident light rays and the relevant image points can be obtained precisely using an active calibration pattern at multiple positions. Theoretically, calibration patterns at two positions are sufficient for system calibration, although more positions will increase the accuracy of the result. 3D positions of point objects are calculated to evaluate the system, which are obtained by the intersection of multiple incident light rays in the least-squares sense. Experimental results show that the system can detect an object with angular accuracy of better than 1 mrad, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed compound eye system. With a 2D scanning device, the system can be extended for general object detection in 3D space.

  11. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  12. Mechanics and optics of stretchable elastomeric microlens array for artificial compound eye camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengwei; Xiao, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Compound eye-inspired imaging devices can find vast applications due to their remarkable imaging characteristics, such as extremely large field of view angle, low aberrations, high acuity to motion, and infinite depth of field. Recently, researchers have successfully developed a digital camera that resembles the structure and functions of apposition compound eyes of arthropod, by combining an elastic array of microlenses with a stretchable array of photodetectors in their planar form and then transforming into a hemispherical shape. Designing an elastomeric microlens array that can be mechanically stretched to very large extent without deteriorating the optical performance is critical to this development. In this study, mechanics and optics of the stretchable microlens array, in which each hemispherical microlens sits on top of a supporting post connected to a base membrane, are studied. The results show that proper designs of the microlenses, supporting posts and base membrane are critically important to meet both mechanical and optical requirements simultaneously. This study can have important implications in not only the design of artificial compound eye cameras, but also other developments that require stretchable optical elements.

  13. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  14. Functional anatomy of the fiddler crab compound eye (Uca vomeris: Ocypodidae, Brachyura, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Alkaladi, Ali; Zeil, Jochen

    2014-04-15

    We describe the structural organization of the ommatidium in the compound eye of the fiddler crab, Uca vomeris, at both the light- and the electron-microscopy levels. We pay particular attention to the organization of the optical system, the retinular cells, the rhabdom, and of pigment cells. Although the fiddler crab compound eye is of the apposition type, typical for Brachyuran crabs, we identify a number of novel, functionally relevant aspects of ommatidial organization that have not previously been described. The flat corneal facet lenses provide the main focusing power and therefore must contain a gradient of refractive index. Each ommatidium has the typical set of eight retinular cells, with a distal retinular cell R8 lying close to the proximal tip of the crystalline cone. R8 is shaped into four lobes, which are separated by proximal extensions of the four crystalline cone cells and of distal extensions of retinular cells R1-R7. The microvilli in the R8 rhabdom are not aligned in a uniform direction, while the microvilli of the main rhabdom show the typical crustacean pattern of alternating bands of horizontally (R3, R4, R7) and vertically aligned microvilli (R1, R2, R5, R6). We describe in detail the distribution and structural properties of screening pigment granules in the two types of pigment cells and in the retinular cells in the equatorial eye. We discuss the functional significance of this fine-structural organization of the fiddler crab compound eye in relation to visual processing and visual ecology.

  15. The Time Course of Plausibility Effects on Eye Movements in Reading: Evidence from Noun-Noun Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian; Rayner, Keith; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka; Majewski, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences containing noun-noun compounds that varied in frequency (e.g., elevator mechanic, mountain lion). The left constituent of the compound was either plausible or implausible as a head noun at the point at which it appeared, whereas the compound as a whole was always plausible. When the head…

  16. Subretinal delivery and electroporation in pigmented and nonpigmented adult mouse eyes

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, John M.; Goodman, Penny; Chrenek, Micah A.; Johnson, Christiana J.; Berglin, Lennart; Redmond, T. Michael.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Subretinal injection offers one of the best ways to deliver many classes of drugs, reagents, cells and treatments to the photoreceptor, Müller, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells of the retina. Agents delivered to this space are placed within microns of the intended target cell, accumulating to high concentrations because there is no dilution due to transport processes or diffusion. Dilution in the interphotoreceptor space (IPS) is minimal because the IPS volume is only 10-20 microliters in the human eye and less than 1 microliter in the mouse eye. For gene delivery purposes, we wished to transfect the cells adjacent to the IPS in adult mouse eyes. Others transfect these cells in neonatal rats to study the development of the retina. In both neonates and adults, electroporation is found to be effective Here we describe the optimization of electroporation conditions for RPE cells in the adult mouse eye with naked plasmids. However, both techniques, subretinal injection and electroporation, present some technical challenges that require skill on the part of the surgeon to prevent untoward damage to the eye. Here we describe methods that we have used for the past ten years (1). PMID:22688698

  17. Design route and optical analysis of curved compound-eyes towards thermal reflow and hot embossing fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Si; Jin, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Compound-eyes have several characters such as big vision field angle, small volume and multi-channels imaging. Therefore, it is applicable in the field of machine vision. Based on the thermal reflow and hot embossing technology, this paper put forward a new route to design the compound-eyes imaging system and analysis the optical aberration by use of ray tracing. Furthermore, in order to getting the optimal imaging ability, non-homogeneous micro-lens array is adopted as the compound-eyes structure. The ray-tracing results show that the design scheme can reach the expected requirements. Therefore, this paper can guide the design of compound-eyes imaging system.

  18. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  19. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing.

  20. Perception of Object-Context Relations: Eye-Movement Analyses in Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight 4-month-olds' and twenty-two 20-year-olds' attention to object-context relations was investigated using a common eye-movement paradigm. Infants and adults scanned both objects and contexts. Infants showed equivalent preferences for animals and vehicles and for congruent and incongruent object-context relations overall, more fixations…

  1. Eye and hand movement strategies in older adults during a complex reaching task.

    PubMed

    Coats, Rachel O; Fath, Aaron J; Astill, Sarah L; Wann, John P

    2016-02-01

    The kinematics of upper limb movements and the coordination of eye and hand movements are affected by ageing. These age differences are exacerbated when task difficulty is increased, but the exact nature of these differences remains to be established. We examined the performance of 12 older adults (mean age = 74) and 11 younger adults (mean age = 20) on a multi-phase prehension task. Participants had to reach for a target ball with their preferred hand, pick it up and place it in a tray, then reach for a second target ball and place that in the same tray. On half the trials (stabilising condition), participants were required to hold the tray just above the surface of the table with their non-preferred hand and keep it as still as possible. Hand and eye movements were recorded. Older adults took longer to complete their movements and reached lower peak velocities than the younger adults. Group differences were most apparent in the stabilising condition, suggesting that the added complexity had a greater effect on the performance of the older adults than the young. During pickup, older adults preferred to make an eye movement to the next target as soon as possible, but spent longer fixating the current target during placement, when accuracy requirements were higher. These latter observations suggest that older adults employed a task-dependent eye movement strategy, looking quickly to the next target to allow more time for planning and execution when possible, but fixating on their hand and successful placement of the ball when necessary.

  2. Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2007-08-01

    We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine (e.g., artificial eyes for the blind); security, where the detection of nuclear materials is needed; or astronomy. This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we detect a far-field particle source using two directional detector arrays: cubic and spherical. We propose a mean-difference test (MDT) detector, analyze its statistical performance, and show that the MDT has a number of advantages over the generalized likelihood- ratio test (GLRT). Second, we localize the source by proposing a novel biologically inspired detector array, whose configuration generalizes the compound eye of insects. This array combines the advantages of compound eyes (e.g., large field-of-view) and human eyes (e.g., high angular resolution). Based on a statistical model of the array measurements, we analyze the array performance by computing the Cramérao bound (CRB) on the error in estimating the source direction. We also derive lower bounds on the mean-square angular error (MSAE) of the source localization and investigate the MSAE of two source- direction estimators. Numerical examples, including the optimal array design, are presented to further illustrate the array performance. Third, we derive a statistical angular resolution limit (ARL) on resolving two closely spaced point sources in a three-dimensional frame, which is applicable to various measurement models (e.g., radar, sonar, or astronomy). Using the asymptotic analysis of the GLRT, we derive the ARL with constraints on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. Our results give explicit analytical expression for the ARL

  3. Visually Guided Navigation: Head-Mounted Eye-Tracking of Natural Locomotion in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Franchak, John M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study showed that visual fixation of obstacles is not required for rapid and adaptive navigation of obstacles. Children and adults wore a wireless, head-mounted eye-tracker during a visual search task in a room cluttered with obstacles. They spontaneously walked, jumped, and ran through the room, stepping up, down, and over obstacles. Both children and adults navigated adaptively without fixating obstacles, however, adults fixated less often than children. We discuss several possibilities for why obstacle navigation may shift from foveal to peripheral control over development. PMID:20932993

  4. Visually guided navigation: head-mounted eye-tracking of natural locomotion in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Franchak, John M; Adolph, Karen E

    2010-12-01

    The current study showed that visual fixation of obstacles is not required for rapid and adaptive navigation of obstacles. Children and adults wore a wireless, head-mounted eye-tracker during a visual search task in a room cluttered with obstacles. They spontaneously walked, jumped, and ran through the room, stepping up, down, and over obstacles. Both children and adults navigated adaptively without fixating obstacles, however, adults fixated less often than children. We discuss several possibilities for why obstacle navigation may shift from foveal to peripheral control over development.

  5. Fabrication of the curved artificial compound eyes with a homebuilt mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Guo, Yongcai; Luo, Jiasai

    2016-11-01

    A novel multi-focusing curved microlens array (MLA), inspired by compound eyes, was fabricated using a homebuilt mold in this paper. By gas-assist deformation, and using the PDMS film as the template, MLA with variable focal length were fabricated through the different apertures of the micro-stomatas attached on the mold. Fabricated in one step, without reverse mould process, makes the whole fabrication process simple, cost-effective and deformation less. The ultraviolet curing adhesive NOA81, which was cured in seconds, has excellent optical performance and a wide operating temperature range. The optical performances of the MLA were demonstrated by optical experiments and simulation.

  6. A small-scale hyperacute compound eye featuring active eye tremor: application to visual stabilization, target tracking, and short-range odometry.

    PubMed

    Colonnier, Fabien; Manecy, Augustin; Juston, Raphaël; Mallot, Hanspeter; Leitel, Robert; Floreano, Dario; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-02-25

    In this study, a miniature artificial compound eye (15 mm in diameter) called the curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) was endowed for the first time with hyperacuity, using similar micro-movements to those occurring in the fly's compound eye. A periodic micro-scanning movement of only a few degrees enables the vibrating compound eye to locate contrasting objects with a 40-fold greater resolution than that imposed by the interommatidial angle. In this study, we developed a new algorithm merging the output of 35 local processing units consisting of adjacent pairs of artificial ommatidia. The local measurements performed by each pair are processed in parallel with very few computational resources, which makes it possible to reach a high refresh rate of 500 Hz. An aerial robotic platform with two degrees of freedom equipped with the active CurvACE placed over naturally textured panels was able to assess its linear position accurately with respect to the environment thanks to its efficient gaze stabilization system. The algorithm was found to perform robustly at different light conditions as well as distance variations relative to the ground and featured small closed-loop positioning errors of the robot in the range of 45 mm. In addition, three tasks of interest were performed without having to change the algorithm: short-range odometry, visual stabilization, and tracking contrasting objects (hands) moving over a textured background.

  7. Dyslipidemia and Eye Diseases in the Adult Chinese Population: The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B.; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    To determine associations between dyslipidemia and ocular diseases, the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2006 examined 3251 subjects (age≥45 years) who underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination and biochemical blood analysis. Dyslipidemia was defined as any of the following: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol concentration≥5.72 mmol/L (220 mg/dL)) or hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride concentration≥1.70 mmol/L (150 mg/dL)) or low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentration≤0.91 mmol/L (35 mg/dL)). Biochemical blood examinations were available for 2945 (90.6%) subjects. After adjustment for age, gender, habitation region, body mass index, self reported income, blood glucose concentration, diastolic blood pressure and smoking, dyslipidemia was significantly associated with higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001) and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy (P = 0.03). Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with the prevalence of glaucoma (P = 0.99), retinal vein occlusions (P = 0.92), diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.49), presence of retinal vascular abnormalities such as focal or general arteriolar narrowing, age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.27), nuclear cataract (P = 0.14), cortical cataract (P = 0.93), and subcapsular cataract (P = 0.67). The results make one conclude that, controlled for systemic and socioeconomic parameters, dyslipidemia was not associated with common ophthalmic disorders including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22128290

  8. Improvement of Eye Alignment in Adult Strabismic Monkeys by Sustained IGF-1 Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McLoon, Linda K.; Christiansen, Stephen P.; Ghose, Geoffrey M.; Das, Vallabh E.; Mustari, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to determine if continuous application of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could improve eye alignment of adult strabismic nonhuman primates and to assess possible mechanisms of effect. Methods A continuous release pellet of IGF-1 was placed on one medial rectus muscle in two adult nonhuman primates (M1, M2) rendered exotropic by the alternating monocular occlusion method during the first months of life. Eye alignment and eye movements were recorded for 3 months, after which M1 was euthanized, and the lateral and medial rectus muscles were removed for morphometric analysis of fiber size, nerve, and neuromuscular density. Results Monkey 1 showed a 40% reduction in strabismus angle, a reduction of exotropia of approximately 11° to 14° after 3 months. Monkey 2 showed a 15% improvement, with a reduction of its exotropia by approximately 3°. The treated medial rectus muscle of M1 showed increased mean myofiber cross-sectional areas. Increases in myofiber size also were seen in the contralateral medial rectus and lateral rectus muscles. Similarly, nerve density increased in the contralateral medial rectus and yoked lateral rectus. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in adult nonhuman primates with a sensory-induced exotropia in infancy, continuous IGF-1 treatment improves eye alignment, resulting in muscle fiber enlargement and altered innervational density that includes the untreated muscles. This supports the view that there is sufficient plasticity in the adult ocular motor system to allow continuous IGF-1 treatment over months to produce improvement in eye alignment in early-onset strabismus. PMID:27820875

  9. The Optics of the Compound Eye of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Francisco G.; Wiitanen, Wayne

    1970-01-01

    The optical system of the compound eye of the worker honeybee, as a representative of the closed-rhabdom type of eye, was investigated and its function analyzed. Measurements of refractive indices of the elements of the optical system were made with an interference microscope. With the use of the resulting measurements, the optical system was analyzed by means of a ray-tracing procedure implemented for the IBM 7094 digital computer, and by means of the Gaussian thick lens formulae. The more detailed results of the ray-tracing technique were used for further analyses. Direct visual confirmation of the focal point was obtained. The rhabdom and the surrounding zone of lower refractive index act together as a wave guide, as demonstrated by the presence of several wave guide modes in the rhabdom. An admittance function was defined as the percentage of the rays reaching the rhabdom with respect to those entering the ommatidium. Good agreement with experimental results was found. The characterization of the visual field of an ommatidium by means of an admittance function permits the analysis of the influence of different stimuli on the eye. PMID:5520506

  10. Physiological characterization of the compound eye in monarch butterflies with focus on the dorsal rim area.

    PubMed

    Stalleicken, Julia; Labhart, Thomas; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2006-03-01

    The spectral, angular and polarization sensitivities of photoreceptors in the compound eye of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) are examined using electrophysiological methods. Intracellular recordings reveal a spectrally homogenous population of UV receptors with optical axes directed upwards and >or=10 degrees to the contralateral side. Based on optical considerations and on the opsin expression pattern (Sauman et al. 2005), we conclude that these UV receptors belong to the anatomically specialized dorsal rim area (DRA) of the eye. Photoreceptors in the main retina with optical axes <10 degrees contralateral or ipsilateral have maximal sensitivities in the UV (lambda(max)eye regions. The data are discussed in the light of present knowledge about polarized skylight navigation in Lepidopterans.

  11. Mechanics and optics of stretchable microlenses for artificial compound eye camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengwei; Xiao, Jianliang

    2014-03-01

    Due to the wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field, insect eye-inspired imaging devices have attracted more and more interest. Recently, researchers have developed an imaging device that resembles the structure and functions of insects' apposition eyes. Elastomeric microlens array that can be mechanically stretched to very large extent without deteriorating the optics is critical to this development. The stretchable microlens array is composed of a number of hemispherical microlenses each sitting on top of a pedestal and connected through a continuous elastomeric film. Here we present our study on mechanical and optical aspects of stretchable microlens. Our results show that proper designs of the hemispherical microlens, pedestal and film are critically important to meet both mechanical and optical requirements simultaneously. Our study can have important implications in not only the design of artificial compound eye cameras, but also other developments that require stretchable optical elements. PhD candidate from Department of Mechanical Enginering, at University of Colorado Boulder.

  12. A paper-based cantilever array sensor: Monitoring volatile organic compounds with naked eye.

    PubMed

    Fraiwan, Arwa; Lee, Hankeun; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-09-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) detection is critical for controlling industrial and commercial emissions, environmental monitoring, and public health. Simple, portable, rapid and low-cost VOC sensing platforms offer the benefits of on-site and real-time monitoring anytime and anywhere. The best and most practically useful approaches to monitoring would include equipment-free and power-free detection by the naked eye. In this work, we created a novel, paper-based cantilever sensor array that allows simple and rapid naked-eye VOC detection without the need for power, electronics or readout interface/equipment. This simple VOC detection method was achieved using (i) low-cost paper materials as a substrate and (ii) swellable thin polymers adhered to the paper. Upon exposure to VOCs, the polymer swelling adhered to the paper-based cantilever, inducing mechanical deflection that generated a distinctive composite pattern of the deflection angles for a specific VOC. The angle is directly measured by the naked eye on a 3-D protractor printed on a paper facing the cantilevers. The generated angle patterns are subjected to statistical algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA)) to classify each VOC sample and selectively detect a VOC. We classified four VOC samples with 100% accuracy using LDA.

  13. An eye movement analysis of web usability: Differences between older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Haesner, Marten; Chandra, Johan; Steinert, Anika; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2017-02-02

    Older adults are exposed to computer-based applications daily. However, most websites and applications are not specifically developed for older adults. Studies have shown that older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) behave differently from older adults without MCI in website usage. Eye tracking is a valuable tool to assess users' eye movement behavior in relation to website usability. Understanding the differences in web navigational behavior between older adults with and without MCI would be helpful for developing websites for this target group. This article presents eye tracking data from several tasks while using a cognitive training application. Overall results revealed that older adults with MCI required significantly longer to complete the tasks (U = 116.0, p < 0.05) and were significantly less successful in completing the tasks than those without MCI (U = 101.5, p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in eye movement patterns for any of the individual tasks, except one that required participants to use several pathways in order to successfully complete it. These findings demonstrate that eye tracking is an effective method for accessing users' eye movement patterns and the usability of a platform. However, the method was not successful in differentiating eye movement behavior between older adults with and without MCI.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Kuo, Guan-Fu; Lin, Syuan-You; Yu, Hsin Her

    2015-09-28

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres are synthesized by dispersion polymerization, and a close-packed two-dimensional (2D) array of the PS microspheres is formed by the self-assembly method through dip drawing under magnetic stirring. This array is then used to fabricate a 2D polydimethylsiloxane concave mold by soft lithography. The mold is employed to produce convex polymethylmethacrylate-based compound eye-replicating films of different hemispherical heights by thermopressing. The optical properties of the ommatidia on these biomimetic compound eye-replicating films are investigated, and the films are used with a charge-coupled device camera to construct a biomimetic visual system. The visual distance and field of view of this system are measured. The film with the greatest hemispherical height results in the biomimetic visual system with the highest visual distance and the widest field of view. In addition, it is found that the quality of the optical images is not dependent on the hemispherical height of the biomimetic films. The ability of the biomimetic visual system to detect moving object in real time is also studied.

  15. Eye movements and parafoveal preview of compound words: does morpheme order matter?

    PubMed

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable debate about whether readers can identify multiple words in parallel or whether they are limited to a serial mode of word identification, processing one word at a time (see, e.g., Reichle, Liversedge, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2009). Similar questions can be applied to bimorphemic compound words: Do readers identify all the constituents of a compound word in parallel, and does it matter which of the morphemes is identified first? We asked subjects to read compound words embedded in sentences while monitoring their eye movements. Using the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), we manipulated the preview that subjects received of the compound word before they fixated it. In particular, the morpheme order of the preview was either normal (cowboy) or reversed (boycow). Additionally, we manipulated the preview availability for each of the morphemes separately. Preview was thus available for the first morpheme only (cowtxg), for the second morpheme only (enzboy), or for neither of the morphemes (enztxg). We report three major findings: First, there was an effect of morpheme order on gaze durations measured on the compound word, indicating that, as expected, readers obtained a greater preview benefit when the preview presented the morphemes in the correct order than when their order was reversed. Second, gaze durations on the compound word were influenced not only by preview availability for the first, but also by that for the second morpheme. Finally, and most importantly, the results show that readers are able to extract some morpheme information even from a reverse order preview. In summary, readers obtain preview benefit from both constituents of a short compound word, even when the preview does not reflect the correct morpheme order.

  16. Natural Loss of eyeless/Pax6 Expression in Eyes of Bicyclus anynana Adult Butterflies Likely Leads to Exponential Decrease of Eye Fluorescence in Transgenics

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used visible markers for transgenesis use fluorescent proteins expressed at the surface of the body, such as in eyes. One commonly used marker is the 3xP3-EGFP cassette containing synthetic binding sites for the eyeless/Pax6 conserved transcription factor. This marker cassette leads to fluorescent eyes in a variety of animals tested so far. Here we show that upon reaching adulthood, transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies containing this marker cassette exponentially loose fluorescence in their eyes. After 12 days, transgenic individuals are no longer distinguishable from wild type individuals. The decreased eye fluorescence is likely due to significantly decreased or halted eyeless/Pax6 expression observed in wild type animals upon adult emergence. Implications from these findings include care in screening transgenic animals before these reach adulthood, or shortly thereafter, and in using adult animals of the same age for quantitative screening of likely homozygote and heterozygote individuals. PMID:26173066

  17. Natural Loss of eyeless/Pax6 Expression in Eyes of Bicyclus anynana Adult Butterflies Likely Leads to Exponential Decrease of Eye Fluorescence in Transgenics.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Mainak; Chan, Sam Kok Sim; Monteiro, Antónia

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used visible markers for transgenesis use fluorescent proteins expressed at the surface of the body, such as in eyes. One commonly used marker is the 3xP3-EGFP cassette containing synthetic binding sites for the eyeless/Pax6 conserved transcription factor. This marker cassette leads to fluorescent eyes in a variety of animals tested so far. Here we show that upon reaching adulthood, transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies containing this marker cassette exponentially loose fluorescence in their eyes. After 12 days, transgenic individuals are no longer distinguishable from wild type individuals. The decreased eye fluorescence is likely due to significantly decreased or halted eyeless/Pax6 expression observed in wild type animals upon adult emergence. Implications from these findings include care in screening transgenic animals before these reach adulthood, or shortly thereafter, and in using adult animals of the same age for quantitative screening of likely homozygote and heterozygote individuals.

  18. Preparation of adult Drosophila eyes for thin sectioning and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Andreas

    2011-08-27

    Drosophila has long been used as model system to study development, mainly due to the ease with which it is genetically tractable. Over the years, a plethora of mutant strains and technical tricks have been developed to allow sophisticated questions to be asked and answered in a reasonable amount of time. Fundamental insight into the interplay of components of all known major signaling pathways has been obtained in forward and reverse genetic Drosophila studies. The fly eye has proven to be exceptionally well suited for mutational analysis, since, under laboratory conditions, flies can survive without functional eyes. Furthermore, the surface of the insect eye is composed of some 800 individual unit eyes (facets or ommatidia) that form a regular, smooth surface when looked at under a dissecting microscope. Thus, it is easy to see whether a mutation might affect eye development or growth by externally looking for the loss of the smooth surface ('rough eye' phenotype; Fig. 1) or overall eye size, respectively (for examples of screens based on external eye morphology see e.g.). Subsequent detailed analyses of eye phenotypes require fixation, plastic embedding and thin-sectioning of adult eyes. The Drosophila eye develops from the so-called eye imaginal disc, a bag of epithelial cells that proliferate and differentiate during larval and pupal stages (for review see e.g.). Each ommatidium consists of 20 cells, including eight photoreceptors (PR or R-cells; Fig. 2), four lens-secreting cone cells, pigment cells ('hexagon' around R-cell cluster) and a bristle. The photoreceptors of each ommatidium, most easily identified by their light sensitive organelles, the rhabdomeres, are organized in a trapezoid made up of the six "outer" (R1-6) and two "inner" photoreceptors (R7/8; R8 [Fig. 2] is underneath R7 and thus only seen in sections from deeper areas of the eye). The trapezoid of each facet is precisely aligned with those of its neighbors and the overall anteroposterior

  19. Rhythmic movement disorder (head banging) in an adult during rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Smith, Ian E; Shneerson, John M

    2006-06-01

    Sleep-related rhythmic movements (head banging or body rocking) are extremely common in normal infants and young children, but less than 5% of children over the age of 5 years old exhibit these stereotyped motor behaviors. They characteristically occur during drowsiness or sleep onset rather than in deep sleep or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We present a 27-year-old man with typical rhythmic movement disorder that had persisted into adult life and was restricted to REM sleep. This man is the oldest subject with this presentation reported to date and highlights the importance of recognizing this nocturnal movement disorder when it does occur in adults.

  20. Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chi-Chieh

    The study of the imaging principles of natural compound eyes has become an active area of research and has fueled the advancement of modern optics with many attractive design features beyond those available with conventional technologies. Most prominent among all compound eyes is the reflecting superposition compound eyes (RSCEs) found in some decapods. They are extraordinary imaging systems with numerous optical features such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view (FOV), high sensitivity to light and superb acuity to motion. Inspired by their remarkable visual system, we were able to implement the unique lens-free, reflection-based imaging mechanisms into a miniaturized, large-FOV optical imaging device operating at the wide visible spectrum to minimize chromatic aberration without any additional post-image processing. First, two micro-transfer printing methods, a multiple and a shear-assisted transfer printing technique, were studied and discussed to realize life-sized artificial RSCEs. The processes exploited the differential adhesive tendencies of the microstructures formed between a donor and a transfer substrate to accomplish an efficient release and transfer process. These techniques enabled conformal wrapping of three-dimensional (3-D) microstructures, initially fabricated in two-dimensional (2-D) layouts with standard fabrication technology onto a wide range of surfaces with complex and curvilinear shapes. Final part of this dissertation was focused on implementing the key operational features of the natural RSCEs into large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs as an optical imaging device suitable for the wide visible spectrum. Our devices can form real, clear images based on reflection rather than refraction, hence avoiding chromatic aberration due to dispersion by the optical materials. Compared to the performance of conventional refractive lenses of comparable size, our devices demonstrated minimum chromatic aberration, exceptional

  1. Immunolocalization of CYP1B1 in normal, human, fetal and adult eyes.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Manali; Marcus, Craig; Bejjani, Bassem A; Edward, Deepak P

    2006-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme implicated in autosomal recessive primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). The mechanism and function of CYP1B1 in the development of the PCG phenotype is unknown. Previously, investigators have reported detection of Cyp1b1 mRNA in the ciliary body and epithelium and neuroepithelium in the developing mouse eye, employing in situ hybridization techniques. Similarly, additional investigators have detected CYP1B1 mRNA in the iris, ciliary body, non-pigmented ciliary epithelial line, cornea, retinal-pigment epithelium, and retina in the human adult eye, using Northern blotting. This study was designed to immunolocalize CYP1B1 protein in the various ocular structures of normal, human fetal and adult eyes. Normal fetal and adult eyes were immunolabeled with a polyclonal antibody against human CYP1B1 using indirect immunofluorescence, and then compared with appropriate controls. The intensity of immunolabeling of the various ocular structures was assessed by qualitative and semi-quantitative techniques. In the anterior segment anti-CYP1B1 immunoreactivity (IR) was detected early in fetal development in the primitive ciliary epithelium. As well, the most intense CYP1B1 IR was in the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. In addition, CYP1B1 IR was also present in the corneal epithelium and keratocytes, both layers of the iris pigmented epithelium, and retina. However, CYP1B1 IR was absent in the trabecular meshwork in all of the samples. In general, CYP1B1 immunolabeling in the human fetal eyes was more intense when compared to adult eyes. CYP1B1 IR was primarily immunolocalized to the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium and early in fetal development. In addition, CYP1B1 IR was not detected in the trabecular meshwork. These findings suggest that the abnormalities in the development of the trabecular meshwork in PCG may result from diminished or absent metabolism of important endogenous substrates in the ciliary epithelium due to non-functional CYP1B1

  2. Ancient default activators of terminal photoreceptor differentiation in the pancrustacean compound eye: The homeodomain transcription factors Otd and Pph13

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Markus; Cook, Tiffany; Zelhof, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the Drosophila compound eye predates the ancestor of Pancrustacea, the arthropod clade that includes insects and Crustaceans. Recent studies in emerging model systems for pancrustacean development - the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and water flea Daphnia pulex - have begun to shed light on the evolutionary conservation of transcriptional mechanisms found for the Drosophila compound eye. Here, we discuss the conserved roles of the transcription factors Otd and Pph13, which complement each other in two terminal events of photoreceptor differentiation: rhabdomere morphogenesis and transcriptional default activation of opsin gene expression. The synthesis of these data allows us to frame an evolutionary developmental model of the earliest events that generated the wavelength-specific photoreceptor subtypes of pancrustacean compound eyes. PMID:27436551

  3. Graphene-Based Bioinspired Compound Eyes for Programmable Focusing and Remote Actuation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lanlan; Li, Fang; Liu, Hongzhong; Jiang, Weitao; Niu, Dong; Li, Rui; Yin, Lei; Shi, Yongsheng; Chen, Bangdao

    2015-09-30

    Inspired by creatures' eyes, bioinspired compound eyes (BCEs) endowed with larger fields of view and vari-focal capability are extremely appealing in micro-optical devices. However, the present actuation strategies of BCEs commonly demand complicated fields, e.g., electro-wetting actuation, dielectrophoretic drive and pressure gradient, which greatly limits their practical applications. In this work, the photothermal conversion of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) is first utilized to fabricate lenslets toward BCEs. Under the actuation of near-infrared (nIR) pulsed laser, GNSs absorb photo energy and convert it to thermal energy, which increases the temperature of lenslets and then leads to the adjustment of lenslet curvature. At a result, BCEs manifest a reversible 4-fold zoom and a wide FOV up to 160°. In addition, BCEs also perform the programmable focusing by selectively confining nIR laser to a vari-focal region. In contrast with traditional BCEs, graphene-based BCEs are versatile with wide FOV and vari-focal ability by nIR actuation. Herein, these excellent properties make graphene-based BCEs promising for remote-driven microfluidic devices.

  4. Retinular fine structure in compound eyes of diurnal and nocturnal sphingid moths.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, E

    1982-01-01

    Retinular fine structure has been compared in the superposition compound eyes of three sphingid moths, one nocturnal, Cechenena, and two diurnal, Cephonodes and Macroglossum. Cechenena and Cephonodes have tiered retinas with three kinds of retinular cells: two distal, six regular and one basal. The distal retinular cells in Cechenena are special in having a complex partially intracellular rhabdomere not present in Cephonodes. Macroglossum lacks the distal retinular cell. In Cephonodes a unique rhabdom type, formed by the six regular retinular cells in the middle region of the retinula, is divided into three separate longitudinal plates arranged closely parallel to one another. Their constituent microvilli are consequently all nearly unidirectional. The ratio of rhabdom volume to retinular cell volume in the two diurnal sphingids is 10-27%; this is about the same as that (25%) of skipper butterflies, but significantly smaller than in the nocturnal Cechenena (60%). In the diurnal sphingids retinular cell membranes show elongate meandering profiles with septate junctions between adjacent retinular cells. From the comparative fine structure of their eyes the diurnal sphingids and the skippers would appear to be phylogenetically closely related.

  5. Ancient mechanisms of visual sense organ development based on comparison of the gene networks controlling larval eye, ocellus, and compound eye specification in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus

    2006-12-01

    Key mechanisms of development are strongly constrained, and hence often shared in the formation of highly diversified homologous organs. This diagnostic is applied to uncovering ancient gene activities in the control of visual sense organ development by comparing the gene networks, which regulate larval eye, ocellus and compound eye specification in Drosophila. The comparison reveals a suite of shared aspects that are likely to predate the diversification of arthropod visual sense organs and, consistent with this, have notable similarities in the developing vertebrate visual system: (I) Pax-6 genes participate in the patterning of primordia of complex visual organs. (II) Primordium determination and differentiation depends on formation of a transcription factor complex that contains the products of the selector genes Eyes absent and Sine oculis. (III) The TGF-beta signaling factor Decapentaplegic exerts transcriptional activation of eyes absent and sine oculis. (IV) Canonical Wnt signaling contributes to primordium patterning by repression of eyes absent and sine oculis. (V) Initiation of determination and differentiation is controlled by hedgehog signaling. (VI) Egfr signaling drives retinal cell fate specification. (VII) The proneural transcription factor atonal regulates photoreceptor specification. (VII) The zinc finger gene glass regulates photoreceptor specification and differentiation.

  6. Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Leitel, Robert; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2010-11-22

    We propose a microoptical approach to ultra-compact optics for real-time vision systems that are inspired by the compound eyes of insects. The demonstrated module achieves approx. VGA resolution with a total track length of 1.4 mm which is about two times shorter than comparable single-aperture optics on images sensors of the same pixel pitch. The partial images that are separately recorded in different optical channels are stitched together to form a final image of the whole field of view by means of image processing. A software correction is applied to each partial image so that the final image is made free of distortion. The microlens arrays are realized by state of the art microoptical fabrication techniques on wafer-level which are suitable for a potential application in high volume e.g. for consumer electronic products.

  7. Design and fabrication of a multi-focusing artificial compound eyes with negative meniscus substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiasai; Guo, Yongcai; Wang, Xin; Fan, Fenglian

    2017-04-01

    Miniaturized artificial compound eyes with a large field of view (FOV) have potential application in the area of micro-optical-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS). A new non-uniform microlens array (MLA) on a negative meniscus substrate, fabricated by the melting photoresist method, was proposed in this paper. The multi-focusing MLA reduced the defocus effectively, which was caused by the uniform array on a spherical substrate. Moreover, like most ommatidia in compound eyes, each microlens of the multi-focusing MLA was arranged in one of the eleven concentric circles. In order to match with the multi-focusing MLA and avoid the total reflection, the negative meniscus substrate was fabricated by a homebuilt mold with a micro-hole array and polydimethylsiloxane coelomic compartment attached. The coelomic compartment is capable of offering an excellent injection environment without bubbles and impurities. Due to the direct 3D implementation of the MLA, rich available materials can be used by this method without substrate reshaping. As the molding material, the ultraviolet curing adhesive NOA81 can be cured within ten few seconds under ultraviolet which relieve intensive labor and protect the stereolithography apparatus effectively. The experimental results show that this new MLA has a better imaging performance, higher light usage efficiency and larger FOV because of the negative meniscus and multi-focusing MLA. Moreover, due to the homebuilt mold, more accurate geometrical parameters and shorter processing cycle were realized. Accordingly, together with an appropriate hardware, this MLA has diverse potential applications in medical imaging, military and machine vision.

  8. Toxicity evaluation of the photoprotective compound LQFM048: Eye irritation, skin toxicity and genotoxic endpoints.

    PubMed

    de Ávila, Renato Ivan; de Sousa Vieira, Marcelo; Gaeti, Marilisa Pedroso Nogueira; Moreira, Larissa Cleres; de Brito Rodrigues, Laís; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Vinhal, Daniela Cristina; Menegatti, Ricardo; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2017-02-01

    A new molecule, LQFM048, originally designed through molecular hybridization using green chemistry approach, is in development as a photoprotective agent. Eye irritation, skin toxicity and genotoxicity evaluations are mandatory for predicting health risks. In this context, the purpose of this study was to investigate the eye irritation potential of LQFM048 by combining Short Time Exposure (STE), Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) associated with corneal histomorphometry and Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM). Additionally, skin toxicity was evaluated by interleukin-18 production in the HaCaT keratinocyte, Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) method, 3T3 Neutral red uptake (NRU) assay and in vivo phototoxicity test. Genotoxic potential of LQFM048 was also analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (MNvit test-cytoB) in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that LQFM048 did not induce eye irritation and it was classified as UN GHS No Category for both STE and BCOP assays and non-irritating for HET-CAM test. LQFM048 showed non-potential skin sensitization with stimulation index (SI=0.7) in the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method. Corroborating in vivo tests, it did not promote significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells and it showed similar levels of IL-18 when compared to control. Furthermore, LQFM048 induced non-phototoxic potential with photo-irritation factor (PIF) and mean photo effect (MPE) of 1 and -0.138, respectively, for 3T3 cells. Similarly, it was not phototoxic for in vivo testing with or without exposure to UVA, showing SI values of 1 and 1.2, respectively. The micronucleus test showed that LQFM048 was not genotoxic, under the conditions tested.In conclusion, LQFM048, a heterocyclic compound obtained through an environmentally acceptable simple synthetic route, seems to be safe for human use, especially for the development of a new sunscreen product, since it is neither an eye irritant, nor a contact allergen, nor mutagenic and nor

  9. A Scoping Review of the Associations of Golf with Eye Injuries in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Sport presents a risk of ocular trauma and accounts for a significant number of eye injuries that require hospital admission. The sport of golf presents a risk to eyesight from fast moving objects such as golf clubs and balls. This study aims to investigate the associations of golf with eye injuries and the reasons that these injuries occur. Material/Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Grey literature was searched using the WHO international clinical trials registry platform, Google Scholar, and ProQuest. Data was extracted using a standardised form and summarised into a report. Results and Discussion. Twenty-three studies were found relating to eye injuries in golf. Injuries appear to be rare, but more frequent in men and children. Injuries resulted in high rates of enucleation and visual impairment. Children sustained more injury from golf clubs whereas adults sustained more injuries from golf balls. Conclusion. Efforts are needed to encourage golf participants to understand the risks of ocular and indeed other head injuries. Initiatives to provide appropriate supervision and education on this topic are merited. Further research is needed to investigate the circumstances of eye injury in golf and assess the effects of interventions aimed at reducing risk of injury. PMID:27504485

  10. Theoretical and experimental research on error analysis and optimization of tool path in fabricating aspheric compound eyes by precision micro milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Xiao, Yong; Tian, Wenlan; Wu, Chunya; Chu, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Structure design and fabricating methods of three-dimensional (3D) artificial spherical compound eyes have been researched by many scholars. Micro-nano optical manufacturing is mostly used to process 3D artificial compound eyes. However, spherical optical compound eyes are less at optical performance than the eyes of insects, and it is difficult to further improve the imaging quality of compound eyes by means of micro-nano optical manufacturing. In this research, nonhomogeneous aspheric compound eyes (ACEs) are designed and fabricated. The nonhomogeneous aspheric structure is applied to calibrate the spherical aberration. Micro milling with advantages in processing three-dimensional micro structures is adopted to manufacture ACEs. In order to obtain ACEs with high imaging quality, the tool paths are optimized by analyzing the influence factors consisting of interpolation allowable error, scallop height and tool path pattern. In the experiments, two kinds of ACEs are manufactured by micro-milling with different too path patterns and cutting parameter on the miniature precision five-axis milling machine tool. The experimental results indicate that the ACEs of high surface quality can be achieved by circularly milling small micro-lens individually with changeable cutting depth. A prototype of the aspheric compound eye (ACE) with surface roughness ( R a) below 0.12 μm is obtained with good imaging performance. This research ameliorates the imaging quality of 3D artificial compound eyes, and the proposed method of micro-milling can improve surface processing quality of compound eyes.

  11. Optimization and validation of an existing, surgical and robust dry eye rat model for the evaluation of therapeutic compounds.

    PubMed

    Joossen, Cedric; Lanckacker, Ellen; Zakaria, Nadia; Koppen, Carina; Joossens, Jurgen; Cools, Nathalie; De Meester, Ingrid; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize and validate an animal model for dry eye, adopting clinically relevant evaluation parameters. Dry eye was induced in female Wistar rats by surgical removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were evaluated by tear volume measurements, corneal fluorescein staining, cytokine measurements in tear fluid, MMP-9 mRNA expression and CD3(+) cell infiltration in the conjunctiva. The animal model was validated by treatment with Restasis(®) (4 weeks) and commercial dexamethasone eye drops (2 weeks). Removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland resulted in 50% decrease in tear volume and a gradual increase in corneal fluorescein staining. Elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-1α have been registered in tear fluid together with an increase in CD3(+) cells in the palpebral conjunctiva when compared to control animals. Additionally, an increase in MMP-9 mRNA expression was recorded in conjunctival tissue. Reference treatment with Restasis(®) and dexamethasone eye drops had a positive effect on all evaluation parameters, except on tear volume. This rat dry eye model was validated extensively and judged appropriate for the evaluation of novel compounds and therapeutic preparations for dry eye disease.

  12. The Development of Whole-Word Representations in Compound Word Processing: Evidence from Eye Fixation Patterns of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haikio, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The role of morphology in reading development was examined by measuring participants' eye movements while they read sentences containing either a hyphenated (e.g., "ulko-ovi" "front door") or concatenated (e.g., "autopeli" "racing game") compound. The participants were Finnish second, fourth, and sixth…

  13. Continuity versus split and reconstitution: exploring the molecular developmental corollaries of insect eye primordium evolution.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus

    2006-11-15

    Holometabolous insects like Drosophila proceed through two phases of visual system development. The embryonic phase generates simple eyes of the larva. The postembryonic phase produces the adult specific compound eyes during late larval development and pupation. In primitive insects, by contrast, eye development persists seemingly continuously from embryogenesis through the end of postembryogenesis. Comparative literature suggests that the evolutionary transition from continuous to biphasic eye development occurred via transient developmental arrest. This review investigates how the developmental arrest model relates to the gene networks regulating larval and adult eye development in Drosophila, and embryonic compound eye development in primitive insects. Consistent with the developmental arrest model, the available data suggest that the determination of the anlage of the rudimentary Drosophila larval eye is homologous to the embryonic specification of the juvenile compound eye in directly developing insects while the Drosophila compound eye primordium is evolutionarily related to the yet little studied stem cell based postembryonic eye primordium of primitive insects.

  14. Low-Skilled Adult Readers Look Like Typically Developing Child Readers: A Comparison of Reading Skills and Eye Movement Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…

  15. What Visual Information Do Children and Adults Consider while Switching between Tasks? Eye-Tracking Investigation of Cognitive Flexibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Blaye, Agnes; Dufau, Stephane; Lucenet, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the visual information that children and adults consider while switching or maintaining object-matching rules. Eye movements of 5- and 6-year-old children and adults were collected with two versions of the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between shape- and color-matching rules. In addition to…

  16. Infant's visual preferences for facial traits associated with adult attractiveness judgements: data from eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Griffey, Jack A F; Little, Anthony C

    2014-08-01

    Human preferences for facial attractiveness appear to emerge at an early stage during infant development. A number of studies have demonstrated that infants display a robust preference for facial attractiveness, preferring to look at physically attractive faces versus less attractive faces as judged by adults. However, to-date, relatively little is known about which traits of the face infants use to base these preferences upon. In contrast, a large number of studies conducted with human adults have identified that preference for attractive faces can be attributed to a number of specific facial traits. The purpose of the experiments here was to measure and assess infant's visual preference via eye-tracker technology for faces manipulated for one of three traits known to effect attractiveness judgments in adult preference tests: symmetry, averageness, and sexually dimorphic traits. Sixty-four infants (28 female and 36 male) aged between 12 and 24 months old each completed a visual paired comparison (VPC) task for one of the three facial dimensions investigated. Data indicated that infants displayed a significant visual preference for facial symmetry analogous to those preferences displayed by adults. Infants also displayed a significant visual preference for feminine versions of faces, in line with some studies of adult preferences. Visual preferences for facial non-averageness, or distinctiveness were also seen, a pattern opposite to that seen in adults. These findings demonstrate that infant's appreciation for facial attractiveness in adult images between the ages of 12 and 24 months of age is based on some, but not all, traits that adults find attractive.

  17. Self-adaptive image reconstruction inspired by insect compound eye mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiahua; Shi, Aiye; Wang, Xin; Bian, Linjie; Huang, Fengchen; Xu, Lizhong

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the mechanism of imaging and adaptation to luminosity in insect compound eyes (ICE), we propose an ICE-based adaptive reconstruction method (ARM-ICE), which can adjust the sampling vision field of image according to the environment light intensity. The target scene can be compressive, sampled independently with multichannel through ARM-ICE. Meanwhile, ARM-ICE can regulate the visual field of sampling to control imaging according to the environment light intensity. Based on the compressed sensing joint sparse model (JSM-1), we establish an information processing system of ARM-ICE. The simulation of a four-channel ARM-ICE system shows that the new method improves the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and resolution of the reconstructed target scene under two different cases of light intensity. Furthermore, there is no distinct block effect in the result, and the edge of the reconstructed image is smoother than that obtained by the other two reconstruction methods in this work.

  18. Fabrication of refractive freeform array masters for artificial compound eye cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, J.; Wippermann, F.; Brückner, A.; Reimann, A.; Müller, M.; Bräuer, A.

    2014-05-01

    There is a huge demand on miniaturized cameras in the field of mobile consumer electronics. These cameras are currently based on miniaturized single aperture optics. In order to further decrease the thickness of miniaturized camera systems, a multichannel imaging principle needs to be used. These artificial compound eye cameras permit a further decrease in thickness by a factor of two in comparison to miniaturized single aperture optics with same resolution and pixel size. Their fabrication process is currently based on the reflow of photoresist. Due to physical limitations of this technique, only spherical and ellipsoidal surface profiles of the single lenslets are achievable. Consequently, the potential for correcting optical aberrations is restricted leading to limited image quality and resolution. This can be improved significantly by the use of refractive freeform arrays. Due to the non-symmetrical and aspherical surface shapes of the single lenslets, the fabrication by the reflow of photoresist is no longer possible. Therefore, we propose an approach for the fabrication of these structures based on the combination of an ultra-precision machining process together with a microimprinting approach.

  19. Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Xiudong; Liu, Hewei; Aldalali, Bader; Rogers, John A; Jiang, Hongrui

    2014-08-13

    In nature, reflecting superposition compound eyes (RSCEs) found in shrimps, lobsters and some other decapods are extraordinary imaging systems with numerous optical features such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view (FOV), high sensitivity to light and superb acuity to motion. Here, we present life-sized, large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs as optical imaging devices inspired by the unique designs of their natural counterparts. Our devices can form real, clear images based on reflection rather than refraction, hence avoiding chromatic aberration due to dispersion by the optical materials. Compared to imaging at visible wavelengths using conventional refractive lenses of comparable size, our artificial RSCEs demonstrate minimum chromatic aberration, exceptional FOV up to 165° without distortion, modest aberrations and comparable imaging quality without any post-image processing. Together with an augmenting cruciform pattern surrounding each focused image, our large-FOV, wide-spectrum artificial RSCEs possess enhanced motion-tracking capability ideal for diverse applications in military, security, medical imaging and astronomy.

  20. Hardware Architecture and Cutting-Edge Assembly Process of a Tiny Curved Compound Eye

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Stéphane; Godiot, Stéphanie; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Breugnon, Patrick; Menouni, Mohsine; Juston, Raphaël; Expert, Fabien; Colonnier, Fabien; L'Eplattenier, Géraud; Brückner, Andreas; Kraze, Felix; Mallot, Hanspeter; Franceschini, Nicolas; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Ruffier, Franck; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The demand for bendable sensors increases constantly in the challenging field of soft and micro-scale robotics. We present here, in more detail, the flexible, functional, insect-inspired curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) that was previously introduced in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS, 2013). This cylindrically-bent sensor with a large panoramic field-of-view of 180° × 60° composed of 630 artificial ommatidia weighs only 1.75 g, is extremely compact and power-lean (0.9 W), while it achieves unique visual motion sensing performance (1950 frames per second) in a five-decade range of illuminance. In particular, this paper details the innovative Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) sensing layout, the accurate assembly fabrication process, the innovative, new fast read-out interface, as well as the auto-adaptive dynamic response of the CurvACE sensor. Starting from photodetectors and microoptics on wafer substrates and flexible printed circuit board, the complete assembly of CurvACE was performed in a planar configuration, ensuring high alignment accuracy and compatibility with state-of-the art assembling processes. The characteristics of the photodetector of one artificial ommatidium have been assessed in terms of their dynamic response to light steps. We also characterized the local auto-adaptability of CurvACE photodetectors in response to large illuminance changes: this feature will certainly be of great interest for future applications in real indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:25407908

  1. Raman-atomic force microscopy of the ommatidial surfaces of Dipteran compound eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.; Gaimari, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    The ommatidial lens surfaces of the compound eyes in several species of files (Insecta: Diptera) and a related order (Mecoptera) were analyzed using a recently developed Raman-atomic force microscope. We demonstrate in this work that the atomic force microscope (AFM) is a potentially useful instrument for gathering phylogenetic data and that the newly developed Raman-AFM may extend this application by revealing nanometer-scale surface chemistry. This is the first demonstration of apertureless near-field Raman spectroscopy on an intact biological surface. For Chrysopilus testaceipes Bigot (Rhagionidae), this reveals unique cerebral cortex-like surface ridges with periodic variation in height and surface chemistry. Most other Brachyceran flies, and the "Nematoceran" Sylvicola fenestralis (Scopoli) (Anisopodidae), displayed the same morphology, while other taxa displayed various other characteristics, such as a nodule-like (Tipula (Triplicitipula) sp. (Tipulidae)) or coalescing nodule-like (Tabanus punctifer Osten Sacken (Tabanidae)) morphology, a smooth morphology with distinct pits and grooves (Dilophus orbatus (Say) (Bibionidae)), or an entirely smooth surface (Bittacus chlorostigma MacLachlan (Mecoptera: Bittacidae)). The variation in submicrometer structure and surface chemistry provides a new information source of potential phylogenetic importance, suggesting the Raman-atomic force microscope could provide a new tool useful to systematic and evolutionary inquiry.

  2. Hardware architecture and cutting-edge assembly process of a tiny curved compound eye.

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane; Godiot, Stéphanie; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Breugnon, Patrick; Menouni, Mohsine; Juston, Raphaël; Expert, Fabien; Colonnier, Fabien; L'Eplattenier, Géraud; Brückner, Andreas; Kraze, Felix; Mallot, Hanspeter; Franceschini, Nicolas; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Ruffier, Franck; Floreano, Dario

    2014-11-17

    The demand for bendable sensors increases constantly in the challenging field of soft and micro-scale robotics. We present here, in more detail, the flexible, functional, insect-inspired curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) that was previously introduced in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS, 2013). This cylindrically-bent sensor with a large panoramic field-of-view of 180° × 60° composed of 630 artificial ommatidia weighs only 1.75 g, is extremely compact and power-lean (0.9 W), while it achieves unique visual motion sensing performance (1950 frames per second) in a five-decade range of illuminance. In particular, this paper details the innovative Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) sensing layout, the accurate assembly fabrication process, the innovative, new fast read-out interface, as well as the auto-adaptive dynamic response of the CurvACE sensor. Starting from photodetectors and microoptics on wafer substrates and flexible printed circuit board, the complete assembly of CurvACE was performed in a planar configuration, ensuring high alignment accuracy and compatibility with state-of-the art assembling processes. The characteristics of the photodetector of one artificial ommatidium have been assessed in terms of their dynamic response to light steps. We also characterized the local auto-adaptability of CurvACE photodetectors in response to large illuminance changes: this feature will certainly be of great interest for future applications in real indoor and outdoor environments.

  3. Ecological constraints on sensory systems: compound eye size in Daphnia is reduced by resource limitation.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Christopher S; Dudycha, Jeffry L

    2014-08-01

    Eye size is an indicator of visual capability, and macroevolutionary patterns reveal that taxa inhabiting dim environments have larger eyes than taxa from bright environments. This suggests that the light environment is a key driver of variation in eye size. Yet other factors not directly linked with visual tasks (i.e., non-sensory factors) may influence eye size. We sought to jointly investigate the roles of sensory (light) and non-sensory factors (food) in determining eye size and ask whether non-sensory factors could constrain visual capabilities. We tested environmental influences on eye size in four species of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, crossing bright and dim light levels with high and low resource levels. We measured absolute eye size and eye size relative to body size in early and late adulthood. In general, Daphnia reared on low resources had smaller eyes, both absolutely and relatively. In contrast to the dominant macroevolutionary pattern, phenotypic plasticity in response to light was rarely significant. These patterns of phenotypic plasticity were true for overall diameter of the eye and the diameter of individual facets. We conclude that non-sensory environmental factors can influence sensory systems, and in particular, that resource availability may be an important constraint on visual capability.

  4. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J.; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition. PMID:26500524

  5. Infant and adult perceptions of possible and impossible body movements: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N=14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old infants and adults spent more time looking at the elbows during impossible compared with possible arm movements, irrespective of the appearance of the actor. These results suggest that by 12 months of age, infants recognize biomechanical constraints on how arms move, and they extend this knowledge to humanoid robots. Adults exhibited more pupil dilation in response to the human's impossible arm movements compared with the possible ones, but 9- and 12-month-old infants showed no differential pupil dilation to the same actions. This finding suggests that the processing of human body movements might still be immature in 12-month-olds, as they did not show an emotional response to biomechanically impossible body movements. We discuss these findings in relation to the hypothesis that perception of others' body movements relies upon the infant's own sensorimotor experience.

  6. Prevalence of Lens Opacities in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study (CHES)

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Sun, Jie; Torres, Mina; Wu, Shuang; Hsu, Chunyi; Azen, Stanley Paul; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We determined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of posterior subcapsular (PSC), nuclear, cortical, and mixed lens opacities in a population-based sample of Chinese-American adults. Methods A population-based sample of Chinese-Americans 50 years and older, from 10 census tracts in Monterey Park, CA, USA, underwent a detailed interview and a comprehensive clinical examination that included assessment of different types of lens opacities by the slit-lamp–based Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). All lens changes (including pseudophakia/aphakia), PSC, nuclear, and/or cortical opacities, were evaluated and graded. Results Of the 5782 eligible subjects, 4582 (79.2%) Chinese Americans aged 50 years and older completed a comprehensive eye examination. Of the participants with LOCS II grading (n = 4234/4582, 92%), 3.0% had PSC opacities, 38.1% had nuclear opacities, and 23.4% had cortical opacities. The prevalence of all lens changes was 48.0% for all age groups and was higher by 10-year increasing age groups (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of visual impairment in the better-seeing eye with cortical only, nuclear only, PSC only, and mixed opacities was 3.9%, 5.0%, 14.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. A total of 454 (9.9%) individuals had undergone cataract extraction in at least one eye. Conclusions Chinese Americans have a high prevalence of visual impairment associated with lens opacities, and a high prevalence of nuclear opacities. Public health policies and programs designed to improve cataract detection and treatment could help reduce the burden of visual impairment in Chinese Americans. PMID:27936471

  7. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for personality disorders in older adults?

    PubMed

    Gielkens, E M J; Sobczak, S; Van Alphen, S P J

    2016-10-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a kind of psychotherapy, which is growing in popularity, particularly for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When Shapiro first introduced EMDR in 1989, it was approached as a controversial treatment because of lack of evidence. However, nowadays there is growing evidence for EMDR efficacy in PTSD (Mc Guire et al., 2014) and EMDR is recommended by international and national treatment guidelines for PTSD. Moreover, EMDR is also used for the treatment of other anxiety disorders, such as panic disorders (De Jongh et al., 2002). Furthermore, research continues on effects of EMDR in addiction, somatoform disorders and psychosis. So far, there is no empirical research on the efficacy of EMDR treatment in older adults.

  8. The watching-eyes phenomenon and blood donation: Does exposure to pictures of eyes increase blood donation by young adults?

    PubMed

    Sénémeaud, Cécile; Sanrey, Camille; Callé, Nathalie; Plainfossé, Candice; Belhaire, Alexandra; Georget, Patrice

    2016-11-14

    This study examined the effectiveness of exposure to a "watching-eyes image" in increasing blood donation rates among young people, a segment of the population that is particularly underrepresented among blood donors. Participants were 454 first-year university students, each of who was given a blood-donation flyer at the beginning of a lecture. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions depending on whether the flyer they received bore a picture of eyes (experimental condition) or a neutral picture (control condition). We recorded the numbers of participants who promised to give blood and who actually gave blood during the blood drive. Results show that the number of people who gave blood was significantly higher in the experimental condition than in the control condition. These findings provide the first evidence of the effectiveness of the watching-eyes strategy in encouraging young people to give blood. We discuss the processes underlying the "watching-eyes effect" with respect to blood donation.

  9. Low Dimensional Temporal Organization of Spontaneous Eye Blinks in Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Stereotyped Movement Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mei-Hua; Bodfish, James W.; Lewis, Mark H.; Newell, Karl M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mean rate and time-dependent sequential organization of spontaneous eye blinks in adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) and individuals from this group who were additionally categorized with stereotypic movement disorder (IDD + SMD). The mean blink rate was lower in the IDD + SMD group than the IDD…

  10. Conservative whole-organ scaling contrasts with highly labile suborgan scaling differences among compound eyes of closely related Formica ants.

    PubMed

    Perl, Craig D; Rossoni, Sergio; Niven, Jeremy E

    2017-03-01

    Static allometries determine how organ size scales in relation to body mass. The extent to which these allometric relationships are free to evolve, and how they differ among closely related species, has been debated extensively and remains unclear; changes in intercept appear common, but changes in slope are far rarer. Here, we compare the scaling relationships that govern the structure of compound eyes of four closely related ant species from the genus Formica. Comparison among these species revealed changes in intercept but not slope in the allometric scaling relationships governing eye area, facet number, and mean facet diameter. Moreover, the scaling between facet diameter and number was conserved across all four species. In contrast, facet diameters from distinct regions of the compound eye differed in both intercept and slope within a single species and when comparing homologous regions among species. Thus, even when species are conservative in the scaling of whole organs, they can differ substantially in regional scaling within organs. This, at least partly, explains how species can produce organs that adhere to genus wide scaling relationships while still being able to invest differentially in particular regions of organs to produce specific features that match their ecology.

  11. Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Hao; Wei, Yang; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Du, Guangqing; Yong, Jiale; Hou, Xun

    2016-11-01

    We report a direct fabrication of an omnidirectional negative microlens array on a curved substrate by a femtosecond laser enhanced chemical etching process, which is utilized as a molding template for duplicating bioinspired compound eyes. The femtosecond laser treatment of the curved glass substrate employs a common x-y-z stage without rotating the sample surface perpendicular to the laser beam, and uniform, omnidirectional-aligned negative microlenses are generated after a hydrofluoric acid etching. Using the negative microlens array on the concave glass substrate as a molding template, we fabricate an artificial compound eye with 3000 positive microlenses of 95-μm diameter close-packed on a 5-mm polymer hemisphere. Compared to the transferring process, the negative microlenses directly fabricated on the curved mold by our method are distortion-free, and the duplicated artificial eye presents clear and uniform imaging capabilities. This work provides a facile and efficient route to the fabrication of microlenses on any curved substrates without complicated alignment and motion control processes, which has the potential for the development of new microlens-based devices and systems.

  12. How Are Online Health Messages Processed? Using Eye Tracking to Predict Recall of Information in Younger and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bol, Nadine; van Weert, Julia C M; Loos, Eugène F; Romano Bergstrom, Jennifer C; Bolle, Sifra; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-01-01

    Little research has focused on what precedes the processing of health messages to predict recall of information and whether age matters in this regard. To address this gap, this study investigates the relationship between attention and recall among younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) adults. Using eye tracking, we exposed participants to a webpage consisting of text-only information, text with cognitive illustrations, or text with affective illustrations. When attention to text increased, older adults recalled more information, whereas younger adults did not. However, younger adults paid more attention to cognitive illustrations than older adults and recalled more information. These results reveal conditions under which health messages are effectively recalled by younger and older adults.

  13. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  14. Effects of orthographic consistency on eye movement behavior: German and English children and adults process the same words differently.

    PubMed

    Rau, Anne K; Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Landerl, Karin

    2015-02-01

    The current study investigated the time course of cross-linguistic differences in word recognition. We recorded eye movements of German and English children and adults while reading closely matched sentences, each including a target word manipulated for length and frequency. Results showed differential word recognition processes for both developing and skilled readers. Children of the two orthographies did not differ in terms of total word processing time, but this equal outcome was achieved quite differently. Whereas German children relied on small-unit processing early in word recognition, English children applied small-unit decoding only upon rereading-possibly when experiencing difficulties in integrating an unfamiliar word into the sentence context. Rather unexpectedly, cross-linguistic differences were also found in adults in that English adults showed longer processing times than German adults for nonwords. Thus, although orthographic consistency does play a major role in reading development, cross-linguistic differences are detectable even in skilled adult readers.

  15. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>−0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between −0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. PMID:25000872

  16. Insect Compound Eyes: Design of Photoreceptor Arrays for Image Pre-processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-22

    The whitish patches of Monarch and viceroy are spectrally quite different compared to one another. 12 6. Communication Among Butterflies while... butterfly (Copper, 19. AC IRAT tCan,,inue an rvers, if necesarv and idmntif by block number) Insect eyes are constructed so that much of the...objects. Colored wing patterns of butterflies provide im-ortant signals for recognition of species and sex, but little is known about butterfly color

  17. Compound eyes of insects and crustaceans: Some examples that show there is still a lot of work left to be done.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2015-03-01

    Similarities and differences between the 2 main kinds of compound eye (apposition and superposition) are briefly explained before several promising topics for research on compound eyes are being introduced. Research on the embryology and molecular control of the development of the insect clear-zone eye with superposition optics is one of the suggestions, because almost all of the developmental work on insect eyes in the past has focused on eyes with apposition optics. Age- and habitat-related ultrastructural studies of the retinal organization are another suggestion and the deer cad Lipoptena cervi, which has an aerial phase during which it is winged followed by a several months long parasitic phase during which it is wingless, is mentioned as a candidate species. Sexual dimorphism expressing itself in many species as a difference in eye structure and function provides another promising field for compound eye researchers and so is a focus on compound eye miniaturization in very small insects, especially those that are aquatic and belong to species, in which clear-zone eyes are diagnostic or are tiny insects that are not aquatic, but belong to taxa like the Diptera for instance, in which open rather than closed rhabdoms are the rule. Structures like interommatidial hairs and glands as well as corneal microridges are yet another field that could yield interesting results and in the past has received insufficient consideration. Finally, the dearth of information on distance vision and depth perception is mentioned and a plea is made to examine the photic environment inside the foam shelters of spittle bugs, chrysales of pupae and other structures shielding insects and crustaceans.

  18. Circadian rhythms affect electroretinogram, compound eye color, striking behavior and locomotion of the praying mantis Hierodula patellifera.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Aaron E; Prete, Frederick R; Mantes, Edgar S; Urdiales, Andrew F; Bogue, Wil

    2014-11-01

    Many behaviors and physiological processes oscillate with circadian rhythms that are synchronized to environmental cues (e.g. light onset), but persist with periods of ~24 h in the absence of such cues. We used a multilevel experimental approach to assess whether circadian rhythms modulate several aspects of the visual physiology and behavior of the praying mantis Hierodula patellifera. We used electroretinograms (ERGs) to assess compound eye sensitivity, colorimetric photographic analyses to assess compound eye color changes (screening pigment migration), behavioral assays of responsiveness to computer-generated prey-like visual stimuli and analyses of locomotor activity patterns on a modified treadmill apparatus. Our results indicate that circadian clocks control and/or modulate each of the target behaviors. Strong rhythms, persisting under constant conditions, with periods of ~24 h were evident in photoreceptor sensitivity to light, appetitive responsiveness to prey-like stimuli and gross locomotor activity. In the first two cases, responsiveness was highest during the subjective night and lowest during the subjective day. Locomotor activity was strongly clustered around the transition time from day to night. In addition, pigment migration and locomotor behavior responded strongly to light:dark cycles and anticipated the light-dark transition, suggesting that the circadian clocks modulating both were entrained to environmental light cues. Together, these data indicate that circadian rhythms operate at the cellular, cellular systems and organismal level in H. patellifera. Our results represent an intriguing first step in uncovering the complexities of circadian rhythms in the Mantodea.

  19. Naked eye screening of 11 phenolic compounds and colorimetric determination using polydiacetylene vesicles with α-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Anekthirakun, Pimpimon; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Imyim, Apichat

    2013-07-01

    The colorimetric response (CR) of poly(10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid) vesicles (PPCDA) induced by α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) in an aqueous solution has been studied. Various parameters affecting the CR, such as response time and concentration were investigated. The blue color of 0.01 mM PPCDA solution became pinkish red with the addition of α-CD at the concentration higher than 3 mM. The inhibition of the color transition from blue to red was investigated using 11 phenolic compounds. The color transition could be inhibited and observed by naked eye in the presence of 4 phenolic compounds, i.e. 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 4-bromophenol (4-BP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 3-nitrophenol (3-NP). A colorimetric method for the determination of these compounds was validated and applied for surface water analysis. The linear range from the plot of CR against phenolic compounds concentration was in the order of 0.5-2.0 mM with R(2) more than 0.99. The recoveries were 90-95% with good precision (1-4%RSD, n=10).

  20. Naked eye screening of 11 phenolic compounds and colorimetric determination using polydiacetylene vesicles with α-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anekthirakun, Pimpimon; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Imyim, Apichat

    2013-07-01

    The colorimetric response (CR) of poly(10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid) vesicles (PPCDA) induced by α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) in an aqueous solution has been studied. Various parameters affecting the CR, such as response time and concentration were investigated. The blue color of 0.01 mM PPCDA solution became pinkish red with the addition of α-CD at the concentration higher than 3 mM. The inhibition of the color transition from blue to red was investigated using 11 phenolic compounds. The color transition could be inhibited and observed by naked eye in the presence of 4 phenolic compounds, i.e. 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 4-bromophenol (4-BP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 3-nitrophenol (3-NP). A colorimetric method for the determination of these compounds was validated and applied for surface water analysis. The linear range from the plot of CR against phenolic compounds concentration was in the order of 0.5-2.0 mM with R2 more than 0.99. The recoveries were 90-95% with good precision (1-4%RSD, n = 10).

  1. Do morphemes matter when reading compound words with transposed letters? Evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-08-06

    We investigate the online processing consequences of encountering compound words with transposed letters (TLs), in order to determine if cross-morpheme TLs are more disruptive to reading than those within a single morpheme, as would be predicted by accounts of obligatory morpho-orthopgrahic decomposition. Two measures of online processing, eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs), were collected in separate experiments. Participants read sentences containing correctly spelled compound words (cupcake), or compounds with TLs occurring either across morphemes (cucpake) or within one morpheme (cupacke). Results showed that between- and within-morpheme transpositions produced equal processing costs in both measures, in the form of longermore » reading times (Experiment 1) and a late posterior positivity (Experiment 2) that did not differ between conditions. Our findings converge to suggest that within- and between-morpheme TLs are equally disruptive to recognition, providing evidence against obligatory morpho-orthographic processing and in favour of whole-word access of English compound words during sentence reading.« less

  2. Do morphemes matter when reading compound words with transposed letters? Evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-08-06

    We investigate the online processing consequences of encountering compound words with transposed letters (TLs), in order to determine if cross-morpheme TLs are more disruptive to reading than those within a single morpheme, as would be predicted by accounts of obligatory morpho-orthopgrahic decomposition. Two measures of online processing, eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs), were collected in separate experiments. Participants read sentences containing correctly spelled compound words (cupcake), or compounds with TLs occurring either across morphemes (cucpake) or within one morpheme (cupacke). Results showed that between- and within-morpheme transpositions produced equal processing costs in both measures, in the form of longer reading times (Experiment 1) and a late posterior positivity (Experiment 2) that did not differ between conditions. Our findings converge to suggest that within- and between-morpheme TLs are equally disruptive to recognition, providing evidence against obligatory morpho-orthographic processing and in favour of whole-word access of English compound words during sentence reading.

  3. Evolution of anatomical and physiological specialization in the compound eyes of stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Porter, Megan L; Zhang, Yunfei; Desai, Shivani; Caldwell, Roy L; Cronin, Thomas W

    2010-10-15

    Stomatopod crustaceans have complex and diverse visual systems. Among their many unique features are a specialized ommatidial region (the midband) that enables the eye to have multiple overlapping visual fields, as well as sets of spectral filters that are intercalated at two levels between tiers of photoreceptors involved in polychromatic color vision. Although the physiology and visual function of stomatopod eyes have been studied for many years, how these unique visual features originated and diversified is still an open question. In order to investigate how stomatopods have attained the current complexity in visual function, we have combined physiological and morphological information (e.g. number of midband rows, number of filters in the retina, and the spectral properties of filters) with new phylogenetic analyses of relationships among species based on nucleotide sequence data from two nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA) and two mitochondrial [16S and cytochrome oxidase I (COI)] genes. Based on our recovered phylogenetic relationships among species, we propose two new superfamilies within the Stomatopoda: Hemisquilloidea and Pseudosquillodea. Maximum likelihood ancestral state reconstructions indicate that ancestral stomatopod eyes contained six midband rows and four intrarhabdomal filters, illustrating that the visual physiological complexity originated early in stomatopod evolutionary history. While the two distal filters contain conservative sets of filter pigments, the proximal filters show more spectral diversity in filter types, particularly in midband row 2, and are involved in tuning the color vision system to the photic environment. In particular, a set of related gonodactyloid families (Gonodactylidae, Protosquillidae, Takuidae) inhabiting shallow, brightly lit coral reef waters contain the largest diversity of filter pigments, which are spectrally placed relative to the underlying photoreceptors to take advantage of the broad spectrum of light available in

  4. Histopathological changes of testes and eyes by neutron irradiation with boron compounds in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Joo; Yoon, Won-Ki; Ryu, Si-Yun; Chun, Ki-Jung; Son, Hwa-Young; Cho, Sung-Whan

    2006-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the biological effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on the testes and eyes in mice using HANARO Nuclear Reactor, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. BNCT relies on the high capacity of 10B in capturing thermal neutrons. Sodium borocaptate (BSH, 75 ppm, iv) and boronophenylalanine (BPA, 750 ppm, ip) have been used as the boron delivery agents. Mice were irradiated with neutron (flux: 1.036739E +09, Fluence 9.600200E+12) by lying flat pose for 30 (10 Gy) or 100 min (33 Gy) with or without boron carrier treatment. In 45 days of irradiation, histopathological changes of the testes and eyes were examined. Thirty-three Gy neutron irradiation for 100 min induced testicular atrophy in which some of seminiferous tubules showed complete depletion of spermatogenic germ cells. Lens epithelial cells and lens fiber were swollen and showed granular changes in an exposure time dependent manner. However, boron carrier treatment had no significant effect on the lesions. These results suggest that the examination of histopathological changes of lens and testis can be used as "biological dosimeters" for gauging radiation responses and the HANARO Nuclear Reactor has sufficient capacities for the BNCT.

  5. Renal function evaluation in an adult female with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellinghieri, G; Triolo, O; Stella, N C; Gemelli, M; Musolino, R; Monardo, P; Savica, V

    1994-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly involving the kidney. It is rarely reported in literature, while renal function has never been studied up to now. Shown here are the morphofunctional renal alterations observed in a female patient affected by cat-eye syndrome.

  6. Effects of short time UV-A exposures on compound eyes and haematological parameters in Procambarus clarkii (Girad, 1852).

    PubMed

    El-Bakary, Zeinab A; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2011-05-01

    The amount of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the Earth's surface has been increasing as a result of an increasingly thinner ozone layer. The UV-A component of the UVR is able to generate oxidative stress in the compound eye and haemolymph of Procambarus clarkii when the latter was exposed for as little as 15 min daily for one week to UV-A. Changes in the eye involved corneal material, crystalline cones, pigments in cone stalks and retinula cells, rhabdom integrity, haemocyte infiltration, and haemal spaces. UV-A had significant impacts on haemolymph iron and glucose, whereas Ca ions were unaffected. Total protein and Cu-ions showed only insignificant changes following UV-A radiation. Involvement of lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was significant with regard to the tissue damage cause by the UV-A. UV-A furthermore induced biological effects on serum electrophoretic patterns: some fractions either increased in size or others decreased. The described changes can be used as reference guidelines in evaluations of UV-A induced stress effects in P. clarkii.

  7. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  8. Flexible fabrication of biomimetic compound eye array via two-step thermal reflow of simply pre-modeled hierarchic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shengzhou; Li, Mujun; Shen, Lianguan; Qiu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Youquan

    2017-06-01

    A flexible fabrication method for the biomimetic compound eye (BCE) array is proposed. In this method, a triple-layer sandwich-like coating configuration was introduced, and the required hierarchic microstructures are formed with a simple single-scan exposure in maskless digital lithography. Taking advantage of the difference of glass transition point (Tg) between photoresists of each layer, the pre-formed hierarchic microstructures are in turn reflowed to the curved substrate and the BCE ommatidia in a two-step thermal reflow process. To avoid affecting the spherical substrate formed in the first thermal reflow, a non-contact strategy was proposed in the second reflow process. The measurement results were in good agreement with the designed BCE profiles. Results also showed that the fabricated BCE had good performances in optical test. The presented method is flexible, convenient, low-cost and can easily adapt to the fabrications of other optical elements with hierarchic microstructures.

  9. Low dimensional temporal organization of spontaneous eye blinks in adults with developmental disabilities and stereotyped movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Hua; Bodfish, James W; Lewis, Mark H; Newell, Karl M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mean rate and time-dependent sequential organization of spontaneous eye blinks in adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) and individuals from this group who were additionally categorized with stereotypic movement disorder (IDD+SMD). The mean blink rate was lower in the IDD+SMD group than the IDD group and both of these groups had a lower blink rate than a contrast group of healthy adults. In the IDD group the n to n+1 sequential organization over time of the eye-blink durations showed a stronger compensatory organization than the contrast group suggesting decreased complexity/dimensionality of eye-blink behavior. Very low blink rate (and thus insufficient time series data) precluded analysis of time-dependent sequential properties in the IDD+SMD group. These findings support the hypothesis that both IDD and SMD are associated with a reduction in the dimension and adaptability of movement behavior and that this may serve as a risk factor for the expression of abnormal movements.

  10. The challenges of providing eye care for adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li, Josephine Ch; Wong, Katrina; Park, Adela Sy; Fricke, Timothy R; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This review is intended to raise awareness of the importance of providing high-quality eye care for people with intellectual disabilities and the increasing need for this eye care to be community-based. We describe the challenges to the provision of high-quality community-based eye care for people with intellectual disabilities and ideas, evidence and methods for overcoming them. The prevalence of visual impairment in people with intellectual disabilities has been reported to be at least 40 per cent, rising to as high as 100 per cent in those with profound and severe disabilities. A progressive move toward deinstitutionalisation has shifted the provision of care for people with intellectual disabilities. Individuals can have the freedom to access health-care services of their choice. This has posed challenges to the health-care system, including how to deliver high-quality community-based eye care, creating a current significant unmet need for eye-care services. Undiagnosed refractive error and under-prescription of spectacles are major reasons for avoidable visual impairment among people with disabilities. There is an apparent reluctance of optometrists to engage in this work due to the perceived difficulties of working with people with intellectual and multiple disabilities. There are challenges associated with diagnosis and management of ocular conditions in people with intellectual disabilities and the demand is clear. Small shifts in training, knowledge and awareness would place optometry well to meet the challenges of this specialised area of eye care.

  11. Statistical distribution of foveal transverse chromatic aberration, pupil centration, and angle psi in a population of young adult eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynders, Maurice; Lidkea, Bruce; Chisholm, William; Thibos, Larry N.

    1995-10-01

    Subjective transverse chromatic aberration (sTCA) manifest at the fovea was determined for a population of 85 young adults (19-38 years old) by means of a two-dimensional, two-color, vernier alignment technique. The statistical distribution of sTCA was well fitted by a bivariate Gaussian function with mean values that were not significantly different from zero in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. We conclude from this result that a hypothetical, average eye representing the population mean of human eyes with medium-sized pupils is free of foveal sTCA. However, the absolute magnitude of sTCA for any given individual was often significantly greater than zero and ranged from 0.05 to 2.67 arcmin for the red and the blue lights of a computer monitor (mean wavelengths, 605 and 497 nm, respectively). The statistical distribution of the absolute magnitude of sTCA was well described by a Rayleigh probability distribution with a mean of 0.8 arcmin. A simple device useful for population screening in a clinical setting was also tested and gave concordant results. Assuming that sTCA at the fovea is due to decentering of the pupil with respect to the visual axis, we infer from these results that the pupil is, on average, well centered in human eyes. The average magnitude of pupil decentration in individual eyes is less than 0.5 mm, which corresponds to psi =3 deg for the angle between the achromatic and the visual axes of the eye.

  12. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  13. Tooth, skin, hair and eye colour interrelationships in Greek young adults.

    PubMed

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E; Tsamali, Ioana; Papadopoulou, Christine; Polyzois, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible interrelationships of teeth, skin, eye and hair colour. A portable colorimeter (Shade Eye NCC/Shofu) was used to record the colour in the CIELAB system of the upper right incisors in 150 dental school students, along with their skin colour at three different areas. Natural hair and eye colour was classified into several categories by a trained examiner (ICC 0.93-0.99). One-way ANOVA and correlation tests were used to statistically analyse the data. Skin was found to have significantly higher L*, b* but lower a* values than teeth (p < 0.05). A significant correlation (p < 0.05) of teeth to skin L* and a*colour coordinate was found, but not to b* coordinate (p > 0.05). Hair tones were not correlated to teeth L* or b*, but only to a*coordinate. Teeth and eye colour coordinates were not correlated (p > 0.05). Eye and hair tones were found to have the highest significant correlation (ρ = 0.369). In conclusion, teeth of this cohort were found to be lighter, less red and yellow than the skin. Teeth colour was not related to eye colour, but lighter teeth were found to be associated with lighter skins, and redder lateral incisors to lighter hair. Darker facial skins or yellower forehead areas were also associated with darker hair and vice versa. The clinical relevance of the study is that the investigated facial characteristics are inter-correlated weakly to moderately, and for this reason predicting the colour parameters of one facial characteristic by another would not be accurate, but helpful for a rough colour selection as associations show.

  14. Saccadic Eye Movement Characteristics in Adult Niemann-Pick Type C Disease: Relationships with Disease Severity and Brain Structural Measures

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Larry A.; Bowman, Elizabeth A.; Velakoulis, Dennis; Fahey, Michael C.; Desmond, Patricia; Macfarlane, Matthew D.; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Adamson, Christopher L.; Walterfang, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. A parameter related to horizontal saccadic peak velocity was one of the primary outcome measures in the clinical trial assessing miglustat as a treatment for NPC. Neuropathology is widespread in NPC, however, and could be expected to affect other saccadic parameters. We compared horizontal saccadic velocity, latency, gain, antisaccade error percentage and self-paced saccade generation in 9 adult NPC patients to data from 10 age-matched controls. These saccadic measures were correlated with appropriate MRI-derived brain structural measures (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields, supplemental eye fields, parietal eye fields, pons, midbrain and cerebellar vermis) and with measures of disease severity and duration. The best discriminators between groups were reflexive saccade gain and the two volitional saccade measures. Gain was also the strongest correlate with disease severity and duration. Most of the saccadic measures showed strongly significant correlations with neurophysiologically appropriate brain regions. While our patient sample is small, the apparent specificity of these relationships suggests that as new diagnostic methods and treatments become available for NPC, a broader range of saccadic measures may be useful tools for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy. PMID:23226429

  15. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  16. Reading Ahead: Adult Music Students' Eye Movements in Temporally Controlled Performances of a Children's Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki; Ylitalo, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, education majors minoring in music education (n = 24) and music performance majors (n =14) read and performed the original version and melodically altered versions of a simple melody in a given tempo. Eye movements during music reading and piano performances were recorded. Errorless trials were analyzed to explore the…

  17. Validating older adults' reports of less mind-wandering: An examination of eye movements and dispositional influences.

    PubMed

    Frank, David J; Nara, Brent; Zavagnin, Michela; Touron, Dayna R; Kane, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The Control Failures × Concerns theory perspective proposes that mind-wandering occurs, in part, because of failures to inhibit distracting thoughts from entering consciousness (McVay & Kane, 2012). Despite older adults (OAs) exhibiting poorer inhibition, they report less mind-wandering than do young adults (YAs). Proposed explanations include (a) that OAs' thought reports are less valid due to an unawareness of, or reluctance to report, task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) and (b) that dispositional factors protect OAs from mind-wandering. The primary goal of the current study was to test the validity of thought reports via eye-tracking. A secondary goal was to examine whether OAs' greater mindfulness (Splevins, Smith, & Simpson, 2009) or more positive mood (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999) protects them from TUTs. We found that eye movement patterns predicted OAs' TUT reports and YAs' task-related interference (TRI, or thoughts about one's performance) reports. Additionally, poor comprehension was associated with more TUTs in both age groups and more TRI in YAs. These results support the validity of OAs' thought reports. Concerning the second aim of the study, OAs' greater tendency to observe their surroundings (a facet of mindfulness) was related to increased TRI, and OAs' more positive mood and greater motivation partially mediated age differences in TUTs. OAs' reduced TUT reports appear to be genuine and potentially related to dispositional factors.

  18. Compound eye and ocellar structure for walking and flying modes of locomotion in the Australian ant, Camponotus consobrinus

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Ajay; Ramirez-Esquivel, Fiorella; Ribi, Willi A.

    2016-01-01

    Ants are unusual among insects in that individuals of the same species within a single colony have different modes of locomotion and tasks. We know from walking ants that vision plays a significant role in guiding this behaviour, but we know surprisingly little about the potential contribution of visual sensory structures for a flying mode of locomotion. Here we investigate the structure of the compound eye and ocelli in pedestrian workers, alate females and alate males of an Australian ant, Camponotus consobrinus, and discuss the trade-offs involved in optical sensitivity and spatial resolution. Male ants have more but smaller ommatidia and the smallest interommatidial angles, which is most likely an adaptation to visually track individual flying females. Both walking and flying forms of ants have a similar proportion of specialized receptors sensitive to polarized skylight, but the absolute number of these receptors varies, being greatest in males. Ocelli are present only in the flying forms. Each ocellus consists of a bipartite retina with a horizon-facing dorsal retina, which contains retinula cells with long rhabdoms, and a sky-facing ventral retina with shorter rhabdoms. We discuss the implications of these and their potential for sensing the pattern of polarized skylight. PMID:26975481

  19. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  20. Through Their Eyes: Are Characters with Visual Impairment Portrayed Realistically in Young Adult Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Pamela S.; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2000-01-01

    Defines a range of visual impairments that affect some adolescents. Examines the currently available young adult literature with characters who have vision disabilities. Provides a list of questions and criteria for evaluating and selecting young adult books that feature such characters, and includes a 13-item annotated bibliography of such books.…

  1. p53 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog regulates p53 in vivo in the adult mouse eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Rangel, Gilberto; Ortega-Martínez, Marta; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, Julio; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Purpose p53 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in preventing cancer development. p53 participates in relevant aspects of cell biology, including apoptosis and cell cycle control and must be strictly regulated to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. p53 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (Mdm2) is an important negative regulator of p53. The purpose of this study was to determine if Mdm2 regulates p53 in vivo in the adult lens. Methods We analyzed mice expressing human p53 transgene (Tgp53) selectively in the lens in the presence or absence of Mdm2. Mice with the required genotypes were obtained by crossing transgenic, mdm2+/−, and p53−/− mice. Eye phenotype and lens histology and ultrastructure were analyzed in adult mice. Results In a wild-type genetic background (mdm2+/+), lens damage and microphthalmia were observed only in mice homozygous for Tgp53 (t/t). However, in an mdm2 null background, just one allele of Tgp53 (mdm2−/−/Tgp53t/0 mice) was sufficient to cause lens damage and microphthalmia. Furthermore, Mdm2 in only one allele was sufficient to rescue these deleterious effects, since the mdm2+/−/Tgp53t/0 mice had eye size and lens morphology similar to the control mice. Conclusions Mdm2 regulates p53 in the adult lens in vivo. This information may have relevance for analyzing normal and pathological conditions of the lens, and designing cancer therapies targeting Mdm2–p53 interaction. PMID:24339722

  2. Anterior eye tissue morphology: Scleral and conjunctival thickness in children and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Read, Scott A.; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J.; Bremner, Alexander; Fothergill, Annabel; Ismail, Brittney; McGraw, Rebecca; Quirk, Charlotte J.; Wrigley, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    The sclera and conjunctiva form part of the eye’s tough, protective outer coat, and play important roles in the eye’s mechanical protection and immune defence, as well as in determining the size and shape of the eye globe. Advances in ocular imaging technology now allow these tissues in the anterior eye to be imaged non-invasively and with high resolution, however there is a paucity of data examining the dimensions of these tissues in paediatric populations. In this study, we have used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to examine the normal in vivo thickness profile of the anterior sclera and overlying conjunctiva in 111 healthy young participants, including a large proportion of paediatric subjects. We demonstrate that the thickness of the anterior sclera varies significantly with measurement location and meridian. Tissue thickness also varied significantly with age, with younger subjects exhibiting significantly thinner scleras and significantly greater conjunctival thickness. Males were also found to exhibit significantly greater scleral thickness. Refractive error however was not significantly associated with either scleral or conjunctival thickness in this population. These findings provide new data describing the normative dimensions of anterior eye tissues in children and the factors that can influence these dimensions in young populations. PMID:27646956

  3. Is Safety in the Eye of the Beholder? Safeguards in Research With Adults With Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Kim, Carolyn I; LoBraico, Emily J; Prather, Ellis M; Olick, Robert S

    2016-12-01

    Human subjects research has a core commitment to participant well-being. This obligation is accentuated for once exploited populations such as adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about the public's views on appropriate safeguards for this population. We surveyed adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members to compare views on safeguards. We found many points of convergence of views, particularly for decision-making and participation. One trend is that adults with intellectual disability perceive greater safety in being engaged directly in recruitment, and recruitment by specific individuals. Researchers and IRB members need to consider community views to facilitate the safe and respectful inclusion of adults with intellectual disability.

  4. Walking direction triggers visuo-spatial orienting in 6-month-old infants and adults: An eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Lunghi, Marco; Troje, Nikolaus F; Simion, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigates whether the walking direction of a biological motion point-light display can trigger visuo-spatial attention in 6-month-old infants. A cueing paradigm and the recording of eye movements in a free viewing condition were employed. A control group of adults took part in the experiment. Participants were presented with a central point-light display depicting a walking human, followed by a single peripheral target. In experiment 1, the central biological motion stimulus depicting a walking human could be upright or upside-down and was facing either left or right. Results revealed that the latency of saccades toward the peripheral target was modulated by the congruency between the facing direction of the cue and the position of the target. In infants, as well as in adults, saccade latencies were shorter when the target appeared in the position signalled by the facing direction of the point-light walker (congruent trials) than when the target appeared in the contralateral position (incongruent trials). This cueing effect was present only when the biological motion cue was presented in the upright condition and not when the display was inverted. In experiment 2, a rolling point-light circle with unambiguous direction was adopted. Here, adults were influenced by the direction of the central cue. However no effect of congruency was found in infants. This result suggests that biological motion has a priority as a cue for spatial attention during development.

  5. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Cataract Surgery among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Michal Szymon; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence of age-related eye diseases and cataract surgery among older adults in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1107 women and men of predominantly Caucasian origin were successfully enumerated and recruited for the study. All selected subjects were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. Results. Overall 8.04% (95% CI 6.44-9.64) subjects had cataract surgery in either eye. After excluding subjects with bilateral cataract surgery, the prevalence of cataract was 12.10% (95% CI 10.18-14.03). AMD was found in 4.33% (95% CI 3.14-5.54 ) of all subjects. Of them 3.25% (95% CI 2.21-4.30 ) had early AMD and 1.08% (95% CI 0.47-1.69) had late AMD. Various types of glaucoma were diagnosed in 5.51% (95% CI 4.17-6.85) of subjects and 2.62% (95% CI 1.68-3.56) had OHT. The prevalence rates of DR and myopic macular degeneration were 1.72% (95% CI 0.95-2.48) and 0.45% (95% CI 0.06-0.85), respectively. All multiple logistic regression models were only significantly associated with older age. The highest rate of visual impairment was observed among subjects with retinal diseases. Conclusions. The study revealed high prevalence of age-related eye diseases in this older population.

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in adults younger than 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yo-El S

    2013-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) occurring prior to age 50 is termed early-onset RBD. Early-onset RBD comprises a substantial minority of cases, and demonstrates the differences in demographics, comorbidities, and clinical considerations from previously described typical RBD with onset >50years. The world literature on RBD is reviewed with specific focus on features that distinguish early-onset RBD, including more gender parity, increased proportion of idiopathic cases, increased proportion of cases associated with narcolepsy, parasomnia overlap disorder, antidepressants, and possibly autoimmune disorders, and clinical presentation.

  7. Fabrication of a chirped artificial compound eye for endoscopic imaging fiber bundle by dose-modulated laser lithography and subsequent thermal reflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shengfeng; Lyu, Jinke; Sun, Hongda; Cui, Xiaobin; Wang, Tun; Lu, Miao

    2015-03-01

    A chirped artificial compound eye on a curved surface was fabricated using an optical resin and then mounted on the end of an endoscopic imaging fiber bundle. The focal length of each lenslet on the curved surface was variable to realize a flat focal plane, which matched the planar end surface of the fiber bundle. The variation of the focal length was obtained by using a photoresist mold formed by dose-modulated laser lithography and subsequent thermal reflow. The imaging performance of the fiber bundle was characterized by coupling with a coaxial light microscope, and the result demonstrated a larger field of view and better imaging quality than that of an artificial compound eye with a uniform focal length. Accordingly, this technology has potential application in stereoscopic endoscopy.

  8. Skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology: Evidence from eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; O'Donnell, Katrina

    2017-02-01

    We examined whether highly skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology when reading sentences for meaning. A homophone-error paradigm was used. Sentences were written to fit 1 member of a homophone pair, and then 2 other versions were created in which the homophone was replaced by its mate or a spelling-control word. The error words were all high-frequency words, and the correct homophones were either higher-frequency words or low-frequency words-that is, the homophone errors were either the subordinate or dominant member of the pair. Participants read sentences as their eye movements were tracked. When the high-frequency homophone error words were the subordinate member of the homophone pair, participants had shorter immediate eye-fixation latencies on these words than on matched spelling-control words. In contrast, when the high-frequency homophone error words were the dominant member of the homophone pair, a difference between these words and spelling controls was delayed. These findings provide clear evidence that the meanings of high-frequency words are activated by phonological representations when skilled readers read sentences for meaning. Explanations of the differing patterns of results depending on homophone dominance are discussed.

  9. The Role of Dopamine in Anticipatory Pursuit Eye Movements: Insights from Genetic Polymorphisms in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a long history of eye movement research in patients with psychiatric diseases for which dysfunctions of neurotransmission are considered to be the major pathologic mechanism. However, neuromodulation of oculomotor control is still hardly understood. We aimed to investigate in particular the impact of dopamine on smooth pursuit eye movements. Systematic variability in dopaminergic transmission due to genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects offers a noninvasive opportunity to determine functional associations. We measured smooth pursuit in 110 healthy subjects genotyped for two well-documented polymorphisms, the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and the SLC6A3 3′-UTR-VNTR polymorphism. Pursuit paradigms were chosen to particularly assess the ability of the pursuit system to initiate tracking when target motion onset is blanked, reflecting the impact of extraretinal signals. In contrast, when following a fully visible target sensory, retinal signals are available. Our results highlight the crucial functional role of dopamine for anticipatory, but not for sensory-driven, pursuit processes. We found the COMT Val158Met polymorphism specifically associated with anticipatory pursuit parameters, emphasizing the dominant impact of prefrontal dopamine activity on complex oculomotor control. In contrast, modulation of striatal dopamine activity by the SLC6A3 3′-UTR-VNTR polymorphism had no significant functional effect. Though often neglected so far, individual differences in healthy subjects provide a promising approach to uncovering functional mechanisms and can be used as a bridge to understanding deficits in patients. PMID:28101524

  10. The Relationship between Crystalline Lens Power and Refractive Error in Older Chinese Adults: The Shanghai Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; He, Xiangui; Xu, Xian; Du, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Huijuan; Sha, Jida; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report calculated crystalline lens power and describe the distribution of ocular biometry and its association with refractive error in older Chinese adults. Methods Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults aged 50 years and above in Xuhui and Baoshan districts of Shanghai. Refraction was determined by subjective refraction that achieved the best corrected vision based on monocular measurement. Ocular biometry was measured by IOL Master. The crystalline lens power of right eyes was calculated using modified Bennett-Rabbetts formula. Results We analyzed 6099 normal phakic right eyes. The mean crystalline lens power was 20.34 ± 2.24D (range: 13.40–36.08). Lens power, spherical equivalent, and anterior chamber depth changed linearly with age; however, axial length, corneal power and AL/CR ratio did not vary with age. The overall prevalence of hyperopia, myopia, and high myopia was 48.48% (95% CI: 47.23%–49.74%), 22.82% (95% CI: 21.77%–23.88%), and 4.57% (95% CI: 4.05–5.10), respectively. The prevalence of hyperopia increased linearly with age while lens power decreased with age. In multivariate models, refractive error was strongly correlated with axial length, lens power, corneal power, and anterior chamber depth; refractive error was slightly correlated with best corrected visual acuity, age and sex. Conclusion Lens power, hyperopia, and spherical equivalent changed linearly with age; Moreover, the continuous loss of lens power produced hyperopic shifts in refraction in subjects aged more than 50 years. PMID:28114313

  11. Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye in Korean Adults: A Study Based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Yun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeoup; Lee, Jeong-Gyu; Jeong, Dong-Wook; Kim, Yun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a common disease. Many patients continue to experience residual symptoms despite optimal treatment. Thus, new treatment options are required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and dry eye. Methods This study was performed using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which is a cross-sectional study of the Korean population that was conducted from 2010 to 2011. We included adults aged >19 years who underwent ophthalmologic interviews and examinations. We excluded subjects who had comorbid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, chronic kidney disease, or depression) that are associated with dry eye. The subjects were divided into normal and dry eye groups. The dry eye group consisted of those who had clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome or symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and dry eye. Results In the univariate model, the 25(OH)D levels were lower in the dry eye group than in the normal group (P=0.01). A significant association was found between severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) and dry eye (P=0.04). However, after multivariate adjustment, the statistical significance of the association disappeared (P-values= 0.49, vitamin D insufficiency; P=0.33, vitamin D deficiency; P=0.18, severe vitamin D deficiency). Conclusion Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with dry eye in an unadjusted model, but the association was not statistically significant after adjustment. PMID:28360983

  12. The influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A; Pachai, Matthew V; Rutherford, M D

    2013-11-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye contact (the cone of gaze) was narrower for upright than inverted faces. In both groups, the cone of gaze was wider for angry faces than for fearful or neutral faces. These results suggest that in high-functioning adults with ASD, the perception of eye contact is not tuned to be finer for upright than inverted faces, but that information is nevertheless integrated across expression and gaze direction.

  13. Face Detection in Complex Visual Displays: An Eye-Tracking Study with 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Turati, Chiara; Altoe, Gianmarco; Simion, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect and prefer a face when embedded in complex visual displays was investigated in 3- and 6-month-old infants, as well as in adults, through a modified version of the visual search paradigm and the recording of eye movements. Participants "(N" = 43) were shown 32 visual displays that comprised a target face among 3 or 5…

  14. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  15. Fine-Grained Analysis of Motionese: Eye Gaze, Object Exchanges, and Action Units in Infant-versus Adult-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Rebecca J.; Shallcross, Wendy L.; Sabatos, Maura G.; Massie, Kara Phaedra

    2007-01-01

    Mothers modify their actions when demonstrating objects to infants versus adults. Such modifications have been called infant-directed action (IDA) or "motionese" (Brand, Baldwin, & Ashburn, 2002). We investigated the IDA features of interactiveness and simplification by quantifying eye gaze, object exchanges, and action units enacted…

  16. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  17. Eye Globe Abnormalities on MR and CT in Adults: An Anatomical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Premilla; Koh, Lilian Hui Li; Goh, Kong Yong; Yu, Wai-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Eye globe abnormalities can be readily detected on dedicated and non-dedicated CT and MR studies. A primary understanding of the globe anatomy is key to characterising both traumatic and non-traumatic globe abnormalities. The globe consists of three primary layers: the sclera (outer), uvea (middle), and retina (inner layer). The various pathological processes involving these layers are highlighted using case examples with fundoscopic correlation where appropriate. In the emergent setting, trauma can result in hemorrhage, retinal/choroidal detachment and globe rupture. Neoplasms and inflammatory/infective processes predominantly occur in the vascular middle layer. The radiologist has an important role in primary diagnosis contributing to appropriate ophthalmology referral, thereby preventing devastating consequences such as vision loss. PMID:27587955

  18. Eye Globe Abnormalities on MR and CT in Adults: An Anatomical Approach.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy; Pillay, Premilla; Koh, Lilian Hui Li; Goh, Kong Yong; Yu, Wai-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Eye globe abnormalities can be readily detected on dedicated and non-dedicated CT and MR studies. A primary understanding of the globe anatomy is key to characterising both traumatic and non-traumatic globe abnormalities. The globe consists of three primary layers: the sclera (outer), uvea (middle), and retina (inner layer). The various pathological processes involving these layers are highlighted using case examples with fundoscopic correlation where appropriate. In the emergent setting, trauma can result in hemorrhage, retinal/choroidal detachment and globe rupture. Neoplasms and inflammatory/infective processes predominantly occur in the vascular middle layer. The radiologist has an important role in primary diagnosis contributing to appropriate ophthalmology referral, thereby preventing devastating consequences such as vision loss.

  19. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  20. Visual and Vestibular Induced Eye Movements in Verbal Children and Adults with Autism.

    PubMed

    Furman, Joseph M; Osorio, Maria J; Minshew, Nancy J

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the functionality of vestibular, pursuit, and saccade circuitry in autism across a wide age range. Subjects were 79 individuals with autism (AUT) and 62 controls (CON) aged 5 to 52 years with IQ scores > 70. For vestibular testing, earth-vertical axis rotation was performed in darkness and in a lighted visual surround with a fixation target. Ocular motor testing included assessment of horizontal saccades and horizontal smooth pursuit. No between-group differences were found in vestibular reflexes or in mean saccade velocity or accuracy. Saccade latency was increased in the AUT group with significant age-related effects in the 8-18 year old subgroups. There was a trend toward decreased pursuit gain without age effects. Normal vestibular-induced eye movements and normal saccade accuracy and velocity provide the most substantial evidence to date of the functional integrity of brainstem and cerebellar pathways in autism, suggesting that the histopathological abnormalities described in these structures may not be associated with intrinsic dysfunction but rather reflect developmental alterations related to forebrain cortical systems formation. Increased saccade latency with age effects adds to the extensive existing evidence of altered function and maturation of cortical systems in autism.

  1. Damage threshold in adult rabbit eyes after scleral cross-linking by riboflavin/blue light application.

    PubMed

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Körber, Nicole; Karl, Anett; Koch, Christian; Schuldt, Carsten; Penk, Anja; Liu, Qing; Huster, Daniel; Käs, Josef; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Francke, Mike

    2015-10-01

    Several scleral cross-linking (SXL) methods were suggested to increase the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue and therefore, to inhibit axial eye elongation in progressive myopia. In addition to scleral cross-linking and biomechanical effects caused by riboflavin and light irradiation such a treatment might induce tissue damage, dependent on the light intensity used. Therefore, we characterized the damage threshold and mechanical stiffening effect in rabbit eyes after application of riboflavin combined with various blue light intensities. Adult pigmented and albino rabbits were treated with riboflavin (0.5 %) and varying blue light (450 ± 50 nm) dosages from 18 to 780 J/cm(2) (15 to 650 mW/cm(2) for 20 min). Scleral, choroidal and retinal tissue alterations were detected by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Biomechanical changes were measured by shear rheology. Blue light dosages of 480 J/cm(2) (400 mW/cm(2)) and beyond induced pathological changes in ocular tissues; the damage threshold was defined by the light intensities which induced cellular degeneration and/or massive collagen structure changes. At such high dosages, we observed alterations of the collagen structure in scleral tissue, as well as pigment aggregation, internal hemorrhages, and collapsed blood vessels. Additionally, photoreceptor degenerations associated with microglia activation and macroglia cell reactivity in the retina were detected. These pathological alterations were locally restricted to the treated areas. Pigmentation of rabbit eyes did not change the damage threshold after a treatment with riboflavin and blue light but seems to influence the vulnerability for blue light irradiations. Increased biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue could be achieved with blue light intensities below the characterized damage threshold. We conclude that riboflavin and blue light application increased the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue at

  2. Winglets of the eye: dominant transmission of early adult pterygium of the conjunctiva.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, F; Shoptaugh, M G

    1990-01-01

    A pterygium, a wing-like thickening, of the bulbar conjunctiva is of environmental interest because it can occur on prolonged exposure to wind and weather. We describe a family with pterygium in two generations without a history of unusual exposure to the elements. There were six females and five males (including a set of male twins) with seven bilateral and four unilateral pterygia. The onset was unique in being in early adulthood, from the late teens through the twenties. This new genetic form can be distinguished by the age of onset from congenital and mid-adult pterygia, which are inherited as autosomal dominant traits. Irrespective of age, the treatment of conjunctival pterygium is surgical excision. PMID:2359104

  3. Winglets of the eye: dominant transmission of early adult pterygium of the conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Hecht, F; Shoptaugh, M G

    1990-06-01

    A pterygium, a wing-like thickening, of the bulbar conjunctiva is of environmental interest because it can occur on prolonged exposure to wind and weather. We describe a family with pterygium in two generations without a history of unusual exposure to the elements. There were six females and five males (including a set of male twins) with seven bilateral and four unilateral pterygia. The onset was unique in being in early adulthood, from the late teens through the twenties. This new genetic form can be distinguished by the age of onset from congenital and mid-adult pterygia, which are inherited as autosomal dominant traits. Irrespective of age, the treatment of conjunctival pterygium is surgical excision.

  4. [Efficacy of physiotherapy and hygienic procedures in treatment of adults and children with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Prozornaia, L P; Brzhevskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    110 patients aged from 3 to 42 years old were examined to estimate the efficacy of chronic blepharitis treatment: 50 patients with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome (DES), 28 with DES due to computer vision syndrome and 32 with isolated chronic blepharitis. All patients received eyelid massage. If the secretion was too thick and difficult to evacuate from meibomian glands then duct probing was performed. In addition a complex of hygienic procedures was performed using phytoproducts ("Geltec-Medika", Russia): blepharoshampoo, blepharolotion, blepharogel 1 and 2. Moist warm pads (with blepharolotion and calendula extraction) were applied on the eyelids in 25 patients. Massage and probing of meibomian gland ducts and hygienic procedures were showed to be effective in management of clinical signs of chronic blepharitis including coexisting DES. Moist warm pads improve efficacy of background therapy in patients with meibomian gland hypofunction and have no effect in blepharitis with excessive meibomian gland secretion. Eyelid hygiene was showed to be effective in adults and children as well including infants.

  5. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (NdpAP). In the CNS, NdpAP expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of NdpAP expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, NdpAP expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. PMID:21055480

  6. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Eye Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  7. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  8. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H.; Sigwart, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans. PMID:26366861

  9. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  10. Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 in a family with adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Lynch, David R.; Lukas, Thomas; Ahmeti, Kreshnik; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Ryan, Eanna; Schadt, Kimberly A.; Newman, Jordan H.; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic defect for adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) in a family with 5 patients. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the shared genetic variants in 3 affected members in a PLS family with 5 affected individuals. Sanger sequencing was used for validation of the variants and for cosegregation analysis. Mitochondrial activity for both patients and unaffected siblings was measured using a SeaHorse metabolic analyzer. Results: Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent cosegregation analysis demonstrated that compound heterozygous missense variants L695P and I743T in SPG7 were the only mutations cosegregating with the disease in an autosomal recessive fashion in this family. The parents and siblings are genetically heterozygous and clinically unaffected. Functional studies suggested that the PLS-associated SPG7 mutants affect mitochondrial function when glucose is reduced. Conclusions: Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 are associated with adult-onset PLS, extending the spectrum of SPG7-linked neurologic diseases. Patients with the PLS phenotype should have genetic testing for paraplegin, especially when the condition is familial. PMID:27123479

  11. Flight Morphology, Compound Eye Structure and Dispersal in the Bog and the Cranberry Fritillary Butterflies: An Inter- and Intraspecific Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Van Dyck, Hans; Seymoure, Brett; Rutowski, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Understanding dispersal is of prime importance in conservation and population biology. Individual traits related to motion and navigation during dispersal may differ: (1) among species differing in habitat distribution, which in turn, may lead to interspecific differences in the potential for and costs of dispersal, (2) among populations of a species that experiences different levels of habitat fragmentation; (3) among individuals differing in their dispersal strategy and (4) between the sexes due to sexual differences in behaviour and dispersal tendencies. In butterflies, the visual system plays a central role in dispersal, but exactly how the visual system is related to dispersal has received far less attention than flight morphology. We studied two butterfly species to explore the relationships between flight and eye morphology, and dispersal. We predicted interspecific, intraspecific and intersexual differences for both flight and eye morphology relative to i) species-specific habitat distribution, ii) variation in dispersal strategy within each species and iii) behavioural differences between sexes. However, we did not investigate for potential population differences. We found: (1) sexual differences that presumably reflect different demands on both male and female visual and flight systems, (2) a higher wing loading (i.e. a proxy for flight performance), larger eyes and larger facet sizes in the frontal and lateral region of the eye (i.e. better navigation capacities) in the species inhabiting naturally fragmented habitat compared to the species inhabiting rather continuous habitat, and (3) larger facets in the frontal region in dispersers compared to residents within a species. Hence, dispersers may have similar locomotory capacity but potentially better navigation capacity. Dispersal ecology and evolution have attracted much attention, but there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms of dispersal. Unfortunately, for many species

  12. Flight Morphology, Compound Eye Structure and Dispersal in the Bog and the Cranberry Fritillary Butterflies: An Inter- and Intraspecific Comparison.

    PubMed

    Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Van Dyck, Hans; Seymoure, Brett; Rutowski, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Understanding dispersal is of prime importance in conservation and population biology. Individual traits related to motion and navigation during dispersal may differ: (1) among species differing in habitat distribution, which in turn, may lead to interspecific differences in the potential for and costs of dispersal, (2) among populations of a species that experiences different levels of habitat fragmentation; (3) among individuals differing in their dispersal strategy and (4) between the sexes due to sexual differences in behaviour and dispersal tendencies. In butterflies, the visual system plays a central role in dispersal, but exactly how the visual system is related to dispersal has received far less attention than flight morphology. We studied two butterfly species to explore the relationships between flight and eye morphology, and dispersal. We predicted interspecific, intraspecific and intersexual differences for both flight and eye morphology relative to i) species-specific habitat distribution, ii) variation in dispersal strategy within each species and iii) behavioural differences between sexes. However, we did not investigate for potential population differences. We found: (1) sexual differences that presumably reflect different demands on both male and female visual and flight systems, (2) a higher wing loading (i.e. a proxy for flight performance), larger eyes and larger facet sizes in the frontal and lateral region of the eye (i.e. better navigation capacities) in the species inhabiting naturally fragmented habitat compared to the species inhabiting rather continuous habitat, and (3) larger facets in the frontal region in dispersers compared to residents within a species. Hence, dispersers may have similar locomotory capacity but potentially better navigation capacity. Dispersal ecology and evolution have attracted much attention, but there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms of dispersal. Unfortunately, for many species

  13. Photoresponses of the compound eye of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the ultraviolet-blue range.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, A; Borgioli, G; Galanti, G; Mercatelli, L; Hariyama, T

    2010-08-01

    The semi-terrestrial sandhopper Talitrus saltator uses celestial visual cues to orient along the sea-land axis of the beach. Previous spectral-filtering experiments suggested that it perceives directional information from wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV)-blue range. Binary choice experiments between dark and UV (380-nm) light carried out on dark-adapted individuals of T. saltator showed photopositive movement to UV. Morphologically, each ommatidium in the eye consists of five retinula cells, four large and one small. In electroretinogram experiments, sensitivity of the dark-adapted eye is dominated by a receptor maximally sensitive at about 390-450 nm and secondarily sensitive at about 500-550 nm. Selective light-adaptation experiments at 580 nm showed the apparent sensitivity decreasing at around the secondary sensitive range, thus disclosing the existence of UV-blue photoreceptor cells. Here the existence of UV-blue detection is confirmed, and evidence is provided that green and UV-blue visual pigments are located in the large and small retinula cells, respectively.

  14. [Reparative Neurogenesis in the Brain and Changes in the Optic Nerve of Adult Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after Mechanical Damage of the Eye].

    PubMed

    Puschina, E V; Varaksin, A A; Obukhov, D K

    2016-01-01

    Reparative proliferation and neurogenesis in the brain integrative centers after mechanical eye injury in an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have been studied. We have found that proliferation and neurogenesis in proliferative brain regions, the cerebellum, and the optic tectum were significantly enhanced after the eye injury. The cerebellum showed a significant increase in the proliferative activity of the cells of the dorsal proliferative zone and parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers. One week after the injury, PCNA-positive radial glia cells have been identified in the tectum. We have found for the first time that the eye trauma resulted in the development of local clusters of undifferentiated cells forming so called neurogenic niches in the tectum and cerebellum. The differentiation of neuronal cells detected by labeling cells with antibodies against the protein HuC/D occurred in the proliferative zones of the telencephalon, the optic tectum, cerebellum, and medulla of a trout within 2 days after the injury. We have shown that the HuC/D expression is higher in the proliferative brain regions than in the definitive neurons of a trout. In addition, we have examined cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis caused by the eye injury in the contra- and ipsilateral optic nerves and adjacent muscle fibers 2 days after the trauma. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of proliferation and apoptosis in the cells of the optic nerve of a trout has been made using antibodies against PCNA and the TUNEL method.

  15. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    Explore Recent Photos Trending Flickr VR The Commons Galleries World Map Camera Finder The Weekly Flickr Flickr Blog Create Upload Log In Sign Up Explore Recent Photos Trending The Commons Galleries The Weekly Flickr Flickr ...

  16. Seasonal variation in volatile compound profiles of preen gland secretions of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Soini, Helena A; Schrock, Sara E; Bruce, Kevin E; Wiesler, Donald; Ketterson, Ellen D; Novotny, Milos V

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear alcohols (C(10)-C(18)) were the major volatile compounds found in preen oil, and in both sexes their levels were higher when birds were housed on long as opposed to short days. Methylketones were found at lower levels, but were enhanced in both sexes during long days. Levels of 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, and 2-pentadecanone were also greater on long days, but only in males. Among carboxylic acids (C(12), C(14), and C(16)), linear but not branched acids showed some differences between the breeding and nonbreeding conditions, although the individual variation for acidic compounds was large. Qualitatively, more sulfur-containing compounds were found in males than females during the breeding season. Functionally, the large increase in linear alcohols in male and female preen oil during the breeding season may be an indication of altered lipid biosynthesis, which might signal reproductive readiness. Linear alcohols might also facilitate junco odor blending with plant volatiles in the habitat to distract mammalian predators. Some of the volatile compounds from preen oil, including linear alcohols, were also found on the wing feather surface, along with additional compounds that could have been of either metabolic or environmental origin.

  17. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  18. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  19. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  20. Volatile compounds released by disturbed and undisturbed adults of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini) and structure of the pygidial gland

    PubMed Central

    Bonacci, Teresa; Brandmayr, Pietro; Zetto, Tullia; Perrotta, Ida Daniela; Guarino, Salvatore; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Volatile compounds produced by adults of Anchomenus dorsalis under undisturbed and disturbed conditions were investigated with an all-glass aeration apparatus. GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts from undisturbed and disturbed adults highlighted four major volatile compounds, undecane, heneicosane, Z-9 tricosene and tricosane, of which significantly more undecane was released by disturbed adults compared to undisturbed beetles. The pygidial glands of adults of Anchomenus dorsalis were investigated using light and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Each gland showed dense aggregates of secretory cells organized into visually distinct lobes; a long collecting canal that drains the secretion towards the reservoir, a bean-shaped double lobed muscular reservoir in which secretion is stored and a short duct (efferent duct) through which the secretion is discharged. The function of the pygidial glands and the possible role played by undecane as a defensive allomone and/or chemical signalling molecule are discussed. PMID:21594158

  1. Salidroside, a Bioactive Compound of Rhodiola Rosea, Ameliorates Memory and Emotional Behavior in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Agostino; Mammana, Leonardo; Tropea, Maria Rosaria; Gulisano, Walter; Puzzo, Daniela

    2016-02-26

    Rhodiola Rosea (R. Rosea) is a plant used in traditional popular medicine to enhance cognition and physical performance. R. Rosea medicinal properties have been related to its capability to act as an adaptogen, i.e., a substance able to increase the organism's resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors in a non-specific way. These adaptogen properties have been mainly attributed to the glycoside salidroside, one of the bioactive compounds present in the standardized extracts of R. Rosea. Here, we aimed to investigate whether a single dose of salidroside is able to affect memory and emotional behavior in wild type adult mice. We performed fear conditioning to assess cued and contextual memory, elevated plus maze and open field to evaluate anxiety, and tail suspension test to evaluate depression. Our results showed that a single i.p. administration of salidroside was able to enhance fear memory and exerted an anxiolytic and antidepressant effect. These data confirmed the adaptogenic effect of R. Rosea bioactive compounds in animal models and suggest that salidroside might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to ameliorate cognition and counteract mood disorders.

  2. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; Volk, N; Diehl, J J E; van Loon, J J A; Belušič, G

    2016-12-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years. Illumination by LEDs and the fluorescent tubes yielded equal numbers of egg clutches, however, the LED illumination resulted in significantly more larvae. The possibilities to optimize the current LED illumination system to better approximate the skylight illuminant and potentially optimize the larval yield are discussed.

  3. Selectable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode utilizing eye-type compound-ring configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Yu; Chen, Hone-Zhang; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) under a tuning range of 1530.0-1560.0 nm is proposed and demonstrated. Here, the mode spacing of lasing dual-wavelength from 1.0 to 30.0 nm can be selected arbitrarily in any wavelength position. To accomplish the SLM output, the eye-type compound-ring scheme is proposed inside ring cavity for suppressing the multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) highly. The entire measured output power and optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of each dual-wavelength are larger than -13.3 dBm and 60 dB respectively. In addition, the output stability measurement of proposed EDF laser is also performed and analyzed.

  4. Ultrastructure and mineral composition of the cornea cuticle in the compound eyes of a supralittoral and a marine isopod.

    PubMed

    Alagboso, Francisca I; Reisecker, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Ziegler, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The cuticle of the cornea in Crustacea is an interesting example of a composite material compromising between two distinct functions. As part of the dioptric apparatus of the ommatidia within the complex eye it forms transparent micro-lenses that should as well maintain the mechanical stability of the head capsule. We analyzed the ultrastructure and composition of the isopod cornea cuticle of the terrestrial species Ligia oceanica and the marine Sphaeroma serratum. We used a variety of tissue preparation methods, electron microscopic techniques as well as electron microprobe analysis and Raman spectroscopic imaging. The results reveal various structural adaptations that likely increase light transmission. These are an increase in the thickness of the epicuticle, a reduction of the thickness of the outer layer of calcite, a spatial restriction of pore canals to interommatidial regions, and, for S. serratum only, an increase in calcite crystal size. In both species protein-chitin fibrils within the proximal exocuticle form a peculiar reticular structure that does not occur within the cuticle of the head capsule. In L. oceanica differential mineralization results in a spherically shaped interface between mineralized and unmineralized endocuticle, likely an adaptation to increase the refractive power of the cornea maintaining the mechanical stability of the cuticle between the ommatidia. The results show that the habitat and differences in the general structure of the animal's cuticle affect the way in which the cornea is adapted to its optical function.

  5. Biomonitoring of Perfluorinated Compounds in Children and Adults Exposed to Perfluorooctanoate-Contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Hölzer, Jürgen; Midasch, Oliver; Rauchfuss, Knut; Kraft, Martin; Reupert, Rolf; Angerer, Jürgen; Kleeschulte, Peter; Marschall, Nina; Wilhelm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective 40,000 residents in Arnsberg, Germany, had been exposed to drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Internal exposure of the residents of Arnsberg to six PFCs was assessed in comparison with reference areas. Design and participants One hundred seventy children (5–6 years of age), 317 mothers (23–49 years), and 204 men (18–69 years) took part in the cross-sectional study. Measurements Individual consumption of drinking water and personal characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and interview. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoate, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoropentanoate, and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) in blood plasma and PFOA/PFOS in drinking water samples were measured by solid-phase extraction, high-performance liquid chromatrography, and tandem mass spectrometry detection. Results Of the various PFCs, PFOA was the main compound found in drinking water (500–640 ng/L). PFOA levels in blood plasma of residents living in Arnsberg were 4.5–8.3 times higher than those for the reference population (arithmetic means Arnsberg/controls: children 24.6/5.2 μg/L, mothers 26.7/3.2 μg/L, men 28.5/6.4 μg/L). Consumption of tap water at home was a significant predictor of PFOA blood concentrations in Arnsberg. PFHxS concentrations were significantly increased in Arnsberg compared with controls (p < 0.05). PFBS was detected in 33% of the children, 4% of the women, and 13% of the men in Arnsberg compared with 5%, 0.7%, and 3%, respectively, in the reference areas (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that age and male sex were significant predictors of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS; associations of other regressors (diet, body mass index) varied among PFCs. Conclusions PFC concentrations in blood plasma of children and adults exposed to PFC-contaminated drinking water were increased 4- to 8-fold compared with controls. PMID:18470314

  6. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  7. Identification of a Bioactive Compound against Adult T-cell Leukaemia from Bitter Gourd Seeds.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Akagi, Isao; Ino, Hisatoshi; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Okayama, Akihiko; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

    2013-12-27

    In our previous report, an 80% ethanol bitter gourd seed extract (BGSE) was found to suppress proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines. The present study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds from BGSE specific against ATL. From the result of an HPLC-MS analysis, α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) was present in BGSE at 0.68% ± 0.0022% (±SD, n = 5). In the cell proliferation test, α-ESA potently suppressed proliferation of two ATL cell lines (ED and Su9T01; IC50 = 8.9 and 29.3 µM, respectively) more than several other octadecanoic acids. However, α-ESA moderately inhibited phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; IC50 = 31.0 µM). These results suggest that BGSE-derived α-ESA has potential as a functional food constituent because of its activity against ATL, particularly against ED cells. Moreover, α-ESA might be effective for the prevention of moderate adverse effects of ATL on normal T cells.

  8. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  9. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  10. Watery eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of excess tearing is dry eyes . Drying causes the eyes to become uncomfortable, which stimulates the body to produce too many tears. One of the main tests for tearing is to check whether the eyes ...

  11. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 μW/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  12. Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Song, Young Min; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-10-01

    We report the biomimetic artificial silicon (Si) compound eye structures for broadband and wide-angle antireflection by integrating nanostructures (NSs) into periodically patterned microstructures (p-MSs) via thermal dewetting of gold and subsequent dry etching. The truncated cone microstructures with a two-dimensional hexagonal symmetry pattern were fabricated by photolithography and dry etching processes. The desirable shape and density of the nanostructures were obtained by controlled dewetting. The incorporation of p-MSs into the NS/Si surface further reduced the surface total reflectance over a wide wavelength range of 300-1030 nm at near normal incidence, indicating the average reflectance (Ravg) and solar weighted reflectance (RSWR) values of ~2.5% and 2%, respectively, compared to the only NSs on the flat Si surface (i.e., Ravg ~ 4.9% and RSWR ~ 4.5%). Additionally, the resulting structure improved the angle-dependent antireflection property due to its relatively omnidirectional shape, which exhibited the Ravg < 4.3% and RSWR < 3.7% in the wavelength region of 300-1100 nm even at a high incident light angle of 70° in the specular reflectance.We report the biomimetic artificial silicon (Si) compound eye structures for broadband and wide-angle antireflection by integrating nanostructures (NSs) into periodically patterned microstructures (p-MSs) via thermal dewetting of gold and subsequent dry etching. The truncated cone microstructures with a two-dimensional hexagonal symmetry pattern were fabricated by photolithography and dry etching processes. The desirable shape and density of the nanostructures were obtained by controlled dewetting. The incorporation of p-MSs into the NS/Si surface further reduced the surface total reflectance over a wide wavelength range of 300-1030 nm at near normal incidence, indicating the average reflectance (Ravg) and solar weighted reflectance (RSWR) values of ~2.5% and 2%, respectively, compared to the only NSs on the flat Si

  13. Eye movements and the perceptual span during first- and second-language sentence reading in bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2016-02-01

    This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy.

  14. The Expression of Three Opsin Genes from the Compound Eye of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Is Regulated by a Circadian Clock, Light Conditions and Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Zhang, Xinfang; Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2014-01-01

    Visual genes may become inactive in species that inhabit poor light environments, and the function and regulation of opsin components in nocturnal moths are interesting topics. In this study, we cloned the ultraviolet (UV), blue (BL) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsin genes from the compound eye of the cotton bollworm and then measured their mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels fluctuated over a daily cycle, which might be an adaptation of a nocturnal lifestyle, and were dependent on a circadian clock. Cycling of opsin mRNA levels was disturbed by constant light or constant darkness, and the UV opsin gene was up-regulated after light exposure. Furthermore, the opsin genes tended to be down-regulated upon starvation. Thus, this study illustrates that opsin gene expression is determined by multiple endogenous and exogenous factors and is adapted to the need for nocturnal vision, suggesting that color vision may play an important role in the sensory ecology of nocturnal moths. PMID:25353953

  15. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

    2001-01-01

    The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

  16. Changes in the activity of units of the cat motor cortex with rapid conditioning and extinction of a compound eye blink movement.

    PubMed

    Aou, S; Woody, C D; Birt, D

    1992-02-01

    Patterns of spike activity were measured in the pericruciate cortex of conscious cats before and after development of a Pavlovian conditioned eye blink response. Unit activity was tested with presentations of a click conditioned stimulus (CS) and a hiss discriminative stimulus (DS) of similar intensity to the click. Unit discharge in response to the CS increased after conditioning, but not after backward conditioning when conditioned reflexes (CRs) were not performed. Rates of spontaneous, baseline discharge were not increased after conditioning with respect to rates of discharge measured in the naive state. It appeared that an increase in the ratio of CS-elicited discharge to background activity, together with an increase in the number of units responding to the CS after conditioning, supported discrimination of the CS from the DS and performance of the conditioned blink response. This is the first detailed characterization of patterns of a rapidly conditioned Pavlovian response. Activation of units by the CS preceded the onset of the CR, supporting the hypothesis that the activity played a role in initiating the conditioned eye blink movement. Extinction with retention of performance of the CR was associated with perseverance of the increased unit discharge in response to the CS. Extinction with substantially reduced performance of the CR was associated with diminution of the unit response to the CS below levels found with conditioning. Averages of patterns of spike activity elicited by the CS after conditioning showed components of discharge with onsets of 8-40 msec (alpha 1), 40-72 msec (alpha 2), 72-112 msec (beta), and greater than 112 msec (gamma), corresponding to each of four separate excitatory EMG components of the compound blink CR. Each component increased in magnitude after conditioning, relative to levels found in the naive state. The finding that long- as well as short-latency components of unit activation increased after conditioning supported the

  17. How small can small be: the compound eye of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma evanescens (Westwood, 1833) (Hymenoptera, Hexapoda), an insect of 0.3- to 0.4-mm total body size.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefan; Müller, Carsten H G; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2011-07-01

    With a body length of only 0.3-0.4 mm, the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma evanescens (Westwood) is one of the smallest insects known. Yet, despite its diminutive size, it possesses compound eyes that are of oval shapes, measuring across their long axes in dorsoventral direction 63.39 and 71.11 μm in males and females, respectively. The corresponding facet diameters are 5.90 μm for males and 6.39 μm for females. Owing to the small radii of curvature of the eyes in males (34.59 μm) and females (42.82 μm), individual ommatidia are short with respective lengths of 24.29 and 34.97 μm. The eyes are of the apposition kind, and each ommatidium possesses four cone cells of the eucone type and a centrally fused rhabdom, which throughout its length is formed by no more than eight retinula cells. A ninth cell occupies the place of the eighth retinula cell in the distal third of the rhabdom. The cone is shielded by two primary and six secondary pigment cells, all with no apparent extensions to the basement membrane, unlike the case in larger hymenopterans. The regular and dense packing of the rhabdoms reflects an effective use of space. Calculations on the optics of the eyes of Trichogramma suggest that the eyes need not be diffraction limited, provided they use mostly shorter wavelengths, that is, UV light. Publications on the visual behavior of these wasps confirm Trichogramma's sensitivity to UV radiation. On the basis of our findings, some general functional conclusions for very small compound eyes are formulated.

  18. Adult age and gender differences in perceptions of facial attractiveness: beauty is in the eye of the older beholder.

    PubMed

    Foos, Paul W; Clark, M Cherie

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ratings of facial attractiveness, rankings of faces and reasons given by young, middle-aged, and older men and women for young, middle-aged, and older male and female face attractiveness. No support for predictions derived from similarity, interest, and cohort hypotheses was obtained. In support of the expertise hypothesis, young and middle-aged adults rated younger faces as more attractive than old faces, whereas older adults rated all aged faces equally. In support of the crone hypothesis, older female faces were rated the lowest of all faces. Theoretical implications and real-world applications are discussed.

  19. More than Meets the Eye: Adult Education for Critical Consciousness in Luis Camnitzer's Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorrilla, Ana Carlina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness through the conceptual art of Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework grounding this research was critical public pedagogy, influenced by both critical theory and Stuart Hall's systems of representation (1997). This framework…

  20. The Role of Physical Attractiveness in the Observation of Adult-Child Interactions: Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    The susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias due to the physical attractiveness of target persons was examined. Facial features of target persons were occluded in one version of a videotape and unoccluded in another, otherwise identical version. Using a global rating system and a molecular coding strategy, 38 trained…

  1. Segregation of visual inputs from different regions of the compound eye in two parallel pathways through the anterior optic tubercle of the bumblebee (Bombus ignitus).

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Keram; Kinoshita, Michiyo

    2012-02-01

    Visually guided behaviors require the brain to extract features of the visual world and to integrate them in a context-specific manner. Hymenopteran insects have been prime models for ethological research into visual behaviors for decades but knowledge about the underlying central processing is very limited. This is particularly the case for sky-compass navigation. To learn more about central processing of visual information in general and specifically to reveal a possible polarization vision pathway in the bee brain, we used tracer injections to investigate the pathways through the anterior optic tubercle, a prominent output target of the insect optic lobe, in the bumblebee Bombus ignitus. The anterior optic tubercle of the bumblebee is a small neuropil of 200 μm width and is located dorsolateral to the antennal lobe at the anterior surface of the brain. It is divided into a larger upper and a smaller lower subunit, both of which receive input from the optic lobe and connect to the lateral accessory lobe, and the contralateral tubercle, via two parallel pathways. The lower subunit receives input from the dorsal rim area (DRA) of the compound eye. The bumblebee DRA shares structural similarities with polarization-sensitive DRAs of other insects and looks similar to that of honeybees. We identified several neurons within this pathway that could be homologous to identified polarization-sensitive neurons in the locust brain. We therefore conclude that the pathway through the lower subunit of the anterior optic tubercle could carry polarization information from the periphery to the central brain.

  2. Investigation of a mortality cluster in wild adult yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) at Otago Peninsula, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Brett; Agnew, David; Alley, Maurice; Carpenter, Tim; Ha, Hye Jeong; Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; McInnes, Kate; Munday, Rex; Wendi, Roe; Melanie, Young

    2016-12-06

    We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between January 21 and March 20, 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined postmortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established. Virology, bacteriology and molecular tests for avian influenza, avian paramyxovirus-1, avipoxvirus, Chlamydia psittaci, Plasmodium spp, Babesia spp, Leucocytozoon spp, and Toxoplasma gondii were negative. Tissue concentrations of a range of heavy metals (n = 4 birds) were consistent with low level exposure, while examination of proventricular contents and mucus failed to detect any marine biotoxins or Clostridium botulinum toxin. Hepatic concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (n = 5 birds) were similar to background concentrations of PAHs previously found in yellow-eyed penguins from the South Island of New Zealand, but there were significantly higher concentrations of 1-methylnapthelene and 2-methylnapthelene in the birds found dead in this mortality cluster. The biological significance of this finding is unclear. A temporal investigation of the epidemic did not indicate either a common source or propagative epidemic pattern. Although our investigation did not definitively implicate a toxic or infectious agent, the results identified possible causes, such as toxic marine organisms and mycoplasmosis that should be investigated further in the event of future mortality clusters.

  3. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  4. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue covering the front of the eye. Dust, sand, and other debris can easily enter the eye. ... clear itself of tiny objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. If not, don't ...

  5. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight for victory. Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  6. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  7. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is usually a temporary condition associated with seasonal allergies. You can get eye allergies from pet dander, ... Privacy Policy Related Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Eye ...

  8. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  9. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.; Yu, Esther Y. T.; Chow, Gary C. C.; Chak, Yvonne T. C.; Chan, Ivy K. Y.; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  10. Toward an Understanding of Divergent Compound Eye Development in Drones and Workers of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.): A Correlative Analysis of Morphology and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Marco Antonio, David S; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina. The expression analysis focused on seven genes important for Drosophila eye development: eyes absent, sine oculis, embryonic lethal abnormal vision, minibrain, small optic lobes, epidermal growth factor receptor, and roughest. All except small optic lobes were more highly expressed in third-instar drone larvae, but then, in the fourth and fifth instar, their expression was sex-specifically modulated, showing shifts in temporal dynamics. The clearest differences were seen for small optic lobes, which is highly expressed in the developing eye of workers, and minibrain and roughest, which showed a strong expression peak coinciding with retina differentiation. A microarray analysis for optic lobe/retina complexes revealed the differential expression of several metabolism-related genes, as well as of two micro-RNAs. While we could not see major morphological differences in the developing eye structures before the pupal stage, the expression differences observed for the seven candidate genes and in the transcriptional microarray profiles indicate that molecular signatures underlying sex-specific optic lobe and retina development become established throughout the larval stages.

  11. Eye-tracking the time-course of novel word learning and lexical competition in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Weighall, A R; Henderson, L M; Barr, D J; Cairney, S A; Gaskell, M G

    2017-04-01

    Lexical competition is a hallmark of proficient, automatic word recognition. Previous research suggests that there is a delay before a new spoken word becomes engaged in this process, with sleep playing an important role. However, data from one method - the visual world paradigm - consistently show competition without a delay. We trained 42 adults and 40 children (aged 7-8) on novel word-object pairings, and employed this paradigm to measure the time-course of lexical competition. Fixations to novel objects upon hearing existing words (e.g., looks to the novel object biscal upon hearing "click on the biscuit") were compared to fixations on untrained objects. Novel word-object pairings learned immediately before testing and those learned the previous day exhibited significant competition effects, with stronger competition for the previous day pairings for children but not adults. Crucially, this competition effect was significantly smaller for novel than existing competitors (e.g., looks to candy upon hearing "click on the candle"), suggesting that novel items may not compete for recognition like fully-fledged lexical items, even after 24h. Explicit memory (cued recall) was superior for words learned the day before testing, particularly for children; this effect (but not the lexical competition effects) correlated with sleep-spindle density. Together, the results suggest that different aspects of new word learning follow different time courses: visual world competition effects can emerge swiftly, but are qualitatively different from those observed with established words, and are less reliant upon sleep. Furthermore, the findings fit with the view that word learning earlier in development is boosted by sleep to a greater degree.

  12. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC se...

  13. Dimensional limits for arthropod eyes with superposition optics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Gál, József

    2004-01-01

    An essential feature of the superposition type of compound eye is the presence of a wide zone, which is transparent and devoid of pigment and interposed between the distal array of dioptric elements and the proximally placed photoreceptive layer. Parallel rays, collected by many lenses, must (through reflection or refraction) cross this transparent clear-zone in such a way that they become focused on one receptor. Superposition depends mostly on diameter and curvature of the cornea, size and shape of the crystalline cone, lens cylinder properties of cornea and cone, dimensions of the receptor cells, and width of the clear-zone. We examined the role of the latter by geometrical, geometric-optical, and anatomical measurements and concluded that a minimal size exists, below which effective superposition can no longer occur. For an eye of a given size, it is not possible to increase the width of the clear-zone cz=dcz/R1 and decrease R2 (i.e., the radius of curvature of the distal retinal surface) and/or c=dc/R1 without reaching a limit. In the equations 'cz' is the width of the clear-zone dcz relative to the radius R1 of the eye and c is the length of the cornea-cone unit relative to R1. Our results provide one explanation as to why apposition eyes exist in very small scarabaeid beetles, when generally the taxon Scarabaeoidea is characterized by the presence of superposition eyes. The results may also provide the answer for the puzzle why juveniles or the young of species, in which the adults possess superposition (=clear-zone) eyes, frequently bear eyes that do not contain a clear zone, but resemble apposition eyes. The eyes of the young and immature specimens may simply be too small to permit superposition to occur.

  14. Effects of oral temazepam on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep in healthy young adults: a high-density EEG investigation

    PubMed Central

    Plante, DT; Goldstein, MR; Cook, JD; Smith, R; Riedner, BA; Rumble, ME; Jelenchick, L; Roth, A; Tononi, G; Benca, RM; Peterson, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Slow waves are characteristic waveforms that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep that play an integral role in sleep quality and brain plasticity. Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter slow waves, however, their effects may depend on the time of night and measure used to characterize slow waves. Prior investigations have utilized minimal scalp derivations to evaluate the effects of benzodiazepines on slow waves, and thus the topography of changes to slow waves induced by benzodiazepines has yet to be fully elucidated. This study used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to evaluate the effects of oral temazepam on slow wave activity, incidence, and morphology during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults relative to placebo. Temazepam was associated with significant decreases in slow wave activity and incidence, which were most prominent in the latter portions of the sleep period. However, temazepam was also associated with a decrease in the magnitude of high-amplitude slow waves and their slopes in the first NREM sleep episode, which was most prominent in frontal derivations. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines produce changes in slow waves throughout the night that vary depending on cortical topography and measures used to characterize slow waves. Further research that explores the relationships between benzodiazepine-induced changes to slow waves and the functional effects of these waveforms is indicated. PMID:26779596

  15. Effects of oral temazepam on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep in healthy young adults: A high-density EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Plante, D T; Goldstein, M R; Cook, J D; Smith, R; Riedner, B A; Rumble, M E; Jelenchick, L; Roth, A; Tononi, G; Benca, R M; Peterson, M J

    2016-03-01

    Slow waves are characteristic waveforms that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep that play an integral role in sleep quality and brain plasticity. Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter slow waves, however, their effects may depend on the time of night and measure used to characterize slow waves. Prior investigations have utilized minimal scalp derivations to evaluate the effects of benzodiazepines on slow waves, and thus the topography of changes to slow waves induced by benzodiazepines has yet to be fully elucidated. This study used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to evaluate the effects of oral temazepam on slow wave activity, incidence, and morphology during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults relative to placebo. Temazepam was associated with significant decreases in slow wave activity and incidence, which were most prominent in the latter portions of the sleep period. However, temazepam was also associated with a decrease in the magnitude of high-amplitude slow waves and their slopes in the first NREM sleep episode, which was most prominent in frontal derivations. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines produce changes in slow waves throughout the night that vary depending on cortical topography and measures used to characterize slow waves. Further research that explores the relationships between benzodiazepine-induced changes to slow waves and the functional effects of these waveforms is indicated.

  16. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult posttraumatic stress disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Guiqing; Hu, Min; Liang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common mental disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of ∼5.7%. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most often studied and most effective psychotherapies for PTSD. However, evidence is inadequate to conclude which treatment is superior. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the effectiveness of EMDR compared to CBT for adult PTSD. We searched Medline, PubMed, Ebsco, Proquest, and Cochrane (1989-2013) to identify relevant randomized control trials comparing EMDR and CBT for PTSD. We included 11 studies (N = 424). Although all the studies had methodological limitations, meta-analyses for total PTSD scores revealed that EMDR was slightly superior to CBT. Cumulative meta-analysis confirmed this and a meta-analysis for subscale scores of PTSD symptoms indicated that EMDR was better for decreased intrusion and arousal severity compared to CBT. Avoidance was not significantly different between groups. EMDR may be more suitable than CBT for PTSD patients with prominent intrusion or arousal symptoms. However, the limited number and poor quality of the original studies included suggest caution when drawing final conclusions.

  17. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  18. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  19. Distribution of Müller stem cells within the neural retina: evidence for the existence of a ciliary margin-like zone in the adult human eye.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Bhairavi; Singhal, Shweta; Lawrence, Jean M; Khaw, Peng T; Limb, G Astrid

    2009-09-01

    Much interest has been generated by the identification of neural stem cells in the human neural retina and ciliary body. However, it is not clear whether stem cells identified in these ocular compartments are of the same origin or whether they ontogenically derive from different cell populations. This study examined the in situ anatomical distribution of these cells within the neural retina and ciliary body, as well as their ability to proliferate in response to EGF. Human retinae and ciliary body were examined for co-expression of Nestin, cellular retinaldehyde binding (CRALBP) or Vimentin, and the stem cell markers SOX2, CHX10, NOTCH1 and SHH. Retinal explants were cultured with epidermal growth factor (EGF) to assess retinal cell proliferation. Intense Nestin and CRALBP staining was observed in the neural retinal margin, where cells formed bundles of spindle cells (resembling glial cells) that lacked lamination and co-stained for SOX2, CHX10 and SHH. This staining differentiated the neural retina from the ciliary epithelium, which expressed SOX2, CHX10 and NOTCH1 but not Nestin or CRALBP. Nestin and CRALBP expression decreased towards the posterior retina, where it anatomically identified a population of Müller glia. All Vimentin positive Müller glia co-stained for SOX2, but only few Vimentin positive cells expressed Nestin and SOX2. Cells of the retinal margin and the inner nuclear layer (INL), where the soma of Müller glia predominate, re-entered the cell cycle upon retinal explant culture with EGF. Lack of lamination and abundance of Müller glia expressing stem cell markers in the marginal region of the adult human retina resemble the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of fish and amphibians. The findings that cells in this CM-like zone, as well in the inner nuclear layer proliferate in response to EGF suggest that the adult human retina has regenerative potential. Identification of factors that may promote retinal regeneration in the adult human eye would

  20. Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The status of eye care in the Caribbean is discussed. Methods of primary eye care providers at all levels from primary to tertiary in the region are presented against a background of the major causes of blindness, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Epidemiological surveys examining prevalence, risk factors, and intervention programs are being undertaken. PMID:3404562

  1. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Eye Infections in Infants & Children Page Content ​​​If the ... must be treated early to prevent serious complications. Eye infections that occur after the newborn period: These ...

  2. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... sense combinations of light waves that enable our eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones ... the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  3. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  4. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment. PMID:28290486

  5. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment.

  6. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-03-14

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment.

  7. Strabismus and eye muscle function.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, Gunnar

    2007-11-01

    Studies of external eye muscle morphology and physiology are reviewed, with respect to both motor and sensory functions in concomitant strabismus. The eye muscles have a more complex fibre composition than other striated muscle, and they are among the fastest and most fatigue-resistant muscles in the body. However, it is not generally believed that concomitant strabismus is due to a primary abnormality of the eye muscles or the ocular motor system. The gross anatomy of eye muscles, including the shape and position of the eye muscle pulleys, was not changed in strabismus. The histology of the eye muscle fibres was also basically the same, but changes have been observed in the cellular and biochemical machinery of the fibres, most notably in the singly innervated orbital fibres. Functionally, this was seen as slower contractions and reduced fatigue resistance of eye muscles in animals with strabismus and defects of binocular vision. Most likely the changes represented an adaptation to modified visual demands on the ocular motor control, because of the defects of binocular vision in strabismus from an early age. Adaptation of eye muscle function to visual demands could be seen also in the adult human ocular motor system, but here the effects could be reversed with treatment in some conditions. External eye muscles in the human have sensory organs, muscle spindles and tendon organs, responding to changes in muscle force and length. It is not known how these proprioceptors are used more specifically in ocular motor control, and there is no stretch reflex in the external eye muscles. However, a clear influence on space localization and eye position can be demonstrated with vibratory stimulation of the eye muscles, presumably activating muscle spindles. Different effects were observed in normal subjects and in adult patients with strabismus, which would indicate that the proprioceptive input from one eye of strabismic patients could be suppressed by the other eye, similar

  8. Age-related difference in size of brain regions for song learning in adult male dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Deviche, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In seasonally breeding adult male songbirds, the volumes of several song control regions (SCRs) change seasonally in parallel with plasma testosterone (T) levels and decrease following gonadectomy. Testosterone treatment to castrates prevents this decrease, indicating T dependency. During the breeding season, second-year (SY: birds entering their first breeding season) free-ranging male Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) have smaller testes than older (after second-year, ASY: birds entering at least their second breeding season) birds. SY males also have lower plasma T concentrations than ASY males at the beginning of the breeding season. We investigated differences in song structure of the two age groups and the relationship between age differences in gonadal function and SCR sizes. The average number of syllables per song, syllable duration, trill rate, song duration, and variability in song duration were age-independent. Two brain regions that are thought to be involved primarily in song learning and perception were 13 and 18% larger, respectively, in SY than in ASY males, the opposite of what would be expected based solely on reproductive measures (testis mass and cloacal protuberance width). In contrast, the volumes of two regions that directly control song expression did not differ with age. The lack of age-related size differences in regions that are required for song production may indicate that male juncos of all ages have similar brain space requirements for motor production. Where there were size differences, they were restricted to regions primarily controlling vocal behavior acquisition/perception, suggesting that first time breeders need more brain space than experienced breeders to acquire crystallized song and/or acoustically perceive aspects of their environment.

  9. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase 1. Acute Oral Toxicity Primary Skin and Eye Irritation, Dermal Sensitization, and Disposition and Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-22

    and 6 days for 1,3-DNG and 1-MNG. WP caused depression, anorexia, and death in several days with enlarged yellow nutmeg livers. ^ 2,5-DNT was...several days. Animals that died were found to have large yellow nutmeg livers. Primary skin irritation and eye irritation tests were negative with a...amount of radioactivity is consistent with white phosphorus poisoning since enlarged nutmeg liver was observed in the acute oral toxicity study. The

  10. Differences between the neurogenic and proliferative abilities of Müller glia with stem cell characteristics and the ciliary epithelium from the adult human eye.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Bhairavi; Jayaram, Hari; Singhal, Shweta; Jones, Megan F; Limb, G Astrid

    2011-12-01

    Much controversy has arisen on the nature and sources of stem cells in the adult human retina. Whilst ciliary epithelium has been thought to constitute a source of neural stem cells, a population of Müller glia in the neural retina has also been shown to exhibit neurogenic characteristics. This study aimed to compare the neurogenic and proliferative abilities between these two major cell populations. It also examined whether differences exist between the pigmented and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (CE) from the adult human eye. On this basis, Müller glia with stem cell characteristics and pigmented and non-pigmented CE were isolated from human neural retina and ciliary epithelium respectively. Expression of glial, epithelial and neural progenitor markers was examined in these cells following culture under adherent and non-adherent conditions and treatments to induce neural differentiation. Unlike pigmented CE which did not proliferate, non-pigmented CE cells exhibited limited proliferation in vitro, unless epidermal growth factor (EGF) was present in the culture medium to prolong their survival. In contrast, Müller glial stem cells (MSC) cultured as adherent monolayers reached confluence within a few weeks and continued to proliferative indefinitely in the absence of EGF. Both MSC and non-pigmented CE expressed markers of neural progenitors, including SOX2, PAX6, CHX10 and NOTCH. Nestin, a neural stem cell marker, was only expressed by MSC. Non-pigmented CE displayed epithelial morphology, limited photoreceptor gene expression and stained strongly for pigmented epithelial markers upon culture with neural differentiation factors. In contrast, MSC adopted neural morphology and expressed markers of retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptors when cultured under similar conditions. This study provides the first demonstration that pigmented CE possess different proliferative abilities from non-pigmented CE. It also showed that although non-pigmented CE express genes

  11. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  12. Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  13. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  14. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  15. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  16. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ESTROGENIC COMPOUNDS AND THE SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS ON THE PROSTRATE OF THE ADULT RAT: EVALUATION OF INFLAMMATION IN THE VENTRAL AND LATERAL LOBES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perinatal exposure to estrogenic compounds and the subsequent effects on the prostate of the adult rat: evaluation of inflammation in the ventral and lateral lobes.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National ...

  17. New Approach to Evaluate the Antennal Response of an Adult Predator Insect to Different Volatile Chemical Compounds by using Electroantennogram Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.

    The antennal response of adult syrphid flies to selected plant volatile chemical compounds was investigated in the present study. The main chemical classes and their chemical compounds were aldehydes (nonanal and benzaldehyde), monoterpene-alcohols (linalool and alpha-terpineol), ketones (6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and 2-undecanone), hydrocarbons (tetradecane) and benzoids (methyl salicylate). Electroantennogram (EAG) records showed that the syrphid antennae were strongly responded to linalool, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and methyl salicylate even at low concentrations, in addition to the high dose concentration of nonanal comparably to the other chemical compounds. The antennae of old syrphid adults were more responsive and elicited higher levels of responses to all compounds rather than young syrphid adults. The antennal sensitivity may differ from one compound to another according to the sex. The difference in responses could be attributed to the sensitivity of olfactory receptors and/or the characterization of binding protein(s). The quality of biocontrol agent could be improved if the chemical interaction between beneficial natural enemies and the surrounding environment is intensively studied and we clearly understand the chemical ecology of each natural enemy.

  18. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Combination with Induction Chemotherapy for Treating Adult Patients Newly Diagnosed with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Honglei; Lei, Bo; Meng, Shan; Liu, Hailing; Wei, Yongchang; He, Aili; Zhang, Wanggang

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of CKI (compound Kushen injection) plus standard induction chemotherapy for treating adult acute leukemia (AL). We randomly assigned 332 patients with newly diagnosed AL to control (n = 165, receiving DA (daunorubicin and cytarabine) or hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone)) or treatment (n = 167, receiving CKI and DA or hyper-CVAD) groups. Posttreatment, treatment group CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, natural killer (NK) cell, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05), and CD8+ levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment group interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher compared to the control posttreatment (both p < 0.05) as were complete remission, overall response, and quality of life (QoL) improvement rates (p < 0.05). The control group had more incidences of grade 3/4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity (p < 0.05). Responses to induction chemotherapy, QoL improvement, and adverse events incidence between control group patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia were not significantly different. CKI plus standard induction chemotherapy is effective and safe for treating AL, possibly by increasing immunologic function. PMID:27738441

  19. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  20. Development of the lateral eye of American horseshoe crabs: visual field and dioptric array.

    PubMed

    Shih, M J; Weiner, W W; Wheatley, K K; DePoncheau, J L; Sydlik, M A; Chamberlain, S C

    1995-01-01

    We used a precision two-circle goniometer mounted to the stage of a compound microscope to determine the optical alignment and to measure the entrance aperture diameter of individual cuticular cones in the dioptric array of the lateral eye of juvenile horseshoe crabs in order to learn about the development of the visual field. Our results show that the extent of the visual field of juvenile horseshoe crabs with prosomal lengths about 20% of adult size (14-21 mm) is about 70% that of the visual field of adult horseshoe crabs (prosomal lengths: 100+ mm). The visual field of such juvenile animals covers between 77 and 85 deg vertically and 140 and 145 deg horizontally. Assuming that the dioptric array is uniform and square packed, the average interommatidial angle of the juvenile animals is between 5.6 and 6.0 deg as compared to 4.6 deg for an adult animal. The diameter of the entrance aperture of individual cuticular cones increases markedly with increasing animal size. In addition, we noted a statistically significant trend for entrance aperture diameters to increase from anterior to posterior within the eye for animals of all sizes. There may be a slight trend for entrance aperture diameters to increase from dorsal to ventral within the eye. Our results indicate that the extent of the visual field and the resolution of the lateral eye approach adult values in advance of animals' reaching sexual maturity.

  1. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  2. Kinematics of Visually-Guided Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Bernhard J. M.; Thomassen, Jakob S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of an eye movement that follows Listing’s law is the half-angle rule that says that the angular velocity of the eye tilts by half the angle of eccentricity of the line of sight relative to primary eye position. Since all visually-guided eye movements in the regime of far viewing follow Listing’s law (with the head still and upright), the question about its origin is of considerable importance. Here, we provide theoretical and experimental evidence that Listing’s law results from a unique motor strategy that allows minimizing ocular torsion while smoothly tracking objects of interest along any path in visual space. The strategy consists in compounding conventional ocular rotations in meridian planes, that is in horizontal, vertical and oblique directions (which are all torsion-free) with small linear displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. Such compound rotation-displacements of the eye can explain the kinematic paradox that the fixation point may rotate in one plane while the eye rotates in other planes. Its unique signature is the half-angle law in the position domain, which means that the rotation plane of the eye tilts by half-the angle of gaze eccentricity. We show that this law does not readily generalize to the velocity domain of visually-guided eye movements because the angular eye velocity is the sum of two terms, one associated with rotations in meridian planes and one associated with displacements of the eye in the frontal plane. While the first term does not depend on eye position the second term does depend on eye position. We show that compounded rotation - displacements perfectly predict the average smooth kinematics of the eye during steady- state pursuit in both the position and velocity domain. PMID:24751602

  3. Co-morbidity of depression and anxiety in common age-related eye diseases: a population-based study of 662 adults.

    PubMed

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Wood, Joanne; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of co-morbid age-related eye disease and symptoms of depression and anxiety in late life, and the relative roles of visual function and disease in explaining symptoms of depression and anxiety. A community-based sample of 662 individuals aged over 70 years was recruited through the electoral roll. Vision was measured using a battery of tests including high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, motion sensitivity, stereoacuity, Useful Field of View, and visual fields. Depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Goldberg scales. The prevalence of self-reported eye disease [cataract, glaucoma, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD)] in the sample was 43.4%, with 7.7% reporting more than one form of ocular pathology. Of those with no eye disease, 3.7% had clinically significant depressive symptoms. This rate was 6.7% among cataract patients, 4.3% among those with glaucoma, and 10.5% for AMD. Generalized linear models adjusting for demographics, general health, treatment, and disability examined self-reported eye disease and visual function as correlates of depression and anxiety. Depressive symptoms were associated with cataract only, AMD, comorbid eye diseases and reduced low contrast visual acuity. Anxiety was significantly associated with self-reported cataract, and reduced low contrast visual acuity, motion sensitivity and contrast sensitivity. We found no evidence for elevated rates of depressive or anxiety symptoms associated with self-reported glaucoma. The results support previous findings of high rates of depression and anxiety in cataract and AMD, and in addition show that mood and anxiety are associated with objective measures of visual function independently of self-reported eye disease. The findings have implications for the assessment and treatment of mental health in the context of late-life visual impairment.

  4. Co-morbidity of depression and anxiety in common age-related eye diseases: a population-based study of 662 adults

    PubMed Central

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Wood, Joanne; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of co-morbid age-related eye disease and symptoms of depression and anxiety in late life, and the relative roles of visual function and disease in explaining symptoms of depression and anxiety. A community-based sample of 662 individuals aged over 70 years was recruited through the electoral roll. Vision was measured using a battery of tests including high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, motion sensitivity, stereoacuity, Useful Field of View, and visual fields. Depression and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Goldberg scales. The prevalence of self-reported eye disease [cataract, glaucoma, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD)] in the sample was 43.4%, with 7.7% reporting more than one form of ocular pathology. Of those with no eye disease, 3.7% had clinically significant depressive symptoms. This rate was 6.7% among cataract patients, 4.3% among those with glaucoma, and 10.5% for AMD. Generalized linear models adjusting for demographics, general health, treatment, and disability examined self-reported eye disease and visual function as correlates of depression and anxiety. Depressive symptoms were associated with cataract only, AMD, comorbid eye diseases and reduced low contrast visual acuity. Anxiety was significantly associated with self-reported cataract, and reduced low contrast visual acuity, motion sensitivity and contrast sensitivity. We found no evidence for elevated rates of depressive or anxiety symptoms associated with self-reported glaucoma. The results support previous findings of high rates of depression and anxiety in cataract and AMD, and in addition show that mood and anxiety are associated with objective measures of visual function independently of self-reported eye disease. The findings have implications for the assessment and treatment of mental health in the context of late-life visual impairment. PMID:24106477

  5. Hydrocaffeic and p-coumaric acids, natural phenolic compounds, inhibit UV-B damage in WKD human conjunctival cells in vitro and rabbit eye in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larrosa, Mar; Lodovici, Maura; Morbidelli, Lucia; Dolara, Piero

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the effect on UV-B ocular damage of 10microM hydrocaffeic acid (HCAF) alone and as a mixture (MIX) (5 microM HCAF+5 microM p-coumaric acid). Since ocular UV-B damage is mediated by reactive oxygen species, the aim was to test if HCAF and MIX could reduce oxidation damage in human conjunctival cells (WKD) in vitro and in cornea and sclera of rabbits in vivo. After UVB irradiation (44 J/m(2)) of WKD cells, 8-oxodG levels in DNA were markedly increased and this effect was attenuated by HCAF and MIX. Rabbit eyes were treated by application of HCAF and MIX drops before UV-B exposure (79 J/m(2)). Corneal and scleral DNA oxidation damage, xanthine-oxidase (XO) activity and malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in corneal tissue and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humour were reduced by HCAF alone and in combination with p-coumaric acid, showing their potential as a topical treatment against UV-B damage.

  6. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  7. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  8. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  9. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  10. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran ...

  11. Eye Involvement in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  12. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  13. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  14. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  15. About the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  16. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids > Sports and Your Eyes All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  17. Advances in Relating Eye Movements and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Mary M.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of eye movements is a powerful tool for investigating perceptual and cognitive function in both infants and adults. Straightforwardly, eye movements provide a multifaceted measure of performance. For example, the location of fixations, their duration, time of occurrence, and accuracy all are potentially revealing and often allow…

  18. The visual fields of American horseshoe crabs: two different eye shapes in Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, W W; Chamberlain, S C

    1994-01-01

    The optical alignment of individual cuticular cones in the dioptric array of the lateral eye of Limulus polyphemus was determined with a precision two-circle goniometer constructed and mounted to the stage of a compound microscope and using a new formaldehyde-induced fluorescence procedure. All measurements were made from the corneal surface of the excised eye mounted in seawater through an air/water interface perpendicular to the optic axis of the microscope. Our results revealed two variants of visual field and eye curvature which can actually be discriminated in casual examination of adult animals. We call animals possessing these two variants "morlocks" and "eloi." Adult male and female morlocks about 25 cm across the carapace have eyes which are relatively elongated, often darker in pigmentation, smaller, and relatively flatter in curvature. Morlocks have a monocular field of view of about 3.13 steradians or 50% of a hemisphere. The coverage averages 115 deg along the vertical axis and 168 deg along the horizontal axis of the eye, with maximum resolution in the anteroventral quadrant. Adult male and female eloi of comparable size have eyes which are relatively more round, often lighter in pigmentation, larger with more ommatidia, and relatively more bulged. Eloi have a monocular field of view of approximately 3.83 steradians or 61% of a hemisphere that covers 145 deg vertically and 185 deg horizontally. Eloi have more uniform resolution than morlocks with best resolution in the posteroventral quadrant. All horseshoe crabs examined, whether morlocks or eloi, have an identical orientation of the margin of the eye relative to the animals' coordinates.

  19. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  20. Creative Writing: The Inner Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelna, Joseph L.

    1971-01-01

    A creative writing magazine entitled The Inner Eye" manages to reach into hitherto untouched circles of young adults, and, in the process, gives the so-called culturally deprived" minority a chance to get rid of theat misleading label once and for all. (Author)

  1. Loiasis: African eye worm.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Jeannie J; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2008-10-01

    The filarial parasite Loa loa is transmitted by Chrysops fly bites. Loiasis is endemic in rainforest areas of West and Central Africa, and sporadic cases have also been diagnosed in travellers and migrants. Whilst many infected persons are asymptomatic, microfilariae may be detected in the blood or adult worms may be seen under the skin or the sclera of the eye. Mass treatment programmes for onchocerciasis have raised concern about the risk of severe adverse effects when ivermectin is distributed in areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis.

  2. I Can't Take My Eyes Off of You: Attentional Allocation to Infant, Child, Adolescent and Adult Faces in Mothers and Non-Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Booth, Chloe; Viding, Essi; Mayes, Linda C.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Hodsoll, Sara; McCrory, Eamon

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported previously that infant faces elicit enhanced attentional allocation compared to adult faces in adult women, particularly when these faces are emotional and when the participants are mothers, as compared to non-mothers [1]. However, it remains unclear whether this increased salience of infant faces as compared to adult faces extends to children older than infant age, or whether infant faces have a unique capacity to elicit preferential attentional allocation compared to juvenile or adult faces. Therefore, this study investigated attentional allocation to a variety of different aged faces (infants, pre-adolescent children, adolescents, and adults) in 84 adult women, 39 of whom were mothers. Consistent with previous findings, infant faces were found to elicit greater attentional engagement compared to pre-adolescent, adolescent, or adult faces, particularly when the infants displayed distress; again, this effect was more pronounced in mothers compared to non-mothers. Pre-adolescent child faces were also found to elicit greater attentional engagement compared to adolescent and adult faces, but only when they displayed distress. No preferential attentional allocation was observed for adolescent compared to adult faces. These findings indicate that cues potentially signalling vulnerability, specifically age and sad affect, interact to engage attention. They point to a potentially important mechanism, which helps facilitate caregiving behaviour. PMID:25353640

  3. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan; Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD+/- 0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD+/- 0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed.

  4. Positional cloning of a Bombyx pink-eyed white egg locus reveals the major role of cardinal in ommochrome synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Osanai-Futahashi, M; Tatematsu, K-i; Futahashi, R; Narukawa, J; Takasu, Y; Kayukawa, T; Shinoda, T; Ishige, T; Yajima, S; Tamura, T; Yamamoto, K; Sezutsu, H

    2016-01-01

    Ommochromes are major insect pigments involved in coloration of compound eyes, eggs, epidermis and wings. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, adult compound eyes and eggs contain a mixture of the ommochrome pigments such as ommin and xanthommatin. Here, we identified the gene involved in ommochrome biosynthesis by positional cloning of B. mori egg and eye color mutant pink-eyed white egg (pe). The recessive homozygote of pe has bright red eyes and white or pale pink eggs instead of a normal dark coloration due to the decrease of dark ommochrome pigments. By genetic linkage analysis, we narrowed down the pe-linked region to ~258 kb, containing 17 predicted genes. RNA sequencing analyses showed that the expression of one candidate gene, the ortholog of Drosophila haem peroxidase cardinal, coincided with egg pigmentation timing, similar to other ommochrome-related genes such as Bm-scarlet and Bm-re. In two pe strains, a common missense mutation was found within a conserved motif of B. mori cardinal homolog (Bm-cardinal). RNA interference-mediated knockdown and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated knockout of the Bm-cardinal gene produced the same phenotype as pe in terms of egg, adult eye and larval epidermis coloration. A complementation test of the pe mutant with the TALEN-mediated Bm-cardinal-deficient strain showed that the mutant phenotype could not be rescued, indicating that Bm-cardinal is responsible for pe. Moreover, knockdown of the cardinal homolog in Tribolium castaneum also induced red compound eyes. Our results indicate that cardinal plays a major role in ommochrome synthesis of holometabolous insects. PMID:26328757

  5. Positional cloning of a Bombyx pink-eyed white egg locus reveals the major role of cardinal in ommochrome synthesis.

    PubMed

    Osanai-Futahashi, M; Tatematsu, K-I; Futahashi, R; Narukawa, J; Takasu, Y; Kayukawa, T; Shinoda, T; Ishige, T; Yajima, S; Tamura, T; Yamamoto, K; Sezutsu, H

    2016-02-01

    Ommochromes are major insect pigments involved in coloration of compound eyes, eggs, epidermis and wings. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, adult compound eyes and eggs contain a mixture of the ommochrome pigments such as ommin and xanthommatin. Here, we identified the gene involved in ommochrome biosynthesis by positional cloning of B. mori egg and eye color mutant pink-eyed white egg (pe). The recessive homozygote of pe has bright red eyes and white or pale pink eggs instead of a normal dark coloration due to the decrease of dark ommochrome pigments. By genetic linkage analysis, we narrowed down the pe-linked region to ~258 kb, containing 17 predicted genes. RNA sequencing analyses showed that the expression of one candidate gene, the ortholog of Drosophila haem peroxidase cardinal, coincided with egg pigmentation timing, similar to other ommochrome-related genes such as Bm-scarlet and Bm-re. In two pe strains, a common missense mutation was found within a conserved motif of B. mori cardinal homolog (Bm-cardinal). RNA interference-mediated knockdown and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated knockout of the Bm-cardinal gene produced the same phenotype as pe in terms of egg, adult eye and larval epidermis coloration. A complementation test of the pe mutant with the TALEN-mediated Bm-cardinal-deficient strain showed that the mutant phenotype could not be rescued, indicating that Bm-cardinal is responsible for pe. Moreover, knockdown of the cardinal homolog in Tribolium castaneum also induced red compound eyes. Our results indicate that cardinal plays a major role in ommochrome synthesis of holometabolous insects.

  6. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    PubMed

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  7. Seeing double: visual physiology of double-retina eye ontogeny in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Feller, Kathryn D; Cohen, Jonathan H; Cronin, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    Stomatopod eye development is unusual among crustaceans. Just prior to metamorphosis, an adult retina and associated neuro-processing structures emerge adjacent to the existing material in the larval compound eye. Depending on the species, the duration of this double-retina eye can range from a few hours to several days. Although this developmental process occurs in all stomatopod species observed to date, the retinal physiology and extent to which each retina contributes to the animal's visual sensitivity during this transition phase is unknown. We investigated the visual physiology of stomatopod double retinas using microspectrophotometry and electroretinogram recordings from different developmental stages of the Western Atlantic species Squilla empusa. Though microspectrophotometry data were inconclusive, we found robust ERG responses in both larval and adult retinas at all sampled time points indicating that the adult retina responds to light from the very onset of its emergence. We also found evidence of an increase in the response dynamics with ontogeny as well as an increase in sensitivity of retinal tissue during the double-retina phase relative to single retinas. These data provide an initial investigation into the ontogeny of vision during stomatopod double-retina eye development.

  8. The Pax gene eyegone facilitates repression of eye development in Tribolium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Pax transcription factor gene eyegone (eyg) participates in many developmental processes in Drosophila, including the Notch signaling activated postembryonic growth of the eye primordium, global development of the adult head and the development of the antenna. In contrast to other Pax genes, the functional conservation of eyg in species other than Drosophila has not yet been explored. Results We investigated the role of eyg during the postembryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results indicate conserved roles in antennal but not in eye development. Besides segmentation defects in the antenna, Tribolium eyg knockdown animals were characterized by eye enlargement due to the formation of surplus ommatidia at the central anterior edge of the compound eye. This effect resulted from the failure of the developing gena to locally repress retinal differentiation, which underlies the formation of the characteristic anterior notch in the Tribolium eye. Neither varying the induction time point of eyg knockdown nor knocking down components of the Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription signaling pathway in combination with eyg reduced eye size like in Drosophila. Conclusions Taken together, expression and knockdown data suggest that Tribolium eyg serves as a competence factor that facilitates the repression of retinal differentiation in response to an unknown signal produced in the developing gena. At the comparative level, our findings reveal diverged roles of eyg associated with the evolution of different modes of postembryonic head development in endopterygote insects as well as diversified head morphologies in darkling beetles. PMID:21463500

  9. The Role of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress in the Pathomechanism of the Age-Related Ocular Diseases and Other Pathologies of the Anterior and Posterior Eye Segments in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Małgorzata; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) form under normal physiological conditions and may have both beneficial and harmful role. We search the literature and current knowledge in the aspect of ROS participation in the pathogenesis of anterior and posterior eye segment diseases in adults. ROS take part in the pathogenesis of keratoconus, Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, and granular corneal dystrophy type 2, stimulating apoptosis of corneal cells. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma stimulating apoptotic and inflammatory pathways on the level of the trabecular meshwork and promoting retinal ganglion cells apoptosis and glial dysfunction in the posterior eye segment. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. ROS induce apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells. ROS promote apoptosis of vascular and neuronal cells and stimulate inflammation and pathological angiogenesis in the course of diabetic retinopathy. ROS are associated with the pathophysiological parainflammation and autophagy process in the course of the age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26881021

  10. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.

  11. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the world. Learn more Video: Next-Generation Eye Imaging Tools Learn about how the NEI Audacious ... eyeGENE® International Research 3-D Retina Organoid Challenge Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

  12. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  13. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread of ... return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria ...

  14. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000078.htm Diabetes - eye care To use the sharing features on this ... prevent them from getting worse. You Need Regular eye Exams Every year, you should have an eye ...

  15. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  16. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... when they are new. FDA has an Import Alert in effect for cosmetics -- including eye cosmetics -- contaminated ... in the area of the eye. An import alert for cosmetics containing illegal colors lists several eye ...

  17. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  18. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  19. In the Eye of the Beholder: Rapid Visual Perception of Real-Life Scenes by Young Adults with and without ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanmarcke, Steven; Mullin, Caitlin; Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) adults are able to extract global information from natural images and to categorize them within a single glance. This study aimed at extending these findings to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a free description open-encoding paradigm. Participants were asked to freely describe what they saw when…

  20. Solving the Raven Progressive Matrices by Adults with Intellectual Disability with/without Down Syndrome: Different Cognitive Patterns as Indicated by Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakil, Eli; Lifshitz-Zehavi, Hefziba

    2012-01-01

    Raven matrices are used for assessing fluid intelligence and the intellectual level of groups with low intelligence. Our study addresses qualitative analysis of information processing in Raven matrices performance among individuals with intellectual disability with that of their typically developed (TD) counterparts. Twenty-three adults with…

  1. Arthropod eyes: The early Cambrian fossil record and divergent evolution of visual systems.

    PubMed

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Ma, Xiaoya; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Fortey, Richard A; Land, Michael F; Liu, Yu; Cong, Peiyun; Hou, Xianguang

    2016-03-01

    Four types of eyes serve the visual neuropils of extant arthropods: compound retinas composed of adjacent facets; a visual surface populated by spaced eyelets; a smooth transparent cuticle providing inwardly directed lens cylinders; and single-lens eyes. The first type is a characteristic of pancrustaceans, the eyes of which comprise lenses arranged as hexagonal or rectilinear arrays, each lens crowning 8-9 photoreceptor neurons. Except for Scutigeromorpha, the second type typifies Myriapoda whose relatively large eyelets surmount numerous photoreceptive rhabdoms stacked together as tiers. Scutigeromorph eyes are facetted, each lens crowning some dozen photoreceptor neurons of a modified apposition-type eye. Extant chelicerate eyes are single-lensed except in xiphosurans, whose lateral eyes comprise a cuticle with a smooth outer surface and an inner one providing regular arrays of lens cylinders. This account discusses whether these disparate eye types speak for or against divergence from one ancestral eye type. Previous considerations of eye evolution, focusing on the eyes of trilobites and on facet proliferation in xiphosurans and myriapods, have proposed that the mode of development of eyes in those taxa is distinct from that of pancrustaceans and is the plesiomorphic condition from which facetted eyes have evolved. But the recent discovery of enormous regularly facetted compound eyes belonging to early Cambrian radiodontans suggests that high-resolution facetted eyes with superior optics may be the ground pattern organization for arthropods, predating the evolution of arthrodization and jointed post-protocerebral appendages. Here we provide evidence that compound eye organization in stem-group euarthropods of the Cambrian can be understood in terms of eye morphologies diverging from this ancestral radiodontan-type ground pattern. We show that in certain Cambrian groups apposition eyes relate to fixed or mobile eyestalks, whereas other groups reveal concomitant

  2. Dry Eye in Pediatric Contact Lens Wearers

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Katie L.; Walline, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether children who wear contact lenses truly have fewer dry eye complaints than adults. Methods Ninety-four pediatric contact lens wearers, ages 8 to 14 years, were recruited and given the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ) short form. The survey is designed to diagnose dry eye syndrome by obtaining information on the frequency of dryness and light sensitivity and their corresponding intensity levels within the first two hours of putting in the lenses, in the middle of the day, and at the end of the day. The responses were scored by multiplying the frequency by the average intensity and a constant. A composite score was calculated by subtracting the photophobia score from the dryness score, and the results were compared to adult samples from the literature. The questionnaire also asked whether the subject thought he/she had dry eyes while wearing contact lenses. Subjects that thought they had dry eyes and had a CLDEQ composite score >0.03 were diagnosed with dry eye. Subjects who were unsure if they dry eye or said they did not have dry eye but scored >1.29 were also diagnosed with dry eye. Results The average (± SD) age of the sample was 11.7 ± 1.5 years, 56.4% were female, 59.6% were white, and 19.1% were black. The mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 0.25 ±0.50 (range= -1.20 to 1.45). In the literature, the adult mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 1.02 ±0.80 (range= -0.74 to 4.50). Of the 94 surveys collected, 4.3% of children were categorized with dry eye compared to 56.2% of adults who completed the CLDEQ survey in the adult study. Conclusions Pediatric contact lens wearers have fewer complaints about dry eyes than adult contact lens wearers, which may be due to improved tear film, differences in reporting of symptoms, or modality of contact lens wear. PMID:21060258

  3. Wide Eyes and Drooping Arms: Adult-Like Congruency Effects Emerge Early in the Development of Sensitivity to Emotional Faces and Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Horner, Matthew; Mian, Jasmine

    2013-01-01

    Adults' and 8-year-old children's perception of emotional faces is disrupted when faces are presented in the context of incongruent body postures (e.g., when a sad face is displayed on a fearful body) if the two emotions are highly similar (e.g., sad/fear) but not if they are highly dissimilar (e.g., sad/happy). The current research investigated…

  4. Wide eyes and drooping arms: adult-like congruency effects emerge early in the development of sensitivity to emotional faces and body postures.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Catherine J; Horner, Matthew; Mian, Jasmine

    2013-02-01

    Adults' and 8-year-old children's perception of emotional faces is disrupted when faces are presented in the context of incongruent body postures (e.g., when a sad face is displayed on a fearful body) if the two emotions are highly similar (e.g., sad/fear) but not if they are highly dissimilar (e.g., sad/happy). The current research investigated the emergence of this adult-like pattern. Using a sorting task, we identified the youngest age at which children could accurately sort isolated facial expressions and body postures and then measured whether their accuracy was impaired in the incongruent condition. Among the child participants, 6-year-olds showed congruency effects for sad/fear, but even 4-year-olds did not do so for sad/happy. Early emergence of this adult-like pattern is consistent with the dimensional and emotional seed models of emotion perception, although future research is needed to test the relative validity of these two models. Testing children with emotional faces presented in the context of body postures and background scenes is an important step toward understanding how they perceive emotions on a daily basis.

  5. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  6. Compound double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception caused by lipoma of the ileum in an adult patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The initial diagnosis of intussusception in adults very often can be missed and cause delayed treatment and possible serious complications. We report the case of an adult patient with complicated double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception. Case presentation A 46-year-old Caucasian man was transferred from the gastroenterology service to the abdominal surgery service with severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An abdominal ultrasound, barium enema, and abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an intraluminal obstruction of his ascending colon. Plain abdominal X-rays showed diffuse air-fluid levels in his small intestine. A double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception was found during an emergent laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy, including resection of a long segment of his ileum, was performed. The postoperative period was complicated by acute renal failure, shock liver, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Our patient was discharged from the hospital after 30 days. An anatomical pathology examination revealed a lipoma of his ileum. Conclusions Intussusception in adults requires early surgical resection regardless of the nature of the initial cause. Delayed treatment can cause very serious complications. PMID:21910876

  7. Rapid eye movement latency in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mason, Thornton B A; Teoh, Laurel; Calabro, Kristen; Traylor, Joel; Karamessinis, Laurie; Schultz, Brian; Samuel, John; Gallagher, Paul R; Marcus, Carole L

    2008-09-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep distribution changes during development, but little is known about rapid eye movement latency variation in childhood by age, sex, or pathologic sleep states. We hypothesized that: (1) rapid eye movement latency would differ in normal children by age, with a younger cohort (1-10 years) demonstrating shorter rapid eye movement latency than an older group (>10-18 years); (2) rapid eye movement latency in children would differ from typical adult rapid eye movement latency; and (3) intrinsic sleep disorders (narcolepsy, pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) would disrupt normal developmental patterns of rapid eye movement latency. A retrospective chart review included data from clinic visits and of rapid eye movement latency and other parameters measured by overnight polysomnography. Participants included 98 control children, 90 children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 13 children with narcolepsy. There were no statistically significant main effects of age category or sex on rapid eye movement latency. Rapid eye movement latency, however, exhibited a significant inverse correlation with age within the older control children. Healthy children exhibited rapid eye movement latencies significantly longer than adults. Normal control patients demonstrated significantly longer rapid eye movement latency than obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy patients.

  8. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns.

  9. Obese Children, Adults and Senior Citizens in the Eyes of the General Public: Results of a Representative Study on Stigma and Causation of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2012-01-01

    Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns. PMID:23071664

  10. [Eye injuries caused by Gotcha games].

    PubMed

    Anders, N

    1994-06-01

    BACKGROUND Gotcha has become a new leisure-time activity among young people. The high speed dye bullets are threatening the eyes unless using safety goggles. PATIENTS In the last 1 1/2 years there were three young patients treated in our clinic because of serious eye injuries. They were under 18 years old and they had borrowed the weapons from adults. None had used safety goggles. We were able to show the suitability of goggles by own experiments. CONCLUSIONS Therefore we demand, that Gotcha playing must be allowed only to adults who are wearing safety goggles.

  11. Adult-onset congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura caused by a novel compound heterozygous mutation of the ADAMTS13 gene.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Johannes G; Kemna, Evelien W M; Strunk, Annuska L M; Jobse, Pieter A; Kramer, P A; Dikkeschei, L D; van den Heuvel, L P W J; Fijnheer, Rob; Verdonck, Leo F

    2015-10-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disease, characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia, resulting in neurologic and/or renal abnormalities. We report a 49-year-old patient with a history of thrombotic events, renal failure, and thrombocytopenia. Blood analysis demonstrated no ADAMTS13 activity in the absence of antibodies against ADAMTS13. The complete ADAMTS13 gene was sequenced, and two mutations were identified: one mutation on exon 24 (Arg1060Asp), which had previously been described, and a mutation on exon 27 (Met1260IlefsX34), which has not been reported. For these mutations, compound heterozygosity appears to be necessary to cause TTP, as family members of the patient display only one of the mutations and all displayed normal ADAMTS13 activity.

  12. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  13. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of plant-derived extracts and compounds against Paenibacillus larvae and their acute oral toxicity to adult honey bees.

    PubMed

    Flesar, Jaroslav; Havlik, Jaroslav; Kloucek, Pavel; Rada, Vojtech; Titera, Dalibor; Bednar, Michal; Stropnicky, Michal; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2010-09-28

    In total, 26 natural compounds of various chemical classes (flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids) and 19 crude extracts from selected plants were tested in vitro for antibacterial activity against three strains of P. larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood Disease of honey bees (AFB) by the broth microdilution method. Among the individual substances, sanguinarine (MIC 4 microg/ml), followed by thymoquinone, capsaicin, trans-2-hexenal and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (MIC 4-32 microg/ml) possessed the strongest antibacterial effect. In case of extracts, common hop (Humulus lupulus L.) and myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) methanolic-dichloromethane extracts exhibited the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MICs ranging from 2 to 8 microg/ml. Acute oral toxicity of the most active natural products was determined on adult honey bees, showing them as non-toxic at concentrations as high as 100 microg peer bee. Our study leads to identification of highly potent natural products effective against AFB in vitro with very low MICs compared to those reported in literature, low toxicity to adult honey bees and commercial availability suggesting them as perspective, low cost and consumer-acceptable agents for control of AFB.

  14. Green tea compound epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG) increases neuronal survival in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-López, L; Márquez-Valadez, B; Gómez-Sánchez, A; Silva-Lucero, M D C; Torres-Pérez, M; Téllez-Ballesteros, R I; Ichwan, M; Meraz-Ríos, M A; Kempermann, G; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B

    2016-05-13

    Epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found in the leaves of Camellia sinensis (green tea), has antioxidant- and scavenger-functions and acts neuroprotectively. It has been publicized as anti-aging remedy but data on potential cellular mechanisms are scarce. Recent studies claimed that EGCG specifically promotes neural precursor cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of C57Bl/6 mice, without changes at the level of immature and mature new neurons. We here analyzed the effects of EGCG on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male Balb/C mice and saw a different pattern. Two weeks of treatment with EGCG (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg) showed a dose-response curve that peaked at 2.5mg/kg of EGCG with significantly increased cell survival without affecting cell proliferation but decreasing apoptotic cells. Also, EGCG increased the population of doublecortin-(DCX)-expressing cells that comprises the late intermediate progenitor cells (type-2b and -3) as well as immature neurons. After EGCG treatment, the young DCX-positive neurons showed more elaborated dendritic trees. EGCG also significantly increased net neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and increased the hippocampal levels of phospho-Akt. Ex vivo, EGCG exerted a direct effect on survival and neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal precursor cells, which was absent, when PI3K, a protein upstream of Akt, was blocked. Our results thus support a pro-survival and a pro-neurogenic role of EGCG. In the context of the conflicting published results, however, potential genetic modifiers must be assumed. These might help to explain the overall variability of study results with EGCG. Our data do indicate, however, that natural compounds such as EGCG can in principle modulate brain plasticity.

  15. Different photoreceptor organs are used for photoperiodism in the larval and adult stages of the carabid beetle, Leptocarabus kumagaii.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Yoshinori; Shiga, Sakiko; Numata, Hideharu

    2009-11-01

    The role of the two distinct retinal photoreceptor organs in photoreception for photoperiodism was examined in the carabid beetle, Leptocarabus kumagaii, by surgical removal. This beetle shows long-day and short-day photoperiodic responses in the larval and adult stages, respectively. Larval diapause in the final instar is induced under short-day conditions whereas pupation occurs without diapause under long-day conditions. Adult reproductive diapause is terminated under short-day conditions but maintained under long-day conditions. The stemmata of the larvae and compound eyes of the adults were removed and the responses of the animals to photoperiod were compared to those of intact beetles. When all the stemmata were removed, larvae pupated without entering diapause under both long-day and short-day conditions, indicating that the larvae lacking stemmata were incapable of photoreception for photoperiodism. As in other holometabolous insects, the stemmata migrated into the brain during metamorphosis and remained rudimentarily in the optic lobe of the adult brain. However, these stemmata-derived organs were found to be no longer necessary for photoperiodism, because adults lacking the stemmata-derived organs responded to photoperiod normally. By contrast, removal of the compound eyes in adults resulted in the termination of reproductive diapause under both long-day and short-day conditions, indicating that photoreception for photoperiodism in the adult stage is performed by the compound eyes. Therefore, the site of photoperiodic photoreception in L. kumagaii appear to change from the stemmata to the compound eyes during metamorphosis.

  16. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  17. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye protectors. Some very-high-risk sports are boxing, wrestling and contact martial arts.What are the ... eye problems or if you have a family history of retinal problems. If so, you should be ...

  18. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  20. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness. Macular edema. Blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  1. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical exam before the procedure Orthoptic measurements (eye movement measurements) Always tell your child's health care provider: ... D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and alignment. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  2. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  3. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  4. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  5. Eye Safety at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  6. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  7. Eye Safety at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  8. Bags Under Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home and lifestyle treatments may help reduce or eliminate puffy eyes. Medical and surgical treatments are available ... The following tips can help you reduce or eliminate bags under eyes: Use a cool compress. Wet ...

  9. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Allergic Conjunctivitis (Video) Overview of the Eyes (News) Stem Cells ... and covers the white of the eye. Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an ...

  10. LASIK Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your cornea, which could lead to inaccurate measurements and a poor surgical outcome. Your doctor will ... of your eye. Theoretically, the more detailed the measurements, the more accurate your eye doctor can be ...

  11. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit HHS USAJobs Home > Diabetic Eye Disease Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  12. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The Infrared (IR) Eye was developed with support from the National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS), in view of improving the efficiency of...airborne search-and rescue operations. The IR Eye concept is based on the human eye and uses simultaneously two fields of view to optimize area coverage and...within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye -tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown

  13. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  14. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  15. Effects of eye color and sex on accuracy in archery.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Fleming, P; Knorr, W

    1989-04-01

    126 subjects were 47 children in Grade 7, 49 students in Grade 8, and 30 adults, who shot arrows at bull's-eye targets from varying distances. Analysis of variance of accuracy scores indicated that there was no difference for eye color, but boys scored more points than did girls.

  16. Lateral Eye Movement Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    1980-01-01

    The conjugate lateral eye movement phenomenon was investigated for 52 children aged 2 through 10 using both spatial and verbal-analytic questions. The phenomenon was observed in 50 subjects and appeared well-established by age 3 1/2. Some interesting developmental findings and discrepancies with the results of adult studies are noted. (Author/SJL)

  17. Training the Eyes for Competition: Fighting Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Darrell; Bradford, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Fencers should be taught to discipline their eyes to focus on the opponent's hand. The rationale for this strategy as well as drills to develop "hand watching" skills are presented in this article. (IAH)

  18. Nonendoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy: Outcome in 134 eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Anasua; Videkar, Chetan; Goyal, Ritin; Rath, Suryasnata

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the outcome of nonendoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (NEN-DCR) in patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) in India. Methods: Retrospective case series of NEN-DCR between July 2012 and October 2014. All patients had follow-up >3 months. Success was defined anatomically as patency on irrigation and functionally as relief from epiphora. Statistical Analysis Used: Fischer's exact test and Chi-square test. Results: A total of 122 patients (134 eyes; 81 female; mean age 37 ± 18 years) were included. Indications were primary acquired NLDO in 92 (68%) eyes of adults (>18 years), NLDO in children (<18 years) in 22 eyes (16%), acute dacryocystitis in 13 eyes, failed prior DCR in six eyes, and secondary acquired NLDO in one eye. Mean duration of surgery was 36 min (range: 16–92). At a median follow-up of 6 months (range: 3–15), 86% eyes had functional success and 85% had anatomical success. Revision NEN-DCR was successful in 13/16 eyes. All patients with acute dacryocystitis were completely symptom-free at final visit. In children, (17/22) 77% achieved functional success after primary NEN-DCR which improved to 100% after one revision. Tube-related epiphora and granuloma in ten eyes resolved after removal. Conclusion: NEN-DCR gives good outcome in primary NLDO and is also effective in those with acute dacryocystitis and in children with NLDO. The technique obviates the need for an endoscope and has an acceptable safety profile and thus may be particularly suited for the developing nations. PMID:27146931

  19. Eye Movements of Flatfish for Different Gravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Imada, Hideki; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi

    On Earth, gravity sensation plays a basic role for all of physiological phenomena in every creature. In microgravity, loss of gravity input causes many functional disorders in animals and humans. During adaptation to microgravity, otolith-mediated response such as eye movements would alter. Flatfish provide a natural model for the study of adaptive changes in the vestibuloocular reflex. During metamorphosis, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate of flatfish displaced 90 degrees about the longitudinal body axis. Therefore, it is expected that microgravity induce the sensory mismatch in adult flatfish. In this study, we analyzed the eye movements of normal and otolith removed flatfish for body tilting and the eye movements of normal flatfish during microgravity produced by parabolic aircraft flight. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analyzed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, torsional eye movements were larger for head up or head down tilting than leftward or rightward tilting. On the other hand, vertical eye movements were larger for leftward or rightward tilting than head up or head down tilting. After removal of left side utlicular otolith, the vertical eye movement for 180 degrees body tilting disappeared. For the changes of gravity, vertical eye movements were observed. These results suggested that eye movements of flatfish adapted to Earth's gravity condition and sacculus and lagena might play important role for otolith-ocular eye movements.

  20. Morphological and molecular development of the eyes during embryogenesis of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea polychroa.

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José María; Monjo, Francisco; Romero, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    Photoreception is one of the most primitive sensory functions in metazoans. Despite the diversity of forms and components of metazoan eyes, many studies have demonstrated the existence of a common cellular and molecular basis for their development. Genes like pax6, sine oculis, eyes absent, dachshund, otx, Rx and atonal are known to be associated with the specification and development of the eyes. In planarians, sine oculis, eyes absent and otxA play an essential role during the formation of the eye after decapitation, whereas pax6, considered by many authors as a master control gene for eye formation, does not seem to be involved in adult eye regeneration. Whether this is a peculiarity of adult planarians or, on the contrary, is also found in embryogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we characterize embryonic eye development in the planarian species Schmidtea polychroa using histological sections and molecular markers. Additionally, we analyse the expression pattern of the pax6-sine oculis-eyes absent-dachshund network, and the genes Rx, otxA, otxB and atonal. We demonstrate that eye formation in planarian embryos shows great similarities to adult eye regeneration, both at the cellular and molecular level. We thus conclude that planarian eyes exhibit divergent molecular patterning mechanisms compared to the prototypic ancestral metazoan eye.

  1. Development of eye-movement control.

    PubMed

    Luna, Beatriz; Velanova, Katerina; Geier, Charles F

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive control of behavior continues to improve through adolescence in parallel with important brain maturational processes including synaptic pruning and myelination, which allow for efficient neuronal computations and the functional integration of widely distributed circuitries supporting top-down control of behavior. This is also a time when psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders, emerge reflecting a particularly vulnerability to impairments in development during adolescence. Oculomotor studies provide a unique neuroscientific approach to make precise associations between cognitive control and brain circuitry during development that can inform us of impaired systems in psychopathology. In this review, we first describe the development of pursuit, fixation, and visually-guided saccadic eye movements, which collectively indicate early maturation of basic sensorimotor processes supporting reflexive, exogenously-driven eye movements. We then describe the literature on the development of the cognitive control of eye movements as reflected in the ability to inhibit a prepotent eye movement in the antisaccade task, as well as making an eye movement guided by on-line spatial information in working memory in the oculomotor delayed response task. Results indicate that the ability to make eye movements in a voluntary fashion driven by endogenous plans shows a protracted development into adolescence. Characterizing the transition through adolescence to adult-level cognitive control of behavior can inform models aimed at understanding the neurodevelopmental basis of psychiatric disorders.

  2. Arthropod eye-inspired digital camera with unique imaging characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-06-01

    In nature, arthropods have a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a hemispherical geometry, a wideangle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. There are great interests in building systems with similar geometries and properties due to numerous potential applications. However, the established semiconductor sensor technologies and optics are essentially planar, which experience great challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts. With the recent advancement of stretchable optoelectronics, we have successfully developed strategies to build a fully functional artificial apposition compound eye camera by combining optics, materials and mechanics principles. The strategies start with fabricating stretchable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors and elastomeric optical elements in planar geometries, which are then precisely aligned and integrated, and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. This imaging device demonstrates nearly full hemispherical shape (about 160 degrees), with densely packed artificial ommatidia. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. We have illustrated key features of operation of compound eyes through experimental imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations. The general strategies shown in this development could be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  3. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  4. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  5. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  6. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking Care of Your Skin Taking Care of Your Teeth El cuidado de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ...

  7. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  8. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  9. Adaptations for nocturnal vision in insect apposition eyes.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Due to our own preference for bright light, we tend to forget that many insects are active in very dim light. Nocturnal insects possess in general superposition compound eyes. This eye design is truly optimized for dim light as photons can be gathered through large apertures comprised of hundreds of lenses. In apposition eyes, on the other hand, the aperture consists of a single lens resulting in a poor photon catch and unreliable vision in dim light. Apposition eyes are therefore typically found in day-active insects. Some nocturnal insects have nevertheless managed the transition to a strictly nocturnal lifestyle while retaining their highly unsuitable apposition eye design. Large lenses and wide photoreceptors enhance the sensitivity of nocturnal apposition eyes. However, as the gain of these optical adaptations is limited and not sufficient for vision in dim light, additional neural adaptations in the form of spatial and temporal summation are necessary.

  10. The Dynamic Evolutionary History of Pancrustacean Eyes and Opsins.

    PubMed

    Henze, Miriam J; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-11-01

    Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) display an enormous diversity of eye designs, including multiple types of compound eyes and single-chambered eyes, often with color vision and/or polarization vision. Although the eyes of some pancrustaceans are well-studied, there is still much to learn about the evolutionary paths to this amazing visual diversity. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of eyes and opsins across the principle groups of Pancrustacea. First, we review the distribution of lateral and median eyes, which are found in all major pancrustacean clades (Oligostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida). At the same time, each of those three clades has taxa that lack lateral and/or median eyes. We then compile data on the expression of visual r-opsins (rhabdomeric opsins) in lateral and median eyes across Pancrustacea and find no evidence for ancient opsin clades expressed in only one type of eye. Instead, opsin clades with eye-specific expression are products of recent gene duplications, indicating a dynamic past, during which opsins often changed expression from one type of eye to another. We also investigate the evolutionary history of peropsins and r-opsins, which are both known to be expressed in eyes of arthropods. By searching published transcriptomes, we discover for the first time crustacean peropsins and suggest that previously reported odonate opsins may also be peropsins. Finally, from analyzing a reconciled, phylogenetic tree of arthropod r-opsins, we infer that the ancestral pancrustacean had four visual opsin genes, which we call LW2, MW1, MW2, and SW. These are the progenitors of opsin clades that later were variously duplicated or lost during pancrustacean evolution. Together, our results reveal a particularly dynamic history, with losses of eyes, duplication and loss of opsin genes, and changes in opsin expression between types of eyes.

  11. The questionably dry eye.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, I. A.; Seal, D. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate matter in the unstained tear film is associated with low tear lysozyme concentration. Tear flow and tear lysozyme are not necessarily interrelated, but a low lysozyme concentration (tear lysozyme ratio < 1.0) is associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The Schirmer I test can produce false positive results, and we have suggested a modification to overcome this. This modified test will detect the eye with severely depleted lysozyme secretion, but it is unreliable for detecting the eye with moderately depleted secretion. We find that its lowest normal limit should be considered as 6 mm. Images PMID:7448154

  12. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  13. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 When an eye injury does occur, ... Fireworks Eye Safety Jun 10, 2016 Protective Eyewear Mar 01, 2016 Scleritis Symptoms Mar 01, 2015 What ...

  14. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  15. Pax6 in Collembola: Adaptive Evolution of Eye Regression

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ya-Nan; Li, Sheng; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the compound eyes in insects, collembolan eyes are comparatively simple: some species have eyes with different numbers of ocelli (1 + 1 to 8 + 8), and some species have no apparent eye structures. Pax6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. In this study, full-length Pax6 cDNAs, Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6, were cloned from an eyeless collembolan (Folsomia candida, soil-dwelling) and an eyed one (Ceratophysella denticulata, surface-dwelling), respectively. Their phylogenetic positions are between the two Pax6 paralogs in insects, eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy), and their protein sequences are more similar to Ey than to Toy. Both Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6 could induce ectopic eyes in Drosophila, while Fc-Pax6 exhibited much weaker transactivation ability than Cd-Pax6. The C-terminus of collembolan Pax6 is indispensable for its transactivation ability, and determines the differences of transactivation ability between Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6. One of the possible reasons is that Fc-Pax6 accumulated more mutations at some key functional sites of C-terminus under a lower selection pressure on eye development due to the dark habitats of F. candida. The composite data provide a first molecular evidence for the monophyletic origin of collembolan eyes, and indicate the eye degeneration of collembolans is caused by adaptive evolution. PMID:26856893

  16. Pax6 in Collembola: Adaptive Evolution of Eye Regression.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Nan; Li, Sheng; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2016-02-09

    Unlike the compound eyes in insects, collembolan eyes are comparatively simple: some species have eyes with different numbers of ocelli (1 + 1 to 8 + 8), and some species have no apparent eye structures. Pax6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. In this study, full-length Pax6 cDNAs, Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6, were cloned from an eyeless collembolan (Folsomia candida, soil-dwelling) and an eyed one (Ceratophysella denticulata, surface-dwelling), respectively. Their phylogenetic positions are between the two Pax6 paralogs in insects, eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy), and their protein sequences are more similar to Ey than to Toy. Both Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6 could induce ectopic eyes in Drosophila, while Fc-Pax6 exhibited much weaker transactivation ability than Cd-Pax6. The C-terminus of collembolan Pax6 is indispensable for its transactivation ability, and determines the differences of transactivation ability between Fc-Pax6 and Cd-Pax6. One of the possible reasons is that Fc-Pax6 accumulated more mutations at some key functional sites of C-terminus under a lower selection pressure on eye development due to the dark habitats of F. candida. The composite data provide a first molecular evidence for the monophyletic origin of collembolan eyes, and indicate the eye degeneration of collembolans is caused by adaptive evolution.

  17. Eye pigments in wild-type and eye-color mutant strains of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Beard, C B; Benedict, M Q; Primus, J P; Finnerty, V; Collins, F H

    1995-01-01

    Chromatographic analysis of pigments extracted from wild-type eyes of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae reveals the presence of the ommatin precursor 3-hydroxykynurenine, its transamination derivative xanthurenic acid, and a dark, red-brown pigment spot that probably is composed of two or more low mobility xanthommatins. No colored or fluorescent pteridines are evident. Mosquitoes homozygous for an autosomal recessive mutation at the red-eye (r) locus have a brick-red eye color in larvae, pupae, and young adults, in contrast to the almost black color of the wild eye. Mosquitoes homozygous for this mutant allele have levels of ommochrome precursors that are indistinguishable from the wild-type, but the low-mobility xanthommatin spot is ochre-brown in color rather than red-brown as in the wild-type. Mosquitoes with two different mutant alleles at the X-linked pink-eye locus (p, which confers a pink eye color, and pw, which confers a white eye phenotype in homozygotes or hemizygous males) have normal levels of ommochrome precursors but no detectable xanthommatins. Mosquitoes homozygous for both the r and p mutant alleles have apricot-colored eyes and show no detectable xanthommatins. Both the pink-eye and red-eye mutations appear to involve defects in the transport into or assembly of pigments in the membrane-bound pigment granules rather then defects in ommochrome synthesis.

  18. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing

    PubMed Central

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans [1, 2, 3]. Eye contact with others is present from birth [4], and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication [5, 6, 7]. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6–10 and 12–16 months. Face scanning [8] and gaze following [7, 9] were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors [10] and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development [11] were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6–10 and 12–16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults’ eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual’s specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  19. Cyanoacrylate Adhesives in Eye Wounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EYE, *WOUNDS AND INJURIES), (*ADHESIVES, EYE), (*ACRYLIC RESINS, ADHESIVES), CORNEA , HEALING, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), NECROSIS, SURGICAL SUPPLIES, STRENGTH(PHYSIOLOGY), SURGERY, THERAPY

  20. Advocacy for eye care.

    PubMed

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  1. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  2. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052

  3. Personal identification by eyes.

    PubMed

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  4. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to remove a thin layer ...

  5. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye. It is disc shaped with a hole in the middle (the pupil). Muscles in the ... of photoreceptors are rods and cones. Rods perceive black and white and serve night vision primarily. Cones ...

  6. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the foreign body has been flushed out. Seek Medical Care If Your Child Has: been struck ... eyelid an eye that's very sensitive to light Seek Emergency Care Immediately If Your Child Has: trouble ...

  7. What Is Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cancers, see our documents on them. Intraocular melanoma (melanoma of the eye) Intraocular melanoma is the most ... the rest of this document focuses on intraocular melanomas and lymphomas. Written by References The American Cancer ...

  8. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... the retina that provides sharp central vision (macular edema) This surgery also treats the following eye problems: ... in time. If your treatment was for macular edema, your vision may seem worse for a few ...

  9. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  10. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  11. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  12. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  13. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  14. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  15. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  16. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  17. Melanoma of the eye

    MedlinePlus

    Small melanomas may be treated with: Surgery Laser Radiation therapy (such as Gamma Knife , CyberKnife , brachytherapy) Surgery to remove the eye (enucleation) may be needed. Other treatments that may be used ...

  18. Facts About Pink Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  19. Diagram of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  20. Eye Disease Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  1. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyelid. Others, like those that happen during sports activities, can be serious and require medical attention. Signs and Symptoms redness stinging or burning watering sensitivity to light blurred vision swelling of the eyelids discoloration around the eye ...

  2. Eye Movements During Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Falck-Ytter, Terje

    2015-01-01

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others’ manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer’s gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer’s motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person’s future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction. PMID:26385998

  3. Cluster eye camera using microlenses on parabolic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hui-Kai; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2013-10-01

    There are two main types of imaging systems that exist in nature: the single aperture eye and the compound eye. Usually, cameras and most of artificial imaging systems are similar to the single aperture eye. But compound lenses can be more compact than single lenses. Our design is based on insect compound eyes, which also have a wide field of view (FOV). With the rise of micro-optical techniques, fabricating compound lenses has become easier. The simplest form of a curved microlens array is a parabolic surface. In this paper, we proposed a multi-channel imaging system, which combines the principles of the insect compound eye and the human eye. The optical system enables the reduction of track length of the imaging optics to achieve miniaturization. With the aid of optical engineering software ZEMAX, the multi-channel structure is simulated by a curved microlens array, and we use a Hypergon lens as the main lens to simulate the human eye, which can achieve the purpose of the wide FOV. With this architecture, each microlens of a microlens array transmits a segment of the overall FOV. The partial images that are separately recorded in different channels are stitched together to form the final image of the whole FOV by software processing. A 2.74 mm thin imaging system with 59 channels and 90° FOV is optimized using ZEMAX sequential ray tracing software on a 6.16 mm × 4.62 mm image plane. Finally, we will discuss the simulation results of this system and compare it with the optical cluster eye system and a mobile phone patent.

  4. Eye contrast polarity is critical for face recognition by infants.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Hill, Harold C; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2013-07-01

    Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast polarity conditions: fully positive condition, fully negative condition, positive face with negated eyes ("negative eyes") condition, and negated face with positive eyes ("positive eyes") condition. In a familiarization and novelty preference procedure, we found that 7- and 8-month-olds could discriminate between faces only when the contrast polarity of the eyes was preserved (positive) and that this did not depend on the contrast polarity of the rest of the face. This demonstrates the critical role of eye contrast polarity for face recognition in 7- and 8-month-olds and is consistent with previous findings for adults.

  5. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  6. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  7. Proliferating cells in suborbital tissue drive eye migration in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Bao, Baolong; Ke, Zhonghe; Xing, Jubin; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang; Xie, Caixia; Xu, Bing; Gai, Junwei; Gong, Xiaoling; Yang, Guimei; Jiang, Yan; Tang, Wenqiao; Ren, Daming

    2011-03-01

    The left/right asymmetry of adult flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) is remarkable given the external body symmetry of the larval fish. The best-known change is the migration of their eyes: one eye migrates from one side to the other. Two extinct primitive pleuronectiformes with incomplete orbital migration have again attracted public attention to the mechanism of eye migration, a subject of speculation and research for over a century. Cranial asymmetry is currently believed to be responsible for eye migration. Contrary to that hypothesis, we show here that the initial migration of the eye is caused by cell proliferation in the suborbital tissue of the blind side and that the twist of frontal bone is dependent on eye migration. The inhibition of cell proliferation in the suborbital area of the blind side by microinjected colchicine was able to prevent eye migration and, thereafter, cranial asymmetry in juvenile Solea senegalensis (right sideness, Soleidae), Cynoglossus semilaevis (left sideness, Cynoglossidae), and Paralichthys olivaceus (left sideness, Paralichthyidae) with a bottom-dwelling lifestyle. Our results correct the current misunderstanding that eye migration is driven by the cranial asymmetry and simplify the explanation for broken left/right eye-symmetry. Our findings should help to focus the search on eye migration-related genes associated with cell proliferation. Finally, a novel model is proposed in this research which provides a reasonable explanation for differences in the migrating eye between, and sometimes within, different species of flatfish and which should aid in our overall understanding of eye migration in the ontogenesis and evolution of Pleuronectiformes.

  8. Keratoglobus: An experience at a tertiary eye care center in India

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Murthy, Somasheila I; Bagga, Bhupesh; Taneja, Mukesh; Chaurasia, Sunita; Sangwan, Virender S

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study was carried out as a part of an internal audit and is the largest series of patients having keratoglobus, published in the literature. Poor visual acuity of the patients indicates the blinding nature of the disease. Aims: We report our experience with patients having keratoglobus at a tertiary eye care center in India. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: We analyzed adults and pediatric patients (<16 years) with keratoglobus, seen during 2008–2012. The age, gender, consanguinity, presenting ocular signs, ocular and systemic associations, visual acuity, corneal topography, and surgeries were documented. Results: Forty-eight patients (mean age 22 ± 15 years, 31 males) having keratoglobus were analyzed. 21 patients (42 eyes) were <16 years. Twelve eyes (16 events) had positive history of trauma. The presenting clinical signs were corneal scars/scars of tear repair (15 eyes), hydrops, healed and acute (14 eyes) and corneal or globe rupture (9 eyes). Best-corrected visual acuity was >20/40 in 6/42 (14.3%) pediatric eyes and 15/53 (28.30%) adults. Visual acuity ranging from counting of fingers to no light perception was noted in 20/53 (37.74%) adults and 21/42 (50%) pediatric patients; 13/20 (65%) with blue sclera and 8/22 eyes (36.37%) without blue sclera. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis was present in one pediatric patient. Choroidal osteoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and retinal detachment were present in adults. Surgeries performed were corneal tear repair (5 eyes), tissue adhesive application (2 eyes), descematopexy (4 eyes) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK - 8 eyes: Three had post-PK glaucoma, graft failure-one eye, 4 patients wore scleral lens - prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem). Conclusions: About 50% of pediatric eyes (65% having blue sclera) had no functional vision. Trivial trauma was responsible for corneal rupture indicating need for protective glasses. About 50% patients had post-PK glaucoma

  9. New perspectives on eye development and the evolution of eyes and photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Gehring, W J

    2005-01-01

    , was found to be expressed in the eyes. In contrast to the adults, which have highly evolved eyes, the Planula larva of Tripedalia has single- celled photoreceptors similar to some unicellular protists. For the origin of photoreceptor cells in metazoa, I propose two hypotheses, one based on cellular differentiation and a more speculative one based on symbiosis. The former assumes that photoreceptor cells originated from a colonial protist in which all the cells were photosensitive and subsequent cellular differentiation to give rise to photoreceptor cells. The symbiont hypothesis, which I call the Russian doll model, assumes that photosensitivity arose first in photosynthetic cyanobacteria that were subsequently taken up into red algae as primary chloroplasts. The red algae in turn were taken up by dinoflagellates as secondary chloroplasts and in some species evolved into the most sophisticated eye organelles, as found, for example, in some dinoflagellates like Erythropsis and Warnovia, which lack chloroplasts. Because dinoflagellates are commonly found as symbionts in cnidarians, the dinoflagellates may have transferred their photoreceptor genes to cnidarians. In cnidarians such as Tripedalia the step from photoreceptor organelles to multicellular eyes has occurred. These two hypotheses, the cellular differentiation and the symbiont hypothesis, are not mutually exclusive and are the subject of further investigations.

  10. Urinary heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, thiocyanate, parabens, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not arsenic or polyfluorinated compounds are associated with adult oral health: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-10-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects on oral health have been less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary chemical concentrations and adult oral health conditions in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported oral health conditions and urinary environmental chemical concentrations (one third representative sample of the study population). Chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modeling were performed. Of 4566 American adults aged 30-80, 541 adults (11.9 %) reported poor teeth health while 1020 adults (22.4 %) reported fair teeth. Eight hundred fifty-five people (19.1 %) claimed to have gum disease, presented with higher levels of urinary cadmium, cobalt and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Six hundred three adults (13.3 %) had bone loss around the mouth, presented with higher levels of cadmium, nitrate, thiocyanate, propyl paraben and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) had tooth loose not due to injury, presented with higher level of cadmium, thiocyanate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) with higher levels of lead, uranium, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but lower level of triclosan noticed their teeth did not look right. Three hundred fifty-one adults (7.7 %) often had aching in the mouth and 650 (14.3 %) had it occasionally, presented with higher levels of phthalates, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Benzophenone-3 and triclosan elicited protective effects. Regulation of environmental chemicals in prevention of adult oral health might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies.

  11. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  12. Therapeutic Strategies to Treat Dry Eye in an Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    Ezuddin, Nisreen S.; Alawa, Karam A.; Galor, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye (DE) is a prevalent ocular disease that primarily affects the elderly. Affecting up to 30% of adults aged 50 years and older, dry eye affects both visual function and quality of life. Symptoms of dry eye which include ocular pain (aching, burning), visual disturbances, and tearing can be addressed with therapeutic agents that target dysfunction of the meibomian glands, lacrimal glands, goblet cells, ocular surface and/or neural network. This review provides an overview of the efficacy, use, and limitations of current therapeutic interventions being used to treat DE. PMID:26123947

  13. Laser eye protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ralph G.; Labo, Jack A.; Mayo, Michael W.

    1990-07-01

    Laser applications have proliferated in recent years and as to be expected their presence is no longer confined to the laboratory or places where access to their radiation can be easily controlled. One obvious application where this is so is in military operations where various devices such as laser range finders target designators and secure communications equipment elevate the risk of exposure specifically eye exposure to unacceptable levels. Although the need for eye protection in the laboratory and other controlled areas has been appreciated since the invention of the laser the use of lasers in circumstances where safety or the risk of temporary loss of vision which can not always be ensured by administrative procedures has made adequate eye protection essential. It is the critical nature of many military operations that has driven the search for eye protection against both nuclear and laser radiation. At the same time the requirement to maintain useful vision during irradiation as well as advances in laser technology have complicated the problem enormously. Pertinent aspects of the problem such as laser characteristics- -pulse width repetition rate laser wavelength tunability or agility as well as laser power or energy have been placed in perspective. In addition possible effects on vision for various exposures have been estimated as have the characteristics required of eye protective devices. Various classes of devices are discussed and advantages and disadvantages noted. 1.

  14. Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Xiao, Jianliang; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-05-02

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  15. An artificial elementary eye with optic flow detection and compositional properties.

    PubMed

    Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Dobrzynski, Michal K; Juston, Raphaël; Viollet, Stéphane; Leitel, Robert; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Floreano, Dario

    2015-08-06

    We describe a 2 mg artificial elementary eye whose structure and functionality is inspired by compound eye ommatidia. Its optical sensitivity and electronic architecture are sufficient to generate the required signals for the measurement of local optic flow vectors in multiple directions. Multiple elementary eyes can be assembled to create a compound vision system of desired shape and curvature spanning large fields of view. The system configurability is validated with the fabrication of a flexible linear array of artificial elementary eyes capable of extracting optic flow over multiple visual directions.

  16. Visual Impairment and Eye Care among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Haymes, Sharon A.; Leston, Jessica D.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Etzel, Ruth A.; Lanier, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment, eye disease and eye care in the Alaska Native (AN) population, by demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods Population-based cross-sectional study of 3,793 Alaska Native (AN) adults aged 18-94 years enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study from March 2004-March 2006. Data on self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease and previous dilated eye examinations were collected using audio computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires. Results The unadjusted prevalence of self-reported visual impairment was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.9-9.7), cataract 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.7), glaucoma 2.5% (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) and diabetic eye disease 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9-1.7). In all cases, age-sex adjusted prevalence estimates for the AN population were greater than available estimates for the general U.S. population. Prevalence of visual impairment and each eye disease increased with age (P < 0.01). Additional factors associated with visual impairment were education and annual household income. Overall, 70.0% (95% CI: 68.5-71.6) of participants reported a dilated eye examination within the previous two years. Dilated eye examination within the previous two years was associated with increasing age (P < 0.001). However, men and participants with lower formal education were less likely to report recent dilated eye examination. Among those with diabetes, only 67.7% (95% CI: 60.8-74.1) reported a dilated eye examination within the recommended previous one year. Conclusions Self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma and diabetic eye disease are prevalent in the AN population. These data may be useful in healthcare planning and education programs. PMID:19437311

  17. Photorefraction of the Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-02-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

  18. Eye pathologies in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Nyaish; Mansoor, Tihami; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, newborn assessment incorporates a screening eye examination for any structural abnormalities, observation of neonate's visual behaviour and direct ophthalmoscopy examination looking for red reflex. Early identification and immediate management of eye related pathologies should commence soon after birth as early diagnosis and prompt intervention may have significant impact on the prognosis for many potentially blinding but treatable disorders such as congenital cataracts and retinoblastoma. If left undetected and untreated, such problems may potentially lead to irreversible damage to the vision which persists into adulthood resulting in lack of self-confidence together with difficulties in educational attainment and job opportunities. PMID:28003988

  19. Electrophysiological Recording in the Brain of Intact Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Lindsey; Ball, Rebecca E.; Acuff, Seth; Gaudet, John; Sornborger, Andrew; Lauderdale, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, electrophysiological studies in adult zebrafish have been limited to slice preparations or to eye cup preparations and electrorentinogram recordings. This paper describes how an adult zebrafish can be immobilized, intubated, and used for in vivo electrophysiological experiments, allowing recording of neural activity. Immobilization of the adult requires a mechanism to deliver dissolved oxygen to the gills in lieu of buccal and opercular movement. With our technique, animals are immobilized and perfused with habitat water to fulfill this requirement. A craniotomy is performed under tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222; tricaine) anesthesia to provide access to the brain. The primary electrode is then positioned within the craniotomy window to record extracellular brain activity. Through the use of a multitube perfusion system, a variety of pharmacological compounds can be administered to the adult fish and any alterations in the neural activity can be observed. The methodology not only allows for observations to be made regarding changes in neurological activity, but it also allows for comparisons to be made between larval and adult zebrafish. This gives researchers the ability to identify the alterations in neurological activity due to the introduction of various compounds at different life stages. PMID:24300281

  20. [Tear osmolarity and dry eye].

    PubMed

    Pan, Shi-yin; Xiao, Xiang-hua; Wang, Yang-zheng; Liu, Xian-ning; Zhu, Xiu-ping

    2011-05-01

    Dry eye is a common eye disease, and its incidence rate has been escalating. The increased tear osmolarity is one of the main reasons for complaint, damage and inflammation of dry eye patients. With the breakthrough of testing technology for tear osmolarity, more research and application of tear osmolarity was reported, and papers on tear osmolarity of normal eye and dry eye in different regions were also published. In this article, the progress of the tear osmolarity research, the range of tear osmolarity and its application in diagnosis and therapy of dry eye was introduced, and the prospect for the clinical application of hypotonic artificial tears was also discussed.

  1. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly.

  2. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  3. Eye evolution: two eyes can be better than one.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth W

    2009-03-10

    The development of our eyes is owed in part to ancestral structures which functioned in phototaxis. With the origin of bilateral annelid larva, two eyes co-evolved with neurons to improve phototaxis performance.

  4. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the bovine eye.

    PubMed

    Potter, Timothy J; Hallowell, Gayle D; Bowen, I Mark

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal bovine eye, to compare the measurements to those reported previously for cadaveric eyes and to describe differences between ocular dimensions of Holstein Friesian and Jersey cattle. Sixty transpalpebral ocular ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 30 adult Holstein Friesian cows, and 16 examinations were performed on 8 adult Jersey cows. Transpalpebral ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 10 MHz linear transducer in both horizontal and vertical imaging planes. The ultrasonographic appearance of structures within the bovine eye is similar to that in other species, although the ciliary artery was frequently identified, appearing as a 0.33 +/- 0.04 cm diameter hypoechoic area. The axial length of the globe was significantly greater in Holstein Friesian cattle (3.46 +/- 0.09 cm) compared with Jersey cattle (3.27 +/- 0.19 cm; P = 0.001), although the vitreous depth was smaller in Holstein Friesian cattle (1.46 +/- 0.09 cm) (P = 0.0009). The anterioposterior depth of the lens was significantly greater in Jersey cattle (1.92 +/- 0.11 cm) and the cornea was thinner in Jersey cattle (0.17 +/- 0.02 cm). The appearance and ocular distances for live animals were similar to those reported previously for cadaveric specimens. The knowledge of normal ocular dimensions facilitates the use of ultrasonography in the evaluation of ocular disease in cattle.

  5. Indian Soldiers Need Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Combat-related eye injuries entail enormous financial, social and psychological cost. Military Combat Eye Protection (MCEP) decreases both the incidence and severity of eye injuries. Experts have recognised the need for MCEP for Indian soldiers. We aim to review the combat-related eye injuries and combat eye protection among the Indian soldiers. Global practices of MCEP are also reviewed. We also aim to offer our recommendations for Indian soldiers. We carried out Medline search for combat-related eye injuries and MCEP and separately searched for eye injuries among Indian soldiers during war and other operations. We present the findings as results. Recommendations are based on the opinions of the experts. Combat-related eye injuries increased from 3% of injured in the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War to 4.8% in 1971 war. During peace-keeping operations in Sri Lanka (1987-89) eye injuries increased to 10.5% of the injured. Statistics on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. MCEP have shown reduction in eye injuries, and thus MCEP forms a part of personal equipment of the soldiers in developed countries. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Combat-related eye injuries among Indian Army soldiers have been increasing. Data on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Provision of MCEP is therefore desirable. Awareness program among the commanders and the soldiers shall result in attitudinal changes and increased compliance. PMID:28384904

  6. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blinking spreads the dye and coats the tear film covering the surface of the cornea. The tear film contains water, oil, and mucus to protect and ... is normal, the dye remains in the tear film on the surface of the eye and does ...

  7. The eye of Vesalius.

    PubMed

    De Laey, Jean J

    2011-05-01

    In the time of Vesalius, knowledge of ocular anatomy was limited. The first description of the anatomy of the eye comes from Democrites, for whom the eye was surrounded by two 'coats', filled with a homogenous fluid. The optic nerve was hollow and the lens was considered to be a postmortem artefact. Until the 15th century AD, medicine was influenced by the writings of Galenus and the model of the eye he proposed was still considered valid, even after Vesalius. According to the Alexandrian tradition, the lens was considered as the seat of visual perception. Although Vesalius rightly deserves the title of father of modern anatomy, his description of ocular anatomy was rudimentary and often incorrect. He described a musculus retractorius bulbi, which is found only in lower mammals, not in primates. The lens, the role of which as an optical device he recognized correctly, was placed too centrally in the eye. The optic nerve was not correctly placed and, following Galenus, Vesalius described only seven cranial nerves. The Galenian concept of ocular anatomy was to endure until the development of the microscope by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Modern ocular anatomy, in fact, can be dated from the works of Zinn.

  8. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  9. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  10. The Eyes Have It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

  11. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  12. Eye-controlled ''teletypewriter''

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. D.; Leavitt, L. D.; Bowen, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Oculometer provides dynamic measurement of subject's look direction, and its outputs can be used to generate visual display of his look pattern and/or to cause equipment operation associated with his lookpoint at given times. Measured eye-direction information could be used as control input at man/machine interface.

  13. Dynamic Eye Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Instructions (with diagrams and parts list) are provided for constructing an eye model with a pliable lens made from a plastic bottle which can vary its convexity to accommodate changing positions of an object being viewed. Also discusses concepts which the model can assist in developing. (Author/SK)

  14. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  15. The blind beautiful eye.

    PubMed

    Feinsod, M

    2000-03-01

    Master Jehan Yperman, a medieval surgeon, observed that when the optic nerve is injured, the eye becomes blind and beautiful. This is an attempt to trace the footsteps of this forgotten surgeon and to track the history of the cosmetic use of the belladonna herb, as well as the concept of amaurotic mydriasis.

  16. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  17. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  18. Vigilance and Avoidance of Threat in the Eye Movements of Children with Separation Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In-Albon, Tina; Kossowsky, Joe; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The "vigilance-avoidance" attention pattern is found in anxious adults, who initially gaze more at threatening pictures than nonanxious adults (vigilance), but subsequently gaze less at them than nonanxious adults (avoidance). The present research, using eye tracking methodology, tested whether anxious children show the same pattern. Children with…

  19. Effects of Aging and Noise on Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Boaz M.; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Reingold, Eyal M.; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To use eye tracking to investigate age differences in real-time lexical processing in quiet and in noise in light of the fact that older adults find it more difficult than younger adults to understand conversations in noisy situations. Method: Twenty-four younger and 24 older adults followed spoken instructions referring to depicted…

  20. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  1. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  2. Prevent Eye Injuries from Fireworks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  3. Eye complaints in the office environment: precorneal tear film integrity influenced by eye blinking efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wolkoff, P; Nojgaard, J; Troiano, P; Piccoli, B

    2005-01-01

    To achieve a common base for understanding work related eye complaints in the office environment, it is necessary to merge approaches from indoor air science, occupational health, and ophthalmology. Based on database searches, it is concluded that precorneal tear film (PTF) alteration leads to eye complaints that may be caused by: (1) thermal factors (low relative humidity; high room temperature); (2) demanding task content (attention decreases blinking and widens the exposed ocular surface area); and (3) individual characteristics (for example, tear film alterations, blinking anomalies, gland dysfunctions, and use of contact lenses). These factors and conditions are able to progressively increase water evaporation and faster thinning of the PTF, which causes dryness and dry spot formation on the cornea, possibly followed by corneal and conjunctiva epithelial alterations and eye complaints. Another possible cause of eye complaints is certain irritating chemical compounds, in addition to oxidation mixtures that are formed in reactions between ozone and unsaturated organic compounds (alkenes). The effect may be exacerbated by low relative humidity. PMID:15613602

  4. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  5. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  6. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  7. How the Human Eye Focuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Jane F.; Handelman, George H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the decline in people's ability to focus their eyes as their age increases. Discusses probable causes of this effect including changes in the eye's geometry and biochemistry. Diagrammatically illustrates age related changes in the lens of the human eye. (CW)

  8. ADAPTIVE EYE MODEL - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskiy, Sergey O.; Kudryashov, Alexey V.

    2008-01-01

    We propose experimental adaptive eye model based on flexible 18-electrode bimorph mirror reproducing human eye aberrations up to 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials at frequency of 10Hz. The accuracy of aberrations reproduction in most cases is better than λ/10 RMS. The model is introduced to aberrometer for human eye aberrations compensation to improve visual acuity test.

  9. Advantages in exploring a new environment with the left eye in lizards.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Beatrice; Csermely, Davide; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

    2013-07-01

    Lizards (Podarcis muralis) preferentially use the left eye during spatial exploration in a binocular condition. Here we allowed 44 adult wild lizards to explore an unknown maze for 20 min under a temporary monocular condition whilst recording their movements, particularly the direction of turns made whilst walking within the maze. Lizards with a patch on their right eye, i.e. using their left eye to monitor the environment, moved faster than lizards with a patch on their left eye when turning both leftward and rightward in a T-cross. Hence, right eye-patched lizards were faster than left eye-patched lizards also in turning right, although their right eye was covered. Thus, lizards that could use the left eye/right hemisphere to attend spatial cues appeared to have more control and to be more prompt in exploring the maze. In addition, female lizards with their left eye covered stopped very frequently when they reached crosses, showing a high level of indecision. Results confirm that P. muralis lizards using their left eye only in exploring a new environment react faster and more efficiently than those using the right eye only in exploration. Hence lateralisation of spatial stimuli mediated by the left eye/right hemisphere could provide an advantage to this species.

  10. Spontaneous Eye-Blinking and Stereotyped Behavior in Older Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebel, Amanda M.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicates that abnormal stereotyped movements are associated with central dopamine dysfunction and that eye-blink rate is a noninvasive, in vivo measure of dopamine function. We measured the spontaneous eye-blinking and stereotyped behavior of older adults with severe/profound mental retardation living in a state mental…

  11. The Role of Alexithymia in Reduced Eye-Fixation in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Geoffrey; Press, Clare; Richardson, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Eye-tracking studies have demonstrated mixed support for reduced eye fixation when looking at social scenes in individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). We present evidence that these mixed findings are due to a separate condition--alexithymia--that is frequently comorbid with ASC. We find that in adults with ASC, autism symptom severity…

  12. Systemic side effects of eye drops: a pharmacokinetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Farkouh, Andre; Frigo, Peter; Czejka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    When administering eye drops, even when completely correctly applied, several routes of absorption are possible and excess amounts can sometimes cause an unwanted systemic bioavailability of the drops when not completely absorbed into the eye. Furthermore, the concentration of active ingredients in such medicinal preparations is usually very high, so that despite the correct application of the recommended dose, considerable amounts may be absorbed in an unwanted manner through various routes. Children are subject to a much higher risk of systemic side effects because ocular dosing is not weight adjusted and physiological development (eg, liver status) differs from that of adults. There is a lack of information about pediatric dosing in the current literature. This review summarizes the most important clinically relevant systemic side effects that may occur during ophthalmic eye treatments. In this review, we discuss general pharmacokinetic considerations as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and consequences of administering drugs from some important drug groups to the eye. PMID:27994437

  13. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  14. Using Eye Movements to Investigate Word Frequency Effects in Children's Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Nation, Kate; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    skilled adult readers process written language, relatively little research has used this methodology with children. This is unfortunate as, as we discuss here, eye-movement studies have significant potential to inform our understanding of children's reading development. We consider…

  15. Large Constituent Families Help Children Parse Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krott, Andrea; Nicoladis, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, has been shown to affect adults' access to compound words in the mental lexicon. The present study was designed to see if family size would affect children's segmentation of compounds. Twenty-five English-speaking children between 3;7 and…

  16. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  17. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  18. Perspectives on eye development.

    PubMed

    Fini, M E; Strissel, K J; West-Mays, J A

    1997-01-01

    The lens of the vertebrate eye was the classic model used to demonstrate the concepts of inductive interactions controlling development. However, it is in the Drosophila model that the greatest progress in understanding molecular mechanisms of eye development have most recently been mode. This progress can be attributed to the power of molecular genetics, an approach that was once confined to simpler systems like worms and flies, but is now becoming possible in vertebrates. Thus, the use of transgenic and knock-out gene technology, coupled with the availability of new positional cloning methods, has recently initiated a surge of progress in the mouse genetic model and has also led to the identification of genes involved in human inherited disorders. In addition, gene transfer techniques have opened up opportunities for progress using chick, Xenopus, and other classic developmental systems. Finally, a new vertebrate genetic model, zebrafish, appears very promising for molecular studies. As a result of the opportunities presented by these new approaches, eye development has come into the limelight, hence the timeliness of this focus issue of Developmental Genetics. In this introductory review, we discuss three areas of current work arising through the use of these newer genetic approaches, and pertinent to research articles presented herein. We also touch on related studies reported at the first Keystone Meeting on Ocular Cell and Molecular Biology, recently held in Tamarron Springs, Colorado, January 7-12, 1997.

  19. The Development of Emotional Face and Eye Gaze Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Striano, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that infants' attention towards novel objects is affected by an adult's emotional expression and eye gaze toward the object. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated how infants at 3, 6, and 9 months of age process fearful compared to neutral faces looking toward objects or averting gaze away…

  20. Aetiological Factors in Dyslexia: I. Saccadic Eye Movement Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisman, Gerald; Schwartz, Joddy

    1978-01-01

    A study examined the character of saccadic eye movement (as reflected by duration/amplitude and velocity/amplitude functions) in 20 dyslexic and 20 normal children (mean age 8.2 years) and 28 normal adults (mean age 26.2 years). (Author/PHR)

  1. Autistic Symptomatology, Face Processing Abilities, and Eye Fixation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jennifer C.; Hatri, Alexander; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Dziobek, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Deviant gaze behavior is a defining characteristic of autism. Its relevance as a pathophysiological mechanism, however, remains unknown. In the present study, we compared eye fixations of 20 adults with autism and 21 controls while they were engaged in taking the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). Additional measures of face emotion and identity…

  2. Tonic and phasic phenomena underlying eye movements during sleep in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is not a homogenous state, and different variables have traditionally been used to distinguish different periods during sleep. Of these variables, eye movement is one of the most paradigmatic, and has been used to differentiate between the so-called rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Despite this, eye movements during sleep are poorly understood, and the behaviour of the oculomotor system remains almost unknown. In the present work, we recorded binocular eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle of adult cats by the scleral search-coil technique. During alertness, eye movements consisted of conjugated saccades and eye fixations. During NREM sleep, eye movements were slow and mostly unconjugated. The two eyes moved upwardly and in the abducting direction, producing a tonic divergence and elevation of the visual axis. During the transition period between NREM and REM sleep, rapid monocular eye movements of low amplitude in the abducting direction occurred in coincidence with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Along REM sleep, the eyes tended to maintain a tonic convergence and depression, broken by high-frequency bursts of complex rapid eye movements. In the horizontal plane, each eye movement in the burst comprised two consecutive movements in opposite directions, which were more evident in the eye that performed the abducting movements. In the vertical plane, rapid eye movements were always upward. Comparisons of the characteristics of eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle reveal the uniqueness of eye movements during sleep, and the noteworthy existence of tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system, not observed until now. PMID:18499729

  3. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  4. Complexity and diversity of eyes in Early Cambrian ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fangchen; Bottjer, David J.; Hu, Shixue; Yin, Zongjun; Zhu, Maoyan

    2013-01-01

    Here we report exceptionally preserved non-biomineralized compound eyes of a non-trilobite arthropod Cindarella eucalla from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. The specimen represents the oldest microanatomical evidence confirming the occurrence of highly developed vision in the early Cambrian, over 2,000 ommatidia in each eye. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of the distribution of eyes related to life habit, feeding types, and phyla respectively, from the Chengjiang biota indicates that specimens with eyes mostly belong to the arthropods, and they usually were actively mobile epifaunal and nektonic forms as hunters or scavengers. Arthropods took the lead in evolution of ‘good vision' and domination in Cambrian communities, which supports the hypothesis that the origin and evolution of ‘good vision' was a key trait that promoted preferential diversification and formed the foundation of modern benthic ecosystems in the early Cambrian ocean. PMID:24067397

  5. Eye development and photoreceptor differentiation in the cephalopod Doryteuthis pealeii.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristen M; Sun, Peter; Meyer, Eli; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Photoreception is a ubiquitous sensory ability found across the Metazoa, and photoreceptive organs are intricate and diverse in their structure. Although the morphology of the compound eye in Drosophila and the single-chambered eye in vertebrates have elaborated independently, the amount of conservation within the 'eye' gene regulatory network remains controversial, with few taxa studied. To better understand the evolution of photoreceptive organs, we established the cephalopod Doryteuthis pealeii as a lophotrochozoan model for eye development. Utilizing histological, transcriptomic and molecular assays, we characterize eye formation in Doryteuthis pealeii Through lineage tracing and gene expression analyses, we demonstrate that cells expressing Pax and Six genes incorporate into the lens, cornea and iris, and the eye placode is the sole source of retinal tissue. Functional assays demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for photoreceptor cell differentiation and retinal organization. This comparative approach places the canon of eye research in traditional models into perspective, highlighting complexity as a result of both conserved and convergent mechanisms.

  6. Evolution of eye morphology and rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup.

    PubMed

    Posnien, Nico; Hopfen, Corinna; Hilbrant, Maarten; Ramos-Womack, Margarita; Murat, Sophie; Schönauer, Anna; Herbert, Samantha L; Nunes, Maria D S; Arif, Saad; Breuker, Casper J; Schlötterer, Christian; Mitteroecker, Philipp; McGregor, Alistair P

    2012-01-01

    A striking diversity of compound eye size and shape has evolved among insects. The number of ommatidia and their size are major determinants of the visual sensitivity and acuity of the compound eye. Each ommatidium is composed of eight photoreceptor cells that facilitate the discrimination of different colours via the expression of various light sensitive Rhodopsin proteins. It follows that variation in eye size, shape, and opsin composition is likely to directly influence vision. We analyzed variation in these three traits in D. melanogaster, D. simulans and D. mauritiana. We show that D. mauritiana generally has larger eyes than its sibling species, which is due to a combination of larger ommatidia and more ommatidia. In addition, intra- and inter-specific differences in eye size among D. simulans and D. melanogaster strains are mainly caused by variation in ommatidia number. By applying a geometric morphometrics approach to assess whether the formation of larger eyes influences other parts of the head capsule, we found that an increase in eye size is associated with a reduction in the adjacent face cuticle. Our shape analysis also demonstrates that D. mauritiana eyes are specifically enlarged in the dorsal region. Intriguingly, this dorsal enlargement is associated with enhanced expression of rhodopsin 3 in D. mauritiana. In summary, our data suggests that the morphology and functional properties of the compound eyes vary considerably within and among these closely related Drosophila species and may be part of coordinated morphological changes affecting the head capsule.

  7. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  8. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  9. Abnormal Spontaneous Eye Movements as Initial Presentation of Organophosphate Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    De Lima Teixeira, Igor; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Schelp, Arthur Oscar; Luvizutto, Gustavo José; De Lima, Fabrício Diniz; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Background Atypical ocular bobbing may result from an intentional poisoning from an organophosphate compound. Phenomenology Shown The patient exhibited conjugated, slow, arrhythmic, unpredictable eye movements in all directions, diagnosed as atypical ocular bobbing. Educational Value This is a rare, well‐documented, clinically relevant case for medical students for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of organophosphate intoxication. PMID:28243486

  10. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  11. Identification and characterization of autosomal genes that interact with glass in the developing Drosophila eye

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Chaoyong; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Ying; Moses, K.

    1996-04-01

    The glass gene encodes a zinc finger, DNA-binding protein that is required for photoreceptor cell development in Drosophila melanogaster. In the developing compound eye, glass function is regulated at two points: (1) the protein is expressed in all cells` nuclei posterior to the morphogenetic furrow and (2) the ability of the Glass protein to regulate downstream genes is largely limited to the developing photoreceptor cells. We conducted a series of genetic screen for autosomal dominant second-site modifiers of the weak allele glass, to discover genes with products that may regulate glass function at either of these levels. Seventy-six dominant enhancer mutations were recovered (and no dominant suppressors). Most of these dominant mutations are in essential genes and are associated with recessive lethality. We have assigned these mutations to 23 complementation groups that include multiple alleles of Star and hedgehog as well as single alleles of Delta, roughened eye, glass and hairy. Mutations in 18 of the complementation groups are embryonic lethals, and of these, 13 show abnormal adult retinal phenotypes in homozygous clones, usually with altered numbers of photoreceptor cells in some of the ommatidia. 116 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Can children with autism read emotions from the eyes? The eyes test revisited.

    PubMed

    Franco, Fabia; Itakura, Shoji; Pomorska, Krystyna; Abramowski, Anna; Nikaido, Kozue; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to test two new, simplified tasks related to the eye-test, targeting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing controls (TD). Test-1 assessed the recognition of emotion/mental states with displays using one word and two eye-pictures, whereas Test-2 presented displays using two words and one eye-picture. Black and white photographs of children were used as materials. A cross-cultural study (Caucasian/East-Asian) with adults was initially carried out to verify generalizability across different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses were used to compare emotion recognition from the eyes in the two tests. Trajectories were constructed linking performance on both tests either to chronological age or to different measures of mental age (receptive vocabulary based on the BPVS, CARS or ASQ for the ASD group). Performance improved with chronological age in both the ASD and TD groups of children. However, performance in Test-1 was significantly superior in children with ASD, who showed delayed onset and slower rate of improvement than TD children in Test-2. In both the ASD and TD groups the lowest error rate was recorded for the item 'anger', suggesting that threat-detection cue mechanisms may be intact in autism. In general, all children showed good performance on our novel tests, thus making them good candidates for assessing younger children and those with lower general abilities.

  13. How to administer eye drops and eye ointment.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mary

    2016-05-25

    Rationale and key points Eye drops and eye ointment are the mainstay of treatment of ocular conditions. Failure to prioritise administration of these medicines can prolong the condition and may present a risk to the patient's vision. ▶ Eye drops and eye ointments are used to treat acute and chronic conditions of the eye and surrounding structures. Eye drops must be instilled before applying eye ointment, since the ointment will affect the absorption of the eye drop. ▶ Nurses require knowledge of the technique, side effects and potential interactions associated with systemically or topically applied medicines to the eye to ensure patient safety and optimum outcomes. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding treatment of ocular conditions. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio.

  14. Preliminary study on eye colour in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio

    2007-04-01

    Eye colour in Japanese macaques shows apparent differences between individuals, continuously ranging from orange (bright), through shades of yellow and hazel-blue to dark blue (dark). We arbitrarily classified them into either 'yellow' eyes or 'blue' eyes based on the yellow area occupying in the iris' peripupillary ring. Most Japanese macaques have yellow eyes after infant phase, whilst 19, 17, 12, and 15% of monkeys (>6 months, sexes combined) have blue-eye in studied two groups of Shodoshima and two groups of Takasakiyama, respectively. Frequency of eye colour did not differ between males and females, but significantly differed in each age class. Blue eyes significantly more frequently occurred in newborns, infants and aged monkeys than in juveniles and prime adults. Data from mother-infant pairs indicated eye colour could be inherited from their parents. A case of asymmetric eye colour in Japanese macaques was found from a sample of 1962 individuals. Eye colour variation of Japanese macaques was discussed in relation to those of humans and rhesus macaques. A possible evolutionary model of eye colour in Japanese macaques was discussed.

  15. [Eye and lymph drainage].

    PubMed

    Grüntzig, J; Schicha, H; Huth, F

    1979-06-01

    Up to now lymphatics in the eye could not be pointed out. An ocular lymph drainage is denied. Földi succeeded in producing experimentally the syndrome of "lymphostatic encephalopathy and ophthalmopathy" by operative blockade of the cervical lymphatics in animals. In the first part of the present paper a historical view considering the subject "Eye and lymphatic system" is given. In the second part it is entered into the particulars of own experimental studies. As to our own investigations, rabbits have been injected 99mTc-sulfur-colloid, 99mTc-microcolloid, 99mTc-Albumin and 198Au-colloid into the retrobulbar space, anterior chamber, vitreous body and subconjuctival space of one eye. Measurements of the activity's distribution have been made in vivo with an Anger type camera (pho-Gamma-IV Hp, Searle Nuclear Chicago) and in vitro after section with a sodium iodine crystal well counter (Clinimat-200, Picker). In some animals the investigation has been combined with a bilateral dissection of the cervical lymph nodes. After injection in the retrobulbar space a significant concentration of the activity could be observed for the most part in the equilateral Lymphonodulus cervicalis profundus. By the cervical lymph blockade the removal of lymphoctopic substances from the retrobulbar space was largely inhibited. After injection in the anterior chamber a significant concentration could be observed for the most part in the equilateral Lymphonodulus cervicalis superficialis. After intravitreal injection a drainage to the bilateral deep cervical lymph nodes could be observed. After injection into the subconjunctival space a significant accumulation of activity could be registered in the equilateral Lymphonoduli mandibulares and cervicales superficiales. The data substantiate a segmental lymph drainage from the eye: vitreous body and retrobulbar space for the most part into the Lymphonoduli cervicales profundi, anterior chamber and subconjunctival space for the most part into

  16. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  17. On biometrics with eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2016-04-07

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In the present article, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  18. Arsenic, heavy metals, phthalates, pesticides, hydrocarbons and polyfluorinated compounds but not parabens or phenols are associated with adult remembering condition: US NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged, but the effects on cognition were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of environmental chemicals and the remembering condition in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012, including demographics, blood pressure readings, serum measurements, lifestyle factors, self-reported remembering condition and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included Chi-square test, t test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression models. Among the elderly aged 60-80 (n = 1791), 320 (17.9%) had difficulties in thinking or remembering. People who had difficulties in thinking or remembering had higher levels of urinary heavy metals, phthalates, pesticides and hydrocarbon concentrations but lower levels of urinary arsenic and polyfluorinated compound concentrations. During the recent past week, 146 people (8.2%) had trouble remembering for more than three times while 619 people (35.2%) had that for one to three times. These people had higher levels of urinary heavy metals, phthalates, pesticides and hydrocarbon concentrations but lower levels of urinary polyfluorinated compound concentrations. There were no associations with urinary bisphenols, parabens, perchlorate, nitrate or thiocyanate concentrations. This is the first time observing statistically significant risk associations of urinary heavy metals, phthalates, pesticides and hydrocarbon concentrations and the remembering condition specifically in the elderly, although the causality cannot be established. Elimination of such environmental chemicals in humans might need to be considered in future health policy and intervention programs.

  19. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  20. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  1. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  2. Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles attract conspecific adults in nature

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.; Knight, Alan L.; Byers, John A.; Judd, Gary J. R.; Suckling, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants release volatiles in response to caterpillar feeding that attract natural enemies of the herbivores, a tri-trophic interaction which has been considered an indirect plant defence against herbivores. The caterpillar-induced plant volatiles have been reported to repel or attract conspecific adult herbivores. To date however, no volatile signals that either repel or attract conspecific adults under field conditions have been chemically identified. Apple seedlings uniquely released seven compounds including acetic acid, acetic anhydride, benzyl alcohol, benzyl nitrile, indole, 2-phenylethanol, and (E)-nerolidol only when infested by larvae of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana. In field tests in New Zealand, a blend of two of these, benzyl nitrile and acetic acid, attracted a large number of conspecific male and female adult moths. In North America, male and female adults of the tortricid, oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, were most attracted to a blend of 2-phenylethanol and acetic acid. Both sexes of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana, were highly attracted to a blend of benzyl nitrile and acetic acid. This study provides the first identification of caterpillar-induced plant volatiles that attract conspecific adult herbivores under natural conditions, challenging the expectation of herbivore avoidance of these induced volatiles. PMID:27892474

  3. Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

    This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

  4. Seasonal changes of C and N non-structural compounds in the stem sapwood of adult sessile oak and beech trees.

    PubMed

    El Zein, R; Maillard, P; Bréda, N; Marchand, J; Montpied, P; Gérant, D

    2011-08-01

    We assessed the pools of non-structural nitrogen compounds (NSNC) through a year, thereby addressing the question of whether mature sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.] and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which differ in wood anatomy and growth patterns, exhibit contrasting seasonal dynamics of NSNC pools as previously shown for non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools. Seasonal fluctuations of NSNC (amino acids and soluble proteins) and NSC (starch and soluble sugars) pools were analyzed in the inner and the outer stem sapwood. In oak, NSC showed marked seasonal variation within the stem sapwood (accumulation during winter and decrease during bud burst and early wood growth), whereas in beech seasonal fluctuations in NSC were of minor amplitude. Even if the distribution and intensity of the NSNC pools differed between the two species, NSNC of the stem sapwood did not show seasonal variation. The most significant change in NSNC pools was the seasonal fluctuation of protein composition. In both species, two polypeptides of 13 kDa (PP13) and 26 kDa (PP26) accumulated during the coldest period in parallel with starch to sugar conversion and disappeared with the onset of spring growth. The absence of seasonal changes in total soluble protein concentration suggests that the polypeptides are involved in the internal nitrogen (N) cycling of the stem rather than in N storage and remobilization to the other growing organs of the tree.

  5. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and dosing simulations of nitrogen-scavenging compounds: disposition of glycerol phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylbutyrate in adult and pediatric patients with urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Jon P R; Mokhtarani, M; Diaz, G A; Rhead, W; Lichter-Konecki, U; Berry, S A; Lemons, C; Dickinson, K; Coakley, D; Lee, B; Scharschmidt, B F

    2013-07-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate mediate waste nitrogen excretion in the form of urinary phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); rare genetic disorders characterized by impaired urea synthesis and hyperammonemia. Sodium phenylbutyrate is approved for UCD treatment; the development of glycerol phenylbutyrate afforded the opportunity to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of both compounds. A population PK model was developed using data from four Phase II/III trials that collectively enrolled patients ages 2 months to 72 years. Dose simulations were performed with particular attention to phenylacetic acid (PAA), which has been associated with adverse events in non-UCD populations. The final model described metabolite levels in plasma and urine for both drugs and was characterized by (a) partial presystemic metabolism of phenylbutyric acid (PBA) to PAA and/or PAGN, (b) slower PBA absorption and greater presystemic conversion with glycerol phenylbutyrate, (c) similar systemic disposition with saturable conversion of PAA to PAGN for both drugs, and (d) body surface area (BSA) as a significant covariate accounting for age-related PK differences. Dose simulations demonstrated similar PAA exposure following mole-equivalent PBA dosing of both drugs and greater PAA exposure in younger patients based on BSA.

  6. TRIFLUOROMETHYL COMPOUNDS OF GERMANIUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FLUORIDES, *GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS, *HALIDES, *ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, CHEMICAL BONDS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS ...CHLORIDES, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, HYDROLYSIS, IODIDES, METHYL RADICALS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, PYROLYSIS, STABILITY, SYNTHESIS, TIN COMPOUNDS.

  7. The clever strategy of a tiny crustacean eye early in the evolution of vision.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    Henningsmoenicaris scutula (Walossek and Müller, 1990) (Fig. 1) is a tiny representative of Crustacea, systematically standing close to the stemline. It is found in stinkstone ('Orsten') nodules from the Alum Shale, where a rich fauna of small organisms is excellently preserved. Three dimensional morphology is retained by phosphatisation, which exhibits the finest details, such as cuticular structures, fine appendages and especially the morphology of the compound eyes. The stalked eyes of H. scutula investigated here were equipped with a differentiated visual surface with four different areas of vision. The most intriguing is a field of view oriented laterally to the contralateral side of each eye, so that the fields of view of both compound eyes intersect, and give information about any object moving within the vicinity. Due to this, although, for various reasons this compound eye probably was not able to form a proper image, it was able to perceive tiny prey within a wide visual field, in the same way that the movement of figures can be traced in a chess game. This can be considered as a highly sophisticated visual system that developed early in the history of reported eye evolution, as this compound eye is almost exactly half a billion years old.

  8. GPS compound eye attitude and navigation sensor and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a GPS system for navigation and attitude determination, comprising a sensor array including a convex hemispherical mounting structure having a plurality of mounting surfaces, and a plurality of antennas mounted to the mounting surfaces for receiving signals from space vehicles of a GPS constellation. The present invention also includes a receiver for collecting the signals and making navigation and attitude determinations. In an alternate embodiment the present invention may include two opposing convex hemispherical mounting structures, each of the mounting structures having a plurality of mounting surfaces, and a plurality of antennas mounted to the mounting surfaces.

  9. Formation of the hurricane eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigh, Jonathan L.

    This dissertation consists of three distinct studies which investigate aspects of eye formation. The first study reviews eye phenomenon in a variety of vortices ranging from simple vortices to the menagerie of geophysical vortices, emphasizing similarities and differences to the eyes formed in hurricanes. The hurricane eye is found to be a paradoxical structure imposed by conservation of angular momentum and the boundaries of the vortex. A comprehensive definition for hurricane eye formation is proposed and various eye formation mechanisms are summarized. The next study presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the balanced vortex model and, in particular, on the associated transverse circulation equation and the geopotential tendency equation. The transverse circulation and the temperature tendency in a tropical vortex depend not only on the diabatic forcing, but also on the spatial distributions of the static stability, the baroclinity, and the inertial stability. The vortex response to diabatic heating depends critically on whether the heating occurs in the low inertial stability region outside the radius of maximum wind or in the high inertial stability region inside the radius of maximum wind. This result suggests that rapid intensification is favored for storms which have at least some of the eyewall convection inside the radius of maximum wind. The development of an eye partially removes diabatic heating from the high inertial stability region of the storm center, yet rapid intensification may continue if the eyewall heating continues to become more efficient. As the warm core matures and static stability increases over the inner core, conditions there become less favorable for deep upright convection and the storm tends to approach a steady state. The final study characterizes

  10. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases , eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  11. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  12. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes.

  13. Pregnancy and the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yenerel, Nursal Melda; Küçümen, Raciha Beril

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant changes in all systems of the body. Although most of them are physiological, they may also lead to pathological consequences. The resulting pathological changes may occur for the first time or existing diseases affected by pregnancy can become more serious or change course. Diseases specific only to pregnancy may arise. Like all systems of the body, the visual system is also affected by pregnancy, developing a wide range of physiological and pathological changes. Knowing the ocular physiological changes and diagnosing eye diseases that may develop during pregnancy, and preventing and treating these diseases is crucial to ensure the baby’s healthy development. Therefore, we have reviewed the conditions that an ophthalmologist should recognize, follow-up, and pay attention to during treatment and summarized them under the topic “pregnancy and the eye”. PMID:27800235

  14. The Colossal Cosmic Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

  15. Eye trauma in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd-Monk, H.

    1990-10-01

    A baseline visual acuity should be on record for medical and legal purposes. Identifying an eye injury and referring the person for appropriate treatment can save vision. Immediate eye irrigation in the case of chemical burns can substantially decrease the possibility of permanent vision damage.

  16. Photographic Screening for Eye Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

  17. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  18. Occupational eye injuries in Finland.

    PubMed

    Saari, K M; Parvi, V

    1984-01-01

    In Finland 11.9% of all industrial accidents in 1973 were eye injuries including superficial eye injuries (79.2%), ultraviolet burns of the cornea (3.9%), eye burns (3.6%), blunt ocular trauma (2,5%), wounds (2.4%), and post-traumatic infections (5.8%). Eye injuries constituted 34.3% of all industrial accidents which needed only ambulatory treatment and 17.5% of all industrial accidents causing an absence for 1-2 days. In 1981 2.1% of all compensated industrial accidents (incapacity for work 3 days or more) were eye injuries. Most compensated eye injuries occurred in manufacturing and in construction work (80.4%) and 8.5% occurred in agriculture. The annual incidence rates of compensated accidents to the eyes (accidents X 1 000/number of employees) were highest in several branches of metal industry (4.96-6.88), excavating and foundation work (6.88), and in logging (5.64). Compensated eye injuries were caused by machines (32.8%), hand tools (25.6%), other equipment and constructions (4.8%), work environment (23.6%), chemical substances (10.8%), and other accidents (2.3%).

  19. External morphology of eyes and Nebenaugen of caridean decapods–ecological and systematic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Nicola; De Grave, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    Most caridean decapods have compound eyes of the reflecting superposition kind, and additionally some possess an accessory eye-like organ of unknown function, also referred to as the nebenauge. We examined 308 caridean genera to assess the general morphology of the eye, rostrum length, eye diameter and the presence or absence and, when present, the diameter of the nebenauge. We have attempted to relate these data to ecological and taxonomic considerations. We consider there to be 6 distinct eye types based on the margin between the eyestalk and cornea. The presence of nebenaugen appears to be generally linked to an active lifestyle, as evidenced by the fact that species that have nebenaugen tend to have larger eyes and are more likely to have a distinct rostrum. We suggest that the inconsistencies in its presence/absence under both systematic and ecological lenses may indicate that when present it has various roles relating to behavioural and physiological rhythms. PMID:26312177

  20. Morphology of Cambrian lobopodian eyes from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte and their evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoya; Hou, Xianguang; Aldridge, Richard J; Siveter, David J; Siveter, Derek J; Gabbott, Sarah E; Purnell, Mark A; Parker, Andrew R; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2012-09-01

    Visual organs are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom and exhibit a great diversity of morphologies. Compound eyes consisting of numerous visual units (ommatidia) are the oldest preserved visual systems of arthropods, but their origins are obscure and hypothetical models for their evolution have been difficult to test in the absence of unequivocal fossil evidence. Here we reveal the detailed eye structures of well-preserved Early Cambrian lobopodians Luolishania longicruris and Hallucigenia fortis from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China. These animals possess a pair of eyes composed of at least two visual units, interpreted as pigment cups. Contrary to previous suggestions that Cambrian lobopodians possessed ocellus-like eyes comparable to those of extant onychophorans, this multi-component structure is more similar to the lateral eyes of arthropods. Morphological comparison and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these lobopodian eyes may represent an early stage in the evolution of the ancestral visual system of euarthropods.

  1. Diphenyl diselenide, a simple organoselenium compound, decreases methylmercury-induced cerebral, hepatic and renal oxidative stress and mercury deposition in adult mice.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Andressa Sausen; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Rotta, Mariana dos Santos; Bohrer, Denise; Mörschbächer, Vanessa; Puntel, Robson Luís; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-04-06

    Oxidative stress has been pointed out as an important molecular mechanism in methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication. At low doses, diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2), a structurally simple organoselenium compound, has been shown to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Here we have examined the possible in vivo protective effect of diphenyl diselenide against the potential pro-oxidative effects of MeHg in mouse liver, kidney, cerebrum and cerebellum. The effects of MeHg exposure (2 mg/(kg day) of methylmercury chloride 10 ml/kg, p.o.), as well as the possible antagonist effect of diphenyl diselenide (1 and 0.4 mg/(kg day); s.c.) on body weight gain and on hepatic, cerebellar, cerebral and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid content, mercury concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were evaluated after 35 days of treatment. MeHg caused an increase in TBARS and decreased NPSH levels in all tissues. MeHg also induced a decrease in hepatic ascorbic acid content and in renal GPx and CAT activities. Diphenyl diselenide (1 mg/kg) conferred protection against MeHg-induced hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and at both doses prevented the reduction in hepatic NPSH levels. Diphenyl diselenide also conferred a partial protection against MeHg-induced oxidative stress (TBARS and NPSH) in liver and cerebellum. Of particular importance, diphenyl diselenide decreased the deposition of Hg in cerebrum, cerebellum, kidney and liver. The present results indicate that diphenyl diselenide can protect against some toxic effects of MeHg in mice. This protection may be related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to reduce Hg body burden. We posit that formation of a selenol intermediate, which possesses high nucleophilicity and high affinity for MeHg, accounts for the ability of diphenyl diselenide to ameliorate Me

  2. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites.

  3. An accurate and portable eye movement detector for studying sleep in small animals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Álvaro; Escudero, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Although eye movements are a highly valuable variable in attempts to precisely identify different periods of the sleep-wake cycle, their indirect measurement by electrooculography is not good enough. The present article describes an accurate and portable scleral search coil that allows the detection of tonic and phasic characteristics of eye movements in free-moving animals. Six adult Wistar rats were prepared for chronic recording of electroencephalography, electromyography and eye movements using the scleral search coil technique. We developed a miniature magnetic field generator made with two coils, consisting of 35 turns and 15 mm diameter of insulated 0.2 mm cooper wire, mounted in a frame of carbon fibre. This portable scleral search coil was fixed on the head of the animal, with each magnetic coil parallel to the eye coil and at 5 mm from each eye. Eye movements detected by the portable scleral search coil were compared with those measured by a commercial scleral search coil requiring immobilizing the head of the animal. No qualitative differences were found between the two scleral search coil systems in their capabilities to detect eye movements. This innovative portable scleral search coil system is an essential tool to detect slow changes in eye position and miniature rapid eye movements during sleep. The portable scleral search coil is much more suitable for detecting eye movements than any previously available system because of its precision and simplicity, and because it does not require immobilization of the animal's head.

  4. Segregation of eye and antenna fates maintained by mutual antagonism in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Wei; Sun, Y Henry

    2012-09-01

    A general question in development is how do adjacent primordia adopt different developmental fates and stably maintain their distinct fates? In Drosophila melanogaster, the adult eye and antenna originate from the embryonic eye-antenna primordium. These cells proliferate in the larval stage to form the eye-antenna disc. The eye or antenna differs at mid second instar with the restricted expression of Cut (Ct), a homeodomain transcriptional repressor, in the antenna disc and Eyeless (Ey), a Pax6 transcriptional activator, in the eye disc. In this study, we show that ey transcription in the antenna disc is repressed by two homeodomain proteins, Ct and Homothorax (Hth). Loss of Ct and Hth in the antenna disc resulted in ectopic eye development in the antenna. Conversely, the Ct and Hth expression in the eye disc was suppressed by the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So), a direct target of Ey. Loss of So in the eye disc caused ectopic antenna development in the eye. Therefore, the segregation of eye and antenna fates is stably maintained by mutual repression of the other pathway.

  5. [Eye involvement of borrelia aetiology].

    PubMed

    Krbková, Lenka; Vodicková, Kristýna; Pellarová, Hana; Bednárová, Jana; Cápová, Iva

    2007-06-01

    We present a case of eye involvement -- intermediate uveitis -- during tick-borne borreliosis in a 10-year-old boy. Ophthalmologic examination revealed impaired vision, apparent thick floating whitish opacity in the vitreous humour of the left eye and fine fibres in the vitreous humour of the right eye. Sonographic examination confirmed hyperechogenic opacity in the vitreous humour. An autoimmune process was suspected but not confirmed. Serological examination showed IgG antibodies against three pathogenic borreliae and borderline values of IgM antibodies against Borrelia garinii were found by immunoblot. The boy was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for 21 days. The subsequent sonographic examination showed only minute sporadic echogenicity. Biomicroscopically, only residual opacity in the vitreous humour was found. Isolated eye involvement of borrelia aetiology is rare. The discussion provides a review of similar cases of uveitis including diagnosis of the eye form as published in literature.

  6. Embryonic development of the larval eyes of the Sunburst Diving Beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Insecta: Dytiscidae): a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Stecher, Nadine; Stowasser, Annette; Stahl, Aaron; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2016-07-01

    Stemmata, the larval eyes of holometabolous insects are extremely diverse, ranging from full compound eyes, to a few ommatidial units as are typical in compound eyes, to sophisticated and functionally specialized image-forming camera-type eyes. Stemmata evolved from a compound eye ommatidial ancestor, an eye type that is morphologically well conserved in regards to cellular composition, and well studied in regards to development. However, despite this evolutionary origin it remains largely unknown how stemmata develop. In addition, it is completely unclear how development is altered to give rise to some of the functionally most complex stemmata, such as those of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus. In this study, we used histological methods to investigate the embryonic development of the functionally complex principal stemmata Eye 1 and Eye 2 of the larval visual system of T. marmoratus. To gain insights into how cellular components of their sophisticated camera-type eyes might have evolved from the cellular components of ommatidial ancestors, we contrast our findings against known features of ommatidia development, which are particularly well understood in Drosophila. We find many similarities, such as the early presence of a pseudostratified epithelium, and the order in which specific cell types are recruited. However, in Thermonectus each cell type is represented by a large number of cells from early on and major tissue re-orientation occurs as eye development progresses. This study provides insights into the timing of morphological features and represents the basis for future molecular studies.

  7. Tell-Tale Eyes: Children's Attribution of Gaze Aversion as a Lying Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Shiri; Hood, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the well-documented adult tendency to perceive gaze aversion as a lying cue is also evident in children. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds, 9-year-olds, and adults were shown video vignettes of speakers who either maintained or avoided eye contact while answering an interviewer's questions. Participants evaluated whether the…

  8. Ultrasonographic and macroscopic anatomy of the enucleated eyes of the buffalo (Bos bubalis) and the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) of different ages.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A

    2012-02-01

    The ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal buffalo and camel eye globes were described in 60 buffaloes (Bos bubalis) aged 1 year (28 eyes) and 10 years (32 eyes), and in 51 humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) aged 1 year (26 eyes) and 10 years (24 eyes). Ocular measurements were recorded by A- and B-scan ultrasonographic examination of 40 buffalo eyes (18 young and 22 adult eyes) and 34 camel eyes (14 young and 20 adult eyes) using a KANGH ultrasound scanner equipped with 10 MHz probe. For gross measurements, 20 buffalo and 16 camel eye globes were frozen and dissected and the same measurements were made using fine callipers macroscopically. The aqueous and vitreous humour of the buffalo and camel eyes appeared anechoic. The cornea, anterior and posterior lens capsule and iris appeared hyperechoic. The ocular measurements for the axial length, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), corneal thickness, lens thickness and scleroretinal rim thickness increase with the advance of age in both buffaloes and camels. Except for the anterior chamber depth, VCD and lens thickness, which were larger in adult camels than in adult buffaloes, no other differences between ocular dimensions were observed in both species. The results of this study are valuable for comparative ocular anatomy and will be useful for ultrasonographic evaluation of ocular diseases in buffaloes and camels.

  9. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  10. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  11. Reading Polymorphemic Dutch Compounds: Toward a Multiple Route Model of Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Schreuder, Robert; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article reports an eye-tracking experiment with 2,500 polymorphemic Dutch compounds presented in isolation for visual lexical decision while readers' eye movements were registered. The authors found evidence that both full forms of compounds ("dishwasher") and their constituent morphemes (e.g., "dish," "washer," "er") and morphological…

  12. Superglue injuries of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara

    2012-01-01

    AIM To report various ocular lesions caused by accidental instillation of superglue. METHODS Three cases of ocular injuries are described in children aged 6 years, 3 years and 8 months, following accidental instillation of superglue in the eye. RESULTS In the first case there was sticking of eyelashes in the medial 1/3 of eyelids in both eyes. In the second case sticking of eye lashes was present in the lateral 1/3 of eyelids in the left eye. In the third case, superglue was present on the right cheek, above the right ear and sticking of eyelids in medial 1/3 in right eye. The eyelids were separated by pulling the lid margins with fingers in the first case and later on superglue was removed by trimming the eyelashes; and by direct trimming the eyelashes in second and third cases. There was no injury to other structures of anterior segment in the first two cases. However, removal of the superglue on the cornea resulted in corneal abrasion in the third case which healed with medical treatment and patching of the right eye. CONCLUSION Accidental instillation of superglue is possible because of the appearance of the tube like eye ointment tube. Immediate medical aid will prevent ocular morbidity. PMID:23166877

  13. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  14. Antiangiogenic Eye Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Corydon, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    The idea of treating disease in humans with genetic material was conceived over two decades ago and with that a promising journey involving development and efficacy studies in cells and animals of a large number of novel therapeutic reagents unfolded. In the footsteps of this process, successful gene therapy treatment of genetic conditions in humans has shown clear signs of efficacy. Notably, significant advancements using gene supplementation and silencing strategies have been made in the field of ocular gene therapy, thereby pinpointing ocular gene therapy as one of the compelling "actors" bringing gene therapy to the clinic. Most of all, this success has been facilitated because of (1) the fact that the eye is an effortlessly accessible, exceedingly compartmentalized, and immune-privileged organ offering a unique advantage as a gene therapy target, and (2) significant progress toward efficient, sustained transduction of cells within the retina having been achieved using nonintegrating vectors based on recombinant adeno-associated virus and nonintegrating lentivirus vectors. The results from in vivo experiments and trials suggest that treatment of inherited retinal dystrophies, ocular angiogenesis, and inflammation with gene therapy can be both safe and effective. Here, the progress of ocular gene therapy is examined with special emphasis on the potential use of RNAi- and protein-based antiangiogenic gene therapy to treat exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  15. Cat eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  16. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-05-19

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome.

  17. The eyes of LITENING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  18. "It Is an Eye-Opener That There Is a Relationship between Rehabilitation and HIV": Perspectives of Physiotherapists and Occupational Therapists in Kenya and Zambia on the Role of Rehabilitation with Adults and Children Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Stephanie; Cameron, Cathy; Mweshi, Margaret; Nkandu, Esther Munalula; Okidi, Carlius; Tattle, Stephen; Yates, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To present the perspectives of rehabilitation providers-physiotherapists and occupational therapists-in Kenya and Zambia on the role of rehabilitation in the care of adults and children living with HIV. Methods: This qualitative, interpretivist study was part of a broader project to adapt a Canadian e-module on HIV-related disability for rehabilitation providers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Focus groups, demographic questionnaires, and knowledge-attitude-belief surveys were conducted with rehabilitation providers in Kenya and Zambia. Focus group data were analyzed inductively using an iterative content analysis. Results: Sixty-three rehabilitation providers (52 physiotherapists, 11 occupational therapists) participated in 10 focus groups in Nyanza Province, Kenya, and Lusaka, Zambia. The participants described the role of rehabilitation in HIV care in terms of missed opportunities related to (1) HIV disclosure; (2) inter-professional and inter-sectoral collaboration; (3) community-based rehabilitation; (4) training for rehabilitation providers; (5) pediatric rehabilitation; and (6) the connections among disability, HIV, and poverty. Conclusions: The results point to the need for HIV policy and practice leaders to develop new models of care that recognize the crucial role of rehabilitation in the long-term management of HIV to address the shifting needs of the 25 million people living longer with HIV in SSA.

  19. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…

  20. Posterior Vitreous Detachment With Microplasmin Alters the Retinal Penetration of Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) in Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, David T.; Giblin, Frank J.; Cheng, Mei; Chintala, Shravan K.; Trese, Michael T.; Drenser, Kimberly A.; Ruby, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) is frequently used for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Previous studies have demonstrated full thickness retinal penetration. Intravitreal recombinant microplasmin (MP) has been shown to successfully induce a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and vitreous liquefaction in animals. It has been suggested that a PVD may alter the retinal penetration of molecules in the vitreous cavity. The aim of this study was to compare bevacizumab (BV) retinal penetration in rabbit eyes with and without a MP-induced PVD. Methods Twelve adult rabbits were injected with 0.1 ml (0.4 mg) of MP into the vitreous cavity of one eye. One week later, the rabbits were injected with 0.05 ml (1.25 mg) of BV into both eyes. Both eyes of three rabbits each were harvested at 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours after the BV injection. Frozen retinal cross sections were prepared, and BV retinal penetration was evaluated with immunohistochemistry using a fluorescence-labeled antibody against BV. Two eyes from one rabbit were not injected with either agent and used as controls to compare the background autofluorescence. Peripapillary retinal sections were recorded with a digital camera, and intra-retinal BV fluorescence-labeled antibody was measured by qualitative photographic interpretation. Two additional rabbits received an intravitreal injection of 0.1 ml of MP in one eye. One week later, both eyes from each rabbit were enucleated and frozen retinal sections were prepared and analyzed with light microscopy to evaluate for histologic damage. Results Full thickness BV retinal penetration was observed throughout the retina in both eyes of each rabbit. All of the MP-injected eyes exhibited increased antibody labeling in retinas evaluated 6, 12, and 24 hours after BV injection when compared with the contralateral non-MP-injected eyes. By three days after BV injection, all eyes demonstrated decreased antibody labeling compared to earlier time periods