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Sample records for adult concealed penis

  1. [Advances in the studies of concealed penis].

    PubMed

    Fan, Sheng-hai; Li, Xue-de

    2015-09-01

    Concealed penis is usually found in children, which affects the patients both physiologically and psychologically. Some of the patients are wrongly treated by circumcision, which may bring about serious consequences to the sexual life of the patients in their adulthood. In the recent years, this disease has been receiving more and more attention from both doctors and parents. However, controversies remain as to its classification, pathogenesis, pathology, and treatment. This paper focuses on the understanding and advances in the studies of concealed penis.

  2. A modified surgical procedure for concealed penis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Bianjiang; Guan, Zhaolong; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Chao; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We described a modified surgical procedure for repairing a concealed penis and compared the efficacy and feasibility of modified repair with traditional repair. Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 96 patients with a concealed penis were recruited to undergo penile repair at our centre. Modified repair and traditional repair were performed respectively on 46 and 50 cases. We compared operative time, intraoperative blood loss, cosmetic result of operative scars, postoperative penile retraction, and complications. Results: All operations were completed successfully without serious complications. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and cosmetic result of the operative scar between the two surgical methods were similar. However, the postoperative penile retraction rate in patients undergoing modified repair decreased significantly than in the traditional repair. Conclusions: Our modified surgical procedure is effective and feasible for a concealed penis. Although extra procedures were needed for the modified repair, the operative time, intraoperative blood loss and cosmetic result of operative scar between the two procedures were similar. Compared with traditional repair, modified repair has better clinical outcomes. PMID:26664507

  3. Severe forms of concealed penis without hypospadias: Surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Concealed penis (CP) may vary in severity and includes megaprepuce (MP) as a variant. Many different surgical strategies have been described in order to maximize penile exposure and to deal with skin deficiency. We describe the strategies that we use to overcome technical problems in severe cases of CP. Materials and Methods: Six consecutive cases of severe CP (including 3 with MP) were treated in a 2-year period between January 2011 and April 2013. These patients were treated using extensive degloving, removal of dysplastic dartos, Alexander's preputial flap, scrotal flaps and skin grafts. Three patients had been previously circumcised. Cases associated with hypospadias, obesity, disorders of sexual differentiation and micropenises were excluded. Results: All six patients attained good results, with good exposure of the penis, ability to void standing with a well-directed flow and reasonable esthetic results. A technical algorithm for the treatment of primary or recurring cases of CP is proposed. Conclusion: Alexander’ s distally based ventral preputial flap is a useful technical resource to treat MP cases. Free skin grafts and/or laterally based scrotal flaps may be used to cover the penis after release in severe cases of CP. PMID:26604447

  4. Shaeer’s Technique: A Minimally Invasive Procedure for Monsplasty and Revealing the Concealed Penis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: A concealed penis is a condition where part of the penis is invisible below the surface of the prepubic skin. Dermolipectomy can correct this condition, although it involves a long abdominal crease incision, or infrapubic incision around the base of the penis, and a possibility for genital lymphedema. This study describes Shaeer’s technique, a minimally invasive method for revealing the concealed penis. Methods: A 1- to 2-cm-long incision was cut over the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) on either side. A long curved blunt forceps was inserted from one incision, down to the base of the penis and then up to the contralateral ASIS. A 5-mm wide nonabsorbable tape was picked up by the forceps from 1 incision and pulled through to emerge from the other. Pulling on the tape cephalad pulled the mons pubis and revealed the penis. The tape was sutured to the periosteum overlying the ASIS on either side. Patients were followed up for 18 months for penile length, complications, and overall satisfaction. Results: Twenty patients were operated upon. Preoperatively, flaccid visible length was 3 ± 0.9 cm, and erect visible length was 8 ± 4.6 cm. Postoperatively, the flaccid visible length was 7.1 ± 2.1 cm, with a 57.9% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Erect visible length was 11.8 ± 2.1 cm, with a 32% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Length gain was maintained for 18 months. Conclusion: Shaeer’s technique is a minimally invasive, short, and simple procedure for monsplasty and revealing the concealed penis.

  5. Shaeer’s Technique: A Minimally Invasive Procedure for Monsplasty and Revealing the Concealed Penis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: A concealed penis is a condition where part of the penis is invisible below the surface of the prepubic skin. Dermolipectomy can correct this condition, although it involves a long abdominal crease incision, or infrapubic incision around the base of the penis, and a possibility for genital lymphedema. This study describes Shaeer’s technique, a minimally invasive method for revealing the concealed penis. Methods: A 1- to 2-cm-long incision was cut over the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) on either side. A long curved blunt forceps was inserted from one incision, down to the base of the penis and then up to the contralateral ASIS. A 5-mm wide nonabsorbable tape was picked up by the forceps from 1 incision and pulled through to emerge from the other. Pulling on the tape cephalad pulled the mons pubis and revealed the penis. The tape was sutured to the periosteum overlying the ASIS on either side. Patients were followed up for 18 months for penile length, complications, and overall satisfaction. Results: Twenty patients were operated upon. Preoperatively, flaccid visible length was 3 ± 0.9 cm, and erect visible length was 8 ± 4.6 cm. Postoperatively, the flaccid visible length was 7.1 ± 2.1 cm, with a 57.9% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Erect visible length was 11.8 ± 2.1 cm, with a 32% improvement in length (P < 0.0001). Length gain was maintained for 18 months. Conclusion: Shaeer’s technique is a minimally invasive, short, and simple procedure for monsplasty and revealing the concealed penis. PMID:27622092

  6. Penis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract and male genitalia. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... the penis and urethra. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  7. Limited Panniculectomy for Adult Buried Penis Repair.

    PubMed

    Figler, Bradley D; Chery, Lisly; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2015-11-01

    Patients with buried or hidden penis may be unable to carry out normal hygiene, void with a directable urine stream, or be sexually active as a result of the condition. Although these patients are nearly always obese, weight loss often does not reverse the problem, as the mons pannus may remain after weight loss. Furthermore, associated penile skin changes such as lichen sclerosus or stenosis of the penile shaft skin are often irreversible. Treatment includes removal of the diseased shaft skin surrounding the penis, in combination with a limited panniculectomy. The authors present their technique for this procedure in a typical patient with buried penis that prevented him from voiding effectively. PMID:26182174

  8. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tiffany R; Wright, David K; Gradie, Paul E; Johnston, Leigh A; Pask, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures.

  9. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tiffany R.; Wright, David K.; Gradie, Paul E.; Johnston, Leigh A.; Pask, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures. PMID:26112156

  10. Hidden penis release: adjunctive suprapubic lipectomy.

    PubMed

    Horton, C E; Vorstman, B; Teasley, D; Winslow, B

    1987-08-01

    We believe the hidden penis may be caused and concealed by a prominent suprapubic fat pad in addition to the restrictive fibrous bands of the dartos fascia fixing the shaft of the penis proximally while loose skin folds prolapse distally over the phallus. A penis of inadequate length or appearance may affect body image. Patients with this problem often require psychological support. Hidden penis may be distinguished from micropenis by palpating adequate corpora and showing a stretched penile length within 2 SD of normal. Excision of suprapubic fat with sectioning of the tethering dartos bands will release and increase the length of the penis. Suprapubic fat pad resection may also be helpful to elongate a short penis in cases of adult microphallus, or after partial penectomy because of trauma or cancer. Circumcision is contraindicated.

  11. Concealing Concealment: The Mediating Role of Internalized Heterosexism in Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors—internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation—and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed. PMID:26322654

  12. The inconspicuous penis in children.

    PubMed

    Cimador, Marcello; Catalano, Pieralba; Ortolano, Rita; Giuffrè, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The term 'inconspicuous penis' refers to a group of anatomical abnormalities in which the penis looks smaller than is expected. Micropenis can be defined as 'true micropenis'--which results from a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis--and 'micropenis secondary to congenital anatomical anomalies of the surrounding and overlying structures'--also known as 'concealed penis'. The different forms of concealed penis include webbed penis, congenital megaprepuce and partially hidden penis caused by prepubic adiposity. This disorder can also have iatrogenic causes resulting from adhesions that are secondary to circumcision--this type of concealed penis is known as 'trapped penis'. However, in both groups, micropenis is defined as a stretched penile length that is at least 2.5 SD below the mean for the patient's age, but without any other penile defects. Patients with true micropenis can be managed with testosterone, which has demonstrated good penile elongation results in the long term. Surgery also has a pivotal role in reconstruction for elongating the penis and for correction of anatomical abnormalities in concealed penis.

  13. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population.

  14. Buried penis: evaluation of outcomes in children and adults, modification of a unified treatment algorithm, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    King, I C C; Tahir, A; Ramanathan, C; Siddiqui, H

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Buried penis is a difficult condition to manage in children and adults and conveys significant physical and psychological morbidity. Surgery is often declined due to morbid obesity, forcing patients to live in disharmony for years until the desired weight reduction is achieved. No single operative technique fits all. We present our experience and surgical approach resulting in an improved algorithm unifying the treatment of adults and children. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients treated for buried penis between 2011 and 2012. All patients underwent penile degloving and basal anchoring. Penile shaft coverage was achieved with skin grafts. Suprapubic lipectomies were performed on adult patients. Results. Nine patients were identified: four children and five obese adults. Average postoperative stay was three days for children and five for adults. Three adults were readmitted with superficial wound problems. One child had minor skin breakdown. All patients were pleased with their outcomes. Conclusion. Buried penis is a complex condition, and treatment should be offered by services able to deal with all aspects of reconstruction. Obesity in itself should not delay surgical intervention. Local and regional awareness is essential to manage expectations in these challenging patients aspiring to both aesthetic and functional outcomes.

  15. Penis Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  16. A concealed small bowel perforation in an adult secondary to bicycle handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, GJ; Simpson, RR

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) secondary to bicycle handlebar is a rare injury. The majority of the literature describes abdominal wall herniation in children. We present a rare case of TAWH in an adult with a concealed small bowel perforation. Although clinical examination in conjunction with computed tomography can exclude the majority of solid organ injuries, small bowel injuries can often be missed. Our case initially revealed a serosal tear in the small bowel but, on close inspection, a separate 3mm perforation was identified, hidden in the small bowel mesentery. We strongly support a low threshold for operative intervention if there is any suspicion. Moreover, we stress the importance of meticulous examination during laparotomy as this injury could have been easily missed, resulting in potential morbidity or mortality in a patient sustaining such an injury. PMID:23676803

  17. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  18. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues.

  19. Inconspicuous Penis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Arun K.; Palmer, Lane S.; Palmer, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicous penis refers to a constellation of conditions that make the penis look diminutive and small. This could be secondary to short penile shaft often termed as micropenis. But more commonly, this inconspicuous appearance is secondary to other causes ranging from congenital conditions such as penoscrotal webbing or megaprepuce, developmental conditions like prepubic adiposity that overhang the penis, and iatrogenic causes like trapped penis after adhesions secondary to circumcision. In this paper, we propose to define these entities and provide their descriptions and then to describe their management including surgical correction. PMID:22235186

  20. Inconspicuous penis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Arun K; Palmer, Lane S; Palmer, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicous penis refers to a constellation of conditions that make the penis look diminutive and small. This could be secondary to short penile shaft often termed as micropenis. But more commonly, this inconspicuous appearance is secondary to other causes ranging from congenital conditions such as penoscrotal webbing or megaprepuce, developmental conditions like prepubic adiposity that overhang the penis, and iatrogenic causes like trapped penis after adhesions secondary to circumcision. In this paper, we propose to define these entities and provide their descriptions and then to describe their management including surgical correction.

  1. Cancer - penis

    MedlinePlus

    ... an organ that makes up part of the male reproductive system. Causes The exact cause is unknown. Smegma, a ... Squamous cell cancer - penis Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References National Comprehensive Cancer Network. National Comprehensive Cancer ...

  2. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongbin; Hu, Weilie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bangqi; Zhang, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  3. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  4. [Penis agenesis].

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, T; Deeg, K H; Böhles, H J; Stehr, K

    1989-01-01

    Congenital absence of the penis is a very rare malformation. The incidence is about 1:30 million persons or 1:16,000 necropsies. The cause of the malformation is unknown. Frequent associated malformations of the lungs, the colon and the urinary tract are determinating the prognosis. The therapy of choice in case of isolated penile agenesis is primary orchidectomy, later vaginoplasty and hormonal feminisation. We report our experience with two cases.

  5. Concealed expansion of immature precursors underpins acute burst of adult HSC activity in foetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Ivanovs, Andrejs; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    One day prior to mass emergence of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the foetal liver at E12.5, the embryo contains only a few definitive HSCs. It is thought that the burst of HSC activity in the foetal liver is underpinned by rapid maturation of immature embryonic precursors of definitive HSCs, termed pre-HSCs. However, because pre-HSCs are not detectable by direct transplantations into adult irradiated recipients, the size and growth of this population, which represents the embryonic rudiment of the adult haematopoietic system, remains uncertain. Using a novel quantitative assay, we demonstrate that from E9.5 the pre-HSC pool undergoes dramatic growth in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region and by E11.5 reaches the size that matches the number of definitive HSCs in the E12.5 foetal liver. Thus, this study provides for the first time a quantitative basis for our understanding of how the large population of definitive HSCs emerges in the foetal liver. PMID:27095492

  6. The 'small' penis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, J

    1989-03-01

    The author discusses the concerns and preoccupations of many men about the size of their penis and its possible impact on sexual adequacy. This attitude is related to the myth that a man's sexual performance depends on the size of his penis. Underlying anxiety about an undersized penis should be considered by general practitioners when men present for a premarital check up or with problems suggestive of real or imagined sexual inadequacy.

  7. The os penis of the frugivorous bat, Eidolon helvum (Kerr).

    PubMed

    Nwoha, P U; Caxton-Martins, A E; Baxter-Grillo, D L

    2000-01-01

    The os penis reported in some species of the mammalian order was observed in the juvenile and adult penes of the friguvorous African bat, Eidolon helvum. The morphology of the os penis in Eidolon helvum differs from that observed in bat species and other mammalian order. In the adult form it is large, disc-shaped and located at the distal segment of the penile organ. The proximal segment of the penis does not contain any bone. In the juvenile bat the os penis is made of two separate bones located longitudinally close to each other at the distal third of the penile tissue. The distal location in both the juvenile and the adult poses a question about the true function of this tissue. The bone may function in Eidolon helvum to support erection of the penis more for micturition than for intromission. PMID:10974783

  8. Curvature of the penis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health care provider may notice an abnormal hardening of the tissue below the skin, in one ... area where you feel the scar tissue or hardening Softening of the portion of the penis beyond ...

  9. Penis care (uncircumcised)

    MedlinePlus

    ... causing swelling and pain (paraphimosis). This needs medical care. ... Elder JS. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ... D, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  11. Penoplasty for buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chuang, J H

    1995-09-01

    Buried penis is a congenitally abnormal arrangement of the foreskin relative to the penile shaft, which results in a pseudomicropenis in an otherwise healthy, nonobese child. The author proposes a penoplasty technique appropriate for correction of this disorder, based on experience with 21 patients.

  12. Authenticating concealed private data while maintaining concealment

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Draelos, Timothy J.

    2007-06-26

    A method of and system for authenticating concealed and statistically varying multi-dimensional data comprising: acquiring an initial measurement of an item, wherein the initial measurement is subject to measurement error; applying a transformation to the initial measurement to generate reference template data; acquiring a subsequent measurement of an item, wherein the subsequent measurement is subject to measurement error; applying the transformation to the subsequent measurement; and calculating a Euclidean distance metric between the transformed measurements; wherein the calculated Euclidean distance metric is identical to a Euclidean distance metric between the measurement prior to transformation.

  13. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  14. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  15. Concealing with Structured Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-02-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core.

  16. Concealing with Structured Light

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingbo; Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2014-01-01

    While making objects less visible (or invisible) to a human eye or a radar has captured people's imagination for centuries, current attempts towards realization of this long-awaited functionality range from various stealth technologies to recently proposed cloaking devices. A majority of proposed approaches share a number of common deficiencies such as design complexity, polarization effects, bandwidth, losses and the physical size or shape requirement complicating their implementation especially at optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate an alternative way to conceal macroscopic objects by structuring light itself. In our approach, the incident light is transformed into an optical vortex with a dark core that can be used to conceal macroscopic objects. Once such a beam passed around the object it is transformed back into its initial Gaussian shape with minimum amplitude and phase distortions. Therefore, we propose to use that dark core of the vortex beam to conceal an object that is macroscopic yet small enough to fit the dark (negligibly low intensity) region of the beam. The proposed concealing approach is polarization independent, easy to fabricate, lossless, operates at wavelengths ranging from 560 to 700 nm, and can be used to hide macroscopic objects providing they are smaller than vortex core. PMID:24522638

  17. Penis-root perception of Koro patients.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A N

    1991-07-01

    Koro is an acute anxiety reaction in which the perception of decreased penis length because of intra-abdominal traction is the main feature. This study attempts to explore the penis-root perception of the Koro patients by a graphomotor projective test--the Draw-a-penis Test (DAPT). This controlled DAPT investigation shows that Koro patients perceived the penis as a detached organ with root-boundary definiteness as evidenced from their close penis-root perception. They also displayed reduced volumetric perception of penis-root than the normal subjects. These perceptual deviations in penis-root image are discussed in relation to their Koro vulnerability.

  18. Surgical treatment of buried penis.

    PubMed

    Lipszyc, E; Pfister, C; Liard, A; Mitrofanoff, P

    1997-10-01

    The buried penis is a rare congenital entity, whose treatment is surgical. There are few publications concerning this matter. The authors report on their experience in 10 cases (1990-1995). In this abnormality, the tip of the glans does not project from the pubic or scrotal skin. It is due to: 1) an excessive development of the penile fascia which retracts the penis; 2) insufficient attachment of the penile skin at the base of the penis; 3) often excessive prepubic fat worsens the appearance of the abnormality but does not by itself totally explain it; 4) a tight phimosis is often present. Surgical treatment is necessary because this aspect tends to persist even after puberty. One cannot indeed count on the development at the age of puberty, neither on the diminution of the fat, nor on the simple cure of the phimosis. One must above all ban circumcision which causes the risk of eliminating the skin necessary for reconstruction. The surgical procedure will comprise: 1) a longitudinal dorsal incision extended circumferentially; 2) resection of the thickened fascia penis; 3) anchoring of the deep face of the dermis to the proximal part of the fascia penis at the base of the penis. This surgical procedure has always brought a significant improvement to the appearance of the penis.

  19. MRI of the penis.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, A

    2012-11-01

    MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T(2) sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparent clinically. In priapism, it is an emerging technique for assessing corporal viability, and in fracture it can in most cases make the diagnosis and locate the injury. In some cases of penile fibrosis and Peyronie's disease, it may aid surgical planning, and in complex pelvic fracture may replace or augment conventional urethrography. It is an excellent investigation for the malfunctioning penile prosthesis.

  20. Evolution: One Penis After All.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia L R

    2016-01-11

    Amniote penises come in many shapes but are missing from the basal tuatara. This has been taken as evidence for multiple evolutionary origins of the penis. Now, genital swellings have been found in tuatara embryos, arguing for a single origin.

  1. A New Technique to Map the Lymphatic Distribution and Alignment of the Penis.

    PubMed

    Long, Liu Yan; Qiang, Pan Fu; Ling, Tao; Wei, Zhang Yan; Long, Zhang Yu; Shan, Meng; Rong, Li Shi; Li, Li Hong

    2015-08-01

    The present study was to examine the distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis of normal adult males, which could provide an anatomical basis for improvement of incisions in penile lengthening surgery, and may also help to prevent postoperative refractory edema. Thirteen normal adult male volunteers were recruited for this study. Contrast agent was injected subcutaneously in the foreskin of the penis, and after two minutes magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) was performed. The acquired magnetic resonance images were analyzed to determine the changes in the number and diameter of lymphatic vessels in different parts of the penis. Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and materializes interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) were applied to analyze the overall distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the lymphatic vessels were in conspicuous contrast with surrounding tissues and could be clearly identified. Penile lymphatic vessels were clearly visible in the root of the penis. At the junction of the penis and the abdominal wall, all lymphatic vessels were found to be concentrated in the dorsal part of the penis. MIP two-dimensional reconstruction showed that the overall distribution of relatively large lymphatic vessels in the dorsal and ventral parts of the penis could be seen clearly on bilateral 45° position, but not inside the abdominal wall because some of lymphatic vessels were overlapped by other tissues in the abdomen. MIMICS three-dimensional reconstruction was able to reveal the overall spatial distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis from any angle. The reconstruction results showed that there were 1-2 main lymphatic vessels on the root of dorsal penis, which coursed along the cavernous to the first physiological curvature of the penis. Lymphatic vessels merged on both sides of the ventral penis. At the root of the penis, lymphatic vessels gradually coursed to the dorsal surface

  2. Case consultation: ablatio penis.

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1998-01-01

    In male infants, traumatic ablation of the penis, with or without loss of the testicles may occur as a sequel to mutilatory violence, accidental injury, or circumcision error. Post-traumatically, one program of case management is surgical sex reassignment to live as a girl, with female hormonal therapy at the age of puberty. The other program is genital reconstructive surgery to live as a boy, with male hormonal therapy at puberty if the testicles are missing. In both programs, the long term outcome is less than perfect and is contingent on intervening variables that include societal ideology; surgical technology; juvenile and adolescent timing and frequency of hospital admissions construed by the child as nosocomial abuse; development of body image; health and sex education; fertility versus sterility; coitus and orgasm; possible lesbian orientation if living as a girl; and long-term cost accounting, including the psychic cost of being a pawn in possible malpractice litigation on whose disability a very large fortune in compensation may devolve. There is, as yet, no unanimously endorsed set of guidelines for the treatment of genital trauma and mutilation in infancy, and no provision for a statistical depository for outcome data.

  3. Kissing nevus of the penis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sook Jung; Wi, Hyun Seung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong-Jin; Won, Young Ho; Lee, Seung-Chul

    2011-11-01

    Kissing or divided nevi are similar in shape to congenital melanocytic nevi located on an adjacent part of the body that are separated during embryogenesis. Kissing nevi of the upper and lower eyelids have been reported infrequently since the first report in 1908. Kissing nevi of the penis are very rare, with only 12 cases being reported until now, and this is the first case report in the Korean dermatological literature. A previously healthy 27-year-old man presented with asymptomatic black colored patches, which were detected 10 years ago, on the glans penis and the prepuce with growth in size. We report here a case of kissing nevus of the penis, which showed an obvious mirror-image symmetry relative to the coronal sulcus.

  4. A rare cause of glans penis masses in childhood: Fibroepithelial polyp

    PubMed Central

    Şencan, Arzu; Şencan, Aydın; Günşar, Cüneyt; Çayırlı, Hasan; Neşe, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps of glans penis are very rarely seen in childhood. A 6-month-old male admitted to our institution with a slowly enlarging glans penis mass on the ventral side of the glans penis. The mass was totally excised, and hystopathological diagnosis was a fibroepithelial polyp. All of the reported cases published previously, except one, are of adult age and all of them have been associated with the history of long-term condom catheter use. The presence of the case in childhood; however, suggests that the pathology might be congenital. This is the second pediatric case presented in the English literature. PMID:25552832

  5. Glans penis perception of Koro patients.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A N

    1993-05-01

    Koro is a form of sexual neurosis in which a reaction of acute anxiety accompanies the perception of decreased penis length from intra-abdominal traction. This study attempts to explore the glans penis perception of Koro patients by a grapho-motor projective test--DAPT (Draw-a-penis Test). This controlled DAPT investigation shows that Koro patients have significantly less perception of glans penis than the controls. This perceptual deviation in glans penis image is discussed in relation to the sexual-behavioral profile and Koro vulnerability of the patients.

  6. Kaposi's sarcoma of the penis.

    PubMed

    Houston, W; Pontin, A; Kuhn, T; Mambo, N

    1975-06-01

    The 11th case of Kaposi's sarcoma of the glans penis is reported. Aetiology and treatment are discussed and evidence adduced to support a conservative surgical approach by local excision, supplemented if necessary by low dosage irradiation and possibly methotrexate infusion.

  7. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  8. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2008-04-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  9. Self-Concealment and Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Adam; Nazem, Sarra; Fiske, Amy; Nadorff, Michael R.; Smith, Merideth D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding self-concealment, the tendency to actively conceal distressing personal information from others, may be important in developing effective ways to help individuals with suicidal ideation. No published study has yet assessed the relation between self-concealment and suicidal behaviors. Additionally, most self-concealment research has…

  10. Sonic hedgehog, the penis and erectile dysfunction: a review of sonic hedgehog signaling in the penis.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, C A; Meroz, C L; Korolis, H; Tang, Y; McKenna, K E; McVary, K T

    2005-01-01

    The sinusoid anatomy of the penis is complex and requires complicated interaction between smooth muscle and endothelium in order to maintain homeostasis in the adult. The morphogen, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), is a crucial regulator of these processes, along with its down stream targets patched (Ptc), Hox, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Shh is critical for patterning and establishing tissue identity of the penis during embryonic development, is a crucial regulator of penile postnatal differentiation of the sinusoid morphology of the corpora cavernosa, and plays a fundamental role in maintaining sinusoidal structures pertinent to erectile function in the adult rat. Shh and its targets are active in human penes, and decreased in human diabetic penes in parallel with observations in the rat, thus lending clinical significance to the role of abnormal Shh signaling in erectile dysfunction (ED). Application of exogenous Shh protein to rat corpora cavernosa, induces VEGF and NOS proteins, suggesting a potential mechanism through which decreased Shh protein can cause ED. The studies outlined in this review provide in depth analysis of the Shh pathway and signal transduction, its role in penile development, how Shh signaling is altered in a rat model of ED and neuropathy, how abnormal Shh signaling can cause ED, and the clinical significance of the Shh pathway to human ED. These studies will provide valuable insight, at the molecular level, into understanding the mechanisms that under lie ED and lead to new treatment strategies for diabetic impotence. PMID:16378507

  11. Do Children Understand That People Selectively Conceal or Express Emotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Hajimu; Shiomi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders, 80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative feelings because of the behavior of the other…

  12. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

    2002-08-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

  13. Standoff detection of concealed handguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezgui, Nacer; Andrews, David; Bowring, Nicholas; Harmer, Stuart; Southgate, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    An active technique for the standoff detection and identification of concealed conducting items such as handguns and knives is presented. This technique entails illuminating an object with wide range stepped millimetre wave radiation and inducing a local electromagnetic field comprised of a superposition of modes. The coupling to these modes from the illuminating and scattered fields is, in general, frequency dependent and this forms the basis for the detection and identification of conducting items. The object needs to be fully illuminated if a full spectrum of modes and therefore a full frequency response are to be excited and collected. The scattered EM power is measured at "stand off" distance of several metres as the illuminating field is frequency swept and patterns in frequency response characteristic to the target item being sought are looked for. This system relies on contributions from the aspect independent late time responses employed by Baum1 together with aspect independent information derived specifically from gun barrels and polarisation from scattering effects. This technique is suitable for a deployable gun and concealed weapons detection system and does not rely on imaging techniques for determining the presence of a gun. Experimental sets of responses from typical metal or partially conducting objects such as keys, mobile phones and concealed handguns are presented at a range of frequencies.

  14. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

    2001-02-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

  15. [Doppler ultrasound of penis arteries].

    PubMed

    Jünemann, K P; Siegsmund, M; Löbelenz, M; Alken, P

    1990-05-01

    In addition to pharmaco testing, pharmaco-Doppler sonography of the penile arteries is part of the basic work-up for erectile dysfunction. Insufficient training with the Doppler method, lack of standardized criteria for evaluation of the penis, and analysis of the Doppler curves all make it difficult to use Doppler sonography for the evaluation of impotent men. The aim of this study was to explain the principal criteria of the method and demonstrate the most important details for analyzing the form of the Doppler waves. Pharmaco-Doppler sonography includes the evaluation of blood-flow velocities within the dorsal and deep cavernous arteries of the penis before and after intracavernous application of a vasoactive drug. The following main criteria have proven to be most important for analysis of the Doppler curves: evaluation of the amplitude height, the actual wave form, differences between the left and right arteries and along the individual vessel, amplitude increase, and elevation of the curve baseline after pharmaco stimulation. The most frequent mistakes made during evaluation of the penile arteries are changes in the probe angle, pressure put on the artery by the probe during evaluation and a false estimation of the evaluation time after pharmaco stimulation. Recently, duplex sonography of the penile arteries has been introduced, and this method allows an accurate measurement of the blood-flow velocity and arterial diameter changes before and after application of the drug. Furthermore, additional calculation of the resistancy index permits determination of the vascular resistance and optimizes the evaluation of the penile arterial status. The technical details, the method, and the analyzation criteria are all explained in detail.

  16. Penile size and the 'small penis syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Kevan R; Eardley, Ian

    2007-06-01

    The male is often troubled by concerns that his penis is not large enough to satisfy his partner or himself. He is ashamed to have others view his penis, especially in the flaccid state. Such concerns might be unfounded in reality and might be a presentation of social anxiety or some other clinical problem, such as erectile dysfunction. Concern over the size of the penis, when such concern becomes excessive, might present as the 'small penis syndrome', an obsessive rumination with compulsive checking rituals, body dysmorphic disorder, or as part of a psychosis. However, it is often a worry that can be described as within the normal experience of many men. Various potential causal factors are considered. A thorough assessment, normalizing the worry and then exploring the treatment options in detail with the man, is essential to allow the matter to be consolidated satisfactorily within the male ego.

  17. Cavernous hemangioma of the glans penis

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Soumya; Biswal, Deepak Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the glans penis is a very rare lesion, and only a few cases are reported in the literature. Urologists are in a dilemma to treat such lesion with cosmetic and to obtain good functional outcome. Here, we report a case of cavernous hemangioma of the glans penis in a 22-year-old boy with a successful outcome by intralesional sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate with a review of the literature on the subject. PMID:26229337

  18. Method for imaging a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Partin, Judy K [Idaho Falls, ID; Sawyers, Robert J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-07-03

    A method for imaging a concealed object is described and which includes a step of providing a heat radiating body, and wherein an object to be detected is concealed on the heat radiating body; imaging the heat radiating body to provide a visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body; and determining if the visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body is masked by the presence of the concealed object.

  19. Haemangiosarcoma of the os penis in a dog: The most common neoplasm of the canine penis.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Richard K; Kirberger, Robert M; Janse van Rensberg, Drienie D Didi

    2014-01-01

    A castrated 9-year-old intact male boerboel cross-breed dog was presented with a month-long history of stranguria. On physical examination, a mass was noted at the caudal extremity of the os penis. Haematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis were all unremarkable. Abdominal and urethral ultrasound demonstrated an enlarged bladder and a dilated urethra, which was followed to the caudal extremity of the os penis. A hyperechoic, roughly spherical,vascularised mass was noted at the caudal os penis, which resulted in obstruction of the penile urethra. Radiographs demonstrated a soft tissue mass with osteolysis of the os penis. Cytology suggested an osteosarcoma. Treatment included amputation of the penis and adjuvant doxorubicin with carboplatin. Histopathology of the penis confirmed a haemangiosarcoma. The patient survived for 20 months. This is only the second published case report describing a penile haemangiosarcoma, and the first published report demonstrating the treatment and outcome of a case of haemangiosarcoma of the os penis. Based on published and unpublished reports, haemangiosarcoma appears to be the most common neoplasm of the canine penis.

  20. Rare malformation of glans penis: arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Akin, Y; Sarac, M; Yucel, S

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric glans penis malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14-year-old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and radiological evaluations. Pathology reported AVM and the patient is being followed up. The second case is a 2-year-old boy who was admitted with a big lesion involving glans penis and genital area that has been present since birth. In physical and radiological evaluations, lesion on the glans penis was pulsatile. Parents of the patient did not want any surgery and patient has been in follow-up. Diagnosis of the vascular lesions on glans penis is very easy by physical and radiological examinations today. Long-term follow-up is very important for AVM. Clinicians must make a careful effort to document new glans lesions in the pediatric population and decrease anxiety in the parents of affected children.

  1. Preputial flaps to correct buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Loh, Ih-Wei; Chen, Ke-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The authors developed a preputial skin flap technique to correct the buried penis which was simple and practical. This simple procedure can be applied to most boys with buried penis. In the last 3 years, we have seen 12 boys with buried penis and have been treated by using preputial flaps. The mean age is about 5.1 (from 3 to 12). By making a longitudinal incision on the ventral side of penis, the tightness of the foreskin is released and leave a diamond-shaped skin defect. It allows the penile shaft to extend out. A circumferential incision is made about 5 mm proximal to the coronal sulcus. Pedicled preputial flaps are obtained leaving optimal penile skin on the dorsal side. The preputial skin flaps are rotated onto the ventral side and tailored to cover the defect. All patients are followed for at least 3 months. Edema and swelling on the flaps are common, but improves with time. None of our patients need a second operation. The preputial flaps technique is a simple technique which allows surgeons to deal with most cases of buried penis by tailoring the flaps providing good cosmetic and functional results.

  2. Rare malformation of glans penis: arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Akin, Y; Sarac, M; Yucel, S

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric glans penis malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14-year-old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and radiological evaluations. Pathology reported AVM and the patient is being followed up. The second case is a 2-year-old boy who was admitted with a big lesion involving glans penis and genital area that has been present since birth. In physical and radiological evaluations, lesion on the glans penis was pulsatile. Parents of the patient did not want any surgery and patient has been in follow-up. Diagnosis of the vascular lesions on glans penis is very easy by physical and radiological examinations today. Long-term follow-up is very important for AVM. Clinicians must make a careful effort to document new glans lesions in the pediatric population and decrease anxiety in the parents of affected children. PMID:23771468

  3. [A case of autoinjection of vaseline under penis skin].

    PubMed

    Dewandre, M; Brasseur, E; Andrianne, R

    2014-02-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old rumanian patient who came to the emergency department complaining of glans penis pain and tight phimosis; he claimed to have undergone an injection of vaseline under penis skin. We review the literature on various nonmedical practices of penile foreign body injection to enlarge and thicken the penis. PMID:24683830

  4. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Selden, Paul A; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  5. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Selden, Paul A.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  6. Management of burns of the penis.

    PubMed

    Housinger, T A; Keller, B; Warden, G D

    1993-01-01

    Burns of the penis can be physically and psychologically devastating. This is particularly true in young pediatric patients who have to content with growth as well as with the trials of adolescence and the development of self-image. Little has been written on the grafting management of these injuries. This report reviews a management technique used with great success. Ten patients who sustained full-thickness penis burns were reviewed. The grafting technique consisted of excision and grafting with sheet grafts in a one- or two-stage setting. After grafting, the penis was placed in traction with a weighted Foley catheter. Grafts were left open or stented. No complications occurred from the traction apparatus, and graft take was uniformly excellent. Short-term results have been excellent, and no urethral problems have developed over a median 3-year follow-up. This technique appears to provide excellent means of supporting the penis to accomplish superb graft take in this hard-to-manage area.

  7. Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the glans penis.

    PubMed

    Christodoulidou, Michelle; Bunker, Christopher B; Trevisan, Giorgia; Muneer, Asif

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with a 10-month history of an ulcerating lesion on the glans penis. Initially this was thought to be an invasive squamous cell carcinoma but a biopsy showed histological features consistent with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Extensive serological, immunological and microbiological tests only showed a positive antinuclear and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies indicating a possible autoimmune aetiology but an underlying systemic cause was not identified. Treatment with oral corticosteroids limited the inflammatory process but due to the gross destruction of the glans penis, he still required a glansectomy and split-skin graft reconstruction from which he recovered well. Although this patient ultimately required surgery for this rare presentation, this case highlights the differential diagnosis of penile ulceration (that transcends neoplasia) and the importance of performing and interpreting penile biopsies before undertaking potentially mutilating definitive surgery. PMID:27558192

  8. The transferable penis and the self representation.

    PubMed

    Soll, M H

    A group of female patients is described whose self representation includes significant male as well as female aspects, but who are not perverse or borderline. The unconscious fantasy of a transferable penis found in these patients is linked to specific etiologic factors including only intermittently available, unempathic early mothering and a prolonged incestuous post-oedipal father-daughter sexual relationship. Use is made of the concept of differing and conflicting aspects of the self-representation to elucidate the particular nature of these patients' bisexual fantasies, which allowed appropriate sexual gender and role to develop, and yet which, at times, also permitted drive gratification associated with the fantasy of being male and possessing a penis.

  9. Counseling after resection of the penis.

    PubMed

    Mathews, D; Robinson, S; Mazur, T; Money, J

    1979-04-01

    Surgery is the most effective means of controlling or curing cancer of the penis, but management of a patient with penile cancer encompasses more than excising the lesion. Anticipatory guidance and counseling are required components of total patient care. An integral part of counseling is psychotherapy, including marital and sex therapy. This comprehensive management program is best provided by a team of health care professionals including the family physician.

  10. 36-Month-Olds Conceal Visual and Auditory Information from Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    By three years of age, children are skilled at assessing under which circumstances others can see things. However, nothing is known about whether they can use this knowledge to guide their own deceptive behaviour. Here we investigated 3-year-olds' ability to strategically inhibit or conceal forbidden actions that a nearby adult experimenter could…

  11. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  12. Detecting concealed objects at a checkpoint

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine if a concealed object is being carried. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual with a pair of opposed, semi-cylindrical array panels each configured to interrogate the individual with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range.

  13. Automated Human Screening for Detecting Concealed Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Nathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Screening individuals for concealed knowledge has traditionally been the purview of professional interrogators investigating a crime. But the ability to detect when a person is hiding important information would be of high value to many other fields and functions. This dissertation proposes design principles for and reports on an implementation…

  14. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  15. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  16. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  17. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  18. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  19. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is guilty of a misdemeanor...

  20. [The "small penis": considerations about subjective penile deficiency].

    PubMed

    Rosso, C; Ostacoli, L; Garbolino, S; Furlan, M P

    1998-12-01

    In sexology clinical practice you can see quite frequently patients who make complaints about their penis not being big enough. The Authors suggest that the subjective feeling of penis deficiency is a symptom which needs to be properly diagnosed and understood, in order to be able to make effective therapeutic interventions, from a psychotherapeutic, psychopharmacologic or surgical point of view.

  1. [The "small penis": considerations about subjective penile deficiency].

    PubMed

    Rosso, C; Ostacoli, L; Garbolino, S; Furlan, M P

    1998-12-01

    In sexology clinical practice you can see quite frequently patients who make complaints about their penis not being big enough. The Authors suggest that the subjective feeling of penis deficiency is a symptom which needs to be properly diagnosed and understood, in order to be able to make effective therapeutic interventions, from a psychotherapeutic, psychopharmacologic or surgical point of view. PMID:9882904

  2. High frequency of postcoital penis cleaning in Budongo chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Sean J; Lee, Phyllis C

    2006-01-01

    Cultural or tool use behaviours are typically conducted in social or food procurement contexts where the individual interacts with conspecifics, heterospecifics or environmental features. We report on postcoital penis cleaning in chimpanzees, an activity that does not fit this pattern. In penis cleaning, leaves are employed as 'napkins' to wipe clean the penis after sex. Alternatively, the same cleaning motion can be done without leaves, simply using the fingers. Not all chimpanzee communities studied across Africa clean their penes and, where documented, the behaviour is rare. By contrast, we identify postcoital penis cleaning in Budongo Forest, Uganda, as customary and corroborate penis cleaning as another cultural trait in chimpanzees, one that is specific to only a subset of the eastern subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). PMID:16912503

  3. The absence of the paternal penis.

    PubMed

    Elise, D

    1998-01-01

    Girls' experiences of object loss, in conjunction with female anatomical structure, may lend themselves to a particular genital anxiety regarding openness and emptiness. The relational void in giving up the mother as love object may lead to an internal self-representation of a "hole" to be filled, much as the mouth sucks the pacifier in the absence of the nipple. This image may then be extended to the genital representation. In turning to the father, a girl may find that she lacks a relationship with him in the relational space opened up by the loss of the mother; the penis is symbolically withheld from her in the father's relational distance. This lack of sexual and relational gratification, it is proposed, may be schematized by a female as her body being empty of something. The father's absence--the absence of the paternal penis--may lead to an absence of the mental representation of the vagina and to an inhibition of the role the vagina then plays for a woman in sexual desire. Vaginal repression may serve to disguise object hunger that might otherwise be experienced as vaginal longing. An abbreviated clinical vignette, revolving around a masturbatory fantasy, is offered in partial illustration of the thesis.

  4. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine.

  5. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2012-06-01

    The smuggling of bulk cash across borders is a serious issue that has increased in recent years. In an effort to curb the illegal transport of large numbers of paper bills, a detection scheme has been developed, based on the magnetic characteristics of bank notes. The results show that volumes of paper currency can be detected through common concealing materials such as plastics, cardboard, and fabrics making it a possible potential addition to border security methods. The detection scheme holds the potential of also reducing or eliminating false positives caused by metallic materials found in the vicinity, by observing the stark difference in received signals caused by metal and currency. The detection scheme holds the potential to detect for both the presence and number of concealed bulk notes, while maintaining the ability to reduce false positives caused by metal objects.

  6. Concealed evaporite basin drilled in Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L.

    1996-10-21

    The White Mountains of Arizona are a high forested plateau underlain by volcanic rocks of Late Pliocene and Quaternary age on the south margin of the Colorado plateau province. Elevations range from 6,000--11,590 ft, with winter snow and summer rain but ideal conditions for much of the year. There was no evidence of a Permian evaporite basin concealed beneath the White Mountain volcanic field until 1993, when the Tonto 1 Alpine-Federal, a geothermal test well, was drilled. This test did not encounter thermal waters, but it did encounter a surprisingly thick and unexpected sequence of anhydrite, dolomite, and petroliferous limestone assigned to the Supai (Yeso) formation of Permian age. The Tonto test was continuously cored through the Permian section, providing invaluable information that is now stored at the Arizona Geological Survey in Tucson. The paper describes the area geology and the concealed basin.

  7. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  8. Internally concealed cocaine: analytical and diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, M J; Althoff, H; Erkens, M; Maier, R D; Hofmann, R

    1995-09-01

    Thirty persons arrested at Frankfurt airport for smuggling internally concealed cocaine in 1993/1994 were investigated. An X-ray examination (in all 30 cases), immunochemical examination of urine (in 27 cases) and of saliva (in 20 cases) was performed in parallel. An X-ray examination gave positive results in all examined persons. EMIT cocaine metabolite assay (cut off 300 ng benzoylecgonine (BE)/mL) was positive in eight urine samples. After reducing the cut off to 150 ng BE/mL urine, eleven samples were classified as positive. The results were confirmed by means of chromatographic determinations. These findings showed limited role of immunological examination of urine as a screening test in suspected smuggling of internally concealed drugs. All saliva samples showed negative immunochemical results. The number of concealed containers ranged from 44 to 135 per person. The amount of cocaine hydrochloride found in particular cases ranged from 242 to 1050 g net weight, divided into containers weighing from 5.7 to 13.8 g. Drug packages were obviously machine-made. The packages smuggled by a particular person were uniform. However, a distinct interpersonal variability in drug packages was observed, in regard to the number of protective layers (4-7), size, weight, and cocaine purity. This may be helpful for the identification of production site. The leaching of cocaine from selected containers was investigated in a stirring bath and was independent of the conditions applied. PMID:7595327

  9. [A Case of Traumatic Dislocation of the Penis].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Makoto; Inoue, Takaaki; Nishida, Teruhisa; Kawakita, Shigenari; Muguruma, Kouei; Murota, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2016-08-01

    We report a rare case of a traumatic dislocation of the penis. The patient was a 39-year-old man who was ambulanced to our hospital because of a motorbike accident. He was diagnosed to have a pelvic fracture. He was admitted to our department because of his urinary retention and lower abdominal pain. Only the penile skin was left as the genital organ, and neither the penis nor the glans penis was palpable. As the computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed the dislocation of the penis under the skin in the foreside of the pubic bone, urinary retention due to the traumatic dislocation of the penis was diagnosed, and a percutaneous cystostomy was performed. After improvement of his general condition, the patient was transferred to our department for the evaluation of the perineal region, including the lower urinary tract, and for the treatment of the traumatic dislocation of the penis. First, as hematoma and abscess in the left spermatic cord were suspected by magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic region, removal of the hematoma and abscess in the left spermatic cord as well as an anterograde cystoscopy were performed under lumbar anesthesia, and the absence of urethral injury was confirmed. After infection control, repositioning of the penis was jointly performed with the Department of Plastic Surgery of our hospital under general anesthesia. After the operation, spontaneous urination was observed and erectile function was observed to be normal.

  10. [A Case of Traumatic Dislocation of the Penis].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Makoto; Inoue, Takaaki; Nishida, Teruhisa; Kawakita, Shigenari; Muguruma, Kouei; Murota, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2016-08-01

    We report a rare case of a traumatic dislocation of the penis. The patient was a 39-year-old man who was ambulanced to our hospital because of a motorbike accident. He was diagnosed to have a pelvic fracture. He was admitted to our department because of his urinary retention and lower abdominal pain. Only the penile skin was left as the genital organ, and neither the penis nor the glans penis was palpable. As the computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed the dislocation of the penis under the skin in the foreside of the pubic bone, urinary retention due to the traumatic dislocation of the penis was diagnosed, and a percutaneous cystostomy was performed. After improvement of his general condition, the patient was transferred to our department for the evaluation of the perineal region, including the lower urinary tract, and for the treatment of the traumatic dislocation of the penis. First, as hematoma and abscess in the left spermatic cord were suspected by magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic region, removal of the hematoma and abscess in the left spermatic cord as well as an anterograde cystoscopy were performed under lumbar anesthesia, and the absence of urethral injury was confirmed. After infection control, repositioning of the penis was jointly performed with the Department of Plastic Surgery of our hospital under general anesthesia. After the operation, spontaneous urination was observed and erectile function was observed to be normal. PMID:27624112

  11. [A case of chemical burn of the penis].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Suguru; Kinjo, Takanori; Oida, Takeshi; Takezawa, Kentaro; Nomura, Hironori; Tei, Norihide; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Shiroyama, Yoshimi

    2012-11-01

    A chemical burn is not so common in the urological field. In addition, a chemical burn of the penis is quite rare. We experienced a case of chemical burn of the penis caused by resin for making fiber-glass reinforced plastics (FRP). He was a 41-year-old man and was referred to our hospital complaining of genital pain. He had sustained an injury to his penis induced by FRP at his workplace and had developed phimosis by the severe edematous foreskin. He underwent dorsal incision immediately and his postoperative course was favorable. PMID:23254789

  12. Altered Sonic hedgehog signaling is associated with morphological abnormalities in the penis of the BB/WOR diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, Carol A; Zelner, David J; Harris, Joseph D; Meroz, Cynthia L; Tang, Yi; McKenna, Kevin E; McVary, Kevin T

    2003-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and debilitating pathological development that affects up to 75% of diabetic males. Neural stimulation is a crucial aspect of the normal erection process. Nerve injury causes ED and disrupts signaling of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) cascade in the smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa. Shh and targets of its signaling establish normal corpora cavernosal morphology during postnatal differentiation of the penis and regulate homeostasis in the adult. Interruption of the Shh cascade in the smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa results in extensive changes in corpora cavernosal morphology that lead to ED. Our hypothesis is that the neuropathy observed in diabetics causes morphological changes in the corpora cavernosa of the penis that result in ED. Disruption of the Shh cascade may be involved in this process. We tested this hypothesis by examining morphological changes in the penis, altered gene and protein expression, apoptosis, and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the BB/WOR rat model of diabetes. Extensive smooth muscle and endothelial degradation was observed in the corpora cavernosa of diabetic penes. This degradation accompanied profound ED, significantly decreased Shh protein in the smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa, and increased penile Shh RNA expression in the intact penis (nerves, corpora, and urethra). Localization and expression of Shh targets were also disrupted in the corpora cavernosa. Increasing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate Shh signaling may provide valuable insight into improving treatment options for diabetic impotence. PMID:12748119

  13. Concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hiejima, K; Satake, S

    1978-03-01

    Sixty-nine patients, 23 of whom had documented attacks of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), were studied electrophysiologically and the following results were obtained: (1) Antegrade concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom (AC WPW) was demonstrated in 7 out of 69 patients by atrial stimulation including extrastimulus. Six of these 7 patients presented an accessory pathway (AP) conduction of the Kent type, 5 of which showed Type A and another, Type B. The remaining one of these 7 patients showed an AP conduction of the Mahaim type. One of the 7 patients showed a combination with the James and Kent types AP conduction. (2) Retrograde concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (RC WPW) was demonstrated in 8 out of 49 patients in whom the presence of V-A conduction was revealed by ventricular stimulation, while PSVT was documented in 7 of these 8 patients. An AP of the Kent type was identified in the left side of the heart in 5 out of 7 patients with documented PSVT, the right side in one and in the septal region in one. (3) The presence of bilateral or two APs were demonstrated in 3 patients. In another one with documented PSVT, the presence of a branched AP from a left-sided Kent bundle was assumed. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that concealed APs may be more frequent than realized. For example, the frequency of RC WPW in patients with PSVT was 30.4% (7/23) in our series. Accordingly, it is postulated that RC WPW may also be indicated for surgical therapy and that detailed electrophysiologic examination by the physician should be carried out for the sake of determining the indication.

  14. Detecting persons concealed in a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Jr., Raymond W.

    2005-03-29

    An improved method for detecting the presence of humans or animals concealed within in a vehicle uses a combination of the continuous wavelet transform and a ratio-based energy calculation to determine whether the motion detected using seismic sensors placed on the vehicle is due to the presence of a heartbeat within the vehicle or is the result of motion caused by external factors such as the wind. The method performs well in the presence of light to moderate ambient wind levels, producing far fewer false alarm indications. The new method significantly improves the range of ambient environmental conditions under which human presence detection systems can reliably operate.

  15. MR Imaging of the Penis and Scrotum.

    PubMed

    Parker, Rex A; Menias, Christine O; Quazi, Robin; Hara, Amy K; Verma, Sadhna; Shaaban, Akram; Siegel, Cary L; Radmanesh, Alireza; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, due to its low cost, ready availability, and proved diagnostic accuracy, ultrasonography (US) has been the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of scrotal and, to a lesser extent, penile disease. However, US is limited by its relatively small useful field of view, operator dependence, and inability to provide much information on tissue characterization. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with its excellent soft-tissue contrast and good spatial resolution, is increasingly being used as both a problem-solving tool in patients who have already undergone US and as a primary modality for the evaluation of suspected disease. Specifically, MR imaging can aid in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions seen at US, help define the extent of inflammatory processes or traumatic injuries, and play a vital role in locoregional staging of tumors. Consequently, it is becoming more important for radiologists to be familiar with the wide range of penile and scrotal disease entities and their MR imaging appearances. The authors review the basic anatomy of the penis and scrotum as seen at MR imaging and provide a basic protocol for penile and scrotal imaging, with emphasis on the advantages of MR imaging. Pathologic processes are organized into traumatic (including penile fracture and contusion), infectious or inflammatory (including Fournier gangrene and scrotal abscess), and neoplastic (including both benign and malignant scrotal and penile tumors) processes.

  16. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the penis].

    PubMed

    Crisman, G; Margiotta, G; Calabresi, M; Discepoli, S; Leocata, P

    2015-07-01

    According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines a diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) should be made only for lesions composed of tumor cells without evidence of a specific line of differentiation. This is therefore a diagnosis by exclusion which is why the name of undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) should be preferred. Soft tissue sarcomas currently have an incidence in all body regions of approximately 20 cases per 1 million inhabitants per year. Soft tissue tumors of the penis represent approximately 5 % of all penile tumors and the incidence of penile sarcomas is estimated to be approximately 0.6-1 case per 100,000 patients. Only seven cases have so far been reported in the literature. This article describes the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a painless mass sited in the upper part of the corpus cavernosa. An incisional biopsy with a subsequent investigation using an extensive immunohistochemical panel were performed and a high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma or pleomorphic storiform MFH was diagnosed. In addition to the case report a literature review is presented to elaborate the discussion on the differential diagnoses of these kinds of lesions.

  17. Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Wen; Juhola, Markku; Grainger, William; Wang, Beining; Manahan, Brian

    1997-02-01

    Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection, based on the use of a fast scan short-range FMCW 94 GHz radar, was evaluated in a small business innovative research phase I under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) program. The feasibility of a fast circular scan technique invented by Chang Industry has been firmly established, with handgun images recorded. This fast scan technique is essential both for remote sensing and full-body fixed site scanner applications. Although only raw image data was obtained in Phase I, we propose to apply super-resolution image enhancements and target recognition software algorithms to provide more reliable detection. Endorsement from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, to provide operational input and testing and evaluation, and the hiring of a consultant to plan for future program financing (including venture capital investment) make the project very attractive for commercialization.

  18. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  19. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    PubMed

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  20. Concealing their communication: exploring psychosocial predictors of young drivers' intentions and engagement in concealed texting.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Making a conscious effort to hide the fact that you are texting while driving (i.e., concealed texting) is a deliberate and risky behaviour involving attention diverted away from the road. As the most frequent users of text messaging services and mobile phones while driving, young people appear at heightened risk of crashing from engaging in this behaviour. This study investigated the phenomenon of concealed texting while driving, and utilised an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including the additional predictors of moral norm, mobile phone involvement, and anticipated regret to predict young drivers' intentions and subsequent behaviour. Participants (n=171) were aged 17-25 years, owned a mobile phone, and had a current driver's licence. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their intention to conceal texting while driving, and a follow-up questionnaire a week later to report their behavioural engagement. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB with the standard constructs accounting for 69% of variance in drivers' intentions, and the extended predictors contributing an additional 6% of variance in intentions over and above the standard constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, PBC, moral norm, and mobile phone involvement emerged as significant predictors of intentions; and intention was the only significant predictor of drivers' self-reported behaviour. These constructs can provide insight into key focal points for countermeasures including advertising and other public education strategies aimed at influencing young drivers to reconsider their engagement in this risky behaviour. PMID:24211560

  1. Concealing their communication: exploring psychosocial predictors of young drivers' intentions and engagement in concealed texting.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Making a conscious effort to hide the fact that you are texting while driving (i.e., concealed texting) is a deliberate and risky behaviour involving attention diverted away from the road. As the most frequent users of text messaging services and mobile phones while driving, young people appear at heightened risk of crashing from engaging in this behaviour. This study investigated the phenomenon of concealed texting while driving, and utilised an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including the additional predictors of moral norm, mobile phone involvement, and anticipated regret to predict young drivers' intentions and subsequent behaviour. Participants (n=171) were aged 17-25 years, owned a mobile phone, and had a current driver's licence. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring their intention to conceal texting while driving, and a follow-up questionnaire a week later to report their behavioural engagement. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB with the standard constructs accounting for 69% of variance in drivers' intentions, and the extended predictors contributing an additional 6% of variance in intentions over and above the standard constructs. Attitude, subjective norm, PBC, moral norm, and mobile phone involvement emerged as significant predictors of intentions; and intention was the only significant predictor of drivers' self-reported behaviour. These constructs can provide insight into key focal points for countermeasures including advertising and other public education strategies aimed at influencing young drivers to reconsider their engagement in this risky behaviour.

  2. A salvage operation for total penis amputation due to circumcision.

    PubMed

    Ince, Bilsev; Gundeslioglu, Ayse Ozlem

    2013-05-01

    Circumcision is one of the most common rituals in Jewish and Islamic cultures. It may also be performed for phimosis correction or the treatment of recurrent balanitis. Although circumcision is considered to be a technically easy and safe surgical procedure with no significant risk, it may lead to severe complications such as necrotizing fasciitis or total penis amputation. In this report, we present a case of penis amputation at two levels occurring with third-degree burns due to electrocautery during circumcision. Although penile replantation was attempted, it was unsuccessful due to burn damage to the veins. After restoration of the functional structures, the penis was buried in the inguinal area by reepithelization to maintain blood circulation. The recovery of the penis was successful. This case is presented as a novel example of groin flap surgery to achieve a functionally and aesthetically acceptable outcome in a salvage operation for a penis with significant traumatic injury, which has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:23730602

  3. A new approach to the surgical correction of buried penis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, V T

    1995-05-01

    Buried penis has been variously attributed to obesity with excessive suprapubic fat, severe phimosis with trapping of the penis within the prepubic tissues, and inadequate fixation of the penile shaft skin at the base resulting in tenting. Previous attempts at surgical correction, by excising suprapubic fat, fixing penile shaft skin to the base of the penis, and circumcising, have failed to give satisfactory results and, indeed, procedures like circumcision will make the condition even worse. The technique developed by the author is based on the recognition that this condition exists because of the displacement of the root of the penis below its normal position, resulting in the surrounding fat and dartos tissues enveloping the penile shaft. In this procedure, dissection at the root of the penis is carried out deep down to the corporal bodies. All fibrotic tissue that binds the penile shaft is excised. The lengthened penile shaft is anchored at its base by suturing the surrounding tissue onto the tunica. This technique has been applied in 22 patients ranging in age from 5 months to 11 years. Apart from two technical problems, all other patients had satisfactory correction with good functional results.

  4. Giant fibroepithelial polyp of the glans penis not associated with condom-catheter use: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanmu; Treacy, Ann; Yousef, George; Stewart, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps are rare benign tumours of the glans penis; there are only a few reported cases. The pathogenesis is unknown. However, they have been linked with chronic condom catheter use or prior penile surgery. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with a large fibroepithelial polyp of the glans penis of 11 years duration, which was not associated with condom catheter use or prior surgery. The mass was large, measuring 7 × 5 × 3 cm. Fibroepithelial polyps have been reported in a range of genito-urinary sites in males and females, adults and children, and in rare cases may be associated with malignant transformation. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both cutaneous and mucosal genitourinary lesions. PMID:24069111

  5. Disposable penis and its replenishment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, Ayami; Seki, Satoko; Tokuzato, Masakazu; Shiga, Sakiko; Nakashima, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-23

    Although it is often thought that sexual selection is weaker in simultaneous hermaphrodites than in gonochorists, some simultaneous hermaphrodites exhibit bizarre mating behaviour. In the simultaneously hermaphroditic nudibranch Chromodoris reticulata, we found a peculiar mating behaviour, wherein the nudibranch autotomized its penis after each copulation and was able to copulate again within 24 h. To have sufficient length to be replenished for three copulations, the penis is compressed and spiralled internally. No other animal is known to repeatedly copulate using such 'disposable penes'. Entangled sperm masses were observed on the outer surface of the autotomized penis, which is equipped with many backward-pointed spines. There is a possibility that the nudibranch removes sperm already stored in a mating partner's sperm storage organ(s). PMID:23407499

  6. Disposable penis and its replenishment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Sekizawa, Ayami; Seki, Satoko; Tokuzato, Masakazu; Shiga, Sakiko; Nakashima, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Although it is often thought that sexual selection is weaker in simultaneous hermaphrodites than in gonochorists, some simultaneous hermaphrodites exhibit bizarre mating behaviour. In the simultaneously hermaphroditic nudibranch Chromodoris reticulata, we found a peculiar mating behaviour, wherein the nudibranch autotomized its penis after each copulation and was able to copulate again within 24 h. To have sufficient length to be replenished for three copulations, the penis is compressed and spiralled internally. No other animal is known to repeatedly copulate using such ‘disposable penes’. Entangled sperm masses were observed on the outer surface of the autotomized penis, which is equipped with many backward-pointed spines. There is a possibility that the nudibranch removes sperm already stored in a mating partner's sperm storage organ(s). PMID:23407499

  7. Cheng's method for reconstruction of a functionally sensitive penis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K X; Zhang, R H; Zhou, S; Jiang, K C; Eid, A E; Huang, W Y

    1997-01-01

    This article introduces a new surgical method for one-stage reconstruction of the penis. It is applied to the reconstruction of the microphallus as well as to traumatic cases with the residual stump of the amputated penis not less than 3 cm long. By transferring the original glans or the residual penile stump to the anterior portion of the newly reconstructed penile body with microsurgical techniques, we have thus rebuilt a penis with more satisfactory results in both appearance and erotic sensation. Seven patients are reported here who were operated on by this method and who have been followed up for 18 months to 10 years. The good results achieved and the method's advantages over other methods are demonstrated and discussed. PMID:8982190

  8. Penis keratoacanthoma transforming into squamous cell carcinoma: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fei; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Yihong; Liu, Jianye; Tang, Yuxin; Tang, Jin; Yao, Kun; Xia, Bing; Dai, Yingbo

    2015-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma is variously regarded as a benign epithelial tumor, characterized by a rapid-growing and solitary flesh-colored nodule with a central keratin plug on the sun-exposed skin. Under certain circumstances, it can transform into squamous cell carcinoma. In this paper, we present a case of a 50-year-old man with a 2.5 × 3 × 2.2 cm mass on his penis stub-end. The patient was treat with a partial penectomy after further expert discussions and histopathology the lesion demonstrated penis keratoacanthoma. He received a partial penectomy again and the pathological result revealed squamous cell carcinoma this time. This case indicates that undergoing a partial penectomy on initial diagnosis of a penile tumor secondary to penile keratoacanthoma should be considered because of its high malignant potency. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe the malignant conversion of penis keratoacanthoma. PMID:26885065

  9. Kissing nevus of the penis. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songting; Zhou, Mingshu; Qiao, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Kissing nevus is a curious type of nevus that was first described on the eyelids and rarely described on the penis. We report two cases of kissing nevus of the penis and review previously reported cases. The lesions of the kissing nevus of the penis showed characteristic mirror-image symmetry relative to the coronal sulcus. On histopathology, the lesion showed a compound nevus.

  10. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  11. Giant lymphedema of the penis and scrotum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vives, Franklin; Ocampo-Flórez, Ginna Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum is a rare entity characterized by enlargement of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the genital region due to lymphatic drainage impairment. This clinical condition is more frequent in tropical countries due to a higher incidence of filariasis, which, in turn, is the main etiology. We describe the case of a 33-year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hyalinization. Four consecutive surgical interventions were necessary to remove the great part of the affected tissue, which enabled satisfactory results and improved the patient's quality of life. PMID:27284543

  12. Functional anatomy and ultrasound examination of the canine penis.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hölscher, Catharina; Failing, Klaus; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the functional-anatomical structures of the canine penis during and after erection to demonstrate the respective changes to provide a basis for further examinations of pathological conditions like priapism. Additionally, a gray-scale analysis was performed to quantify results from the ultrasound examination. In total, 80 dogs were examined. In group (Gr.) A, 44 intact or castrated dogs were examined, and in Gr. B, 36 dogs were examined during erection and after complete detumescence of the penis. The following parameters were assessed: (1) using physical measurements: length of the Pars longa glandis [Plg] and length of the Bulbus glandis [Bg]; and (2) using ultrasound: total penile diameter, width of the erectile tissue of the Plg, diameter of the Corpus spongiosum [Cs] including the penile bone and urethra, vertical diameter, circumference of the penis, cross-sectional area, and area of the Cs including the urethra. The mentioned parameters could be assessed in all dogs of Gr. A and Gr. B with the only exception being the urethra that could be visualized using ultrasound in some dogs only and predominantly in the erected penis (Gr. B). Concomitantly, the erectile tissue of the Plg and the Cs was more heterogenous and hypo- to anechoic during erection compared with dogs in Gr. A and Gr. B after detumescence. Comparing the results in Gr. B, the length of the Plg and the Bg were decreased approximately 40.6% and 38.0%, the total width of the penis 40.5%, the total width of the erectile tissue of the Plg 48.0%, and the width of the Cs 15.6% during detumescence compared with erection. Comparing the decrease in size at the different locations (apex penis, middle of Plg, middle of Bg) for vertical diameter, total circumference, and cross-section area, it was largest at the Bg. B-mode ultrasound is a suitable tool to investigate not only the morpho-functional structures of the resting canine penis, but also of the erected and

  13. Giant lymphedema of the penis and scrotum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vives, Franklin; García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés; Ocampo-Flórez, Ginna Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum is a rare entity characterized by enlargement of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the genital region due to lymphatic drainage impairment. This clinical condition is more frequent in tropical countries due to a higher incidence of filariasis, which, in turn, is the main etiology. We describe the case of a 33-year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hyalinization. Four consecutive surgical interventions were necessary to remove the great part of the affected tissue, which enabled satisfactory results and improved the patient's quality of life. PMID:27284543

  14. [A Case of Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Penis].

    PubMed

    Wanifuchi, Atsushi; Taguchi, Keisuke; Ikehata, Yoshinori; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Hiyama, Yoshiki; Tomaru, Utano

    2015-06-01

    A 75-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of a foul smelling, painful swelling of the glans of the penis. Physical examination showed a true phimosis and a huge solid mass on the glans under the foreskin. After postectomy and penile tumor biopsy, we performed partial penectomy. Histologically, the tumor was composed of atypical spindle cells arranged in an epithelioid pattern and stained positive for both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Therefore we diagnosed the tumor as sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis. One month after surgery, advanced gastric cancer was discovered. Thereafter, cancer rapidly spread throughout the whole body, and he died six months postoperatively. PMID:26153055

  15. Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, David N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.

  16. Treatment of carcinoma of the penis by iridium 192 wire implant

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, N.J.; Douchez, J.; Combes, P.F.

    1982-07-01

    Since 1971, a group of 22 adult patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis have been treated by iridium 192 wire implants. There were 6 T1 tumors, 14 T2 tumors and 2 T3; only one patient (T3) presented with local failure after implant. Local necrosis occurred in 2 patients without local tumoral recurrence, but was sufficient enough to warrant amputation. Thus 19/22 (86%) patients were locally cured with penile conservation. In these patients the most frequent posttherapeutic complication is chronic urethral stenosis (9/19 patients, 47%) requiring repeated instrumental dilations. Four patients presented with initial inguinal mestastatic nodes; only one was cured by radiosurgical treatment. Among patients without metastatic nodes at the time of diagnosis, none had delayed metastatic nodes. Three patients died of nodal evolution, 5 patients died of intercurrent disease without evidence of disease and 14 are now alive and NED. It appears that iridium 192 wire implant is the most effective conservative treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis; however, these results confirm that no particular treatment is required for inguinal nodal areas for patients who initially present with no disease.

  17. Ebola nurse Pauline Cafferkey accused of concealing high temperature.

    PubMed

    2016-08-24

    Pauline Cafferkey, the nurse who was infected with the Ebola virus while caring for sick people in west Africa, has been accused of concealing her temperature during checks on her return to the UK. PMID:27641552

  18. Dysmorphic penis image perception: the root of Koro vulnerability. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A N

    1989-11-01

    Koro is an acute anxiety reaction in which the perception of decreased penis length because of hyperinvolution from intra-abdominal traction is the main feature. In an earlier study the author reported that, despite having an average length penis, Koro patients perceived smaller penis length, in both the flaccid and extended state, than did normal subjects. To examine the influence of response bias on the dysmorphic penis length perception, a longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the Draw-a-penis Test, a graphomotor projective test, was administered on the same Koro patients 3 times over 2 years. The patients showed a remarkable constancy in their perception of penis length. The dysmorphic quality of own-penis perception is discussed in relation to Koro vulnerability.

  19. A rare variation in the origin and course of the artery of penis.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Kumar, Naveen; Patil, Jyothsna; Shetty, Surekha D; Rao Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa; Ravindra, Swamy

    2014-01-01

    Vascular variations of the penis are very rare. Awareness of its variations is of utmost importance to the urologists and radiologist dealing with the reconstruction or transplants of penis, erectile dysfunctions, and priapism. We report an extremely rare variation of the artery of the penis and discuss its clinical importance. The artery of the penis arose from a common arterial trunk from the left internal iliac artery. The common trunk also gave origin to the obturator and inferior vesical arteries. The artery of the penis coursed forward in the pelvis above the pelvic diaphragm and divided into deep and dorsal arteries of the penis just below the pubic symphysis. The internal pudendal artery was small and supplied the anal canal and musculature of the perineum. It also gave an artery to the bulb of the penis.

  20. [Self-administration of an oil solution in the penis].

    PubMed

    Rebassa Llull, M J; Muñoz Vélez, D; Ferrutxe Frau, J; Gutiérrez Sanz-Gadea, C; Mus Malleu, A; Torrens Darder, I; Ozonas Moragues, M

    2000-09-01

    We report the case of a patient who has autoinjected himself the penis and the scrotum with a solution constituted by petroleum, vaseline, oxygenated water and ketoconazol gel. Treatment consists in the excision of the injected deposit of lipid material and antibiotic therapy with good result at 4 months. We review the existing literature related with this exceptional pathology.

  1. [Review and update of the anatomy of the penis].

    PubMed

    Chicharro, Raúl Vozmediano; Parrilla, Ramón Bonilla

    2010-10-01

    The knowledge of penile anatomy is basic to perform a proper diagnosis and direct the most adequate treatment of the various diseases that may appear: urethral stenosis, erectile dysfunction, congenital or acquired penile curvature, etc.; being its anatomical knowledge essential for a proper surgical management. The penis is the male organ involved in both voiding and sexual functions: the body of the penis is composed by three erectile bodies, (i.e the deep structures): the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum, this last surrounding and covering the urethra. Buck's fascia is in relation to the deep structures of the penis. The superficial fascia, dartos, is made up from a more areolar tissue and is in relation to skin and vessels. The vascularization of the deep structures comes from the common penile artery, a branch of the internal pudendal artery. Penile blood drains through three venous systems: superficial, intermediate and deep systems. Pudendal nerves are in charge of the sensitive and motor somatic innervations. Cavernosal nerves are a combination of parasympathetic and sympathetic afferent fibers, corresponding to the nerves of the autonomic system of the penis.

  2. Inguinal Lymph Nodes in Carcinoma Penis-Observation or Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Althaf, Syed; Gangaiah, Dinesh M.; Dev, Kapil; Kurpad, Vishnu P.; Gurawalia, Jaiprakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Indian sub-continent the presentation of carcinoma penis is variable. Mostly presents with palpable inguinal lymph nodes but not confirm of metastases. Aim To evaluate whether all clinically positive nodes are metastatic and decide when to address inguinal lymph node. Materials and Methods A retrospective observational study on carcinoma penis from a regional cancer centre of south India over a period from 2001 to 2012. All the clinical, investigational, operative, pathology details and follow-up data were collected from patient records. Results Two hundred and thirty cases of carcinoma penis have been identified and 112 cases had clinically positive nodes. In 74 cases fine needle cytology was positive for malignancy and they have been addressed with block dissection with surgery of primary lesion. At two years follow up, 70 patients were identified with inguinal lymph node metastasis and block dissection was performed and all was were positive for malignancy on histology. The rate of recurrence is related to the T stage of the primary tumour. Conclusion It can be concluded that elective surgery is appropriate for palpable inguinal lymph nodes and prophylactic nodal dissection in high risk cases of carcinoma penis. PMID:26894163

  3. [The buried penis : Indications, a new technique and the results].

    PubMed

    Riechardt, S; Fisch, M

    2013-10-01

    The buried penis describes a bunch etiologies and clinical presentations of which the congenital form is rare. In the past different techniques had been described, using inner prepuce after mobilization to cover the penile shaft. This can lead to persistent edema of the skin. We developed a new technique to reduce the rate of postoperative edema.

  4. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis. PMID:14671664

  5. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis.

  6. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  7. [Age changes of the connective tissue structures of human penis].

    PubMed

    Klimachev, V V; Neĭmark, A I; Gerval'd, V Ia; Bobrov, I P; Avdalian, A M; Muzalevskaia, N I; Gerval'd, I V; Aliev, R T; Cherdantseva, T M

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at the study of age changes of penis connective tissue structures. Tissue fragments of penis were obtained from 20 cadavers of men at the age of 20-38 years in group I, and from 20 cadavers of men at the age of 41-59 years in group II. The criteria for the exclusion of material from the research were arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis of internal iliac arteries, Peyronie's disease, and anomalies of genital organ development. It was shown that in the cavernous body of penis, aging was associated with the increased amount and thickening of collagen and argyrophilic fibers, decreased content and thinning of elastic fibers, and the reduced amount of smooth muscle cells (SMC). The average area of fibroblast and SMC nucleolus was not different in both groups studied. The average area of endotheliocyte nucleolus was equal to 1.9+/-0.9 microm2 in group II, being lower than that one in group I, in which this index was equal to 2.1+/-0.9 microm2. No differences in the content of type III and IV collagen were found between the study groups. Age-associated decrease in the average area of endothelial cell nucleolus in the cavernous bodies may reflect the reduction of the activity of these cells and may indicate the development of endothelial dysfunction, which is one of the most important steps in the morphogenesis of age-related male erectile dysfunction.

  8. Pigmented concealing powders for the hair loss patient.

    PubMed

    Cossman, Jack P; Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu C

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from alopecia may experience low self-esteem, low self-image, and other psychological consequences. While medical and surgical options for treating hair loss exist, these may be prohibitively expensive or have an unpredictable outcome. In lieu of or in addition to therapeutic approaches, cosmetic options have long been an approach to hair loss. However, patients and clinicians alike often regard cosmetic options to be limited to hairstyling and hairpieces, unaware that newer options, namely pigmented concealing powders, may offer a more practical and seemingly natural camouflage. This article introduces the clinician to concealing powders as a viable option for the hair loss patient.

  9. Concealing a Passive Sensing System with Single-Negative Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Feng; Zou, Xin-Ye; Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-layer structure for concealing an electromagnetic sensing system (a sensor is wrapped with a transparent protective layer), using single-negative (SNG) materials whose material parameters are completely independent of those of the host matrix as well as the concealed system. The numerical results show that only three different kinds of SNG materials are sufficient to yield the cloaking effect even in the presence of weak loss. This may significantly facilitate the experimental realization of a well-performing sensor-cloaking device.

  10. Adolescent disclosure and concealment: longitudinal and concurrent associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Chelom E; Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Hart, Craig H

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age = 60.24 months, SD = 7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n = 153) completed a longitudinal follow-up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self-reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self-rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls.

  11. Detecting concealed information using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Zhou, Xiaomei; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Sang, Biao

    2014-09-01

    The present study focused on the potential application of fNIRS in the detection of concealed information. Participants either committed a mock crime or not and then were presented with a randomized series of probes (crime-related information) and irrelevants (crime-irrelevant information) in a standard concealed information test (CIT). Participants in the guilty group were instructed to conceal crime-related information they obtained from the mock crime, thus making deceptive response to the probes. Meanwhile, their brain activity to probes and irrelevants was recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). At the group level, we found that probe items were associated with longer reaction times and greater activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex than irrelevant items in the guilty group, but not in the innocent group. These findings provided evidence on neural correlates of recognition during a CIT. Finally, on the basis of the activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex, the correct classification of guilty versus innocent participants was approximately 75 % and the combination of fNIRS and reaction time measures yielded a better classification rate of 83.3 %. These findings illustrate the feasibility and promise of using fNIRS to detect concealed information. PMID:24514911

  12. Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1998-03-01

    A novel cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of metallic and non-metallic concealed weapons. This technique uses a vertical array of millimeter- wave antennas which is mechanically swept around a person in a cylindrical fashion. The wideband millimeter-wave data is mathematically reconstructed into a series of high- resolution images of the person being screened. Clothing is relatively transparent to millimeter-wave illumination,whereas the human body and concealed items are reflective at millimeter wavelengths. Differences in shape and reflectivity are revealed in the images and allow a human operator to detect and identify concealed weapons. A full 360 degree scan is necessary to fully inspect a person for concealed items. The millimeter-wave images can be formed into a video animation sequence in which the person appears to rotate in front of a fixed illumination source.This is s convenient method for presenting the 3D image data for analysis. This work has been fully sponsored by the FAA. An engineering prototype based on the cylindrical imaging technique is presently under development. The FAA is currently opposed to presenting the image data directly to the operator due to personal privacy concerns. A computer automated system is desired to address this problem by eliminating operator viewing of the imagery.

  13. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  14. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  15. Campaign for Right to Carry Concealed Guns on Campuses Gains Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Five years after the Virginia Tech massacre prompted a student in Texas to start a Facebook page in favor of the right to carry concealed weapons on college campuses, the resulting group, Students for Concealed Carry, has advanced its cause. In more than a dozen states, legislation has been introduced to allow the carrying of concealed firearms on…

  16. Quantum Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based On LSQu-Blocks Image Information Concealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. AL-Salhi, Yahya E.; Lu, Songfeng

    2016-08-01

    Quantum steganography can solve some problems that are considered inefficient in image information concealing. It researches on Quantum image information concealing to have been widely exploited in recent years. Quantum image information concealing can be categorized into quantum image digital blocking, quantum image stereography, anonymity and other branches. Least significant bit (LSB) information concealing plays vital roles in the classical world because many image information concealing algorithms are designed based on it. Firstly, based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR), image uniform blocks clustering around the concrete the least significant Qu-block (LSQB) information concealing algorithm for quantum image steganography is presented. Secondly, a clustering algorithm is proposed to optimize the concealment of important data. Finally, we used Con-Steg algorithm to conceal the clustered image blocks. Information concealing located on the Fourier domain of an image can achieve the security of image information, thus we further discuss the Fourier domain LSQu-block information concealing algorithm for quantum image based on Quantum Fourier Transforms. In our algorithms, the corresponding unitary Transformations are designed to realize the aim of concealing the secret information to the least significant Qu-block representing color of the quantum cover image. Finally, the procedures of extracting the secret information are illustrated. Quantum image LSQu-block image information concealing algorithm can be applied in many fields according to different needs.

  17. Concealing of facial expressions by a wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Young, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. Because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. It has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human primates, and it has also been interpreted as a sign of intentionality. So far, the behaviour has only been reported twice, for single gorilla and chimpanzee individuals, both in captivity. Here, we report the first observation of concealing of facial expressions by a monkey, a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), living in the wild. On eight separate occasions between 2009 and 2011 an adult male was filmed concealing two different facial expressions associated with play and aggression ("play face" and "scream face"), 22 times in total. The videos were analysed in detail, including gaze direction, hand usage, duration, and individuals present. This male was the only individual in his group to manifest this behaviour, which always occurred in the presence of a dominant male. Several possible interpretations of the function of the behaviour are discussed. The observations in this study indicate that the gestural communication and cognitive abilities of monkeys warrant more research attention.

  18. Extramammary Paget disease of the penis as a manifestation of recurrent transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Somers, Kathryn; Iorizzo, Luciano; Scott, Glynis; Mercurio, Mary Gail

    2012-08-15

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) mainly affects elderly women in areas with apocrine glands. Only 10 cases have been reported to involve the penis in patients with underlying transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Herein we report a patient with EMPD of the penis after radical cystectomy.

  19. Explosive eversion and functional morphology of the duck penis supports sexual conflict in waterfowl genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia L. R.; Clark, Christopher J.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Coevolution of male and female genitalia in waterfowl has been hypothesized to occur through sexual conflict. This hypothesis raises questions about the functional morphology of the waterfowl penis and the mechanics of copulation in waterfowl, which are poorly understood. We used high-speed video of phallus eversion and histology to describe for the first time the functional morphology of the avian penis. Eversion of the 20 cm muscovy duck penis is explosive, taking an average of 0.36 s, and achieving a maximum velocity of 1.6 m s−1. The collagen matrix of the penis is very thin and not arranged in an axial-orthogonal array, resulting in a penis that is flexible when erect. To test the hypothesis that female genital novelties make intromission difficult during forced copulations, we investigated penile eversion into glass tubes that presented different mechanical challenges to eversion. Eversion occurred successfully in a straight tube and a counterclockwise spiral tube that matched the chirality of the waterfowl penis, but eversion was significantly less successful into glass tubes with a clockwise spiral or a 135° bend, which mimicked female vaginal geometry. Our results support the hypothesis that duck vaginal complexity functions to exclude the penis during forced copulations, and coevolved with the waterfowl penis via antagonistic sexual conflict. PMID:20031991

  20. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Mautz, Brian S.; Wong, Bob B. M.; Peters, Richard A.; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male’s relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits. PMID:23569234

  1. [Epidermoid carcinoma of the urethra and glans penis: two independent tumors?].

    PubMed

    Pascual Regueiro, D; García de Jalón Martínez, A; Trívez Boned, M A; Gil Martínez, P; Azúa Romeo, J; Rioja Sanz, L A

    2004-01-01

    A 64 years-old man is treated in our hospital presenting a big tumor in glans penis. During the surgical act, another neoplasm is detected in the urethra. The microscopic study showed a concomintant epidermoid carcinoma of glans penis and urethra with non-affected tissue between both tumors. PMID:15666524

  2. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Mautz, Brian S; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-04-23

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits. PMID:23569234

  3. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the penis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; da Silva Mendonça, Rodrigo Pastor; de Morais, Danilo Tavares Maranhão; Júnior, Paulo Cézar Ribeiro Gomes; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Barreira, Bernardo Monteiro Antunes

    2015-01-01

    We describe the fifth case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient had penile ulcer with bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and underwent total penectomy. After antibiotic therapy, the patient began outpatient chemotherapy, but the treatment was discontinued due to his intolerance. The patient died due to infectious complications of the inguinal lymphatic fistula 7 months after the histological diagnosis. Notably, the periurethral area was involved in the anatomopathological evaluation of the excised penis. The penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma was aggressive and the perimeatal region was involved. This case helps demystify the origins and prognosis of this rare case. More reports documenting patient characteristics and their evolution with penile mucoepidermoid carcinoma are needed. PMID:25624963

  4. External-beam irradiation of carcinoma of the penis

    SciTech Connect

    Sagerman, R.H.; Yu, W.S.; Chung, C.T.; Puranik, A.

    1984-07-01

    Twenty-four patients with biopsy-proved squamous-cell carcinoma of the penis underwent external-beam radiation therapy between 1966 and 1980. Fifteen were treated for the primary tumor and 9 for metastatic inguinal lymphadenopathy; no patient received prophylactic nodal irradiation. Seven out of 9 tumors in stage I, 2/3 in stage II, and 1/3 in stage IV were controlled for three years. Control of fixed, inoperable groin nodes was poor, and none of these patients survived beyond 1 1/2 years.

  5. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy.

  6. 18-year experience in the management of men with a complaint of a small penis.

    PubMed

    Nugteren, Helena M; Balkema, G T; Pascal, A L; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M; van Driel, M F

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, the erect penis has been a symbol of masculine qualities. Because of this symbolism, a penis that is less than average size can cause insecurity or embarrassment. This series reports the authors' 18-year experience in the management of 60 men with a complaint of a small penis. For 44 of these 60 men, counseling was sufficient; the other 16 had surgery, and of these, 9 were satisfied with the result. Despite limitations, the authors conclude that those men who already achieve a penis length of no less than 7.5 cm (2.95 in) in erection, have only limited benefit from penis-enhancing surgery. This particular patient category should therefore be dissuaded from surgery.

  7. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. Aim To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. Methods An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recruited and divided into three groups: BDD (n = 26); SPA (n = 31) and controls (n = 33). Main Outcome Measures The Index of Erectile Function (IEF), sexual identity and history; and interventions to alter the size of their penis. Results Men with BDD compared with controls had reduced erectile dysfunction, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction on the IEF. Men with SPA compared with controls had reduced intercourse satisfaction. There were no differences in sexual desire, the frequency of intercourse or masturbation across any of the three groups. Men with BDD and SPA were more likely than the controls to attempt to alter the shape or size of their penis (for example jelqing, vacuum pumps or stretching devices) with poor reported success. Conclusion Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures. PMID:26468378

  8. Could plate tectonics on Venus be concealed by volcanic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.; Muradian, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is supplementary to a study reported by Kaula and Phillips (1981). From an analysis of Pioneer Venus altimetry, Kaula and Phillips had inferred that any heat loss from the planet by plate tectonics must be small compared to that from the earth. However, it has been suggested by others that plate tectonic may exist on Venus, but that the expected 'square root of s' dependence of the topographic drop off is not observed because it is concealed by lava flows. The present investigation has the objective to conduct an examination whether this suggestion of concealment by lava flow is correct. On the basis of the performed analysis, it is concluded that the results obtained by Kaula and Phillips appear to be well justified.

  9. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. PMID:26390033

  10. An adaptive perspective on revealed and concealed cues to empathy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert; Shingler, Polly

    2016-02-01

    Wu, Sheppard, and Mitchell (Br. J. Psychol., 2016; 107, 1-22) found that observers could accurately identify people with extreme but not more average empathy scores. Here, we further consider this U-shaped discrimination function. We first examine a statistical issue regarding the construction of the average groups, which are less homogenous by definition than the extreme groups. We then consider the kinds of questions arising when these results are considered within the adaptive framework of signal theory. Some interesting questions arise relating to the signal sender, including the costs and benefits to the sender in revealing and concealing true empathy levels, and the effects of adopting behavioural norms to conceal true levels of empathy.

  11. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications.

  12. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors.

  13. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors. PMID:24308254

  14. Spatial segregation within the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of neurons innervating the bladder or the penis of the rat as revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Banrezes, B; Andrey, P; Maschino, E; Schirar, A; Peytevin, J; Rampin, O; Maurin, Y

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigations was (1) to examine the spatial organization of preganglionic neurons of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus in the lumbosacral spinal cord of male adult rats and (2) to search, in this nucleus, for a possible segregation of sub-populations of neurons innervating the penis or the bladder, respectively. To estimate their spatial organization, neurons of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus were retrogradely labeled by wheat germ agglutinin coupled to horseradish peroxidase applied to the central end of the sectioned pelvic nerve. The sub-populations of lumbosacral neurons innervating the corpus cavernosum of the penis or the dome of the bladder were identified using transsynaptic retrograde labeling by pseudorabies virus injected into these organs in different rats. In both wheat germ agglutinin-labeled and pseudorabies virus-labeled rats, serial coronal sections were cut through the spinal L5-S1 segments. Labeled neurons were revealed by histochemistry (peroxidase experiments) or immunohistochemistry (pseudorabies virus experiments). By means of a three-dimensional reconstruction software developed in our laboratory, three-dimensional models were calculated from each spinal section image series. They revealed the spatial organization of (i) preganglionic neurons and (ii) neurons innervating the bladder or the penis. The different three-dimensional models were subsequently merged into a single one which revealed the segregation, within the sacral parasympathetic nucleus, of the sub-populations of neurons. Neurons labeled by virus injected into the penis extended predominantly from the rostral part of the L6 segment to the rostral part of the S1 segment while those labeled by bladder injections were distributed predominantly from the caudal part of the L6 segment to the caudal part of the S1 segment. These results support the hypothesis of a viscerotopic organization of sacral neurons providing the spinal control of pelvic organs.

  15. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  16. Angiography of the corpus cavernosum penis in the pony stallion during erection and quiescence.

    PubMed

    Bartels, J E; Beckett, S D; Brown, B G

    1984-07-01

    Serial arteriography was used to determine the vascular pattern and blood flow in the penis of the pony stallion. Ponies were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and catheters were surgically introduced into the internal pudendal and obturator arteries. The vascular anatomy was visualized by angiography via image-intensified fluoroscopy and was recorded on 70-mm film at 3 frames/s or by direct radiography. Blood flow into the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) was limited during quiescence because the blood was immediately shunted into the venous system. After vasodilation with mild stimulation from an electroejaculator, there was increased filling of the CCP and corpus spongiosum penis. Contrast medium injected into the internal pudendal artery entered the bulb of the penis during peak erection, but medium injected into the obturator artery could not enter the crus penis during peak erection. The contrast medium stopped in the obturator artery at the edge of the ischiocavernous muscles due to the occlusion of the deep arteries of the penis by contraction of these muscles. When contrast medium was injected directly into the CCP near the glans to outline the body of the penis, there was no evidence of venous outlets along the body.

  17. Smooth Muscle Cells of Penis in the Rat: Noninvasive Quantification with Shear Wave Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Jie; Qiao, Xiao-Hui; Gao, Feng; Bai, Ming; Li, Fan; Du, Lian-Fang; Xing, Jin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of cavernosum play an important role in erection. It is of great significance to quantitatively analyze the level of SMCs in penis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) on evaluating the level of SMCs in penis quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty healthy male rats were selected. The SWE imaging of penis was carried out and then immunohistochemistry analysis of penis was performed to analyze the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin in penis. The measurement index of SWE examination was tissue stiffness (TS). The measurement index of immunohistochemistry analysis was positive area percentage of alpha smooth muscle actin (AP). Results. Sixty sets of data of TS and AP were obtained. The results showed that TS was significantly correlated with AP and the correlation coefficient was −0.618 (p < 0.001). The result of TS had been plotted against the AP measurements. The relation between the two results has been fitted with quadric curve; the goodness-of-fit index was 0.364 (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The level of SMCs in penis was successfully quantified in vivo with SWE. SWE can be used clinically for evaluating the level of SMCs in penis quantitatively. PMID:26550573

  18. [Complication of self-injection with petroleum jelly for penis augmentation].

    PubMed

    Gröger, A; Boliglowa, D; Sippel, C; Wiebols, A; Menke, H

    2015-03-01

    An increasing number of complications after penis enlargement procedures, sometimes self-performed, are being observed in Germany and in the other countries. This report presents a case of a 43-year-old patient who presented with multiple fistulas, paraffinomas and bacterial superinfection after having injected petroleum jelly into his penis. In order to remove the foreign bodies as well as the infected and necrotic tissue the complete epithelium had to be radically excised. After further local and surgical wound treatment penis reconstruction with a full thickness skin graft was performed which later led to a functional and aesthetical complete restoration to the original condition.

  19. [Gangrene of the penis due to strangulation by a rubber band: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yutaro; Oda, Shinpei; Fujikata, Shiro; Tanimoto, Shuji; Kan, Masaharu

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of strangulation of the penis by a rubber band. A 79-year-old man placed a rubber band tightly around the corona of his glans penis in order to prevent urinary incontinence. After five days, he was taken to our hospital in an ambulance for high temperature and general malaise. We found the rubber band and removed it immediately. Gangrene of the penis continued and he did not recover from sepsis, so we performed partial penectomy. After the operation, he completely recovered. Penile strangulation using a soft constricting object such as a rubber band might result in severe complications and we should be careful.

  20. [Self-amputation of the penis treated immediately: Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Odzébé, A W S; Bouya, P A; Otiobanda, G F; Banga Mouss, R; Nzaka Moukala, C; Ondongo Atipo, A M; Ondziel Opara, A S

    2015-12-01

    Self-amputation of the penis treated immediately: case report and review of the literature. Self-amputation of the penis is rare in urological practice. It occurs more often in a context psychotic disease. It can also be secondary to alcohol or drugs abuse. Treatment and care vary according on the severity of the injury, the delay of consultation and the patient's mental state. The authors report a case of self-amputation of the penis in an alcoholic context. The authors analyze the etiological and urological aspects of this trauma.

  1. Lymphoedema of the penis and scrotum as a sequela of chronic skin infection

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Soh; Kinoshita, Masato; Miyazaki, Yuko; Kawai, Kenichiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese male patient presented with an enormously disfigured penis and scrotum. The penis was swollen and distorted rightward, and the skin was hard and lumpy. The patient had had a subdermal abscess for 6 years. The current condition was considered secondary lymphoedema of the penis and scrotum resulting from chronic skin infection. Wide excision of the affected area with bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection were performed. The degloved penile shaft and scrotum were covered with skin grafts, and a satisfactory result was obtained. PMID:27432903

  2. Granuloma inguinale mimicking as squamous cell carcinoma of penis.

    PubMed

    Pilani, Abhishek; Vora, Rita; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma inguinale (GI) is an acquired chronic, slowly progressive, mildly contagious disease of venereal origin, characterized by granulomatous ulceration of the genitalia and neighboring sites, with little or no tendency to spontaneous healing caused by Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium) granulomatis. A 55-year-old male presented with fissured, foul smelling, fungating growth over prepuce with phimosis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without lymphadenopathy. It started with painless papulonodular showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, infiltration in dermis, acanthosis and vacuolated macrophages suggestive of GI and not showing any histopathological features of SCC. Patient was successfully treated by giving cotrimoxazole twice a day for 21 days. Here, we presented a case of GI mimicking SCC of penis, which was diagnosed on basis of histopathology and treated with excision followed by medical therapy with cotrimoxazole. PMID:24958990

  3. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p < 0.01),whereas the post-operative results were not significantly improved for the control group (1.2 ± 0.7 min vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 min, p > 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients.

  4. Resource partitioning among flower visitors and evolution of nectar concealment in multi-species communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Santamaría, Luis

    2005-01-22

    The plant community within which flower evolution takes place has largely been ignored. We develop two models for the evolution of nectar concealment when flowers are visited by legitimate pollinators and flower parasites. When there is a single plant species, no level of nectar concealment is evolutionarily stable: any population can be invaded by mutants exhibiting a higher level of nectar concealment. However, the presence of a second flower species with exposed nectar and not subject to evolution breaks the runaway process. In the presence of open flowers, depending on the fitness function there may be an evolutionarily stable level of nectar concealment, or more complex evolutionary dynamics, with nectar concealment fluctuating within a bounded range. Concealment of nectar from flower parasites can evolve even if it implies decreasing the accessibility of nectar to legitimate pollinators.

  5. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality.

  6. Buried penis: An unrecognized risk factor in the development of invasive penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Alym; Daya, Dean; Pinthus, Jehonathan; Davies, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    One of the documented benefits of neonatal circumcision is protection against invasive penile cancer. To date there have been a handful of published cases of invasive penile cancer in men circumcised as neonates. We report a case of a 73-year-old man, with a history of neonatal circumcision with no evidence of previous human papillomavirus exposure, who developed a buried penis secondary to obesity. He was diagnosed with Grade 2, pT3N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. This report suggests that buried penis may pose a risk factor for the development of penile cancer despite the protective effects of neonatal circumcision. Thus periodic examination of a buried penis is warranted even in patients with no risk factors for penile cancer. A review of the literature is provided. PMID:23093645

  7. Ischemia of the glans penis following circumcision: case report and revision of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Pietro; Pietropaolo, Francesco; Candiano, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Michele

    2015-03-01

    Ischemic complications of the glans penis are rare and commonly result from trauma, inadvertent administration of vasoconstrictive solutions, diabetes mellitus, circumcision and vasculitis; we refer about a young man with severe ischemia of the glans penis following circumcision. The patient had undergone circumcision 5 days before in a surgery department under local anesthesia (1% mepivacaine hydrochloride). The patient noticed a brownish color and edema of the glans penis at 24 h after he opened the wound dressing, but arrived to our hospital only 5 days after circumcision because these findings had progressed. Physical examination revealed the black color or necrotic appearance of the glans penis, and edema on the dorsal penile skin. The patient underwent antibiotic, antiplatatelet, corticosteroid and iperbaric therapy achieving a complete restitutio ad integrum.

  8. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories. PMID:23214081

  9. Concealed Left Ventricle to Right Atrium Fistula Complicating Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Onzuka, Tatsushi; Morishige, Shoji; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yasutaka

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis presenting with subaortic stenosis without perivalvular leakage and vegetations in the left ventricular outflow and right atrium, the latter being attached to the atrioventricular septum. Intraoperatively, an abscess that had formed on the aortic annulus and perforated to the right atrium was unexpectedly found, the fistula being occluded by vegetations. Even when no left-to-right shunts are detected by imaging, vegetations adjacent to the atrioventricular septum may conceal a left ventricle-right atrium fistula, resulting in prosthetic valve endocarditis presenting clinically as subaortic stenosis without perivalvular leakage. PMID:27549556

  10. Attachment style, self-concealment, and interpersonal distance among Japanese undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Shintaro; Tokuda, Hideji; Sato, Jun

    2007-06-01

    The relationships among attachment style, self-concealment, and interpersonal distance were studied with 71 Japanese undergraduates (33 men and 38 women, ages 18 to 20 years, M = 18.7, SD= .6). Participants completed a questionnaire about Self-concealment and Attachment Styles (Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant). One week later, Interpersonal Distance, which individuals maintain between themselves and others, was measured by the stop-distance paradigm. Analysis showed that scores for more Anxious and Avoidant Attachment Styles were positively correlated with those for greater Self-concealment. Scores for greater Self-concealment and more Anxious Attachment Style were also correlated with longer Interpersonal Distance.

  11. A rare case of penis agenesis (Aphallia) with associated multiple urogenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Demirer, Zafer; Aip, Bilal Firat; Uguz, Sami; Guragac, Ali; Irkilata, Hasan Cem

    2015-01-01

    The penis as a component of external genitalia, takes part in fertility, urinary and psychosexual structure of males with its complex character. We report a case of penis agenesis with associated left renal agenesis, left superior segment ureteral agenesis, prostate agenesis, left ureterocele, right vesicoureteral reflux and high urethrorectal communication above the rectal sphincter. The patient refused any surgical intervention because of his religious beliefs. PMID:26298242

  12. A rare case of penis agenesis (Aphallia) with associated multiple urogenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Demirer, Zafer; Aip, Bilal Firat; Uguz, Sami; Guragac, Ali; Irkilata, Hasan Cem

    2015-01-01

    The penis as a component of external genitalia, takes part in fertility, urinary and psychosexual structure of males with its complex character. We report a case of penis agenesis with associated left renal agenesis, left superior segment ureteral agenesis, prostate agenesis, left ureterocele, right vesicoureteral reflux and high urethrorectal communication above the rectal sphincter. The patient refused any surgical intervention because of his religious beliefs.

  13. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Women’s preferences for penis size may affect men’s comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women’s penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women’s size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average. PMID:26332467

  14. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  15. 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berechet, Ion; Berginc, Gérard; Berechet, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with new optical non-conventional 3D laser imaging. Optical non-conventional imaging explores the advantages of laser imaging to form a three-dimensional image of the scene. 3D laser imaging can be used for threedimensional medical imaging, topography, surveillance, robotic vision because of ability to detect and recognize objects. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging for concealed object identification. The objective of this new 3D laser imaging is to provide the user a complete 3D reconstruction of the concealed object from available 2D data limited in number and with low representativeness. The 2D laser data used in this paper come from simulations that are based on the calculation of the laser interactions with the different interfaces of the scene of interest and from experimental results. We show the global 3D reconstruction procedures capable to separate objects from foliage and reconstruct a threedimensional image of the considered object. In this paper, we present examples of reconstruction and completion of three-dimensional images and we analyse the different parameters of the identification process such as resolution, the scenario of camouflage, noise impact and lacunarity degree.

  16. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  17. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  18. Active millimeter wave detection of concealed layers of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, N. J.; Baker, J. G.; Rezgui, N. D.; Southgate, M.; Alder, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    Extensive work has been published on millimetre wave active and passive detection and imaging of metallic objects concealed under clothing. We propose and demonstrate a technique for revealing the depth as well as the outline of partially transparent objects, which is especially suited to imaging layer materials such as explosives and drugs. The technique uses a focussed and scanned FMCW source, swept through many GHz to reveal this structure. The principle involved is that a parallel sided dielectric slab produces reflections at both its upper and lower surfaces, acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This produces a pattern of alternating reflected peaks and troughs in frequency space. Fourier or Burg transforming this pattern into z-space generates a peak at the thickness of the irradiated sample. It could be argued that though such a technique may work for single uniform slabs of dielectric material, it will give results of little or no significance when the sample both scatters the incident radiation and gives erratic reflectivities due to its non-uniform thickness and permittivity . We show results for a variety of materials such as explosive simulants, powder and drugs, both alone and concealed under clothing or in a rucksack, which display strongly directional reflectivities at millimeter wavelengths, and whose location is well displayed by a varying thickness parameter as the millimetre beam is scanned across the target. With this system we find that samples can easily be detected at standoff distances of at least 4.6m.

  19. Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed-weapon identification.

    PubMed

    Murrill, Steven R; Jacobs, Eddie L; Moyer, Steven K; Halford, Carl E; Griffin, Steven T; De Lucia, Frank C; Petkie, Douglas T; Franck, Charmaine C

    2008-03-20

    The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a terahertz (THz) -band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The MATLAB-based model accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination. The model is based on recent U.S. Army NVESD sensor performance modeling technology that couples system design parameters to observer-sensor field performance by using the acquire methodology for weapon identification performance predictions. This THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agencies' Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program and is currently being used to guide the design and development of a 0.650 THz active-passive imaging system. This paper will describe the THz model in detail, provide and discuss initial modeling results for a prototype THz imaging system, and outline plans to calibrate and validate the model through human perception testing. PMID:18709076

  20. Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J T

    2005-11-08

    In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

  1. Passive millimeter-wave imaging for concealed article detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovberg, John A.; Galliano, Joseph A., Jr.; Clark, Stuart E.

    1997-02-01

    Passive-millimeter-wave imaging (PMI) provides a powerful sensing tool for law enforcement, allowing an unobtrusive means for detecting concealed weapons, explosives, or contraband on persons or in baggage. Natural thermal emissions at millimeter wavelengths from bodies, guns, explosives, and other articles pass easily through clothing or other concealment materials, where they can be detected and converted into conventional 2-dimensional images. A new implementation of PMI has demonstrated a large-area, near- real-time staring capability for personnel inspection at standoff ranges of greater than 10 meters. In this form, PMI does not require operator cuing based on subjective 'profiles' of suspicious appearance or behaviors, which may otherwise be construed as violations of civil rights. To the contrary, PMI detects and images heat generated by any object with no predisposition as to its nature or function (e.g. race or gender of humans). As a totally passive imaging tool, it generates no radio-frequency or other radiation which might raise public health concerns. Specifics of the new PMI architecture are presented along with a host of imaging data representing the current state- of-the-art.

  2. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p < 0.01),whereas the post-operative results were not significantly improved for the control group (1.2 ± 0.7 min vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 min, p > 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. PMID:22882515

  3. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  4. 27 CFR 447.62 - False statements or concealment of facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concealment of facts. 447.62 Section 447.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 447.62 False statements or concealment of facts. Any... fact or fails to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make...

  5. Women with onset of epilepsy prior to marriage: disclose or conceal?

    PubMed

    Santosh, Deetha; Kumar, T Santosh; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2007-05-01

    We inquired reasons for concealment/disclosure of the history of epilepsy during marriage negotiations and marriage outcomes of 82 consecutive women attending a tertiary referral center based epilepsy clinic in Kerala, southern India. At the time of marriage, 55% concealed and 45% disclosed the history of epilepsy. Majority of those who concealed admitted that they did so fearing breakup of marriage negotiations, and majority of those who disclosed did so to forestall the consequences after marriage of concealing. Compared to those who disclosed, the prevalence of divorce, separation and disturbed marriages were significantly higher among those who concealed. Honest prospective communication during marriage negotiations about epilepsy is important for preserving subsequent married life.

  6. Physician Beliefs about Physical and Mental Competency of Patients Applying for Concealed Weapon Permits.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Adam O; Viera, Anthony J; Pierson, John; Barnhouse, Kathy K; Tulsky, James A; Richman, Barak D

    2015-06-01

    Law enforcement officials have asked health care providers to evaluate patient applications for concealed weapon permits. The current study was designed to examine physician beliefs regarding competency to carry a concealed weapon for patients with specific physical and mental conditions. Among 222 North Carolina physicians who participated in this survey (40% response rate), large variation and uncertainty existed for determining competency. Physicians most frequently chose mild dementia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and recent depression as conditions that would render a patient not competent to carry a concealed weapon. Male physicians and those owning a gun were more likely to deem a patient competent. Almost a third of physicians were unsure about competence for most conditions. Physicians asked to assess competency of patients to carry a concealed weapon have quite disparate views on competency and little confidence in their decisions. If physicians are expected to assess patient competence to carry a concealed weapon, more objective criteria and training are needed.

  7. Regulatory focus moderates the social performance of individuals who conceal a stigmatized identity.

    PubMed

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Scheepers, Daan

    2015-12-01

    People often choose to hide a stigmatized identity to avoid bias. However, hiding stigma can disrupt social interactions. We considered whether regulatory focus qualifies the social effects of hiding stigma by examining interactions in which stigmatized participants concealed a devalued identity from non-stigmatized partners. In the Prevention Focus condition, stigmatized participants were instructed to prevent a negative impression by concealing the identity; in the Promotion Focus condition, they were instructed to promote a positive impression by concealing the identity; in the Control condition, they were simply asked to conceal the identity. Both non-stigmatized partners and independent raters rated the interactions more positively in the Promotion Focus condition. Thus, promotion focus is interpersonally beneficial for individuals who conceal a devalued identity.

  8. [Protheses of the penis; 130 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tudoriu, T; Ionescu, C; Angelescu, H

    1978-01-01

    The authors report their experience (13 years) with circa 130 operations and over 300 exercises on corpse-penes. From 1966 till 1972 the authors used an unilateral device, with inconstant good results. 1972 to 1975: a bifurcated penile implant made from Teflon with better results, but without firm proximal footings; (76 patients). 1975 to 1977: 73 cases = 26 with the new developped penile implant with one-way articulation and 11 with modified Small-Carrion penile implants. These modern protheses can create a true "phallus" = 130 to 150 mm long. The implants with one-way articulation guarantee solid posterior footings (very important for immissus in vaginam). The technique with the 3 approaches (perineal, praesymphyseal and distal) is described. The presence of a rigidified big penis was no problem for the patients, as long as it can be bent at its base, painless and efficient = potentia satisfaciendi. In doubtful situations the indication for operation should be settled by a team of specialists. PMID:696049

  9. Pathways Between Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Littlefield, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with concealable stigmatized identities often possess no obviously devalued attributes, yet are at greater risk for problematic substance use compared to their privileged counterparts. We present a conceptual model, which proposes that identity-relevant content and characteristics have important implications for cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of stigma-related stress. In doing so, we synthesize stigma-related models from the extant literature and attempt to integrate these concepts with previous work detailing potential contributors to substance use behaviors specifically. Finally, we ask readers to consider the various ways in which the content and characteristics of an individual’s stigmatized identity might combine with situational and additional individual difference factors to influence the likelihood of substance misuse. PMID:26379766

  10. Geophysical investigations of concealed faults near Yucca Mountain, Southwest Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Midway Valley, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada reveal that these methods can be used to delineate concealed faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of the proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The largest gravity and magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of Midway Valley is associated with the Paintbrush fault on the west flank of Alice Ridge. Geophysical data infer a vertical offset of about 200 m (650 ft). Another prominent gravity and magnetic anomaly is associated with the Bow Ridge fault in the western part of Midway Valley.

  11. Incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk.

    PubMed

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Mavinapalla, Seema; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Abd Rahim, Muhammad Furqon Bin; Khan, Aftab Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Susuk, or charm needles, are small, metallic needles inserted under the skin, considered to enhance beauty, health and luck. This hidden secret of inserting susuk is a traditional superstitious ritual, widely practiced among women of Southeast Asia. Here, we present an interesting case of incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk, which was exposed on a panoramic radiograph taken on a routine basis as a part of diagnostic work up at our centre. An orthopantomogram revealed bilateral metallic foreign bodies in the maxillo-facial region. Anamnestic data affirmed the practice of the body art of susuk. The charm needles were present in the orofacial region without the patient experiencing any pathological signs or symptoms.

  12. Worker's refusal to conceal HIV tattoo amounts to misconduct.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    [Name removed] was fired in 1994 from his job as a nurse's aide at the Seattle, WA Harborview Medical Center after refusing to cover a tattoo on his left inside forearm that reads HIV POSITIVE. The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments that he was terminated because of his HIV status and not the tattoo. He contended that the hospital violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act, and his First Amendment right to free speech. The judge agreed with the hospital that [name removed]'s refusal to conceal the tattoo amounted to insubordination. The appeals panel affirmed the granting of summary judgment on [name removed]'s ADA and Rehabilitation Act claims. [Name removed] said he had himself tattooed to help dispel the stigma attached to his infection. The hospital said the tattoo alarmed some patients. PMID:11364513

  13. Temperature effects on polygraph detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T

    2016-02-01

    Thermoregulatory influences on electrodermal and cardiovascular activity may interfere with the detection of concealed information using a polygraph. This possibility was assessed by means of a mock terrorism scenario. Seventy-two participants were assigned to either a guilty or an innocent role. They were given a polygraph test at one of three ambient temperatures: 10°C, 22°C, or 34°C. Among guilty participants, electrodermal and cardiovascular measures were least effective at 10°C. Electrodermal results were optimal at 22°C, whereas cardiovascular results were optimal at 34°C. Among innocent participants, the effectiveness of these same measures was not affected by ambient temperature. Temperature had no significant impact on respiration results within the guilty or the innocent groups. Taken together, these findings have implications for those who use polygraphs in uncontrolled testing environments. PMID:26435532

  14. Temperature effects on polygraph detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T

    2016-02-01

    Thermoregulatory influences on electrodermal and cardiovascular activity may interfere with the detection of concealed information using a polygraph. This possibility was assessed by means of a mock terrorism scenario. Seventy-two participants were assigned to either a guilty or an innocent role. They were given a polygraph test at one of three ambient temperatures: 10°C, 22°C, or 34°C. Among guilty participants, electrodermal and cardiovascular measures were least effective at 10°C. Electrodermal results were optimal at 22°C, whereas cardiovascular results were optimal at 34°C. Among innocent participants, the effectiveness of these same measures was not affected by ambient temperature. Temperature had no significant impact on respiration results within the guilty or the innocent groups. Taken together, these findings have implications for those who use polygraphs in uncontrolled testing environments.

  15. Incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk.

    PubMed

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Mavinapalla, Seema; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Abd Rahim, Muhammad Furqon Bin; Khan, Aftab Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Susuk, or charm needles, are small, metallic needles inserted under the skin, considered to enhance beauty, health and luck. This hidden secret of inserting susuk is a traditional superstitious ritual, widely practiced among women of Southeast Asia. Here, we present an interesting case of incidental radiographic finding of the concealed art of susuk, which was exposed on a panoramic radiograph taken on a routine basis as a part of diagnostic work up at our centre. An orthopantomogram revealed bilateral metallic foreign bodies in the maxillo-facial region. Anamnestic data affirmed the practice of the body art of susuk. The charm needles were present in the orofacial region without the patient experiencing any pathological signs or symptoms. PMID:26271077

  16. Selection of food patches by sympatric herbivores in response to concealment and distance from a refuge.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Miranda M; Shipley, Lisa A; Camp, Meghan J; Rachlow, Janet L; Forbey, Jennifer S; Johnson, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    Small herbivores face risks of predation while foraging and are often forced to trade off food quality for safety. Life history, behaviour, and habitat of predator and prey can influence these trade-offs. We compared how two sympatric rabbits (pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis; mountain cottontail, Sylvilagus nuttallii) that differ in size, use of burrows, and habitat specialization in the sagebrush-steppe of western North America respond to amount and orientation of concealment cover and proximity to burrow refuges when selecting food patches. We predicted that both rabbit species would prefer food patches that offered greater concealment and food patches that were closer to burrow refuges. However, because pygmy rabbits are small, obligate burrowers that are restricted to sagebrush habitats, we predicted that they would show stronger preferences for greater cover, orientation of concealment, and patches closer to burrow refuges. We offered two food patches to individuals of each species during three experiments that either varied in the amount of concealment cover, orientation of concealment cover, or distance from a burrow refuge. Both species preferred food patches that offered greater concealment, but pygmy rabbits generally preferred terrestrial and mountain cottontails preferred aerial concealment. Only pygmy rabbits preferred food patches closer to their burrow refuge. Different responses to concealment and proximity to burrow refuges by the two species likely reflect differences in perceived predation risks. Because terrestrial predators are able to dig for prey in burrows, animals like pygmy rabbits that rely on burrow refuges might select food patches based more on terrestrial concealment. In contrast, larger habitat generalists that do not rely on burrow refuges, like mountain cottontails, might trade off terrestrial concealment for visibility to detect approaching terrestrial predators. This study suggests that body size and evolutionary adaptations

  17. Microwave-Spectral Signatures Would Reveal Concealed Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G.; Ngo, P.; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, K.; Stolarcyzk, L.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed technique for locating concealed objects (especially small antipersonnel land mines) involves the acquisition and processing of spectral signatures over broad microwave frequency bands. This technique was conceived to overcome the weaknesses of older narrow- band electromagnetic techniques like ground-probing radar and low-frequency electromagnetic induction. Ground-probing radar is susceptible to false detections and/or interference caused by rocks, roots, air pockets, soil inhomogeneities, ice, liquid water, and miscellaneous buried objects other than those sought. Moreover, if the radar frequency happens to be one for which the permittivity of a sought object matches the permittivity of the surrounding soil or there is an unfavorable complex-amplitude addition of the radar reflection at the receiver, then the object is not detected. Low-frequency electromagnetic induction works well for detecting metallic objects, but the amounts of metal in plastic mines are often too small to be detectable. The potential advantage of the proposed technique arises from the fact that wideband spectral signatures generally contain more relevant information than do narrow-band signals. Consequently, spectral signatures could be used to make better decisions regarding whether concealed objects are present and whether they are the ones sought. In some cases, spectral signatures could provide information on the depths, sizes, shapes, and compositions of objects. An apparatus to implement the proposed technique (see Figure 1) could be assembled from equipment already in common use. Typically, such an apparatus would include a radio-frequency (RF) transmitter/receiver, a broad-band microwave antenna, and a fast personal computer loaded with appropriate software. In operation, the counter would be turned on, the antenna would be aimed at the ground or other mass suspected to contain a mine or other sought object, and the operating frequency would be swept over the band of

  18. Distinct subclassification of DRG neurons innervating the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra based on the electrophysiological current signature.

    PubMed

    Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Brian Y; Johnson, Richard D

    2014-09-15

    Spinal sensory neurons innervating visceral and mucocutaneous tissues have unique microanatomic distribution, peripheral modality, and physiological, pharmacological, and biophysical characteristics compared with those neurons that innervate muscle and cutaneous tissues. In previous patch-clamp electrophysiological studies, we have demonstrated that small- and medium-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be subclassified on the basis of their patterns of voltage-activated currents (VAC). These VAC-based subclasses were highly consistent in their action potential characteristics, responses to algesic compounds, immunocytochemical expression patterns, and responses to thermal stimuli. For this study, we examined the VAC of neurons retrogradely traced from the distal colon and the glans penis/distal urethra in the adult male rat. The afferent population from the distal colon contained at least two previously characterized cell types observed in somatic tissues (types 5 and 8), as well as four novel cell types (types 15, 16, 17, and 18). In the glans penis/distal urethra, two previously described cell types (types 6 and 8) and three novel cell types (types 7, 14, and 15) were identified. Other characteristics, including action potential profiles, responses to algesic compounds (acetylcholine, capsaicin, ATP, and pH 5.0 solution), and neurochemistry (expression of substance P, CGRP, neurofilament, TRPV1, TRPV2, and isolectin B4 binding) were consistent for each VAC-defined subgroup. With identification of distinct DRG cell types that innervate the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra, future in vitro studies related to the gastrointestinal and urogenital sensory function in normal as well as abnormal/pathological conditions may be benefitted.

  19. Contrast radiographic study of venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum of the cat penis.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Ali Akbar; Gilanpour, Hassan; Veshkini, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drainage routes of the corpus cvernosum penis and the corpus spongiosum penis in the cat using contrast cavernosography. Five male cats, 1.5-2.5 years old, weighing between 4.5 and 5.5 kg were investigated. The cats were anesthetized and the root and the proximal part of the penis were exposed by an incision on the perineum reaching the scrotum. Each cat was radiographed in lateral and dorsal recumbency before and during injection of contrast medium into the erectile bodies. The corpus spongiosum penis was injected at the bulb of the penis and the corpus cavernosum penis at the root. Injection of contrast media into the cavernous bodies showed that both the external and internal iliac veins drain the erectile bodies into the caudal vena cava. Drainage from the corpus spongiosum penis was from the bulb for the proximal part and from the glans for the distal part. The corpus cavernosum penis was drained only proximally, from the crura. There was a network of veins above the pelvic symphysis and the drainage of erectile bodies where through various routes into the internal and external iliac veins.

  20. Eliminating bias in randomized controlled trials: importance of allocation concealment and masking.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I

    2007-02-01

    Randomization in randomized controlled trials involves more than generation of a random sequence by which to assign subjects. For randomization to be successfully implemented, the randomization sequence must be adequately protected (concealed) so that investigators, involved health care providers, and subjects are not aware of the upcoming assignment. The absence of adequate allocation concealment can lead to selection bias, one of the very problems that randomization was supposed to eliminate. Authors of reports of randomized trials should provide enough details on how allocation concealment was achieved so the reader can determine the likelihood of success. Fortunately, a plan of allocation concealment can always be incorporated into the design of a randomized trial. Certain methods minimize the risk of concealment failing more than others. Keeping knowledge of subjects' assignment after allocation from subjects, investigators/health care providers, or those assessing outcomes is referred to as masking (also known as blinding). The goal of masking is to prevent ascertainment bias. In contrast to allocation concealment, masking cannot always be incorporated into a randomized controlled trial. Both allocation concealment and masking add to the elimination of bias in randomized controlled trials.

  1. Stiffness gradient of the beetle penis facilitates propulsion in the spiraled female spermathecal duct.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Alexander E; Matsumura, Yoko; Kovalev, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that sexual selection is the main driving force of substantial diversity of genitalia found in animals. However, how it facilitates the diversity is still largely unknown, because genital morpho/physical features and motions/functional morphology of the structures in sexual intercourse are not linked for the vast majority of organisms. Here we showed the presence of material gradient and numerically studied an effect of stiffness gradient of the beetle penis during its propulsion through the female duct. We found that stiffness gradient on the penis essentially affects its propulsion. Microscopic investigation suggests the possibility that the tip of the hyper-elongated penis is softer than the rest of it, and our numerical model confirms that this type of distribution of stiffness gradient aids in faster propulsion than other types. This result indicates that previously ignored physical properties of genital materials are of crucial importance in evolutionary studies of genitalia. PMID:27334674

  2. [Total infarction of the penis caused by entrapment in a plastic bottle].

    PubMed

    Maruschke, M; Seiter, H

    2004-07-01

    Penile strangulation injuries are rare emergency situations, but need a fast urological emergency management for decompression of the penis and for removing of the foreign bodies. Strangulation objects can be metallic or non-metallic objects and are usually used for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection. We report a case of a 62-year old male with a total infected gangrene of the penis caused by a strangulation of a plastic bottle neck which continued 14 days. A total amputation of the penis was necessary. A perineal urethrostomy was performed as definitive urine diversion. Bacteriologic examination has identified Proteus mirabilis. Thus, a systemic antibiotic therapy was perioperatively applicated. The further course was uneventful with a secondary healing wound.

  3. Stiffness gradient of the beetle penis facilitates propulsion in the spiraled female spermathecal duct.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Alexander E; Matsumura, Yoko; Kovalev, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-06-23

    It is well known that sexual selection is the main driving force of substantial diversity of genitalia found in animals. However, how it facilitates the diversity is still largely unknown, because genital morpho/physical features and motions/functional morphology of the structures in sexual intercourse are not linked for the vast majority of organisms. Here we showed the presence of material gradient and numerically studied an effect of stiffness gradient of the beetle penis during its propulsion through the female duct. We found that stiffness gradient on the penis essentially affects its propulsion. Microscopic investigation suggests the possibility that the tip of the hyper-elongated penis is softer than the rest of it, and our numerical model confirms that this type of distribution of stiffness gradient aids in faster propulsion than other types. This result indicates that previously ignored physical properties of genital materials are of crucial importance in evolutionary studies of genitalia.

  4. Stiffness gradient of the beetle penis facilitates propulsion in the spiraled female spermathecal duct

    PubMed Central

    Filippov, Alexander E.; Matsumura, Yoko; Kovalev, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that sexual selection is the main driving force of substantial diversity of genitalia found in animals. However, how it facilitates the diversity is still largely unknown, because genital morpho/physical features and motions/functional morphology of the structures in sexual intercourse are not linked for the vast majority of organisms. Here we showed the presence of material gradient and numerically studied an effect of stiffness gradient of the beetle penis during its propulsion through the female duct. We found that stiffness gradient on the penis essentially affects its propulsion. Microscopic investigation suggests the possibility that the tip of the hyper-elongated penis is softer than the rest of it, and our numerical model confirms that this type of distribution of stiffness gradient aids in faster propulsion than other types. This result indicates that previously ignored physical properties of genital materials are of crucial importance in evolutionary studies of genitalia. PMID:27334674

  5. A Concealed Barcode Identification System Using Terahertz Time-domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu; Yamamoto, Manabu; Kitazawa, Toshiyuki; Tripathi, Saroj R.; Takeya, Kei; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-03-01

    We present a concealed terahertz barcode/chipless tag to achieve remote identification through an obstructing material using terahertz radiation. We show scanned terahertz reflection spectral images of barcodes concealed by a thick obstacle. A concealed and double- side printed terahertz barcode structure is proposed, and we demonstrate that our design has better performance in definition than a single-side printed barcode using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This technique combines the benefits of a chipless tag to read encoded information covered by an optically opaque material with low cost and a simple fabrication process. Simulations are also described, along with an explanation of the principle of the terahertz barcode identification system.

  6. Fibroepothelial polyp of the glans penis due to pad use for urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Kumsar, Şükrü; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Köse, Osman; Budak, Salih; Adsan, Oztuğ

    2013-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our urology polyclinic with painless penile mass. The lesion was 3.5 cm in size on the ventral aspect of the penis. He had been using a pad for urinary incontinance for 10 months and said that the lesion had been increasing in size for past 3 months. He underwent a wide local excision under local anesthesia. The histopathologic diagnosis was fibroepithelial polyp. A fibroepithelial polyp of the penis is very rare and strongly linked to long-term condom catheter use. We present a case of fibroepithelial polyp of the glans which is not associated with condom catheter use. PMID:23671539

  7. Gangrene of the penis, scrotum, and perineum, occurred after radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Życzkowski, Marcin; Bryniarski, Piotr; Nowakowski, Krzysztof; Muskała, Bartosz; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old man hospitalized because of gangrene of the penis and scrotum, after radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer. At the time of the admission the patient presented with extensive gangrene with necrosis affecting the scrotum and the penis. During the first day of hospitalization the patient was operated. Due to the progress of the disease he had to be operated again. The status of the patient, which initially was very bad, was gradually improving. He was discharged from the hospital after 59 days in a good general state with good wound healing. PMID:24707380

  8. Gangrene of the penis, scrotum, and perineum, occurred after radiotherapy of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zyczkowski, Marcin; Bogacki, Rafał; Bryniarski, Piotr; Nowakowski, Krzysztof; Muskała, Bartosz; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old man hospitalized because of gangrene of the penis and scrotum, after radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer. At the time of the admission the patient presented with extensive gangrene with necrosis affecting the scrotum and the penis. During the first day of hospitalization the patient was operated. Due to the progress of the disease he had to be operated again. The status of the patient, which initially was very bad, was gradually improving. He was discharged from the hospital after 59 days in a good general state with good wound healing.

  9. Targeting NADPH Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Sezen, Sena F.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown. Aims We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes. Main Outcome Measures Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis. Results Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox, 4-HNE-modified proteins, induced eNOS uncoupling, and reduced Gpx1 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of p47phox, gp91phox (but not p67phox) and 4-HNE, but only slightly (P > 0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a

  10. Urethrotomy of the glans penis in three male dogs with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Cinti, F; Pisani, G; Carusi, U; Buracco, P

    2015-11-01

    Three intact male dogs with stranguria and haematuria caused by uroliths in the penile urethra underwent urethrotomy using a novel surgical approach directly over the caudal part of the os penis because conservative procedures to resolve the obstructions had failed. Haemorrhage was minimal, and the incisions healed rapidly by second intention. Complications did not occur during the 6-month follow-up period. Urethrotomy directly over the os penis is straightforward, associated with few complications and holds promise for the removal of urinary calculi in the penile urethra.

  11. CW THz scanning transmission imaging for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Yao, Rui; Yin, Qiguo; Ding, Shenghui; Wang, Qi

    2009-07-01

    In the paper, the two-dimensional THz imaging methods are described. The SIFIR-50 FPL Far-Infrared Laser is used as the THz source. The output frequency is 2.5THz in the experiment, because the THz laser operates steadily at this frequency. The P4-42 detector works at room temperature and offers relatively high sensitivity. The software of THz imaging system is self-designed, and it plays a crucial role in this imaging system because it controls nearly all the operations of this system, including the two-dimensional scanning, image data collection, image data storage, image display and image processing. Utilizing this setup, THz transmission images of concealed objects are obtained. In the experiment, a bottle cap and a plastic board covered by reflective materials are chosen as the imaging objects; paper and Teflon are placed before the object to test the transmission imaging effect. The experimental results show that this imaging system can generate clear images.

  12. Concealed Utility Route Planning: Guidelines for Indian Residential Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumana

    2015-09-01

    Utility lines, particularly in Indian residential buildings, are networked in a haphazard manner to economize and expedite the process of laying conduits. They remain concealed behind the wall finish exposing problems later. The conventional method adopted while laying the routes does not economize the process rather it damages the newly constructed building. After an investigation of the practiced methods through reconnaissance, a construction vocabulary in form of guidelines is recommended for brick residential construction. Taking advantage of the versatility of a brick and considering it as an indigenous construction material of the Indian plains, a judicious way of brick laying can create horizontal and vertical chase at specified heights to receive the utility conduits. The method will simplify, expedite, and organize the utility routes and provide a seamless connection of major utility lines in a residential building. It will aid in future augmentation, easy maintenance, cost reduction and time involved in construction. Practical training of masons and awareness of relevant contractors at site is required through trained site supervisors. The proposed method merits further investigation for inclusion in academic curriculums of the trade.

  13. GILBERT'S SYNDROME - A CONCEALED ADVERSITY FOR PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Ahsan; Sabir, Sabir; Ashlaq, Muhammad; Farooq, Umer; Khan, Muhammad Zatmar; Khan, Faisal Yousaf

    2015-01-01

    Gilbert's syndrome (often abbreviated as GS) is most common hereditary cause of mild unconjugated (indirect) hyperbilirubinemia. Various studies have been published depicting clinical and pharmacological effects of Gilbert's syndrome (GS). However GS as a sign of precaution for physician and surgeons has not been clearly established. A systematic study of the available literature was done. Key words of Gilbert's syndrome, hyperbilirubinemia and clinical and pharmacological aspects of GS were searched using PubMed as search engine. Considering the study done in last 40 years, 375 articles were obtained and their abstracts were studied. The criterion for selecting the articles for through study was based on their close relevance with the topic. Thus 40 articles and 2 case reports were thoroughly studied. It was concluded that Gilbert's syndrome has immense clinical importance because the mild hyperbilirubinemia can be mistaken for a sign of occult, chronic, or progressive liver disease. GS is associated with lack of detoxification of few drugs. It is related with spherocytosis, cholithiasis, haemolytic anaemia, intra-operative toxicity, irinotecan toxicity, schizophrenia and problems in morphine metabolism. It also has profound phenotypic effect as well. The bilirubin level of a GS individual can rise abnormally high in various conditions in a person having Gilbert's syndrome. This can mislead the physicians and surgeons towards false diagnosis. Therefore proper diagnosis of GS should be ascertained in order to avoid the concealed adversities of this syndrome. PMID:26721045

  14. Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Son, Jung-Young; Jung, Min-Kyoo; Jang, YuShin; Jung, Sang-Won; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2011-01-31

    Millimeter wave imaging is finding rapid adoption in security applications such as the detection of objects concealed under clothing. A passive imaging system can be realized as a stand-off type sensor that can operate in open spaces, both indoors and outdoors. In this paper, we address real-time outdoor concealed-object detection and segmentation with a radiometric imaging system operating in the W-band. The imaging system is equipped with a dielectric lens and a receiver array operating at around 94 GHz. Images are analyzed by multilevel segmentation to identify a concealed object. Each level of segmentation comprises vector quantization, expectation-maximization, and Bayesian decision making to cluster pixels on the basis of a Gaussian mixture model. In addition, we describe a faster process that adopts only vector quantization for the first level segmentation. Experiments confirm that the proposed methods provide fast and reliable detection and segmentation for a moving human subject carrying a concealed gun.

  15. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-06-01

    This two-part series explores the phenomenon of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. In Part 1 we focus on defining concealed pregnancy as a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, that can lead to tragic consequences such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be presented (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016).

  16. Concealing Emotions at Work Is Associated with Allergic Rhinitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Concealing emotions at work can cause considerable psychological stress. While there is extensive research on the adverse health effects of concealing emotions and the association between allergic diseases and stress, research has not yet investigated whether concealing emotions at work is associated with allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease in many industrialized countries, and its prevalence is increasing. Thus, our aim was to determine the strength of this association using data from three years (2007-2009) of the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants (aged 20-64) were 8,345 individuals who were economically active and who had completed the questionnaire items on concealing emotions at work. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for allergic rhinitis using logistic regression models. Among all participants, 3,140 subjects (37.6%) reported concealing their emotions at work: 1,661 men and 1,479 women. The OR (95% CIs) for allergic rhinitis among those who concealed emotions at work versus those who did not was 1.318 (1.148-1.512). Stratified by sex, the OR (95% CIs) was 1.307 (1.078-1.585) among men and 1.346 (1.105-1.639) among women. Thus, individuals who concealed their emotions at work were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of AR in comparison to those who did not. Because concealing emotions at work has adverse health effects, labor policies that aim to reduce this practice are needed.

  17. Peptide Amphiphile Nanofiber Delivery of Sonic Hedgehog Protein to Reduce Smooth Muscle Apoptosis in the Penis after Cavernous Nerve Resection

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Christopher W.; Angeloni, Nicholas L.; Harrington, Daniel A.; Stupp, Samuel I.; McKenna, Kevin E.; Podlasek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a serious medical condition that affects 16–82% of prostate cancer patients treated by radical prostatectomy and current treatments are ineffective in 50–60% of prostatectomy patients. The reduced efficacy of treatments makes novel therapeutic approaches to treat ED essential. The secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a critical regulator of penile smooth muscle and apoptosis that is decreased in cavernous nerve (CN) injury and diabetic ED models. Past studies using Affi-Gel beads have shown SHH protein to be effective in suppressing apoptosis caused by CN injury. Aim We hypothesize that SHH protein delivered via novel peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers will be effective in suppressing CN injury-induced apoptosis. Methods Adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 50) were used to optimize PA injection in vivo. PA with SHH protein (n = 16) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (control, n = 14) was injected into adult rats that underwent bilateral CN cut. Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 7 days. Alexa Fluor-labeled SHH protein was used to determine the target of SHH signaling (n = 3). Main Outcome Measures Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis for SHH protein and cluster differentiation protein three (CD3) were performed. Results SHH-PA caused a 25% and 16% reduction in apoptosis at 4 and 7 days after CN injury and a 9.3% and 19% increase in SHH protein at 4 and 7 days after CN injury. CD3 protein was not observed in SHH-PA-treated penis. In vitro, 73% of SHH protein diffused from PA within 6 days. Labeled SHH was observed in smooth muscle. Conclusions PA technology is effective in delivering SHH protein to the penis and SHH is effective in suppressing CN injury-induced apoptosis. These results suggest substantial translational potential of this methodology and show that only a short duration of SHH treatment is required to impact the apoptotic index

  18. Physiological considerations in radionuclide imaging of the penis during impotence therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.; Burger, R.H.; Netto, I.C.; Palmer, J.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of intracorporeal drugs in the treatment of impotence has advanced our understanding of erectile physiology. Radionuclide imaging of the penis (nuclear penogram) has provided clinicians with a noninvasive, objective measure of blood flow and blood pool changes during erection and with assistance in the quantitative documentation of therapeutic effect. 39 references.

  19. Impulse radar imaging system for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podd, F. J. W.; David, M.; Iqbal, G.; Hussain, F.; Morris, D.; Osakue, E.; Yeow, Y.; Zahir, S.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Electromagnetic systems for imaging concealed objects at checkpoints typically employ radiation at millimetre and terahertz frequencies. These systems have been shown to be effective and provide a sufficiently high resolution image. However there are difficulties and current electromagnetic systems have limitations particularly in accurately differentiating between threat and innocuous objects based on shape, surface emissivity or reflectivity, which are indicative parameters. In addition, water has a high absorption coefficient at millimetre wavelength and terahertz frequencies, which makes it more difficult for these frequencies to image through thick damp clothing. This paper considers the potential of using ultra wideband (UWB) in the low gigahertz range. The application of this frequency band to security screening appears to be a relatively new field. The business case for implementing the UWB system has been made financially viable by the recent availability of low-cost integrated circuits operating at these frequencies. Although designed for the communication sector, these devices can perform the required UWB radar measurements as well. This paper reports the implementation of a 2 to 5 GHz bandwidth linear array scanner. The paper describes the design and fabrication of transmitter and receiver antenna arrays whose individual elements are a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna. The antenna's frequency and angular response were simulated in CST Microwave Studio and compared with laboratory measurements. The data pre-processing methods of background subtraction and deconvolution are implemented to improve the image quality. The background subtraction method uses a reference dataset to remove antenna crosstalk and room reflections from the dataset. The deconvolution method uses a Wiener filter to "sharpen" the returned echoes which improves the resolution of the reconstructed image. The filter uses an impulse response reference dataset and a signal

  20. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  1. Robust identification of concealed dangerous substances using THz imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nystad, Helle E.; Haakestad, Magnus W.; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2015-05-01

    False alarm rates must be kept sufficiently low if a method to detect and identify objects or substances is to be implemented in real life applications. This is also true when trying to detect and identify dangerous substances such as explosives and drugs that are concealed in packaging materials. THz technology may be suited to detect these substances, especially when imaging and spectroscopy are combined. To achieve reasonable throughput, the detection and identification process must be automated and this implies reliance on algorithms to perform this task, rather than human beings. The identification part of the algorithm must compare spectral features of the unknown substance with those in a library of features and determining the distance, in some sense, between these features. If the distance is less than some defined threshold a match is declared. In this paper we consider two types of spectral characteristic that are derived from measured time-domain signals measured in the THz regime: the absorbance and its derivative. Also, we consider two schemes to measure the distance between the unknown and library characteristics: Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the effect of windowing of the measured time-domain signal on the performance of the algorithms is studied, by varying the Blackman-Harris (B-H) window width. Algorithm performance is quantified by studying the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). For the data considered in this study we conclude that the best performance is obtained when the derivative of the absorbance is used in combination with a narrow B-H window and SAM. SAM is a more straight-forward method and requires no large training data sets and tweaking.

  2. Application of B-mode ultrasonography in the assessment of the dog penis.

    PubMed

    Payan-Carreira, Rita; Bessa, Ana Celeste M

    2008-06-01

    With the purpose to characterize the ultrasonographic features of the dog penis, 20 healthy dogs aged from 2 to 11 years old were used. Ultrasonography was performed using a 5-9MHz linear probe and a Philips HD3 scanner. Ultrasonograms were obtained at the penile body (pre- and post-scrotal sections) and at both the bulbus glandis and the pars longa glandis, with the dog placed in dorsal recumbency. The typical anatomy of the dog penis is easily demonstrated in ultrasonographic images, as revealed in this study. On ultrasonograms taken at the body level, the two corpora cavernosa showed a homogeneous, hypoechoic structure; ventrally, the corpus spongiosum appears as a slightly hyperechoic structure surrounding the urethra. In glans ultrasonograms, the most typical feature is the os penis, observed as a strong hyperechoic structure, whose acoustic shadow impairs the screening of adjacent tissues. Lining on its concavity, the corpus spongiosum is observed as a slightly hyperechoic tissue around the urethra. An ovoid, regularly hypoechoic tissue corresponding to the erectile tissue of the pars longa, surrounds these structures. The bulbus glandis is visualized as a regular hypoechoic structure with small anechoic areas, corresponding to sinusoidal spaces. The albuginea is evidenced as a well-defined, hyperechoic external layer. The preputial cavity appears as a thin anechoic layer surrounding the albuginea. The results of this study demonstrate that ultrasonographic assessment of the dog penis is easily performed and accurate enough for penile examination. Furthermore, ultrasonography of the dog penis can become an interesting diagnostic tool to explore in the canine practice, during breeding soundness evaluation and also whenever penile exposition is impossible to achieve.

  3. Medicinal Leech Therapy for Glans Penis Congestion After Primary Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias Repair in an Infant: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wagenheim, Gavin N; Au, Jason; Gargollo, Patricio C

    2016-01-01

    Many postoperative complications have been reported after repair of classic bladder exstrophy. We present a case of medicinal leech therapy for glans penis congestion following exstrophy repair in an infant. A 2-week-old male with classic bladder exstrophy underwent complete primary repair. On postoperative day 1, he developed rapidly worsening glans penis venous congestion. Medicinal leech therapy was instituted with antibiotics and blood transfusions to maintain a hematocrit >30%. After 24 hours, venous congestion improved and therapy was discontinued. The patient's remaining hospital course was uncomplicated. Medicinal leeches are an effective therapy to relieve glans penis venous congestion.

  4. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies.

  5. How many more guns?: Estimating the effect of allowing licensed concealed handguns on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Nobles, Matt R; Wells, William; Cavanaugh, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Among other arguments, advocates for lifting bans on carrying concealed handguns on campus propose that this would increase the prevalence of legitimately carried handguns, which might then deter crimes or be used to intervene in campus shooting incidents like the one that took place at Virginia Tech in 2007. Opponents suggest that increased prevalence of concealed handguns would lead to increases in other negative consequences, such as accidental shootings. Little empirical research has examined the potential outcomes of such a policy change, nor has existing research examined the prerequisite issue of whether lifting these bans would result in substantial increases in the prevalence of concealed handguns among students. Using a sample of undergraduate classrooms selected from five academic buildings at a public university in Texas, this study examines the potential impact of lifting the concealed handgun ban on the likelihood that a given classroom would contain at least one legally carried handgun. Results reveal that the impact of potential policy changes in this area vary based on the building under consideration and the measure of potential handgun prevalence. Limitations of the study and implications for future research on the issue of concealed handgun carrying on college campuses are discussed.

  6. Real-time concealed-object detection and recognition with passive millimeter wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Jang, Yushin; Lee, Mun-Kyo; Jung, Sang-Won

    2012-04-23

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging is finding rapid adoption in security applications such as concealed object detection under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people in both indoors and outdoors. However, the imaging system often suffers from the diffraction limit and the low signal level. Therefore, suitable intelligent image processing algorithms would be required for automatic detection and recognition of the concealed objects. This paper proposes real-time outdoor concealed-object detection and recognition with a radiometric imaging system. The concealed object region is extracted by the multi-level segmentation. A novel approach is proposed to measure similarity between two binary images. Principal component analysis (PCA) regularizes the shape in terms of translation and rotation. A geometric-based feature vector is composed of shape descriptors, which can achieve scale and orientation-invariant and distortion-tolerant property. Class is decided by minimum Euclidean distance between normalized feature vectors. Experiments confirm that the proposed methods provide fast and reliable recognition of the concealed object carried by a moving human subject.

  7. Antisociality, underarousal and the validity of the Concealed Information Polygraph Test.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; De Clercq, Armand

    2007-03-01

    The Concealed Information Polygraph Test has been advocated as the preferred method for the physiological detection of deception. In this study, we further examined the validity of the Concealed Information Test in antisocial individuals. Physiological responding to concealed information was assessed in 48 male prisoners, and compared with responding in 31 male community volunteers. Based upon the association between antisociality and autonomic hyporesponsivity, lower detection rates were expected in the prisoners. Participants were questioned on five personally significant items (e.g., day of birth), instructed to deny recognition of this information, and promised a financial reward when able to hide recognition. Prisoners showed reduced autonomic reactivity in comparison to the community volunteers. This hyporesponsivity had little impact on the sensitivity of the Concealed Information Test. Detection efficiency in the prisoners was significantly above chance (d=2.67; a=0.82; 79%), and did not differ significantly from that obtained in the community volunteers (d=3.04; a=0.85; 87%). The present data support the validity of the Concealed Information Test in criminal populations.

  8. Exploring the characteristics of the attentional blink paradigm when used to discover concealed knowledge.

    PubMed

    Niziurski, Julie; Andre, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Ganis and Patnaik (Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:189-196, 2009) reported that the attentional blink paradigm using faces could be used to detect the presence of concealed knowledge. The attentional blink is defined as the inability to successfully detect the second of two target items presented within a short inter-stimulus interval. The present study tested the use of the attentional blink paradigm in a concealed knowledge test by investigating the effect that familiar faces may have on the attentional blink. Participants completed 200 trials where they were told to look for the same familiar target (Target 2; actor Brad Pitt) that was intermixed with neutral face stimuli and one other familiar face (Target 1; actor George Clooney). Target 1 was to act as the concealed knowledge as participants familiar with Target 1 would be distracted by his unannounced presence and report not seeing Target 2 thereby showing an attentional blink. Despite all participants being familiar with Target 2, an attentional blink still occurred, but with higher than normal Target 2 accuracy rates. Overall, we found support for using the AB paradigm with the concealed knowledge test; however, a possible countermeasure to the attentional blink is familiarity with Target 2 as eight of 21 participants who recognized Target 1 (the concealed knowledge) were also able to detect Target 2 on 100 % of the trials where Target 1's presence should have created an attentional blink. PMID:26162299

  9. A multifaceted active swept millimetre-wave approach to the detection of concealed weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David A.; Bowring, Nicholas; Rezgui, Nacer D.; Southgate, Matthew; Guest, Elizabeth; Harmer, Stuart; Atiah, Ali

    2008-10-01

    The effective detection of concealed handguns and knives in open spaces is a major challenge for police and security services round the world. Here an automated technique for the detection of concealed handguns that relies on active swept illumination of the target to induce both scattered fields and aspect independent responses from the concealed object is presented. The broad frequency sweep permits information about the object's size to be deduced from transformations into the time/distance domain. In our experiments we collect multiple sweeps across the frequency range at very high speed, which produces a time evolved response from the target, from both normal and cross polarized detectors. From this we extract characteristic signatures from the responses that allow those from innocent objects (e.g. mobile phones, keys etc) to be distinguished from handguns. Information about the optical depth separation of the scattering corners and the degree and shape of cross polarization allows a neural network to successfully concealed handguns. Finally this system utilizes a range of signal processing techniques ranging from correlation between cross and normally polarized scattering through to a neural network classifier to deduce whether a concealed weapon is present.

  10. Drug-related deaths with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment at autopsy: five case reports.

    PubMed

    Wilcher, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    Intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs is a rare observation at coronial autopsy examinations. The article reports 5 cases of accidental drug overdoses at the Westmead Coronial Morgue, Sydney New South Wales, over a 6-year period with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment known as body packing or body stuffing. Three different forms of anatomic concealment of drugs are illustrated, Case 2 involving therapeutic medication in the form of glass ampoules for parenteral injection not previously reported. Three deaths were the result of acute toxicity due to polydrug abuse rather than as a consequence of the body packing behavior and rupture of the drug packaging, with the intracorporeal drug concealments an adjunct finding at the autopsy examinations. The cause of death in Case 3 was the direct result of acute cocaine intoxication due to rupture of drug packages in the rectum and mucosal absorption. The article details forensic sociological aspects of drug concealment and subcultural group human behavior that can assist in providing information for the initiation of investigations.

  11. The role of psychological flexibility in the relationship between self-concealment and disordered eating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S; Timko, C Alix

    2011-04-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated whether psychological flexibility mediates the association between self-concealment and disordered eating (DE) symptoms among non-clinical college students. Data of 209 male and female participants (nfemale =165), aged 18-22 years old, were used for analyses. Self-concealment was found to be positively associated with DE symptoms (i.e., general eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related cognitions) and negatively associated with psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility was inversely associated with DE symptoms. Finally, psychological flexibility was found to mediate the association between self-concealment and DE symptoms after accounting for gender, ethnic background, and body mass index (BMI). PMID:21385643

  12. NIR spectroscopy with multivariate calibration and lock-in amplification to detect chemicals concealed behind fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Aamer; Canal, Céline; Hutchins, David A.; Green, Roger J.

    2011-05-01

    The detection of specific chemicals when concealed behind a layer of clothing is reported using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Concealment modifies the spectrum of a particular chemical when recorded at stand-off ranges of three meters in a diffuse reflection experiment. The subsequent analysis to identify a particular chemical has involved employing calibration models such as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). Additionally, detection has been attempted with good results using neural networks. The latter technique serves to overcome nonlinearities in the calibration/training dataset, affording more robust modelling. Finally, lock-in amplification of spectral data collected in through-transmission arrangement has been shown to allow detection at SNR as low as -60dB. The work has been shown to both allow detection of specific chemicals concealed behind a single intervening layer of fabric material, and to estimate the concentration of certain liquids.

  13. Penile fracture: penoscrotal approach with degloving of penis after Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Antonini, Gabriele; Vicini, Patrizio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Garaffa, Giulio; Vitarelli, Antonio; De Berardinis, Ettore; Von Heland, Magnus; Giovannone, Riccardo; Casciani, Emanuele; Gentile, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Fracture of the penis, a relatively uncommon emergency in Urology, consists in the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum. Examination and clinical history can be highly suspicious of penile fracture in the majority of cases and ultrasonography (USS) can be useful to identify the exact location of the tunical rupture, which is proximal in 2/3 of cases and therefore manageable through a penoscrotal approach. Although expensive and not readily available in the acute setting, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may play a role in the differential diagnosis with rupture of a circumflex or dorsal vein of the penis or when the tunical rupture is not associated with tear of the overlying Buck's fascia. This form of imaging is more sensitive than USS at identifying the presence of a tunical tear. The treatment of choice is immediate surgical repair, which allows preserving erectile function and minimizing corporeal fibrosis.

  14. Lymphoma presenting as cancer of the glans penis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Pierris, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Penile lymphoma is a very rare neoplasm. We report the case of an 82-year-old man who presented with phimosis. The patient also complained of frequent and painful urination. Upon examination a painless penile ulcer and multiple enlarged inguinal lymph nodes were found. The shaft of the penis and the prostate were hard on palpation. Abdominal and transrectal ultrasound examination confirmed the involvement of the penis shaft and the prostate and also revealed involvement of the urinary bladder. Biopsy showed diffuse, large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy with full remission of the disease. We review the literature relevant to penile lymphoma and discuss this uncommon condition. PMID:23056979

  15. Metastasis to the Glans Penis: An Unusual Site of Rectal Cancer Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Beatriz; Matias, Margarida; Alves, António; Jorge, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Secondary malignancy of the penis is a rare clinical condition, often associated with disseminated genitourinary malignancies. The prognosis is poor and the treatment options include penectomy, local surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and supportive therapy. Neither of these therapeutic options lead to superior treatment outcomes in the literature. The authors report the case of a 66 year-old man with a metastasis to the glans penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma, diagnosed two years after radical treatment for primary disease. The patient underwent palliative treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, remaining asymptomatic and disease-free at one year follow-up. Close follow-up of patients with history of rectal adenocarcinoma is very important. Radiochemotherapy is a feasible and effective therapeutic option for penile metastasis, addressing both disease control and symptomatic improvement.

  16. Gouty Tophi in the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Flores Martín, José Francisco; Vázquez Alonso, Fernando; Puche Sanz, Ignacio; Berrio Campos, Raquel; Campaña Gutierrez, Miguel Angel; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperuricemia and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in different anatomical locations. We report the case of a 61-year-old man who received consultation for gouty tophi in the penis, which is an unusual location for this type of pathology, that was resolved with the surgical removal of the tophi. We provide a review on gout and its treatment as well as other locations where atypical gouty tophi have been described. PMID:22844632

  17. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  18. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, N.; Raja, Anand; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Sundersingh, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients. PMID:26941496

  19. Disseminated Kaposi's Sarcoma with the Involvement of Penis in the Setting of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Farshidpour, Maham; Marjani, Majid; Baghaei, Parvaneh; Tabarsi, Payam; Masjedi, Heidar; Asadi Kani, Zahra Farzaneh; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Mansouri, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a malignant proliferation of the endothelial cells. It typically presents with several vascular nodules on the skin and other organs. The penile localization of KS, particularly on the shaft area, is exceptional. We report an HIV-positive 34-year-old man who had multiple purplish-black plaques on his extremities and several small violaceous macules on the glans and shaft of the penis. Kaposi's sarcoma was diagnosed by histopathology. PMID:25657424

  20. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue Part 2.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This second of a two-part article explores the consequences of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. Concealed pregnancy is a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, and can lead to tragic consequences, such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be explored and points for midwifery practice are presented and considered (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016). PMID:27652438

  1. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue Part 2.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This second of a two-part article explores the consequences of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. Concealed pregnancy is a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, and can lead to tragic consequences, such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be explored and points for midwifery practice are presented and considered (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016).

  2. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed.

  3. Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Christopher J; Palmer, A Richard

    2008-05-01

    For their size, barnacles possess the longest penis of any animal (up to eight times their body length). However, as one of few sessile animals to copulate, they face a trade-off between reaching more mates and controlling ever-longer penises in turbulent flow. We observed that penises of an intertidal barnacle (Balanus glandula) from wave-exposed shores were shorter than, stouter than, and more than twice as massive for their length as, those from nearby protected bays. In addition, penis shape variation was tightly correlated with maximum velocity of breaking waves, and, on all shores, larger barnacles had disproportionately stouter penises. Finally, field experiments confirmed that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity: barnacles transplanted to a wave-exposed outer coast produced dramatically shorter and wider penises than counterparts moved to a protected harbour. Owing to the probable trade-off between penis length and ability to function in flow, and owing to the ever-changing wave conditions on rocky shores, intertidal barnacles appear to have acquired the capacity to change the size and shape of their penises to suit local hydrodynamic conditions. This dramatic plasticity in genital form is a valuable reminder that factors other than the usual drivers of genital diversification--female choice, sexual conflict and male-male competition--can influence genital form.

  4. Ecology and Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity in the Penis and Cirri of Barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, J Matthew; Schneck, Daniel T; Neufeld, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Most barnacles are sessile, simultaneous hermaphrodites that reproduce by copulation. This is achieved through the extension of a muscular penis, famous for being the proportionally largest in the animal kingdom. The penis is a long cylindrical or conical organ, composed of a series of folded rings, allowing it to stretch to great lengths. The penises are covered with chemosensory setae allowing them to seek out receptive neighbors. For many species, the condition of the penis changes seasonally. In the most extreme circumstances, it degenerates and is shed during the first post-mating molt and is re-grown for the next mating season. Barnacle penises have been shown to exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to many different challenges. When exposed to heavy waves, diameter is increased by thickening both the cuticle and muscles. When mates are far, length increases by adding ringed annulations. Experiments have shown that these plastic traits are modular, capable of changing independently from each other and that they improve mating ability. Alternate strategies to increase reproductive ability by barnacles include the production of dwarf and complemental males, sperm casting and sperm leakage, and aerial copulation. All of these mating strategies may have important implications for the study of reproductive biology, life history, and sex allocation theory.

  5. [Induratio penis plastica and the capability of vaginal penetration in the context of forensic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K; Kedia, G T; Ückert, S; Hagemeier, L; Kuczyk, M A; Klintschar, M

    2014-09-01

    The so-called Induratio penis plastica (IPP), also known as Peyronie Disease or Morbus Peyronie, is the most common cause for deviation of the male penis. In most cases, the deviation is directed to the dorsal side. In face of a lawsuit related to a sexual offence, the opponent might argue that, due to an existing IPP, he is generally unable to insert his penis into a female's vagina. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical files of thirty (30) consecutive patients who presented with IPP. Particular attention was given to the individual degree of penile deviation and the ability of the subjects to conduct vaginal intercourse. Subjects who had a dorsal penile deviation of 800 to 900, or a lateral deviation of 600, were unable to commence vaginal coitus. In contrast, three (3) subjects who presented with a ventral deviation of 30° to 40° had no difficulties in performing vaginal penetration. The medicolegal aspects of these findings are being discussed.

  6. [Normal connective tissue in penis and its changes in patients with erectile dysfunction and Peyronie's disease].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, A I; Klimachev, V V; Gerval'd, V Ia; Bobrov, I P; Avdalian, A M; Muzalevskaia, N I; Gerval'd, I V; Aliev, R T; Kazymov, M A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the connective tissue of penis in normal individuals and in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and Peyronie's disease (PD) using computer methods of image analysis. Penis tissues were obtained from 20 males aged 20-40 years who died in accidents, penis biopsies were taken from 23 patients with ED and 9 patients with PD (average age: 51 +/- 11.5 years). In both groups of patients, the volumetric fraction of collagen fibers in the tunica albuginea and corpora cavernosa was increased, while that one of elastic fibers was decreased. At the same time, the changes of elastic fibers were noted: the fibers become thinner and formed "rods". The reduction of the amplitude and the wavelength in the collagen fibers of the tunica albuginea in patients with ED and the presence of fibrous plaques in corpora cavernosa in in patients with PD were registered. The methods of computer image analysis may improve the morphologic diagnosis of ED and PD.

  7. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  8. Phenomenology of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared to men anxious about their penis size and to men without concerns: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) may be preoccupied with the size or shape of the penis, which may be causing significant shame or impairment. Little is known about the characteristics and phenomenology of such men and whether they can be differentiated from men with small penis anxiety (SPA) (who do not have BDD), and men with no penile concerns. Twenty-six men with BDD, 31 men with SPA, and 33 men without penile concerns were compared on psychopathology, experiences of recurrent imagery, avoidance and safety-seeking behaviours. Men with BDD had significantly higher scores than both the SPA group and no penile concern group for measures of imagery, avoidance, safety seeking and general psychopathology. The groups differed on the phenomenology of BDD specific to penile size preoccupation clearly from the worries of SPA, which in turn were different to those of the men without concerns. The common avoidance and safety seeking behaviours were identified in such men that may be used clinically.

  9. The Role of Stigma Concealment in the Retrospective High School Experiences of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David M.; Bastone, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    High school is a time when most gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths experience a great deal of distress related to the stigma attached to being gay. Many try to avoid stigmatization by concealing the fact that they are GLB. This brief report presents a descriptive, multidimensional approach to understanding GLB stigma concealment as a…

  10. Sildenafil Promotes eNOS Activation and Inhibits NADPH Oxidase in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. Aims We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Main Outcome Measures Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Results Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of P-eNOS (Ser-1177), eNOS/HSP90 interaction, P-AKT, protein expression of gp91(phox), and 4-HNE, in the sickle cell mouse penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. PMID:24251665

  11. The Irony of Immaturity: K'iche' Children as Mediators and Buffers in Adult Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Elise

    2011-01-01

    In Santa Catarina Ixtahuacan adults constantly face the threat of resentment from other members of their community. Evading others' resentment requires concealing one's possessions, a feat that in turn entails the immoral act of speaking untruths. Children, however, can utter falsehoods that adults cannot because adults do not see children as…

  12. How Many More Guns?: Estimating the Effect of Allowing Licensed Concealed Handguns on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Nobles, Matt R.; Wells, William; Cavanaugh, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Among other arguments, advocates for lifting bans on carrying concealed handguns on campus propose that this would increase the prevalence of legitimately carried handguns, which might then deter crimes or be used to intervene in campus shooting incidents like the one that took place at Virginia Tech in 2007. Opponents suggest that increased…

  13. The intention to conceal activates the right prefrontal cortex: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies on deception have shown that a late positive potential (LPP), a component of event-related brain potentials, is elicited when a participant wishes to conceal recognition of the eliciting stimulus. The LPP occurs about 500 ms after stimulus onset and has an occipital scalp distribution with concurrent negativity at frontal sites. The present study investigated the cortical sources of the LPP associated with the intention to conceal. Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis was applied on previously published concealment-related LPP data (Matsuda, Nittono, and Ogawa, 2013, N=30). The cortical sources of the LPP were estimated in the right middle frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus, which fits well with the findings of fMRI studies. Previous research suggests that activities in the middle frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus are associated with cognitive control and that greater relative right than left frontal activities are associated with withdrawal motivation. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that the LPP may reflect cognitive control with withdrawal motivation that is recruited by the participants' goal of concealing their recognition and avoiding disclosure. A positive potential at occipital sites can be a sign of the activation in the prefrontal cortex.

  14. Productive and Inclusive? How Documentation Concealed Racialising Practices in a Diversity Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how documentation concealed racialising practices in a diversity project that was seen to be productive and inclusive. Documentation examples are taken from a doctoral study about embedding Indigenous perspectives in early childhood education curricula in two Australian urban childcare centres. In place of reporting examples…

  15. Novel, ERP-based, concealed information detection: Combining recognition-based and feedback-evoked ERPs.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Lin, Xiaohong; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Sang, Biao; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2016-02-01

    The present study introduced a novel variant of the concealed information test (CIT), called the feedback-CIT. By providing participants with feedbacks regarding their memory concealment performance during the CIT, we investigated the feedback-related neural activity underlying memory concealment. Participants acquired crime-relevant memories via enacting a lab crime, and were tested with the feedback-CIT while EEGs were recorded. We found that probes (e.g., crime-relevant memories) elicited larger recognition-P300s than irrelevants among guilty participants. Moreover, feedback-related negativity (FRN) and feedback-P300 could also discriminate probes from irrelevants among guilty participants. Both recognition- and feedback-ERPs were highly effective in distinguishing between guilty and innocent participants (recognition-P300: AUC=.73; FRN: AUC=.95; feedback-P300: AUC=.97). This study sheds new light on brain-based memory detection, such that feedback-related neural signals can be employed to detect concealed memories.

  16. Orienting versus inhibition in the Concealed Information Test: Different cognitive processes drive different physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Selle, Nathalie Klein; Verschuere, Bruno; Kindt, Merel; Meijer, Ewout; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2016-04-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) provides a valid tool for psychophysiological detection of concealed knowledge. However, its precise theoretical underpinnings remain a matter of debate. The differential physiological responses elicited by concealed, relevant items, relative to control items, were traditionally explained as reflecting an orienting response (OR). According to an alternative account, these responses reflect attempts to inhibit arousal. The present study examined whether and to what extent CIT detection efficiency is affected by instructions aimed at manipulating arousal inhibition (AI). One hundred and forty-eight undergraduate students completed a CIT, while electrodermal, cardiac, and respiratory measures were recorded. Half of the participants were requested to imagine that they are suspected of committing a crime and were motivated to avoid detection (presumably eliciting both OR and AI), while the other half were requested to imagine that they are witnesses of a crime and were motivated to be detected (presumably eliciting OR only). All participants were further requested to remain silent throughout the test. In both conditions, concealed items led to a similar increase in skin conductance as compared to the control items. However, the typically observed heart rate deceleration and respiratory suppression were found in suspects, but not in witnesses. These data imply that different mechanisms drive the responding of different psychophysiological measures used in the CIT, with skin conductance reflecting OR, and heart rate and respiration primarily reflecting AI. PMID:26615984

  17. A neighbourhood analysis based technique for real-time error concealment in H.264 intra pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beesley, Steven T. C.; Grecos, Christos; Edirisinghe, Eran

    2007-02-01

    H.264s extensive use of context-based adaptive binary arithmetic or variable length coding makes streams highly susceptible to channel errors, a common occurrence over networks such as those used by mobile devices. Even a single bit error will cause a decoder to discard all stream data up to the next fixed length resynchronisation point, the worst scenario is that an entire slice is lost. In cases where retransmission and forward error concealment are not possible, a decoder should conceal any erroneous data in order to minimise the impact on the viewer. Stream errors can often be spotted early in the decode cycle of a macroblock which if aborted can provide unused processor cycles, these can instead be used to conceal errors at minimal cost, even as part of a real time system. This paper demonstrates a technique that utilises Sobel convolution kernels to quickly analyse the neighbourhood surrounding erroneous macroblocks before performing a weighted multi-directional interpolation. This generates significantly improved statistical (PSNR) and visual (IEEE structural similarity) results when compared to the commonly used weighted pixel value averaging. Furthermore it is also computationally scalable, both during analysis and concealment, achieving maximum performance from the spare processing power available.

  18. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  19. The Psychological Implications of Concealing a Stigma: A Cognitive-Affective-Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pachankis, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Many assume that individuals with a hidden stigma escape the difficulties faced by individuals with a visible stigma. However, recent research has shown that individuals with a concealable stigma also face considerable stressors and psychological challenges. The ambiguity of social situations combined with the threat of potential discovery makes…

  20. University Presidents' Perceptions and Practice Regarding the Carrying of Concealed Handguns on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dake, Joseph; Payton, Erica; Teeple, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions and practices of a national sample of college and university presidents regarding their support for concealed handguns being carried on college campuses. Participants: The sample for this study consisted of a national random sample of 900 college or university presidents. Methods: In the spring of 2013, a…

  1. Detecting concealed information using feedback related event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Sai, Liyang; Lin, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2014-10-01

    Employing an event-related potential (ERP)-based concealed information test (CIT), the present study investigated (1) the neurocognitive processes when people received feedbacks regarding their deceptive/truthful responses and (2) whether such feedback-related ERP activities can be used to detect concealed information above and beyond the recognition-related P300. During the CIT, participants were presented with rare, meaningful probes (their own names) embedded within a series of frequent yet meaningless irrelevants (others' names). Participants were instructed to deny their recognition of the probes. Critically, following participants' responses, they were provided with feedbacks regarding whether they succeeded or failed in the CIT. Replicating previous ERP-based CITs, we found a larger P300 elicited by probe compared to irrelevant. Regarding feedback-related ERPs, a temporospatial Principle Component Analyses found two ERP components that were not only sensitive to feedback manipulations but also can discriminate probe from irrelevant: an earlier, central-distributed positivity that was elicited by "success" feedbacks peaked around 219ms; and a later, right central-distributed positivity that was also elicited by "success" feedbacks, peaked around 400ms. Importantly, the feedback ERPs were not correlated with P300 that was elicited by probe/irrelevant, suggesting that these two ERPs reflect independent processes underlying memory concealment. These findings illustrate the feasibility and promise of using feedback-related ERPs to detect concealed memory and thus deception. PMID:25058495

  2. The Cost of Question Concealment: Eye-Tracking and MEG Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jesse; Pylkkanen, Liina; McElree, Brian; Frisson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Although natural language appears to be largely compositional, the meanings of certain expressions cannot be straightforwardly recovered from the meanings of their parts. This study examined the online processing of one such class of expressions: "concealed questions", in which the meaning of a complex noun phrase ("the proof of the theorem")…

  3. The cost of question concealment: eye-tracking and MEG evidence.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jesse; Pylkkänen, Liina; McElree, Brian; Frisson, Steven

    2008-10-01

    Although natural language appears to be largely compositional, the meanings of certain expressions cannot be straightforwardly recovered from the meanings of their parts. This study examined the online processing of one such class of expressions: concealed questions, in which the meaning of a complex noun phrase (the proof of the theorem) shifts to a covert question (what the proof of the theorem is) when mandated by a sub-class of question-selecting verbs (e.g., guess). Previous behavioral and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) studies have reported a cost associated with converting an entity denotation to an event. Our study tested whether both types of meaning-shift affect the same computational resources by examining the effects elicited by concealed questions in eye-tracking and MEG. Experiment 1 found evidence from eye-movements that verbs requiring the concealed question interpretation require more processing time than verbs that do not support a shift in meaning. Experiment 2 localized the cost of the concealed question interpretation in the left posterior temporal region, an area distinct from that affected by complement coercion. Experiment 3 presented the critical verbs in isolation and found no posterior temporal effect, confirming that the effect of Experiment 2 reflected sentential, and not lexical-level, processing.

  4. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  5. Fear Perceptions in Public Parks: Interactions of Environmental Concealment, the Presence of People Recreating, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Lisa J.; Ellis, Gary D.; Ruddell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the effect of concealment (environmental cues), presence or absence of people recreating (social cues), and gender on individuals' fear of crime in a community park setting. Using a 7-point single-item indicator, 732 participants from two samples (540 park visitors and 192 college students) rated their estimates of fear…

  6. Systemic and cavernous plasma levels of endothelin 1 in healthy males during different functional conditions of the penis.

    PubMed

    Becker, A J; Uckert, S; Stief, C G; Truss, M C; Hartman, U; Sohn, M; Jonas, U

    2000-06-01

    The role of the sympathetic adrenergic nerves in mediating the constant tone of penile flaccidity and returning the erect penis to its flaccid state is fairly well established. However, it is not yet known whether additional nonadrenergic transmitters might be involved in this process. Endothelin 1 (ET-1), a 21-amino-acid peptide with potent and long-lasting vasoconstrictor activity, may be one of the factors contributing to such control. The present study was undertaken to determine whether plasma levels of ET-1 changed during flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity, and detumescence. We determined plasma levels of ET-1 in the peripheral and cavernosal blood of 32 potent adult male volunteers, in whom penile tumescence and erection were elicited by exposure to visual and tactile erotic stimuli. Whole blood was aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein, and ET-1 was quantified in plasma aliquots obtained from the blood samples. Using the organ bath technique, we evaluated the contractile effects of ET-1 and norepinephrine (NE) on isolated human corpus cavernosum musculature. No significant change in ET-1 levels was observed in the peripheral or cavernosal blood in the process of developing erection, rigidity, or detumescence. The mean plasma level of ET-1 was 0.2-0.7 fmol/ml. In the organ bath, ET-1 elicited concentration-dependent contractions of isolated human corpus cavernosum, which were much more pronounced than those evoked by the adrenergic agonist NE. Our data indicate that despite the in vitro efficacy of ET-1 in stimulating contractile activity in isolated human cavernous smooth muscle, the peptide may not be of ultimate importance for the mechanism of flaccidity and detumescence in healthy males. Nevertheless, the exact role of ETs in the control of penile smooth muscle tone remains to be established. PMID:10926088

  7. Electrophysiology of the afferent innervation of the penis of the domestic ram.

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, D F; Iggo, A; Kitchell, R L

    1978-01-01

    1. The discharge of impulses in afferent fibres dissected from the dorsal nerve of the penis of chloralose-anaesthetized rams was recorded electrophysiologically during controlled natural stimulation of the surgically exposed penis maintained at body temperature and mechanically stabilized in a plaster of Paris mould. 2. Fifty-eight slowly adapting mechanorecptor units were examined and their pressure, velocity and displacement thresholds were determined. Units often responded best to integumental stretch. Few had resting discharges. During a sustained perpendicularly applied displacement most units adapted to silence within 1.5 min. The units were classified into types from an analysis of their adapted impulse trains in response to a sustained mechanical stimulus. 3. Twenty-five mechanoreceptive units had rapidly adapting responses. Most units had typical rapid adapting characteristics and discharged impulses only during the dynamic phase of the application of the displacement. A subgroup had intermediate adapting characteristics, and discharged intermittently during steady displacement of the integument. 4. The mechanical sensitivity of most receptors altered when the temperature of the receptive field was changed with a positive correlation in eleven units, a negative correlation in six. Six slowly adapting units were thermally insensitive. Twelve rapidly adapting units were tested. Six had a positive thermal correlation and four a negative correlation. 5. The conduction velocities of axons of mechanoreceptor units in the dorsal nerve of the penis were in the Aalpha range (12--77 msec-1). 6. Two specific warm and five specific cold units were found. The conduction velocities of the axons supplying warm receptors were 45.4 msec-1 (one unit) and those for cold receptors were 7.5, 7.8, 30, 45.5, 48.7 msec-1. 7. No correlation could be found between the receptor submodality and the profuse receptor end bulb population demonstrated histologically. PMID:722579

  8. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler.

    PubMed

    Moon, Du Geon; Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-08-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  9. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-01-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  10. Differentiation of mesenchymal tissues during phallic morphogenesis with emphasis on the os penis: roles of androgens and other regulatory agents.

    PubMed

    Williams-Ashman, H G; Reddi, A H

    1991-12-01

    This article reviews various aspects of differentiation and growth of phallic mesodermal tissues with special reference to the os penis. In many species of certain mammalian orders the penile interior contains an os penis or baculum with bona fide bone. Mechanisms of phenotypic sex differentiation and the androgenic regulation of morphogenesis of genitourinary tracts of both sexes are first overviewed. Thereafter the various mesodermal tissues in fully developed penes and clitorides are discussed. The developmental fate of mesenchymal cells in the fetal genital tubercles is then considered in detail, including considerations of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. The review concludes with a discussion of the possible roles of certain polypeptide growth factors acting in concert with androgenic steroids. Special emphasis is placed on the potential role of bone morphogenetic proteins in formation of the os penis in a restricted number of eutherian mammalian taxa. PMID:1751388

  11. A new surgical procedure for phallic reconstruction in partial penis necrosis: penile elongation in combination with glanuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kaiyan; Cheng, Kaixiang; Song, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The radial forearm flap transfer has proved to be the standard technique in penile reconstruction. However, this operation still leads to a residual scar on the forearm. In the reconstruction of partial penis necrosis, achieving a desirable appearance and functional recovery while minimizing donor-site damage remains an unsolved problem. In this study, we report our experience using penile elongation combined with glanuloplasty to rebuild the partially necrotic penis.A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 33 patients with partial penis necrosis after microwave thermotherapy (not from our hospital) from December 2008 to May 2012 was conducted at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital. These patients, with an age range from 20 to 36 years, first underwent a scrotal skin flap transfer to cover residual cavernosum. The penis was simultaneously elongated at the proximal end. Six months later, all patients received glanuloplasty using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene that was implanted at the distal end of transferred scrotal skin flap to create the neoglans.Anthropometric measurements of preoperative and postoperative penile length were performed with an average follow-up period of 28 months. The mean extended penile length average was 2.57 cm, ranging from 3.16 to 5.73 cm. Patients' satisfaction rate was 88%. In addition, preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed for objective and subjective assessment of outcome parameters such as appearance of neophallus, urination, and erogenous sensation. Most importantly, the rebuilt penis postoperatively showed almost normal shape and restoration of basic physiologic function in most of the patients, with an acceptable complication rate. These preliminary results may provide a useful strategy for the reconstruction of a partially necrotic penis using a novel, simple, and effective approach.

  12. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed. PMID:25904879

  13. Identifying the location of a concealed object through unintentional eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Israeli, Navot

    2015-01-01

    In some investigative and interrogative contexts, the investigator is seeking to identify the location of an object (e.g., implanted bomb) which is known to a given subject (e.g., a terrorist). In this paper, we present a non-intrusive methodology for uncovering the loci of a concealed object by analyzing the subject's eye movements. Using a combination of eye tracking, psychological manipulation and a search algorithm, we have performed two experiments. In the first experiment, we have gained 58% hit rate in identifying the location of the concealed object and in the second experiment 56% hit rate. The pros and cons of the methodology for forensic investigation are discussed. PMID:25904879

  14. Detection of concealed information by P3 and frontal EEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Allen, John J B

    2013-03-14

    Psychophysiological detection of deception has seen increased attention in both research and applied settings. In this field, the most scientifically validated paradigm is the Concealed Information Test (CIT). The CIT does not directly deal with whether a participant is lying, but examines whether a participant recognizes a critical relevant detail, inferred by differences in physiological responses between critical and non-critical items. Although event-related potential (ERP) approaches to the CIT have shown high accuracy, a combination of measures might improve the test's performance. We thus assessed whether a new CIT index, frontal EEG asymmetry that is supposed to reflect differences in approach/withdrawal motivation, would prove useful. Nineteen participants were asked to steal one item in a mock crime, and were then administered two CITs while concealing the stolen item. One CIT included the stolen item (i.e., guilty condition), whereas the other CIT did not (i.e., innocent condition). In the guilty condition, the concealed stolen item elicited greater relative left frontal alpha activity (indicative of relative right frontal cortical activity) as compared to the other items, suggesting that the recognition of the concealed item might have induced withdrawal motivation. Although the discrimination between guilty and innocent conditions by the asymmetry score alone was not as good as that by the ERP P3 index, combining the asymmetry score and P3 improved the detection performance significantly. The results suggest that the frontal EEG asymmetry can be used as a new measure in the CIT that provides additional information beyond that captured by the traditional ERP index.

  15. Detection of Concealed Liquid Explosives and Illicit Drugs in Unopened Bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sankaran; Prado, Pablo J.

    This article discusses the use of Magnetic Resonance relaxometry as a non-invasive method to detect concealed liquid explosives and drugs in unopened containers. The safe, non-ionizing detection is based on sensing liquid alteration without opening its container. The technique has proven to be effective with non-metallic bottles, independently of their shape and size. Other spectroscopic and bulk methods to identify illicit liquid substances as well as the potential of combining screening technologies are presented.

  16. The Neuropeptide APGWamide as a Penis Morphogenic Factor (PMF) in Gastropod Mollusks.

    PubMed

    Oberdörster, Eva; Romano, Jocelyn; McClellan-Green, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to further investigate the role of endogenous APGWamide levels in imposex induction in snails. APGWamide is a common neurotransmittor/neuromodulator peptide found in many species of molluscs, and is often related to sex organ growth or reproductive behavior. Mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta) were collected from the Rachel Carson Estuarine Reserve near Beaufort, NC, and were dosed with the environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT), testosterone (T), or solvent vehicle (EtOH/ saline) controls. Both TBT and T have been shown previously to induce female snails to grow penises (a condition termed imposex), and to increase male penis size. Male normalized penis length was correlated to endogenous APGWamide levels (as measured by Western blotting of whole animal homogenates, r(2) = 0.475), and control males had significantly higher APGWamide levels than control females. All TBT-treated animals, (male, female, and imposex) had levels of APGWamide similar to control males and significantly higher than control females. In testosterone treated animals, APGWamide levels were the same as controls and it is likely that testosterone interferes with a downstream signaling event to induce imposex. In addition, immunohistochemistry for APGWamide expression in abdominal areas was done on female, male and imposex snails collected from the wild. The pattern of APGWamide in imposex snails was similar to male snails, showing large patches of immuno-reactive areas in the top portion of the visceral mass. In female snails, no areas of cross-reactivity were found.

  17. Quantitative analysis of development and aging of genital corpuscles in glans penis of the rat.

    PubMed

    Shiino, Mizuho; Hoshi, Hideo; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Ishikawa, Youichi; Takayanagi, Masaaki; Murakami, Kunio; Kishi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Fumi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present postnatal developmental study was to determine densities of unique genital corpuscles (GCs) in glans penis of developing and aged rats. GCs were identified as corpuscular endings consisting of highly branched and coiled axons with many varicosities, which were immunoreactive for protein gene product 9.5. In addition, GCs were immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, but not for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y. GCs were not found in the glans penis of 1 week old rats. Densities of GCs were low at 3 weeks, significantly increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak of density at 40 weeks, and tended to decrease at 70 and 100 weeks. Sizes of GCs were small in 3 weeks old rats, increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak-size at 40 weeks and reduced in size at 70 and 100 weeks. Considering sexual maturation of the rat, the results reveal that GCs of the rat begins to develop postnatal and reaches to the peak of their development after puberty and continues to exist until old age, in contrast to prenatal and early postnatal development of other sensory receptors of glabrous skin.

  18. Concealed neuroanatomy in Michelangelo's Separation of Light From Darkness in the Sistine Chapel.

    PubMed

    Suk, Ian; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-05-01

    Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) was a master anatomist as well as an artistic genius. He dissected cadavers numerous times and developed a profound understanding of human anatomy. From 1508 to 1512, Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. His Sistine Chapel frescoes are considered one of the monumental achievements of Renaissance art. In the winter of 1511, Michelangelo entered the final stages of the Sistine Chapel project and painted 4 frescoes along the longitudinal apex of the vault, which completed a series of 9 central panels depicting scenes from the Book of Genesis. It is reported that Michelangelo concealed an image of the brain in the first of these last 4 panels, namely, the Creation of Adam. Here we present evidence that he concealed another neuronanatomic structure in the final panel of this series, the Separation of Light From Darkness, specifically a ventral view of the brainstem. The Separation of Light From Darkness is an important panel in the Sistine Chapel iconography because it depicts the beginning of Creation and is located directly above the altar. We propose that Michelangelo, a deeply religious man and an accomplished anatomist, intended to enhance the meaning of this iconographically critical panel and possibly document his anatomic accomplishments by concealing this sophisticated neuroanatomic rendering within the image of God.

  19. Preventing shoulder-surfing attack with the concept of concealing the password objects' information.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin; Chong, Yu Nam; Por, Lip Yee

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to "shoulder-surfing" attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.

  20. Video inpainting with short-term windows: application to object removal and error concealment.

    PubMed

    Ebdelli, Mounira; Le Meur, Olivier; Guillemot, Christine

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new video inpainting method which applies to both static or free-moving camera videos. The method can be used for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction applications. To limit the computational time, a frame is inpainted by considering a small number of neighboring pictures which are grouped into a group of pictures (GoP). More specifically, to inpaint a frame, the method starts by aligning all the frames of the GoP. This is achieved by a region-based homography computation method which allows us to strengthen the spatial consistency of aligned frames. Then, from the stack of aligned frames, an energy function based on both spatial and temporal coherency terms is globally minimized. This energy function is efficient enough to provide high quality results even when the number of pictures in the GoP is rather small, e.g. 20 neighboring frames. This drastically reduces the algorithm complexity and makes the approach well suited for near real-time video editing applications as well as for loss concealment applications. Experiments with several challenging video sequences show that the proposed method provides visually pleasing results for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction context.

  1. Concealment of psychopathology in forensic evaluations: a pilot study of intentional and uninsightful dissimulators.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Keith A; Benedek, David M; Auble, Pamela M; Bernet, William

    2003-01-01

    Dissimulation is the concealment of genuine psychiatric symptoms in an attempt to present a picture of psychiatric health. In this pilot study, the authors set out to demonstrate that defendants may conceal psychiatric illness even in forensic settings, contrary to their apparent self-interest. They reviewed their records for forensic assessments of dissimulators and malingerers and classified dissimulators as "intentional" or "uninsightful" depending on whether their concealment of symptoms appeared to be a volitional act or driven by a lack of insight. Although there were obvious diagnostic differences, the only other significant difference between malingerers and dissimulators was that malingerers were more likely to be facing charges related to financial crimes. Uninsightful dissimulators were significantly older than were intentional dissimulators. Uninsightful dissimulators were also more likely to be psychotic, particularly delusional and schizophrenic, than were intentional dissimulators. While forensic psychiatrists are vigilant in attempts to detect malingering, these data suggest that they should be equally vigilant regarding the possibility of dissimulation. Although further study is indicated, it appears that dissimulators are a heterogeneous group.

  2. Stepped-frequency CW radar for concealed weapon detection and through-the-wall surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas

    2002-08-01

    Both concealed weapons detection and through the wall surveillance are significant problems for both law enforcement and military personnel. While on the surface it would appear that these two problems are unrelated technologically, they do, in fact, share some common ground. A concealed weapon acts as resonant object, exhibiting electromagnetic resonance peaks at frequencies characteristic of the weapon's major dimensions. For handguns the frequency range of interest lies approximately between 450 MHz and 2 GHz. As it turns out, this is also a region over which many common building materials are largely transparent. As part of grant 97-IJ-CX-K013 from the National Institute of Justice, AKELA, Inc. has developed a stepped-frequency, CW radar that covers this frequency range. The radar is digitally synthesized and controlled and has a range resolution of approximately 4'. Digital waveform control gives the radar the ability to avoid interference with other electronic devices, to tailor data collection for signal processing requirements, and to change its sweep time in response to operational requirements. AKELA has developed a brassboard concealed weapons detector that uses this radar. A through the wall imaging system that uses the radar is currently in development under AFRL Contract F30602-00-C-0205.

  3. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects' Information

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack. PMID:24991649

  4. Concealment of drugs by police detainees: lessons learned from adverse incidents and from 'routine' clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Havis, Siobhan; Best, David; Carter, Jane

    2005-10-01

    This is a collaborative piece of work undertaken between the PCA and a Principal FME. The study is based on 16 cases of internal drug concealment drawn from 43 drug-related deaths in custody in England and Wales between 1997 and 2002. These data are supplemented by three case studies from a county force involving non-fatal drug concealment to illustrate practical custody issues. The majority of the 16 deaths were white (n = 12) and male (n = 13) with a mean age of 34 years. In half of the cases, the deceased was known or believed to have concealed drugs orally at the point of initial contact with police. In 4/16 cases, the individual first showed signs of medical distress in a public place, a further 4 collapsed on arrival at the police station and two more detainees were subsequently found collapsed in their cell. Drug toxicity was the most common cause of death (10/16). In 5 cases death was caused by airway obstruction by swallowed packages. Both cocaine (14/16) and cannabis (8/16) traces were found in post-mortem samples. The report emphasises the need for a safety first approach.

  5. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally-Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men’s mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may adversely impact their mental health. This report examined the factors associated with disclosure and with concealment of sexual orientation, the association of disclosure and concealment with mental health, and the potential mediators (i.e., internalized homophobia, social support) of this association with mental health. Method An ethnically-diverse sample of 203 non-gay-identified, behaviorally-bisexual men who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to their female partners were recruited in New York City to complete a single set of self-report measures. Results Concealment was associated with higher income, a heterosexual identification, living with a wife or girlfriend, more frequent sex with women, and less frequent sex with men. Greater concealment, but not disclosure to friends and family, was significantly associated with lower levels of mental health. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that both internalized homophobia and general emotional support significantly mediated the association between concealment and mental health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that concealment and disclosure are independent constructs among bisexual men. Further, they suggest that interventions addressing concerns about concealment, emotional support, and internalized homophobia may be more beneficial for increasing the mental health of bisexual men than those focused on promoting disclosure. PMID:23276123

  6. Clothing adjustments for concealed soft body armor during moderate physical exertion.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has studied the impact of Level II concealed soft body armor (SBA) on the augmentation of heat storage in a hot environment simulating a typical summer day in the southeastern United States (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 30°C) and noted a significant difference between macro- and micro-WBGTs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microclimate (micro-WBGT) under a concealed Level II SBA during 60 min of moderately intense work at two separate macro-WBGTs (26°C and 30°C), and to establish WBGT corrections to allow prediction of heat strain in an individual wearing a concealed Level II SBA. A single trial was performed with nine volunteers (27 ± 4 years) outfitted with a simulated standard law enforcement uniform and a traditional concealed Level II SBA, in a moderately warm environment (WBGT = 26°C). Each participant performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 L · min(-1)) and 3 min of arm curls (14.3 kg, 0.6 L · min(-1)) with a 5 min rest after every other cycle, for a total of 60 minutes. This trial was compared to an identical previously completed 60-min work bout at 30°C. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Post hoc Bonferroni and paired samples t-test analysis was conducted. A greater difference between macro- micro-WBGTs existed at 26°C compared to the 30°C macro-WBGT. Under these conditions, a moderate work in Level II SBA requires a WBGT correction of 8.9°C and 6.2°C at macro-WBGTs of 26°C and 30°C, respectively. A modified simple linear regression prediction model was established for mean Micro-WBGT for each macro-WBGTs after the plateau point at the 30 min mark. The derivation regressions at 26°C (R(2) = 0.99), and 30°C (R(2) = 0.99) indicate that micro-WBGT could be predicted for each 15 minutes time at both macro-WBGTs tested for individuals doing moderate intensity (300 Kcals · hr(-1)) work wearing concealed Level II SBA. PMID:25437276

  7. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis.

  8. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis. PMID:26309015

  9. Doppler ultrasound study of penis in men with systemic sclerosis: a correlation with Doppler indices of renal and digital arteries.

    PubMed

    Rosato, E; Barbano, B; Gigante, A; Cianci, R; Molinaro, I; Quarta, S; Digiulio, M A; Messineo, D; Pisarri, S; Salsano, F

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence in male systemic sclerosis (SSc) is high and its pathogenesis is unclear. The aim of the study is to assess correlation between Doppler ultrasound indices of penis and kidneys or digital arteries in male systemic sclerosis. Fourteen men with systemic sclerosis were enrolled in this study. Erectile function was investigated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5. Peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index, pulsative index, and systolic/diastolic ratio were measured on the cavernous arteries at the peno-scrotal junction in the flaccid state, on the interlobar artery of both kidneys and all ten proper palmar digital arteries. Ten (71 percent) patients have an International Index of Erectile Function-5 less than 21. Reduction of penis peak systolic velocity was observed in all SSc subjects. Doppler indices of cavernous arteries correlate with the International Index of Erectile Function-5. The renal and digital arteries resistive index demonstrated a good correlation (p less than 0.0001) with International Index of Erectile Function-5. A positive correlation exists between penis and kidney arteries Doppler indices: end diastolic velocity (p less than 0.05, r=0.54), resistive index (p less than 0.0001, r=0.90), systolic/diastolic ratio (p less than 0.01, r=0.69). A positive correlation was observed between penis and digital arteries Doppler indices: peak systolic velocity (p less than 0.01, r=0.68), end diastolic velocity (p less than 0.01, r=0.75), resistive index (p less than 0.001, r=0.79), systolic/diastolic ratio (p less than 0.05, r=0.59). A correlation exists between arterial impairment of penis and renal or digital arteries.

  10. Penis pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... GA. Priapism. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ... transmitted diseases In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  11. Dislocation of the penis: a rare complication after traumatic pelvic injury.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mei Chin; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Teh, Hui Seong; Teh, Chang Peng Colin

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the male external genitalia is frequently encountered, but acute traumatic dislocation of the penile structure is extremely rare, with only a few reports found in the literature. We herein report the case of a 21-year-old man who sustained blunt trauma to the pelvis following a motor vehicle accident, and had features suspicious of penile dislocation. With the use of computed tomography and bedside ultrasonography, a diagnosis of penile dislocation was made, which was subsequently confirmed intraoperatively. Immediate surgical intervention via gentle manipulation of the penile tissue back to its native position was performed in order to restore normal anatomy. The exact mechanism of penile dislocation is not known. However, circumferential laceration around the foreskin causing degloving injury of the penis is suggested in our patient.

  12. [Insufficiency of penis development (micropenis). Etiological data in a series of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Vanelli, M; Chaussain, J L; Vassal, J; Job, J C

    1979-05-01

    The diagnosis of micropenis was made in 25 boys aged 1 month to 16 years. This abnormality was associated with hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency in 12 boys (hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, hypopituitary growth failure, Prader-Willi syndrome), with testicular disorders in 5 boys (anorchia, testicular dysgenesis). In the other 8 the micropenis was an isolated finding but the testicular response to HCG and the LH response to LHRH was significantly reduced (p less than 0.005). The results suggest there may be isolated gonadotrophia deficiency. The variety of conditions that are responsible for micropenis suggest that testosterone deficiency is an important causative factor. HGH may also be important as the penis may be small in HGH deficiency and growth occurs with treatment.

  13. Stage Presentation, Care Patterns, and Treatment Outcomes for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, Lindsay M.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Tward, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity, with few published series on outcomes. We evaluated the stage distributions and outcomes for surgery and radiation therapy in a U.S. population database. Methods and Materials: Subjects with SCC of the penis were identified using the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program database between 1988 and 2006. Descriptive statistics were performed, and cause-specific survival (CSS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons of treatment modalities were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Subjects were staged using American Joint Committee on Cancer, sixth edition, criteria. Results: There were 2458 subjects identified. The median age was 66.8 years (range, 17-102 years). Grade 2 disease was present in 94.5% of cases. T1, T2, T3, T4, and Tx disease was present in 64.8%, 17.1%, 9.5%, 2.1%, and 6.5% of cases, respectively. N0, N1, N2, N3, and Nx disease was noted in 61.6%, 6.9%, 4.0%, 3.7%, and 23.8% of cases, respectively. M1 disease was noted in 2.5% of subjects. Individuals of white ethnicity accounted for 85.1% of cases. Lymphadenectomy was performed in 16.7% of cases. The CSS for all patients at 5 and 10 years was 80.8% and 78.6%. By multivariable analysis grades 2 and 3 disease, T3 stage, and positive lymph nodes were adverse prognostic factors for CSS. Conclusion: SCC of the penis often presents as early-stage T1, N0, M0, grade 1, or grade 2 disease. The majority of patients identified were treated with surgery, and only a small fraction of patients received radiation therapy alone or as adjuvant therapy.

  14. Examining Effects of Anticipated Stigma, Centrality, Salience, Internalization, and Outness on Psychological Distress for People with Concealable Stigmatized Identities

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Quintana, Francisco; Gaskins, Jennifer L.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Pishori, Alefiyah; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Perez, Giselle; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI). We targeted 5 specific CSIs – mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse – that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma), the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality), the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience), the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma), and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety). In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault). Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress. PMID:24817189

  15. Electromagnetic induction imaging of concealed metallic objects by means of resonating circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilizzoni, R.; Watson, J. C.; Bartlett, P. A.; Renzoni, F.

    2016-05-01

    An electromagnetic induction system, suitable for 2D imaging of metallic samples of different electrical conductivities, has been developed. The system is based on a parallel LCR circuit comprising a ferrite-cored coil (7.8 mm x 9.5 mm, L=680 μH at 1 KHz), a variable resistor and capacitor. The working principle of the system is based on eddy current induction inside a metallic sample when this is introduced into the AC magnetic field created by the coil. The inductance of the LCR circuit is modified due to the presence of the sample, to an extent that depends on its conductivity. Such modification is known to increase when the system is operated at its resonant frequency. Characterizing different metals based on their values of conductivity is therefore possible by utilizing a suitable system operated at resonance. Both imaging and material characterization were demonstrated by means of the proposed electromagnetic induction technique. Furthermore, the choice of using a system with an adjustable resonant frequency made it possible to select resonances that allow magnetic-field penetration through conductive screens. Investigations on the possibility of imaging concealed metals by penetrating such shields have been carried out. A penetration depth of δ~3 mm through aluminium (Al) was achieved. This allowed concealed metallic samples- having conductivities ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm-1 and hidden behind 1.5-mm-thick Al shields- to be imaged. Our results demonstrate that the presence of the concealed metallic objects can be revealed. The technique was thus shown to be a promising detection tool for security applications.

  16. Ultra-wide-band 3D microwave imaging scanner for the detection of concealed weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Andrews, David A.; Bowring, Nicholas J.

    2015-10-01

    The threat of concealed weapons, explosives and contraband in footwear, bags and suitcases has led to the development of new devices, which can be deployed for security screening. To address known deficiencies of metal detectors and x-rays, an UWB 3D microwave imaging scanning apparatus using FMCW stepped frequency working in the K and Q bands and with a planar scanning geometry based on an x y stage, has been developed to screen suspicious luggage and footwear. To obtain microwave images of the concealed weapons, the targets are placed above the platform and the single transceiver horn antenna attached to the x y stage is moved mechanically to perform a raster scan to create a 2D synthetic aperture array. The S11 reflection signal of the transmitted sweep frequency from the target is acquired by a VNA in synchronism with each position step. To enhance and filter from clutter and noise the raw data and to obtain the 2D and 3D microwave images of the concealed weapons or explosives, data processing techniques are applied to the acquired signals. These techniques include background subtraction, Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT), thresholding, filtering by gating and windowing and deconvolving with the transfer function of the system using a reference target. To focus the 3D reconstructed microwave image of the target in range and across the x y aperture without using focusing elements, 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques are applied to the post-processed data. The K and Q bands, between 15 to 40 GHz, show good transmission through clothing and dielectric materials found in luggage and footwear. A description of the system, algorithms and some results with replica guns and a comparison of microwave images obtained by IFFT, 2D and 3D SAR techniques are presented.

  17. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  18. Face and Voice as Social Stimuli Enhance Differential Physiological Responding in a Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Assmann, Birthe; Krieg, Bennet; Vaitl, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Attentional, intentional, and motivational factors are known to influence the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT). Although concealing information is essentially a social action closely related to motivation, CIT studies typically rely on testing participants in an environment lacking of social stimuli: subjects interact with a computer while sitting alone in an experimental room. To address this gap, we examined the influence of social stimuli on the physiological responses in a CIT. Seventy-one participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a between-subjects design, subjects were either questioned acoustically by a pre-recorded male voice presented together with a virtual male experimenter’s uniform face or by a text field on the screen, which displayed the question devoid of face and voice. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration line length (RLL), phasic heart rate (pHR), and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL) were registered. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory – Revised (PPI-R) was administered in addition. The differential responses of RLL, pHR, and FPWL to probe vs. irrelevant items were greater in the condition with social stimuli than in the text condition; interestingly, the differential responses of EDA did not differ between conditions. No modulatory influence of the PPI-R sum or subscale scores was found. The results emphasize the relevance of social aspects in the process of concealing information and in its detection. Attentional demands as well as the participants’ motivation to avoid detection might be the important links between social stimuli and physiological responses in the CIT. PMID:23293613

  19. TDCS Guided using fMRI Significantly Accelerates Learning to Identify Concealed Objects

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Vincent P.; Coffman, Brian A.; Mayer, Andy R.; Weisend, Michael P.; Lane, Terran D.R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Raybourn, Elaine M.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Wassermann, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    The accurate identification of obscured and concealed objects in complex environments was an important skill required for survival during human evolution, and is required today for many forms of expertise. Here we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) guided using neuroimaging to increase learning rate in a novel, minimally guided discovery-learning paradigm. Ninety-six subjects identified threat-related objects concealed in naturalistic virtual surroundings used in real-world training. A variety of brain networks were found using fMRI data collected at different stages of learning, with two of these networks focused in right inferior frontal and right parietal cortex. Anodal 2.0 mA tDCS performed for 30 minutes over these regions in a series of single-blind, randomized studies resulted in significant improvements in learning and performance compared with 0.1 mA tDCS. This difference in performance increased to a factor of two after a one-hour delay. A dose-response effect of current strength on learning was also found. Taken together, these brain imaging and stimulation studies suggest that right frontal and parietal cortex are involved in learning to identify concealed objects in naturalistic surroundings. Furthermore, they suggest that the application of anodal tDCS over these regions can greatly increase learning, resulting in one of the largest effects on learning yet reported. The methods developed here may be useful to decrease the time required to attain expertise in a variety of settings. PMID:21094258

  20. Exploiting synthetic aperture radar imagery for retrieving vibration signatures of concealed machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco; Campbell, Justin B.; Jaramillo, Monica; Dunkel, Ralf; Atwood, Thomas; Doerry, Armin; Gerstle, Walter H.; Santhanam, Balu; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the instantaneous acceleration associated with vibrating objects that are directly imaged by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be estimated through the application of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) using the information contained in the complex SAR image. In general, vibration signatures may include, for example, the number of chirped sinusoids as well as their respective base frequencies and chirp rates. By further processing the DFrFT-processed data for clutter-noise rejection by means of pseudo- subspace methods, has been shown that the SAR-vibrometry method can be reliable as long as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of the slow-time SAR signal at the range-line of interest exceeds 15dB. Meanwhile, the Nyquist theorem dictates that the maximum measurable vibration frequency is limited by half of the pulse-repetition frequency. This paper focuses on the detection and estimation of vibrations generated by machinery concealed within buildings and other structures. This is a challenging task in general because the vibration signatures of the source are typically altered by their housing structure; moreover, the SNR at the surface of the housing structure tends to be reduced. Here, experimental results for three different vibrating targets, including one concealed target, are reported using complex SAR images acquired by the General Atomics Lynx radar at resolutions of 1-ft and 4-in. The concealed vibrating target is actuated by a gear motor with an off-balance weight attached to it, which is enclosed by a wooden housing. The vibrations of the motor are transmitted to a chimney that extends above the housing structure. Using the SAR vibrometry approach, it is shown that it is possible to distinguish among the three vibrating objects based upon their vibration signatures.

  1. Millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed threats: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Michael C.

    2006-09-01

    There has been intense interest in the use of millimetre wave and terahertz technology for the detection of concealed weapons, explosives and other threats. Electromagnetic waves at these frequencies are safe, penetrate barriers and have short enough wavelengths to allow discrimination between objects. In addition, many solids including explosives have characteristic spectroscopic signatures at terahertz wavelengths which can be used to identify them. This paper reviews the progress which has been made in recent years and identifies the achievements, challenges and prospects for these technologies in checkpoint people screening, stand off detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and suicide bombers as well as more specialized screening tasks.

  2. Standoff concealed weapon detection using a 350 GHz radar imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2010-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a 350 GHz, active, wideband, three-dimensional, radar imaging system to evaluate the feasibility of active sub-mm imaging for standoff concealed weapon detection. The prototype radar imaging system is based on a wideband, heterodyne, frequency-multiplier-based transceiver system coupled to a quasi-optical focusing system and high-speed rotating conical scanner. The wideband operation of this system provides accurate ranging information, and the images obtained are fully three-dimensional. Recent improvements to the system include increased imaging speed using improved balancing techniques, wider bandwidth, and image display techniques.

  3. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain.

  4. Concealed long QT syndrome and intractable partial epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jason H; Bos, Johan Martijn; Meyer, Fredric B; Cascino, Gregory D; Ackerman, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Herein, we describe a patient with concealed type 2 long QT syndrome with concomitant electroencephalogram-documented epilepsy. Although syncope in patients with long QT syndrome is common and often secondary to cerebral hypoxia after a protracted ventricular arrhythmia, this article demonstrates the importance of avoiding "tunnel vision" as patients with long QT syndrome could also have a primary seizure disorder. Identification of the etiology underlying seizurelike activity is paramount in instituting effective therapy. Furthermore, we theorize that abnormal KCHN2-encoded potassium channel repolarization in the brain could result in epilepsy and arrhythmias in long QT syndrome. PMID:23058853

  5. The identification, localization, and pharmacology of FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB in the penis and crop of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Krajniak, K G; Greenberg, M J; Price, D A; Doble, K E; Lee, T D

    1989-01-01

    1. The molluscan neuropeptides FMRFamide, pQDPFLRFamide, and SCPB were tested on the isolated crop and penis of the terrestraial slug, Limax maximus. FMRFamide and pQDPFLRFamide stimulated the penis and inhibited contractions of the crop. In contrast, SCPB either stimulated or relaxed the penis and increased the tone of the crop. 2. Fibers and varicosities containing immunoreactive (ir-) FMRFamide and ir-SCPB were located in the penis and crop. 3. Extracts of penes, crops, ganglia, and whole animals all contained FMRFamide, FLRFamide, SDPFLRFamide, NDPFLRFamide, and pQDPFLRFamide. 4. These results suggest that the FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB are involved in the regulation of the reproductive and digestive activities of Limax. PMID:2576783

  6. The identification, localization, and pharmacology of FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB in the penis and crop of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Krajniak, K G; Greenberg, M J; Price, D A; Doble, K E; Lee, T D

    1989-01-01

    1. The molluscan neuropeptides FMRFamide, pQDPFLRFamide, and SCPB were tested on the isolated crop and penis of the terrestraial slug, Limax maximus. FMRFamide and pQDPFLRFamide stimulated the penis and inhibited contractions of the crop. In contrast, SCPB either stimulated or relaxed the penis and increased the tone of the crop. 2. Fibers and varicosities containing immunoreactive (ir-) FMRFamide and ir-SCPB were located in the penis and crop. 3. Extracts of penes, crops, ganglia, and whole animals all contained FMRFamide, FLRFamide, SDPFLRFamide, NDPFLRFamide, and pQDPFLRFamide. 4. These results suggest that the FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB are involved in the regulation of the reproductive and digestive activities of Limax.

  7. Parasitism rate, parasitoid community composition and host specificity on exposed and semi-concealed caterpillars from a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hrcek, Jan; Miller, Scott E; Whitfield, James B; Shima, Hiroshi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    The processes maintaining the enormous diversity of herbivore-parasitoid food webs depend on parasitism rate and parasitoid host specificity. The two parameters have to be evaluated in concert to make conclusions about the importance of parasitoids as natural enemies and guide biological control. We document parasitism rate and host specificity in a highly diverse caterpillar-parasitoid food web encompassing 266 species of lepidopteran hosts and 172 species of hymenopteran or dipteran parasitoids from a lowland tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. We found that semi-concealed hosts (leaf rollers and leaf tiers) represented 84% of all caterpillars, suffered a higher parasitism rate than exposed caterpillars (12 vs. 5%) and their parasitoids were also more host specific. Semi-concealed hosts may therefore be generally more amenable to biological control by parasitoids than exposed ones. Parasitoid host specificity was highest in Braconidae, lower in Diptera: Tachinidae, and, unexpectedly, the lowest in Ichneumonidae. This result challenges the long-standing view of low host specificity in caterpillar-attacking Tachinidae and suggests higher suitability of Braconidae and lower suitability of Ichneumonidae for biological control of caterpillars. Semi-concealed hosts and their parasitoids are the largest, yet understudied component of caterpillar-parasitoid food webs. However, they still remain much closer in parasitism patterns to exposed hosts than to what literature reports on fully concealed leaf miners. Specifically, semi-concealed hosts keep an equally low share of idiobionts (2%) as exposed caterpillars.

  8. Parasitism rate, parasitoid community composition and host specificity on exposed and semi-concealed caterpillars from a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hrcek, Jan; Miller, Scott E; Whitfield, James B; Shima, Hiroshi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    The processes maintaining the enormous diversity of herbivore-parasitoid food webs depend on parasitism rate and parasitoid host specificity. The two parameters have to be evaluated in concert to make conclusions about the importance of parasitoids as natural enemies and guide biological control. We document parasitism rate and host specificity in a highly diverse caterpillar-parasitoid food web encompassing 266 species of lepidopteran hosts and 172 species of hymenopteran or dipteran parasitoids from a lowland tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. We found that semi-concealed hosts (leaf rollers and leaf tiers) represented 84% of all caterpillars, suffered a higher parasitism rate than exposed caterpillars (12 vs. 5%) and their parasitoids were also more host specific. Semi-concealed hosts may therefore be generally more amenable to biological control by parasitoids than exposed ones. Parasitoid host specificity was highest in Braconidae, lower in Diptera: Tachinidae, and, unexpectedly, the lowest in Ichneumonidae. This result challenges the long-standing view of low host specificity in caterpillar-attacking Tachinidae and suggests higher suitability of Braconidae and lower suitability of Ichneumonidae for biological control of caterpillars. Semi-concealed hosts and their parasitoids are the largest, yet understudied component of caterpillar-parasitoid food webs. However, they still remain much closer in parasitism patterns to exposed hosts than to what literature reports on fully concealed leaf miners. Specifically, semi-concealed hosts keep an equally low share of idiobionts (2%) as exposed caterpillars. PMID:23463243

  9. When Interference Helps: Increasing Executive Load to Facilitate Deception Detection in the Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Visu-Petra, George; Varga, Mihai; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem), and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift). The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift) was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants). The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior. PMID:23543918

  10. Concealed weapons detection with an improved passive millimeter-wave imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

    2004-08-01

    Trex Enterprises has developed a second-generation passive millimeter-wave imaging system for detection of concealed weapons and explosives at standoff ranges. Passive millimeter-wave sensors form an image from naturally emitted blackbody radiation in the millimeter-wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radiation at this wavelength passes through most types of clothing, allowing the user to acquire an image of any articles on a suspect"s person that differ significantly from the human body in their reflectivity or radiometric temperature at millimeter-wave wavelengths. Trex Enterprises previously demonstrated a first-generation concealed weapon detection system with the ability to detect handguns and knives under heavy clothing at a range of 27". The second-generation imager, while similar in concept, has an improved field-of-view and a much reduced size and weight. The imager is to be put through a battery of tests by both Trex Enterprises and the National Institute Of Justice to determine its ability to detect both metallic and non-metallic knives and handguns as well as various types of explosive devices. The tests will be conducted indoors and outdoors at various ranges.

  11. Combined Illumination Cylindrical Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technique for Concealed Weapon Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2000-04-01

    A novel millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed for personnel surveillance applications, including the detection of concealed weapons, explosives, drugs, and other contraband material. Millimeter-waves are high-frequency radio waves in the frequency band of 30-300 GHz, and pose no health threat to humans at moderate power levels. These waves readily penetrate common clothing materials, and are reflected by the human body and by concealed items. The combined illumination cylindrical imaging concept consists of a vertical, high-resolution, millimeter-wave array of antennas which is scanned in a cylindrical manner about the person under surveillance. Using a computer, the data from this scan is mathematically reconstructed into a series of focused 3-D images of the person. After reconstruction, the images are combined into a single high-resolution three-dimensional image of the person under surveillance. This combined image is then rendered using 3-D computer graphics techniques. The combined cylindrical illumination is critical as it allows the display of information from all angles. This is necessary because millimeter-waves do not penetrate the body. Ultimately, the images displayed to the operator will be icon-based to protect the privacy of the person being screened. Novel aspects of this technique include the cylindrical scanning concept and the image reconstruction algorithm, which was developed specifically for this imaging system. An engineering prototype based on this cylindrical imaging technique has been fabricated and tested. This work has been sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  12. Combined illumination cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2000-07-01

    A novel millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed for personnel surveillance applications, including the detection of concealed weapons, explosives, drugs, and other contraband material. Millimeter-waves are high-frequency radio waves in the frequency band of 30 - 300 GHz, and pose no health threat to humans at moderate power levels. These waves readily penetrate common clothing materials, and are reflected by the human body and by concealed items. The combined illumination cylindrical imaging concept consists of a vertical, high-resolution, millimeter-wave array of antennas which is scanned in a cylindrical manner about the person under surveillance. Using a computer, the data from this scan is mathematically reconstructed into a series of focused 3D images of the person. After reconstruction, the images are combined into a single high-resolution 3D image of the person under surveillance. This combined image is then rendered using 3D computer graphics techniques. The combined cylindrical illumination is critical as it allows the display of information from all angles. This is necessary because millimeter-waves do not penetrate the body. Ultimately, the images displayed to the operate will be icon-based to protect the privacy of the person being screened. Novel aspects of this technique include the cylindrical scanning concept and the image reconstruction algorithm, which was developed specifically for this imaging system. An engineering prototype based on this cylindrical imaging technique has been fabricated and tested. This work has been sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration.

  13. Development of a longer range standoff millimetre wave radar concealed threat detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, Nicholas J.; Southgate, Matthew J.; Andrews, David A.; Rezgui, Nacer D.; Harmer, Stuart W.; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-05-01

    A millimeter wave (75 - 110 GHz) polarimetric radar system (MiRTLE) has been developed for the detection of threat objects, such as guns, knives, or explosive devices, which have been concealed under clothing upon the human body. The system uses a Gaussian lens antenna to enable operation at stand-off ranges up to 25 meters. By utilizing ultra-wideband Swept Frequency Continuous Wave Radar very high range resolution (~ 10mm) is realized. The system is capable of detecting objects positioned in front of the body and of measuring the range of a target. By interpretation of the scattered waveform, the presence of a wide spectrum of threat items concealed on the human body may be detected. Threat detection is autonomously rendered by application of a neural network to the scattered time domain, polarimetric radar returns and the system may be taught to alarm or reject certain classes of objects; this allows for highly specific or broad spectrum threat detection. The radar system is portable and operator steerable allowing standoff monitoring of moving human targets in real time. Rapid (1ms) sweep times and fast signal acquisition and processing allow decisions to be made at video frame rates (30 fps) and integrated directly to a video feed providing the operator with a field of view and facilitating aiming. Performance parameters for detection of guns and simulated explosive devices are presented for ranges up to 25 meters.

  14. Partner choice through concealed floral sugar rewards evolved with the specialization of ant-plant mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Staedler, Yannick M; Schönenberger, Jürg; Renner, Susanne S

    2016-09-01

    Obligate mutualisms require filtering mechanisms to prevent their exploitation by opportunists, but ecological contexts and traits facilitating the evolution of such mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated the evolution of filtering mechanisms in an epiphytic ant-plant symbiotic system in Fiji involving Rubiaceae and dolichoderine ants, using field experiments, metabolomics, X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and phylogenetics. We discovered a novel plant reward consisting of sugary sap concealed in post-anthetic flowers only accessible to Philidris nagasau workers that bite through the thick epidermis. In five of the six species of Rubiaceae obligately inhabited by this ant, the nectar glands functioned for 10 d after a flower's sexual function was over. Sugar metabolomics and field experiments showed that ant foraging tracks sucrose levels, which only drop at the onset of fruit development. Ontogenetic analyses of our focal species and their relatives revealed a 25-fold increase in nectary size and delayed fruit development in the ant-rewarding species, and Bayesian analyses of several traits showed the correlated evolution of sugar rewards and symbiosis specialization. Concealed floral nectar forestalls exploitation by opportunists (generalist ants) and stabilizes these obligate mutualisms. Our study pinpoints the importance of partner choice mechanisms in transitions from facultative to obligate mutualisms.

  15. Detection of hazardous liquids concealed in glass, plastic, and aluminum containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Michael L.; Ortiz, William; Ruiz, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    The use of liquid explosives by terrorists has raised the attention to the use of hazardous liquids as threats to people, buildings and transportation systems. Hazardous liquids such as explosive mixtures, flammables or even chemical warfare agents (CWA) can be concealed in common containers and pass security checks undetected. This work presents three non invasive, non destructive detection approaches that can be used to characterize the content of common liquid containers and detect if the liquid is the intended or a concealed hazardous liquid. Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy and Stand off Raman spectroscopy were used to inspect the content of glass and plastic bottles and thermal conductivity was used to asses the liquid inside aluminum cans. Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed at 532 nm, 488 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. The hazardous liquids under consideration included CWA simulant DMMP, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol and nitric acid. These techniques have potential use as a detector for hazardous liquids at a check point or to inspect suspicious bottles from a distance.

  16. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields.

  17. Decision makers use norms, not cost-benefit analysis, when choosing to conceal or reveal unfair rewards.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Marco; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Paolo; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Conceal or Reveal Dilemma, in which individuals receive unfair benefits, and must decide whether to conceal or to reveal this unfair advantage. This dilemma has two important characteristics: it does not lend itself easily to cost-benefit analysis, neither to the application of any strong universal norm. As a consequence, it is ideally suited to the study of interindividual and intercultural variations in moral-economic norms. In this paper we focus on interindividual variations, and we report four studies showing that individuals cannot be swayed by financial incentives to conceal or to reveal, and follow instead fixed, idiosyncratic strategies. We discuss how this result can be extended to individual and cultural variations in the tendency to display or to hide unfair rewards. PMID:24066040

  18. Decision Makers Use Norms, Not Cost-Benefit Analysis, When Choosing to Conceal or Reveal Unfair Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Marco; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Paolo; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Conceal or Reveal Dilemma, in which individuals receive unfair benefits, and must decide whether to conceal or to reveal this unfair advantage. This dilemma has two important characteristics: it does not lend itself easily to cost-benefit analysis, neither to the application of any strong universal norm. As a consequence, it is ideally suited to the study of interindividual and intercultural variations in moral-economic norms. In this paper we focus on interindividual variations, and we report four studies showing that individuals cannot be swayed by financial incentives to conceal or to reveal, and follow instead fixed, idiosyncratic strategies. We discuss how this result can be extended to individual and cultural variations in the tendency to display or to hide unfair rewards. PMID:24066040

  19. Self-concealment, social self-efficacy, acculturative stress, and depression in African, Asian, and Latin American international college students.

    PubMed

    Constantine, Madonna G; Okazaki, Sumie; Utsey, Shawn O

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine self-concealment behaviors and social self-efficacy skills as potential mediators in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in a sample of 320 African, Asian, and Latin American international college students. The authors found several differences by demography with regard to the study's variables. After controlling for regional group membership, sex, and English language fluency, they found that self-concealment and social self-efficacy did not serve as mediators in the relationship between African, Asian, and Latin American international students' acculturative stress experiences and depressive symptomatology. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems. PMID:22608458

  1. Intentional retrieval suppression can conceal guilty knowledge in ERP memory detection tests☆

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Zara M.; Anderson, Michael C.; Buda, Marie; Simons, Jon S.; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Brain-activity markers of guilty knowledge have been promoted as accurate and reliable measures for establishing criminal culpability. Tests based on these markers interpret the presence or absence of memory-related neural activity as diagnostic of whether or not incriminating information is stored in a suspect's brain. This conclusion critically relies on the untested assumption that reminders of a crime uncontrollably elicit memory-related brain activity. However, recent research indicates that, in some circumstances, humans can control whether they remember a previous experience by intentionally suppressing retrieval. We examined whether people could use retrieval suppression to conceal neural evidence of incriminating memories as indexed by Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). When people were motivated to suppress crime retrieval, their memory-related ERP effects were significantly decreased, allowing guilty individuals to evade detection. Our findings indicate that brain measures of guilty knowledge may be under criminals’ intentional control and place limits on their use in legal settings. PMID:23664804

  2. Joint source coding, transport processing, and error concealment for H.323-based packet video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qin-Fan; Kerofsky, Louis

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to adapt different parameters in H.263 source coding, transport processing and error concealment to optimize end-to-end video quality at different bitrates and packet loss rates for H.323-based packet video. First different intra coding patterns are compared and we show that the contiguous rectangle or square block pattern offers the best performance in terms of video quality in the presence of packet loss. Second, the optimal intra coding frequency is found for different bitrates and packet loss rates. The optimal number of GOB headers to be inserted in the source coding is then determined. The effect of transport processing strategies such as packetization and retransmission is also examined. For packetization, the impact of packet size and the effect of macroblock segmentation to picture quality are investigated. Finally, we show that the dejitter buffering delay can be used to the advantage for packet loss recovery with video retransmission without incurring any extra delay.

  3. Memory instructions, vocalization, mock crimes, and concealed information tests with a polygraph.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; Malik, F J; Cullen, M C

    2011-12-01

    Accuracy rates with polygraphs using concealed information tests (CITs) depend on memory for crime details. Some participants read instructions on murdering a dummy victim that specified exact crime details asked on the subsequent CIT. Others read instructions not stating details, but still requiring interaction with the exact same details for the crime. For example, the murder weapon was under four heavy boxes. Instructions stated either "... remove the 4 boxes ..." or "... remove the boxes ..." Thus, each group removed four boxes, but only one group was primed with the number "4" beforehand. In addition, the victim unexpectedly shouted at some participants during the crime. An innocent group was not exposed to either manipulation. Memory, detection scores, and detection rates were lower for guilty participants not primed with details. Sound affected detection scores but not memory, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Information tests are limited by how crime information is received. PMID:22403929

  4. Effects of coping and cooperative instructions on guilty and informed innocents' physiological responses to concealed information.

    PubMed

    Zvi, Liza; Nachson, Israel; Elaad, Eitan

    2012-05-01

    Previous research on the Concealed Information Test indicates that knowledge of the critical information of a given event is sufficient for the elicitation of strong physiological reactions, thus facilitating detection by the test. Other factors that affect the test's efficacy are deceptive verbal responses to the test's questions and motivation of guilty examinees to avoid detection. In the present study effects of coping and cooperative instructions - delivered to guilty and innocent participants - on detection were examined. In a mock-theft experiment guilty participants who actually committed a mock-crime, and informed innocent participants who handled the critical items of the crime in an innocent context, were instructed to adopt either a coping or a cooperative attitude toward the polygraph test. Results indicated that both, guilt and coping behavior, were associated with enhanced physiological responses to the critical information, whereas innocence and cooperative behavior attenuated physiological responses. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22330977

  5. Memory instructions, vocalization, mock crimes, and concealed information tests with a polygraph.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; Malik, F J; Cullen, M C

    2011-12-01

    Accuracy rates with polygraphs using concealed information tests (CITs) depend on memory for crime details. Some participants read instructions on murdering a dummy victim that specified exact crime details asked on the subsequent CIT. Others read instructions not stating details, but still requiring interaction with the exact same details for the crime. For example, the murder weapon was under four heavy boxes. Instructions stated either "... remove the 4 boxes ..." or "... remove the boxes ..." Thus, each group removed four boxes, but only one group was primed with the number "4" beforehand. In addition, the victim unexpectedly shouted at some participants during the crime. An innocent group was not exposed to either manipulation. Memory, detection scores, and detection rates were lower for guilty participants not primed with details. Sound affected detection scores but not memory, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Information tests are limited by how crime information is received.

  6. Temporal spying and concealing process in fibre-optic data transmission systems through polarization bypass

    PubMed Central

    Bony, P.Y.; Guasoni, M.; Morin, P.; Sugny, D.; Picozzi, A.; Jauslin, H.R.; Pitois, S.; Fatome, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has been focused on the ability to manipulate a light beam in such a way to hide, namely to cloak, an event over a finite time or localization in space. The main idea is to create a hole or a gap in the spatial or time domain so as to allow for an object or data to be kept hidden for a while and then to be restored. By enlarging the field of applications of this concept to telecommunications, researchers have recently reported the possibility to hide transmitted data in an optical fibre. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of perpetual temporal spying and blinding process of optical data in fibre-optic transmission line based on polarization bypass. We successfully characterize the performance of our system by alternatively copying and then concealing 100% of a 10-Gb s−1 transmitted signal. PMID:25135759

  7. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems.

  8. Remote concealed weapon detection in millimeter-wave region: active and passive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Stephan; Klöppel, Frank; Huck, Johann; Nötel, Denis; Hägelen, Manfred; Briese, Gunnar; Gregor, Alexander; Erukulla, Sreenivas; Fuchs, Hans-Hellmuth; Essen, Helmut; Pagels, Anke

    2006-09-01

    Sensors used for Security purposes have to cover the non-invasive inspection of persons, baggage and letters with the aim to detect weapons, explosives and chemical or biological threat material. Currently, emphasis is placed on system concepts and technologies for this type of applications, employing millimeterwave-, submillimeterwave- and terahertz sensors. This is based on the capability of these frequency bands to look through textiles and the possibility to achieve a geometric resolution which is sufficient to resolve critical items within the necessary range. Using multiple frequencies promises to give more detailed information about the structure of the observed objects. Furthermore, to overcome the limitations of passive millimeter- and submillimeterwave sensors which depend on indirect illumination, systems using miniaturized mmw-radar modules are applied as well. This paper describes two approaches for the detection of concealed weapons, the first using a millimeterwave radiometer on a scanner and the second employing a miniaturized radar module based on a synthetic aperture method.

  9. Design of an active millimeter-wave concealed-object imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulter, Nicholas G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Stenbakken, G. N.; Waltrip, B. C.; Nolen, Shalva; Reintsema, Carl D.

    2001-08-01

    The research and design of an active millimeter-wave concealed object imaging system is described. Several illumination and detection methods were analyzed via computer simulation to assess the effects of system parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal. The results of many of these simulations were experimentally verified using either a 10 MHz or a 100 GHz measurement system. Based on this assessment, two design using pulsed illuminate with gated detection were selected for development. Pulsed illumination is provided using a pulsed broadband noise source. For detecting the reflected noise pulse, two methods were examined, one using micro bolometers and the other using electrooptics. Based on imaging system considerations, such as cost of manufacture, ruggedness, etc., and technical parameters, micro bolometer arrays were selected for further development. The electronics interface, including image display capability, was developed. We examined the absorption of some common clothing materials at 100 Ghz and compared this to results previously reported.

  10. A novel Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol for detection of concealed information.

    PubMed

    Labkovsky, Elena; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-11-01

    In simply guilty (SG), countermeasure-using guilty (CM), and innocent (IN) subjects, a new concealed information test, the P300-based Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol was tested in a mock crime scenario. It combines an oddball protocol with two stimuli (probe, irrelevant) and another with three stimuli (probe, irrelevant, target) into one trial, doubling detected mock crime information per unit time, compared to previous protocols. Probe-irrelevant amplitude differences were significant in SG and CM, but not IN subjects. On a measure from both two and three stimulus protocol parts of the Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol trial, accuracy was 94.7% (based on a .9 bootstrap criterion). The criterion-independent area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic (from signal detection theory) measuring SG and CM versus IN discriminability averaged .92 (in a range of 0.5-1.0). Countermeasures enhanced irrelevant (not probe) P300s in CM groups. PMID:24981064

  11. 220GHz wideband 3D imaging radar for concealed object detection technology development and phenomenology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Macfarlane, David G.; Bryllert, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    We present a 220 GHz 3D imaging `Pathfinder' radar developed within the EU FP7 project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) which has been built to address two objectives: (i) to de-risk the radar hardware development and (ii) to enable the collection of phenomenology data with ~1 cm3 volumetric resolution. The radar combines a DDS-based chirp generator and self-mixing multiplier technology to achieve a 30 GHz bandwidth chirp with such high linearity that the raw point response is close to ideal and only requires minor nonlinearity compensation. The single transceiver is focused with a 30 cm lens mounted on a gimbal to acquire 3D volumetric images of static test targets and materials.

  12. Spontaneous Enterocutaneous Fistula 27-years Following Radiotherapy in a Patient of Carcinoma Penis

    PubMed Central

    Chintamani; Badran, Rohini; Rk, Daniel; Singhal, Vinay; Bhatnagar, Dinesh

    2003-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy in the radical doses can produce severe and often irreversible damage to the gut in the form of fibrosis, necrosis and fistulae formation. A previous pelvic surgery makes the gut extra-vulnerable. This is on account of adhesions to the pelvic wall, unless special care is taken during surgery to keep it out of the harms way, during adjuvant radiotherapy. These effects range from acute, to sub acute and delayed chronic manifestations like in the reported case. Case report A spontaneous low out put enterocutaneous fistula in a 68-year-old man following surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy given 27 years back for carcinoma penis is reported. Patient is making a satisfactory progress after three years of follow-up. Conclusion High dose external beam radiotherapy is known to produce deleterious side effects ranging from mild radiation enteritis to the development of internal and external fistulae. The effects may be acute, subacute or chronic. Presentation as spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula 27 years after radiotherapy is rare. PMID:14613554

  13. Post-Translational Modification of Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Ross, Ashley E.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2009-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common men's health problem characterized by the consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Basic science research on erectile physiology has been devoted to investigating the pathogenesis of ED and has led to the conclusion that ED is predominately a disease of vascular origin and/or neurogenic dysfunction. The constitutive forms of nitric oxide synthase [NOS; endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS)] are important enzymes involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and thus regulate penile vascular homeostasis. Given the impact of endothelial- and neuronal-derived NO in penile vascular biology, a great deal of research over the past decade has focused on the role of NO synthesis from the endothelium and nitrergic nerve terminal in normal erectile physiology as well as in disease states. Loss of the functional integrity of the endothelium and subsequent endothelial dysfunction plays an integral role in the occurrence of ED. Therefore, molecular mechanisms involved in dysregulation of these NOS isoforms in the development of ED are essential to discovering the pathogenesis of ED in various disease states. This communication reviews the role of eNOS and nNOS in erectile physiology and discusses the alterations in eNOS and nNOS via post-translation modification in various vascular diseases of the penis. PMID:19342700

  14. False fracture of the penis: Different pathology but similar clinical presentation and management

    PubMed Central

    Kurkar, Adel; Elderwy, Ahmad A.; Orabi, Elderwy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Penile fracture is the most common presentation of acute penis. Rupture of the superficial dorsal penile vein (s) may mimic penile fractures with similar clinical presentation but with intact corporeal bodies. Our aim of the study is to highlight superficial dorsal penile vein (s) injury as true emergency with better prognosis. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with suspected penile fractures presented to our hospital between June 2007 and January 2013. Out of these, 11 patients showed intact tunica albuginea on exploration with injured dorsal penile vein (s) identified. Records of such 11 cases were reviewed regarding age, etiology, symptoms, physical signs, findings of surgical exploration and post-operative erectile function. Results: All 11 patients were injured during sexual intercourse and presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis and gradual detumescence. Mild penile pain was encountered in 5 cases and the “snap” sound was noted in 2 cases. Examination revealed no localized tenderness, or tunical defect. All the patients regained penile potency without deformity after surgical ligation of the severed vessels. One patient developed penile hypoesthesia. Conclusion: Although the classic “snap” sound and immediate detumescence are usually lacking in the symptomology of dorsal penile vein rupture, its clinical presentation can be indistinguishable from true penile fracture. Surgical exploration is still required to avoid missing tunical tear with possible future complications. The long-term outcome and prognosis are excellent. PMID:24669117

  15. The human operational sex ratio: effects of marriage, concealed ovulation, and menopause on mate competition.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2012-12-01

    Among mammals, male-male competition for sexual access to females frequently involves fighting. Larger body size gives males an advantage in fighting, which explains why males tend to be larger than females in many species, including anthropoid primates. Mitani et al. derived a formula to measure the operational sex ratio (OSR) to reflect the degree of male-male competition using the number of reproductively available males to females who are cycling and capable of conceiving. The OSR should predict the degree of sexual dimorphism in body mass-at least if male-male competition involves much fighting or threatening. Here, we use hunter-gatherer demographic data and the Mitani et al. formula to calculate the human OSR. We show that humans have a much lower degree of body mass sexual dimorphism than is predicted by our OSR. We suggest this is because human competition rarely involves fighting. In human hunter-gatherer societies, differences in the ages of marriage have an impact on competition in that the age of males at first marriage is younger when there is a lower percentage of married men with two or more wives, and older when there is a higher percentage of married men with two or more wives. We discuss the implications of this for females, along with the effects of two key life history traits that influence the OSR, concealed ovulation and menopause. While menopause decreases the number of reproductively available females to males and thus increases male-male competition, concealed ovulation decreases male-male competition. Finally, we discuss the importance of mostly monogamous mate bonds in human evolution.

  16. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300

    PubMed Central

    Farwell, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Drew C.; Richardson, Graham M.; Furedy, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the “brain fingerprinting” method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  17. New way for both quality enhancement of THz images and detection of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-08-01

    As it is well-known, the passive THz camera allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Obviously, efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection for concealed object: minimal size of the object; maximal distance of the detection; image quality. Computer processing of the THz image may lead to many times improving of the image quality without any additional engineering efforts. Therefore, developing of modern novel computer code for its application to THz images is urgent problem. Using appropriate new methods one may expect such temperature resolution which will allow to see banknote in pocket of a person without any real contact. Modern algorithms for computer processing of THz images allow also to see object inside the human body using a temperature trace on the human skin. This circumstance enhances essentially opportunity of passive THz camera applications for counterterrorism problems. We developed new real-time algorithm, based on the correlation function, for the detection of cancelled objects by using computer processing of the passive THz images without their viewing. This algorithm allows us to make a conclusion about presence of forbidden objects on the human body. To see this object with high quality we propose one more algorithm which allows to increase the image quality. Current approach for computer processing of the THz images differs from approaches developed by us early. We apply new algorithms with success to the images captured by passive THz camera TS4 manufactured by ThruVision Inc. The distance between the camera and person is changed from 4 to 10 metres.

  18. Concealed Fertility and Extended Female Sexuality in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca assamensis)

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours) we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females) which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates. PMID:21853074

  19. Enhanced terahertz imaging system performance analysis and design tool for concealed weapon identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Espinola, Richard L.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model/tool for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of the MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security & Defence Symposium (Brugge). An advanced version of the base model that accounts for both the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system, and for the impact of target and background thermal emission, was reported on at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium (Orlando). This paper will provide a comprehensive review of an enhanced, user-friendly, Windows-executable, terahertz-band imaging system performance analysis and design tool that now includes additional features such as a MODTRAN-based atmospheric attenuation calculator and advanced system architecture configuration inputs that allow for straightforward performance analysis of active or passive systems based on scanning (single- or line-array detector element(s)) or staring (focal-plane-array detector elements) imaging architectures. This newly enhanced THz imaging system design tool is an extension of the advanced THz imaging system performance model that was developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will also provide example system component (active-illumination source and detector) trade-study analyses using the new features of this user-friendly THz imaging system performance analysis and design tool.

  20. Brain fingerprinting classification concealed information test detects US Navy military medical information with P300.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Lawrence A; Richardson, Drew C; Richardson, Graham M; Furedy, John J

    2014-01-01

    A classification concealed information test (CIT) used the "brain fingerprinting" method of applying P300 event-related potential (ERP) in detecting information that is (1) acquired in real life and (2) unique to US Navy experts in military medicine. Military medicine experts and non-experts were asked to push buttons in response to three types of text stimuli. Targets contain known information relevant to military medicine, are identified to subjects as relevant, and require pushing one button. Subjects are told to push another button to all other stimuli. Probes contain concealed information relevant to military medicine, and are not identified to subjects. Irrelevants contain equally plausible, but incorrect/irrelevant information. Error rate was 0%. Median and mean statistical confidences for individual determinations were 99.9% with no indeterminates (results lacking sufficiently high statistical confidence to be classified). We compared error rate and statistical confidence for determinations of both information present and information absent produced by classification CIT (Is a probe ERP more similar to a target or to an irrelevant ERP?) vs. comparison CIT (Does a probe produce a larger ERP than an irrelevant?) using P300 plus the late negative component (LNP; together, P300-MERMER). Comparison CIT produced a significantly higher error rate (20%) and lower statistical confidences: mean 67%; information-absent mean was 28.9%, less than chance (50%). We compared analysis using P300 alone with the P300 + LNP. P300 alone produced the same 0% error rate but significantly lower statistical confidences. These findings add to the evidence that the brain fingerprinting methods as described here provide sufficient conditions to produce less than 1% error rate and greater than 95% median statistical confidence in a CIT on information obtained in the course of real life that is characteristic of individuals with specific training, expertise, or organizational

  1. P300 amplitudes in the concealed information test are less affected by depth of processing than electrodermal responses

    PubMed Central

    Gamer, Matthias; Berti, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) has been used in the laboratory as well as in field applications to detect concealed crime related memories. The presentation of crime relevant details to guilty suspects has been shown to elicit enhanced N200 and P300 amplitudes of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as well as greater skin conductance responses (SCRs) as compared to neutral test items. These electrophysiological and electrodermal responses were found to incrementally contribute to the validity of the test, thereby suggesting that these response systems are sensitive to different psychological processes. In the current study, we tested whether depth of processing differentially affects N200, P300, and SCR amplitudes in the CIT. Twenty participants carried out a mock crime and became familiar with central and peripheral crime details. A CIT that was conducted 1 week later revealed that SCR amplitudes were larger for central details although central and peripheral items were remembered equally well in a subsequent explicit memory test. By contrast, P300 amplitudes elicited by crime related details were larger but did not differ significantly between question types. N200 amplitudes did not allow for detecting concealed knowledge in this study. These results indicate that depth of processing might be one factor that differentially affects central and autonomic nervous system responses to concealed information. Such differentiation might be highly relevant for field applications of the CIT. PMID:23162454

  2. [Cardioversion for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia during lung surgery in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Hirofumi; Inoda, Ayako; Miura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Yoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) that occurred during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. A 59-year-old man with lung cancer was scheduled for VATS lobectomy under general anesthesia. After inserting a thoracic epidural catheter, general anesthesia was induced with intravenous administration of propofol. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalation of desfurane in an air/oxygen mixture and intravenous infusion of remifentanil. Recurrent PSVT occurred three times, and the last episode of PSVT continued for 50 minutes regardless of administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Synchronized electric shock via adhesive electrode pads on the patient's chest successfully converted PSVT back to normal sinus rhythm. The remaining course and postoperative period were uneventful. An electrophysiological study performed after hospital discharge detected concealed WPW syndrome, which had contributed to the development of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. Concealed WPW syndrome is a rare, but critical complication that could possibly cause lethal atrial tachyarrhythmias during the perioperative period. In the present case, cardioversion using adhesive electrode pads briefly terminated PSVT in a patient with concealed WPW syndrome.

  3. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J., Jr.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men's mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may…

  4. Self-Concealment, Social Network Sites Usage, Social Appearance Anxiety, Loneliness of High School Students: A Model Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Ugur; Çolak, Tugba Seda

    2016-01-01

    This study was tested a model for explain to social networks sites (SNS) usage with structural equation modeling (SEM). Using SEM on a sample of 475 high school students (35% male, 65% female) students, model was investigated the relationship between self-concealment, social appearance anxiety, loneliness on SNS such as Twitter and Facebook usage.…

  5. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2008 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit. This report presents the analytical data collected in 2008. The Pebble deposit is world class in size, and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), is a large mineral system, and is fairly well-constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of this study are to 1) determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, 2) better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and 3) test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. The analytical data are presented as an integrated Microsoft Access 2003 database and as separate Excel files.

  6. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dana A; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2012-05-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of "non-traditional" mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  7. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Dana A.; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of “non-traditional” mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  8. Attenuated RhoA/Rho-kinase Signaling in the Penis of Transgenic Sickle Cell Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Ross, Ashley E.; Strong, Travis D.; Gebska, Milena A.; Musicki, Biljana; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives RhoA and its main downstream effector, Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important in maintaining the penis in the flaccid state. The pathophysiology of Sickle cell disease-associated priapism is not well defined. We hypothesize that RhoA/ROCK vasoconstrictive pathways may be involved in the development of priapism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate molecular changes in RhoA and ROCK in an established transgenic sickle cell mouse model of priapism. Methods Two groups of mice were utilized: 1) wild type (WT; C57BL/6), and 2) transgenic Sickle cell mice (Sickle). We evaluated RhoA GTPase and total ROCK activities as well as ROCK1 and ROCK2 protein expression in WT and Sickle mice penes. We also evaluated in vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS) and the frequency and duration of spontaneous erections both pre- and post-CNS. Results Sickle mice demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) enhanced erectile responses to CNS and frequency of spontaneous erections both pre- and post-CNS when compared to WT. Sickle mice penes had a significant decline in RhoA GTPase (p<0.01) and total ROCK activities (p<0.05) when compared to WT mice. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in ROCK2 protein expression in Sickle mice penes when compared to WT mice protein expression. No change in ROCK1 protein expression was observed in both cohort’s of mice penes. Conclusion These data suggest that Sickle cell disease associated-priapism may be contributed by a lack of RhoA/ROCK mediated vasoconstriction and highlight a novel molecular mechanism in the pathophysiology of priapism. PMID:20538321

  9. Tissue engineering penoplasty with biodegradable scaffold Maxpol-T cografted autologous fibroblasts for small penis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe; Wu, Yi-Guang; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Peng, Jing; Gong, Yan-Qing; Li, Guang-Yong; Song, Wei-Dong; Cui, Wan-Shou; He, Xue-You; Xin, Zhong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of a poly acid-co-glycolide biodegradable scaffold (Maxpol-T) coated by autologous fibroblasts (AF) for penile girth enlargement in small penis syndrome (SPS). Eighty patients with SPS were enrolled in a clinical study at 2 medical centers; 69 patients completed the study protocol. Scrotal skin was harvested under local anesthesia, and AFs were cultured and seeded on a Maxpol-T scaffold; the cografted scaffold was implanted under the Buck's fascia of penile shaft via a circumcising incision. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months to evaluate penile girth changes. Patient satisfaction was assessed via Visual Analogue Scale and scored on the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). Mean preoperative penile girth in the flaccid and erect state was 8.18 ± 0.83 cm and 10.26 ± 1.22 cm, respectively. At the 6-month postoperative follow-up, mean penile girth in the flaccid and erect state was increased to 12.19 ± 1.27 cm and 13.18 ± 1.31 cm, respectively (P < .001 for change in both flaccid and erect state). Sixty-five patients (94.2%) reported satisfaction with the procedure. Among them, 4 cases (5.8%) were dissatisfied, 7 cases (10.1%) were satisfied, 26 cases (37.7%) were very satisfied, and 32 cases (46.4%) were extremely satisfied. All men maintained IIEF-5 scores of more than 22. Complications included prolonged subcutaneous edema in 3 patients (4.3%) and pinpoint erosion at the suture area in 3 patients (4.3%). Implantation of autologous fibroblasts seeded on a Maxpol-T collagen scaffold holds promise as a safe and novel technique for penile girth enhancement in patients with SPS. PMID:21164145

  10. Self-reported penis size and experiences with condoms among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-02-01

    As researchers and community-based providers continue to encourage latex condom use as a chief strategy to prevent HIV transmission among men who have sex with men, research is needed to better explore the intersecting associations among penis size (length and circumference), condom feel, ease of finding condoms, recent experience of condom failure (breakage and slippage), and unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from a 2010 community-based survey of self-identified gay and bisexual men in New York City (n = 463). More than half (51.4 %) reported penile length as 6-8 in. long (15-20 cm) and 31.5 % reported penile circumference as 4-6 in. around (10-15 cm). Variation in self-reported penile dimensions was significantly associated with men's attitudes toward the typical/average condom, difficulty finding condoms that fit, and the experience of condom breakage. Men who had engaged in recent unprotected insertive anal intercourse reported significantly higher values for both penile length and circumference, and these men were significantly more likely to report that the average/typical condom was "too tight." Most men had measured their length (86.2 %) and/or circumference (68.9 %), suggesting that penile measurement might be a common and acceptable practice among gay and bisexual men. As HIV and STI prevention providers continue to serve as leading distributers of free condoms, these findings further highlight the need for condom availability to be in a variety of sizes. Improving condom fit and attitudes toward condoms may also improve condom use and minimize condom slippage and breakage.

  11. Penile oxygen saturation in the flaccid and erect penis in men with and without erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Priya; McCullough, Andrew R

    2007-01-01

    It is believed that a chronic state of corporal oxygen desaturation or hypoxemia secondary to the loss of nocturnal erections is a fundamental pathophysiological cause of erectile dysfunction (ED). Limited invasive blood gas measurements in human models have shown decreased oxygen tension in vasculogenic impotence. Normative data on flaccid and erect oxygen saturation (StO(2)) levels are lacking due to the invasive nature of blood gas determinations. Our objective was to determine StO(2) in the flaccid and erect penis in men with and without ED using a tissue oximeter. This FDA-approved instrument provides instantaneous, noninvasive, painless local tissue StO(2) measurements, which highly correlate to blood gas data. The study population included 171 men (18-90 years) who presented to one andrologist. They completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) based on pharmacologically unassisted erectile function and had penile StO(2) measurements taken. 64 of these men had repeat measurements after PGE-1 induced erections. There are significant differences (P<.001) in corporal and glanular StO(2) in the flaccid (right corpora, 45.23%; left corpora, 52.50%) and erect state (right corpora, 76.58; left corpora, 80.42). Men with ED (right corpora, 45.04% vs 53.58%; P=.02; and left corpora, 50.95% vs 58.78%; P=.03) have significantly lower corporal penile StO(2). Future prospective data collection can correlate penile StO(2) in specific populations, such as diabetics and RRP patients. This may help further elucidate the relationship between corporal hypoxia and the development and progression of ED and possibly its treatment and prevention.

  12. Histomorphology of the penis bone (Baculum) in the gray long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Herdina, Anna Nele; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Hilgers, Helge; Metscher, Brian D; Plenk, Hanns

    2010-07-01

    For the first time, the histomorphology of the penis bone of a bat (Plecotus austriacus) was examined in detail. From Plecotus austriacus, 14 whole penes and 11 isolated bacula were studied and compared to bacula of Plecotus auritus and Plecotus macrobullaris. The baculum was located on specimen microradiographs and in micro-CT images in the tip of the penis. Using serial semithin sections and surface-stained, undecalcified ground sections, the types of bone and other tissues constituting the baculum were examined by light microscopy. 3D reconstructions were generated from the serial semithin sections and from micro-CT images. The shaft and the proximal branches of the Y-shaped baculum form a tubular bone around a medullary cavity. Since the small diameter of this channel and the main lamellar bone around it resemble a Haversian canal, the baculum is equivalent to a single-osteon bone. Several oblique nutrient canals enter this medullary cavity in the shaft and branches. All ends of the baculum consist predominantly of woven bone. The collagen fiber bundles of the tunica albuginea of both corpora cavernosa insert via fibrocartilage into the woven bone of the branches. Thus, the microscopic structures support the hypothesis that the baculum functions as a stiffening element in the erect penis. In this study, several microscopic imaging techniques were evaluated for displaying the microscopic structures of the baculum. Specimen microradiography, but especially micro-CT proved to be suitable nondestructive methods for accurate and reproducible demonstration and comparison of the three-dimensional structures of the baculum in different bat species. PMID:20583269

  13. Cellular effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the penis epithelium cells of prosobranchs ( Hinia reticulata and Ocinebrina aciculata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brick, M.; Deutsch, U.; Fioroni, P.

    1996-09-01

    Cytopathological effects on organelles of penis epithelium cells were investigated in prosobranchs that had been exposed for two weeks to three months to high TBT-concentrations in artificial seawater. TBT exposure damaged cell organelles, such as mitochondria, Golgi dictyosomes, endoplasmatic reticulum, and injured the cell membranes. In addition, atypical intercellular spaces were observed between the cells of the epithelial layer. Further cell alterations included the increase of residual bodies within the cells as well as structural changes of the basal lamina. The ultrastructural changes were compared with cell alterations of specimens which had been collected in a polluted environment on the coast of Brittany (France).

  14. Aging-related expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and markers of tissue damage in the rat penis.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, M; Magee, T R; Vernet, D; Rajfer, J; González-Cadavid, N F

    2001-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction in the aging male results in part from the loss of compliance of the corpora cavernosal smooth muscle due to the progressive replacement of smooth muscle cells by collagen fibers. We have examined the hypothesis that a spontaneous local induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and the subsequent peroxynitrite formation occurs in the penis during aging and that this process is accompanied by a stimulation of smooth muscle apoptosis and collagen deposition. The penile shaft and crura were excised from young (3-5 mo old) and old (24-30 mo old) rats, with or without perfusion with 4% formalin. Fresh tissue was used for iNOS and proteasome 2C mRNA determinations by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, ubiquitin mRNA by Northern blot, and iNOS protein by Western blot. Penile sections from perfused animals were embedded in paraffin and immunostained with antibodies against iNOS and nitrotyrosine, submitted to the TUNEL assay for apoptosis, or stained for collagen, followed by image analysis quantitation. A 4.1-fold increase in iNOS mRNA was observed in the old versus young tissues, paralleled by a 4.9-fold increase in iNOS protein. The proteolysis marker, ubiquitin, was increased 1.9-fold, whereas a related gene, proteasome 2c, was not significantly affected. iNOS immunostaining was increased 3.6-fold in the penile smooth muscle of the old rats as compared with the young rats. The peroxynitrite indicator nitrotyrosine was increased by 1.6-fold, accompanied by a 3.6-fold increase in apoptotic cells and a 2.0-fold increase in collagen fibers in the old penis. In conclusion, aging in the penis is accompanied by an induction of iNOS and peroxynitrite formation that may lead to the observed increase in apoptosis and proteolysis and may counteract a higher rate of collagen deposition in the old penis.

  15. The endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist [125I]BQ-3020 binds predominantly to nerves in the bovine retractor penis muscle and penile artery.

    PubMed

    Parkkisenniemi, U M; Palkama, A; Virtanen, I; Klinge, E

    2000-11-01

    Preliminary pharmacological experiments have suggested that in the bovine retractor penis muscle there are relaxation-mediating endothelin ET(B) receptors, at least part of which are located on the inhibitory nitrergic nerves. The present work was undertaken to test this hypothesis by means of receptor autoradiography and additional pharmacological experiments. In the retractor penis muscle and the penile artery, specific binding of the ETB receptor-selective agonist [125I]BQ-3020 took place predominantly to nerve trunks and minor nerve branches. The situation was the same in the dorsal metatarsal artery, that was included as a reference because of its different innervation. Throughout the nerves the silver grains were evenly distributed over the nuclei of Schwann cells and the spaces between them. In the retractor penis there was also a small amount of specific binding to smooth muscle. No specific endothelial binding was observed in any of the tissues examined. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the relaxation of the retractor penis muscle induced by the ET(B) receptor-selective agonist, sarafotoxin S6c, is susceptible to tetrodotoxin as well as to inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relaxation was also characterized by inconsistency, weakness and tachyphylaxis. The electrical field stimulation-induced submaximal relaxation of the retractor penis was unaffected by stimulation or blockade of ET(B) receptors. The autoradiography suggests that in all the three bovine tissues studied there are ET(B) receptors located on nerves independently of the type of efferent nerve. The pharmacological experiments do not support the concept that in the bovine retractor penis muscle neuronal ET(B) receptors exert important immediate effects on the functioning of the penile erection-mediating nitrergic nerves.

  16. Mobile TNA system to detect explosives and drugs concealed in cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendahan, Joseph; Gozani, Tsahi

    1998-12-01

    The drug problem in the U.S. is serious and efforts to fight it are constrained by the lack of adequate means to curb the inflow of smuggled narcotics into the country through cargo containers. Also, events such as the disastrous explosion in Oklahoma City, the IRA bombing in London, and the bombing of the U.S. military residence in Dharan make the development of new tools for the detection of explosives and drugs in vehicles imperative. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) technology, developed for the detection of explosives in suitcases, and detection of landmines and unexploded ordnance is presently being applied to the nonintrusive detection of significant amounts of explosives and drugs concealed in cars, trucks and large cargo containers. TNA technology is based on the analysis of characteristic gamma rays emitted following thermal neutron capture. A TNA system can be used in a variety of operational scenarios, such as inspection before an unloaded cargo container from a spit is moved to temporary storage, inspection of trucks unloaded from a ferry, or inspection of vehicles parked close to Federal building or military bases. This paper will discuss the detection process and operational scenarios, and will present results from recent simulations and measurements.

  17. Detection and classification of concealed weapons using a magnetometer-based portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Polk, Robert E.

    2002-08-01

    A concealed weapons detection technology was developed through the support of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to provide a non intrusive means for rapid detection, location, and archiving of data (including visual) of potential suspects and weapon threats. This technology, developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), has been applied in a portal style weapons detection system using passive magnetic sensors as its basis. This paper will report on enhancements to the weapon detection system to enable weapon classification and to discriminate threats from non-threats. Advanced signal processing algorithms were used to analyze the magnetic spectrum generated when a person passes through a portal. These algorithms analyzed multiple variables including variance in the magnetic signature from random weapon placement and/or orientation. They perform pattern recognition and calculate the probability that the collected magnetic signature correlates to a known database of weapon versus non-weapon responses. Neural networks were used to further discriminate weapon type and identify controlled electronic items such as cell phones and pagers. False alarms were further reduced by analyzing the magnetic detector response by using a Joint Time Frequency Analysis digital signal processing technique. The frequency components and power spectrum for a given sensor response were derived. This unique fingerprint provided additional information to aid in signal analysis. This technology has the potential to produce major improvements in weapon detection and classification.

  18. Grossly calcified choroid plexus concealing foramen of Monro meningiomas as an unusual cause of obstructive hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Various intraventricular tumors can present with calcifications; however, the choroid plexus can also have physiological calcifications. This is the first case report of meningiomas located at the bilateral foramen of Monro (FOM), concealed by a grossly calcified choroid plexus, presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus. A 60-year-old woman with disturbed consciousness was admitted by ambulance. Head computed tomography revealed significantly high-density lesions that smoothly extended from the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. They occupied both sides of the FOM, resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The diagnostic endoscopic biopsy was performed using a flexible neuroendoscopic system, and an egg shell-like grossly calcified choroid plexus was found to smoothly extend toward the FOM. Resection was not selected because the calcified lesions had tightly adhered to the veins and fornix; therefore, the patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The lesions were histologically identified as psammomatous meningiomas with low proliferation potential (the Ki-67 labeling index was lower than 1%). She was discharged 10 days after surgery without neurological deficits. As calcifications can have tumoral and nontumoral origins, we considered neuroendoscopic exploration to be essential in order to achieve an accurate diagnosis and select optimal management. PMID:26889294

  19. Using self-authentication and recovery images for error concealment in wireless environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Yung; Sow, Daby; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2001-11-01

    Handling packet loss or delay in the mobile and/or Internet environment is usually a challenging problem for multimedia transmission. Using connection-oriented protocol such as TCP may introduce intolerable time delay in re-transmission. Using datagram-oriented protocols such as UDP may cause partial representation in case of packet loss. In this paper, we propose a new method of using our self-authentication-and-recovery images (SARI) to do the error detection and concealment in the UDP environment. The lost information in a SARI image can be approximately recovered based on the embedded watermark, which includes the content-based authentication information and recovery information. Images or video frames are watermarked in a priori such that no additional mechanism is needed in the networking or the encoding process. Because the recovery is not based on adjacent blocks, the proposed method can recover the corrupted area even though the information loss happen in large areas or high variant areas. Our experiments show the advantages of such technique in both transmission time saving and broad application potentials.

  20. 'The vagina does not talk': conception concealed or deliberately disclosed in eastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    van der Sijpt, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of current alternative 'horizons of honour' such as schooling, employment or relationships with rich urban men, women's intentions with regard to marriage and motherhood acquire different meanings. On their pathways to urban forms of honour, formal engagements and childbearing are often postponed, while premarital sexual encounters proliferate. This paper explores the meanings of pregnancy within the context of these fragile relationships and women's urban aspirations; fertility will be shown to be a 'bet' that may either disrupt or stabilize urban affairs and ambitions. As such, pregnancies can be strategically anticipated and deliberately disclosed or unexpectedly encountered and secretly disrupted. This paper sheds light on women's strategies of concealment and disclosure of pregnancies and shows that these practices are often inspired by a notion of the 'right timing' of particular reproductive conjunctures - a notion that is of increasing relevance in current frames of female honour in Cameroon. PMID:22118422

  1. Psychophysiological detection of concealed information shared by groups: an empirical study of the searching CIT.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Zaidenberg, Daphna; Gronau, Nurit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) to situations in which the crime-related information is shared by a group of suspects but is not available to the investigators (a method known as the "searching CIT," or SCIT). Twenty-two groups, each comprising 4 to 7 participants (115 in total), planned 1 of 2 mock crimes (kidnapping or bank robbery). While planning the crime, each group decided on 5 crime-related critical items (e.g., the city in which the bank was located). Each critical item was chosen from a predefined set of 4 alternatives. At a second stage, the SCIT was administered individually and each participant was tested on the 2 crimes-the actual planned crime, in which the participant was "guilty," and the unplanned crime, in which the participant was "innocent." Two algorithms, adopted from Breska, Ben-Shakhar, and Gronau (2012), were applied to detect the critical items and to differentiate between "guilty" and "innocent" participants. Findings revealed that differentiation efficiency based on electrodermal and respiration measures was identical to that obtained with the standard CIT when applied to large groups, but lower, although significantly greater than chance, when applied to differentiate between small groups.

  2. Stand-off spatial offset Raman spectroscopy for the detection of concealed content in distant objects.

    PubMed

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Gasser, Christoph; Chrysostom, Engelene tH; Lendl, Bernhard

    2011-12-15

    A pulsed (4.4 ns pulse length) frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operated at 10 Hz was used to generate Raman scattering of samples at a distance of 12 m. The scattered light was collected by a 6 in. telescope, and the Raman spectrum was recorded using an Acton SP-2750 spectrograph coupled to a gated intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector. Applying a spatial offset between the point where the laser hit the sample and the focus of the telescope on the sample enabled collection of Raman photons that were predominantly generated inside the sample and not from its surface. This is especially effective when the content of concealed objects should be analyzed. High-quality Raman spectra could be recorded, within 10 s of data acquisition, from a solid (NaClO(3)) as well as a liquid (isopropyl alcohol) placed inside a 1.5 mm thick opaque low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic bottle. The applied spatial offset was also advantageous in cases where the surface of the container was highly fluorescent. In such a situation, Raman spectra of the sample could not be recorded when the sampling volume (telescope observation field) coincided with the focus of the excitation laser. However, with the use of a spatial offset of some millimeters, a clear Raman spectrum of the content (isopropyl alcohol) in a strongly fluorescent plastic container was obtained.

  3. Investigation of late time response analysis for detection of multiple concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Simon; Fernando, Michael; Andrews, David; Harmer, Stuart; Bowring, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the use of Late Time Response (LTR) analysis for detecting multiple objects in concealed object detection. When a conductive object is illuminated by an ultra-wide band (UWB) frequency radar signal, the surface currents induced upon the object give rise to LTR signals. The LTR results from a number of different targets are presented. The distance between the targets within the same radar beam has been adjusted in increments of 5cm to determine the point at which the individual objects can be distinguished from each other. The experiment was performed using double ridged horn antennas in a pseudo-monostatic arrangement. Vector network analysers (VNA) are used to provide the UWB stepped frequency continuous wave radar signal. The distance between the transmitting antenna and the target object is kept at 50cm for all the experiments performed and the power level at the VNA was set to 2dBm. The targets in the experimental setup are suspended in isolation in a non-anechoic environment. To allow for the de-convolution of the signal and the removal of background clutter Matlab was used in post processing. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) are used to process the return signals and extract the LTR features from the noise clutter. A Generalized Pencil-of-Function (GPOF) method was then used to extract the complex poles of the signal. In the case of a single needle these poles can be found around 1.9GHz.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  5. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature. PMID:26320359

  6. Systematic changes in tonic physiological activities during the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Hirota, Akihisa; Takasawa, Noriyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25152172

  7. Psychophysiological detection of concealed information shared by groups: an empirical study of the searching CIT.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Zaidenberg, Daphna; Gronau, Nurit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) to situations in which the crime-related information is shared by a group of suspects but is not available to the investigators (a method known as the "searching CIT," or SCIT). Twenty-two groups, each comprising 4 to 7 participants (115 in total), planned 1 of 2 mock crimes (kidnapping or bank robbery). While planning the crime, each group decided on 5 crime-related critical items (e.g., the city in which the bank was located). Each critical item was chosen from a predefined set of 4 alternatives. At a second stage, the SCIT was administered individually and each participant was tested on the 2 crimes-the actual planned crime, in which the participant was "guilty," and the unplanned crime, in which the participant was "innocent." Two algorithms, adopted from Breska, Ben-Shakhar, and Gronau (2012), were applied to detect the critical items and to differentiate between "guilty" and "innocent" participants. Findings revealed that differentiation efficiency based on electrodermal and respiration measures was identical to that obtained with the standard CIT when applied to large groups, but lower, although significantly greater than chance, when applied to differentiate between small groups. PMID:24564513

  8. Hiding true emotions: micro-expressions in eyes retrospectively concealed by mouth movements.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Miho; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2016-02-26

    When we encounter someone we dislike, we may momentarily display a reflexive disgust expression, only to follow-up with a forced smile and greeting. Our daily lives are replete with a mixture of true and fake expressions. Nevertheless, are these fake expressions really effective at hiding our true emotions? Here we show that brief emotional changes in the eyes (micro-expressions, thought to reflect true emotions) can be successfully concealed by follow-up mouth movements (e.g. a smile). In the same manner as backward masking, mouth movements of a face inhibited conscious detection of all types of micro-expressions in that face, even when viewers paid full attention to the eye region. This masking works only in a backward direction, however, because no disrupting effect was observed when the mouth change preceded the eye change. These results provide scientific evidence for everyday behaviours like smiling to dissemble, and further clarify a major reason for the difficulty we face in discriminating genuine from fake emotional expressions.

  9. Detection of contraband concealed on the body using x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to avoid detection, smugglers and terrorists are increasingly using the body as a vehicle for transporting illicit drugs, weapons, and explosives. This trend illustrates the natural tendency of traffickers to seek the path of least resistance, as improved interdiction technology and operational effectiveness have been brought to bear on other trafficking avenues such as luggage, cargo, and parcels. In response, improved technology for human inspection is being developed using a variety of techniques. ASE's BodySearch X-ray Inspection Systems uses backscatter x-ray imaging of the human body to quickly, safely, and effectively screen for drugs, weapons, and explosives concealed on the body. This paper reviews the law enforcement and social issues involved in human inspections, and briefly describes the ASE BodySearch systems. Operator training, x-ray image interpretation, and maximizing systems effectiveness are also discussed. Finally, data collected from operation of the BodySearch system in the field is presented, and new law enforcement initiatives which have come about due to recent events are reviewed.

  10. The caregiving bind: concealing the demands of informal care can undermine the caregiving identity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen; Gillespie, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Disagreements and misunderstandings between informal caregivers and care-receivers have been widely reported, but the causes are unclear. The present article compares the views of people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (28 dyads, n = 56). First, we report a quantitative analysis finding that the majority of disagreements were about caregivers' identity. Caregivers saw themselves as less confident, less intelligent, more embarrassed, more independent and more overprotective than care-receivers rated them to be. Caregivers understood the care-receivers' ratings but disagreed with them' Second, we report a qualitative analysis focussing on how caregivers felt themselves to be perceived by significant others. Caregivers felt that the care-receiver, family members, the general public, health services and even friends often have negative views of them. The 'caregiving bind' is proposed as a cause of caregivers' negative identity. It arises when caregivers try to protect the care-receiver's identity by concealing the extent of informal care provision, with the unintended consequence of undermining the prospects of the caregiver receiving positive social recognition for the challenging work of caregiving. The caregiving bind has implications for therapy and points to the potential of friends and health services to provide caregivers with positive social recognition. PMID:24996218

  11. Hiding true emotions: micro-expressions in eyes retrospectively concealed by mouth movements

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Miho; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    When we encounter someone we dislike, we may momentarily display a reflexive disgust expression, only to follow-up with a forced smile and greeting. Our daily lives are replete with a mixture of true and fake expressions. Nevertheless, are these fake expressions really effective at hiding our true emotions? Here we show that brief emotional changes in the eyes (micro-expressions, thought to reflect true emotions) can be successfully concealed by follow-up mouth movements (e.g. a smile). In the same manner as backward masking, mouth movements of a face inhibited conscious detection of all types of micro-expressions in that face, even when viewers paid full attention to the eye region. This masking works only in a backward direction, however, because no disrupting effect was observed when the mouth change preceded the eye change. These results provide scientific evidence for everyday behaviours like smiling to dissemble, and further clarify a major reason for the difficulty we face in discriminating genuine from fake emotional expressions. PMID:26915796

  12. Living at Risk: Concealing Risk and Preserving Hope in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Sharon L.; Swenson, Melinda M.; Harrison, Joan M.; Moskowitz, Carol; Stepanov, Nonna; Suter, Gregory W.; Westphal, Beryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the qualitative research on Huntington disease has focused on the genetic testing aspects of HD. The overall purpose of this qualitative study was to gather information about the everyday experience of living with the risk of developing Huntington disease in a sample of individuals at risk for HD who have chosen not to pursue genetic testing. Data for this article was obtained from unstructured, open-ended qualitative interviews of a sample of people participating in the PHAROS study. PHAROS, the Prospective Huntington At-Risk Observational Study, is a multi-site study that aims to establish whether experienced clinicians can reliably determine the earliest clinical symptoms of Huntington disease in individuals at 50% risk for HD who have chosen not to undergo genetic testing. Interviews were conducted at six PHAROS research sites across the United States. In this paper, the research team used qualitative description to construct and explore two main themes: (1) careful concealment of risk as an act of self-preservation and (2) preserving hope. PMID:17943424

  13. Atrioventricular reciprocal rhythm and chronic reciprocating tachycardia in a newborn infant with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R J; Ferrer, P; Garcia, O L; Castellanos, A; Gelband, H

    1977-01-01

    A case of atrioventricular reciprocal rhythm and chronic reciprocating tachycardia in a newborn infant is presented. Electrophysiological studies suggest that these rhythm disturbances are related to the presence of a right-sided atrioventricular accessory pathway capable only of retrograde conduction (concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). The technique of recording the sequence of atrial activation during the tachycardia is described and its clinical importance emphasised. PMID:884032

  14. The Invisible Work of Closeting: A Qualitative Study About Strategies Used by Lesbian and Gay Persons to Conceal Their Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Malterud, Kirsti; Bjorkman, Mari

    2016-10-01

    The last decades have offered substantial improvement regarding human rights for lesbian and gay (LG) persons. Yet LG persons are often in the closet, concealing their sexual orientation. We present a qualitative study based on 182 histories submitted from 161 LG individuals to a Web site. The aim was to explore experiences of closeting among LG persons in Norway. A broad range of strategies was used for closeting, even among individuals who generally considered themselves to be out of the closet. Concealment was enacted by blunt denial, clever avoidance, or subtle vagueness. Other strategies included changing or eliminating the pronoun or name of the partner in ongoing conversations. Context-dependent concealment, differentiating between persons, situations, or arenas, was repeatedly applied for security or convenience. We propose a shift from "being in the closet" to "situated concealment of sexual orientation." PMID:26914706

  15. Interstitial radiation therapy for carcinoma of the penis using iridium 192 wires: the Henri Mondor experience (1970-1979)

    SciTech Connect

    Mazeron, J.J.; Langlois, D.; Lobo, P.A.; Huart, J.A.; Calitchi, E.; Lusinchi, A.; Raynal, M.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Abbou, C.C.; Pierquin, B.

    1984-10-01

    From 1970 to 1979, a group of 50 patients was treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis by interstitial irradiation using an afterloading technique and iridium 192 wires. The group included 9 patients with T1 tumors, 27 with T2 tumors, and 14 with T3 tumors. Forty-five patients presented with no metastatic inguinal nodes (NO), 3 patients with N1 nodes, and 2 patients had N3 nodes. After treatment, 11 patients (1 T1, 6 T2 and 4 T3) developed local recurrences. Three patients developed post-therapeutic necrosis which necessitated partial amputation in 2 cases. Eight patients developed post-therapeutic urethral stenosis, which required surgical treatment in three of the cases. Twenty-one percent of the patients died of their disease. The authors advocate interstitial irradiation using iridium 192 wires for the treatment of non-infiltrating or moderately infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in which the largest dimension does no exceed 4 cm. When regular follow-up can be assurred, it is reasonable to forgo prophylactic treatment of the inguinal nodes in patients presenting without groin metastasis.

  16. Passive error concealment for wavelet-coded I-frames with an inhomogeneous Gauss-Markov random field model.

    PubMed

    Rombaut, Joost; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2009-04-01

    In video communication over lossy packet networks (e.g., the Internet), packet loss errors can severely damage the transmitted video. The damaged video can largely be repaired with passive error concealment, where neighboring information is used to estimate missing information. We address the problem of passive error concealment for wavelet coded data with dispersive packetization. The reported techniques of this kind have many problems and usually fail in the reconstruction of high-frequency content. This paper presents a novel locally adaptive error concealment method for subband coded I-frames based on an inhomogeneous Gaussian Markov random field model. We estimate the parameters of this model from a local context of each lost coefficient, and we interpolate the lost coefficients accordingly. The results demonstrate a significant improvement over the reported related methods both in terms of objective performance measures and visually. The biggest improvement of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art in the field is the correct reconstruction of high-frequency information such as textures and edges.

  17. Algorithms for detecting concealed knowledge among groups when the critical information is unavailable.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Gronau, Nurit

    2012-09-01

    We examined whether the Concealed Information Test (CIT) may be used when the critical details are unavailable to investigators (the Searching CIT [SCIT]). This use may have important applications in criminal investigations (e.g., finding the location of a murder weapon) and in security-related threats (e.g., detecting individuals and groups suspected in planning a terror attack). Two classes of algorithms designed to detect the critical items and classify individuals in the SCIT were examined. The 1st class was based on averaging responses across subjects to identify critical items and on averaging responses across the identified critical items to identify knowledgeable subjects. The 2nd class used clustering methods based on the correlations between the response profiles of all subject pairs. We applied a principal component analysis to decompose the correlation matrix into its principal components and defined the detection score as the coefficient of each subject on the component that explained the largest portion of the variance. Reanalysis of 3 data sets from previous CIT studies demonstrated that in most cases the efficiency of differentiation between knowledgeable and unknowledgeable subjects in the SCIT (indexed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) approached that of the standard CIT for both algorithms. We also examined the robustness of our results to variations in the number of knowledgeable and unknowledgeable subjects in the sample. This analysis demonstrated that the performance of our algorithms is relatively robust to changes in the number of individuals examined in each group, provided that at least 2 (but desirably 5 or more) knowledgeable examinees are included.

  18. Expanded opportunities of THz passive camera for the detection of concealed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2013-10-01

    Among the security problems, the detection of object implanted into either the human body or animal body is the urgent problem. At the present time the main tool for the detection of such object is X-raying only. However, X-ray is the ionized radiation and therefore can not be used often. Other way for the problem solving is passive THz imaging using. In our opinion, using of the passive THz camera may help to detect the object implanted into the human body under certain conditions. The physical reason of such possibility arises from temperature trace on the human skin as a result of the difference in temperature between object and parts of human body. Modern passive THz cameras have not enough resolution in temperature to see this difference. That is why, we use computer processing to enhance the passive THz camera resolution for this application. After computer processing of images captured by passive THz camera TS4, developed by ThruVision Systems Ltd., we may see the pronounced temperature trace on the human body skin from the water, which is drunk by person, or other food eaten by person. Nevertheless, there are many difficulties on the way of full soution of this problem. We illustrate also an improvement of quality of the image captured by comercially available passive THz cameras using computer processing. In some cases, one can fully supress a noise on the image without loss of its quality. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts.

  19. Remote Detection of Concealed Radioactive Materials by Using Focused Powerful Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2016-06-01

    This review paper summarizes the results of studies of a novel concept of the remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by using focused high-power terahertz (THz) radiation. The concept is based on the known fact that the ambient electron density in air is low (one to three free electrons per cubic centimeter). These electrons can serve as seed electrons from which an avalanche breakdown in strong electromagnetic fields starts. When a powerful THz radiation is focused in a small spot, the breakdown-prone volume can be much smaller than a cubic centimeter. So, the probability of having some free electrons in this volume and, hence, the probability of breakdown are low in the absence of additional sources of air ionization. However, in the vicinity of radioactive materials (10-20 m), the electron density can be higher, and, hence, there are always some seed free electrons from which the avalanche ionization will start. Thus, the breakdown rate in this case can be close to 100 %. Realization of this concept requires studies of various physical and technical issues. First, it is necessary to develop a high-power source of (sub-) THz radiation whose power, frequency, and pulse duration are sufficient for realizing this goal. Second, it is necessary to analyze numerous issues important for realizing this concept. Among these issues are (a) enhancement of the ionization level of air molecules in the presence of hidden radioactive materials, (b) estimating the minimum detectable mass of radioactive material, (c) formation of breakdown-prone volumes in focused THz wave beams, and (d) effect of atmospheric conditions on the propagation and focusing of THz wave beams and on the optimal location of the breakdown-prone volume between a container with hidden radioactive material and a THz antenna. The results of these studies are described below.

  20. Design of spectrally versatile forward-looking ground-penetrating radar for detection of concealed targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Brian R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2013-05-01

    The design of high-resolution radars which can operate in theater involves a careful consideration of the radar's radiated spectrum. While a wide bandwidth yields better target detectability and classification, it can also interfere with other devices and/or violate federal and international communication laws. Under the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Partnerships in Research Transition (PIRT) program, we are developing a Stepped-Frequency Radar (SFR) which allows for manipulation of the radiated spectrum, while still maintaining an effective ultra-wide bandwidth for achieving good range resolution. The SFR is a forward-looking, ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging radar capable of detecting concealed targets. This paper presents the research and analysis undertaken during the design of the SFR which will eventually complement an existing ARL system, the Synchronous Impulse REconstruction (SIRE) radar. The SFR is capable of excising prohibited frequency bands, while maintaining the down-range resolution capability of the original SIRE radar. The SFR has two transmit antennas and a 16-element receive antenna array, and this configuration achieves suitable cross-range resolution for target detection. The SFR, like the SIRE radar, is a vehicle mounted, forward-looking, ground penetrating radar (GPR) capable of using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology for the detection of subsurface targets via 3D imaging. Many contradicting design considerations are analyzed in this paper. The selection of system bandwidth, antenna types, number of antennas, frequency synthesizers, digitizers, receive amplifiers, wideband splitters, and many other components are critical to the design of the SFR. Leveraging commercial components and SIRE sub-systems were design factors offering an expedited time to the initial implementation of the radar while reducing overall costs. This SFR design will result in an ARL asset to support obscured target detection such as improvised explosive devices

  1. Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Huang, Zirui; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Dai, Rui; Northoff, Georg; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of "Yes/No" thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary "Yes/No" question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of "Yes/No" thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions--namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus--exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5%, 77.5%, and 79.5%, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66%, 75%, and 78.5%. These results provide evidence that concealed "Yes/No" thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think

  2. Concealed d-wave pairs in the s± condensate of iron-based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Ong, Tzen; Coleman, Piers; Schmalian, Jörg

    2016-05-17

    A central question in iron-based superconductivity is the mechanism by which the paired electrons minimize their strong mutual Coulomb repulsion. In most unconventional superconductors, Coulomb repulsion is minimized through the formation of higher angular momentum Cooper pairs, with Fermi surface nodes in the pair wavefunction. The apparent absence of such nodes in the iron-based superconductors has led to a belief they form an s-wave ([Formula: see text]) singlet state, which changes sign between the electron and hole pockets. However, the multiorbital nature of these systems opens an alternative possibility. Here, we propose a new class of [Formula: see text] state containing a condensate of d-wave Cooper pairs, concealed by their entanglement with the iron orbitals. By combining the d-wave ([Formula: see text]) motion of the pairs with the internal angular momenta [Formula: see text] of the iron orbitals to make a singlet ([Formula: see text]), an [Formula: see text] superconductor with a nontrivial topology is formed. This scenario allows us to understand the development of octet nodes in potassium-doped Ba1-x KXFe2As2 as a reconfiguration of the orbital and internal angular momentum into a high spin ([Formula: see text]) state; the reverse transition under pressure into a fully gapped state can then be interpreted as a return to the low-spin singlet. The formation of orbitally entangled pairs is predicted to give rise to a shift in the orbital content at the Fermi surface, which can be tested via laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. PMID:27140626

  3. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy for Carcinoma of the Penis Confined to the Glans (N- or NX)

    SciTech Connect

    Crevoisier, Renaud de Slimane, Khemais; Sanfilippo, Nicholas; Bossi, Alberto; Albano, Maryvonne; Dumas, Isabelle; Wibault, Pierre; Fizazi, Karim; Gerbaulet, Alain; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the results of exclusive interstitial low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis, strictly confined to the glans. Methods and Materials: A total of 144 patients with SSC of the glans penis were treated with BT. Inguinal nodal dissection was performed in 19% of patients (all N-). After circumcision, BT was performed using the hypodermic needle technique. Median iridium length per patients was 24 cm (range, 4-108) and median dose was 65 Gy (range, 37-75). Median treated volume was 22 cm{sup 3} (range, 5-110) and median reference isodose rate was 0.4 Gy/h (range, 0.2-1.2). Results: Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 0.5-29). The 10-year penile recurrence, inguinal lymph node recurrence, and inguinal nodal metastasis rates were: 20% (CI 95%, 11-29), 11% (CI 95%, 5-17), and 6% (CI 95%, 2-10), respectively. After salvage treatment, 86% patients with local failure were in a complete remission at last follow-up. The 10-year probability of avoiding penile surgery (for complication or local recurrence) was 72% (CI 95%, 62-82). The 10-year cancer-specific survival rate was 92% (CI 95%, 87-97). Diameter of tumor significantly increased the risk of recurrence (p = 0.02). The 10-year painful ulceration and stenosis risk rates were: 26% (CI 95%, 17-35) and 29% (CI 95%, 18-40), respectively. Seven patients required excision for necrosis. Treated volume and reference isodose rate significantly increased the risk of complications. Conclusion: BT is an effective conservative treatment for SCC confined to the glans. Salvage local treatment is effective. Dose rate should be limited to decrease toxicity.

  4. Detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers using SORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Loeffen, Paul W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2010-10-01

    The reliable detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers, with low falsealarm rate, is a problem in numerous areas of security. For example, in aviation security, there is no reliable methodology for alarm resolution of substances with high chemical specificity unless the substances are in optically transparent containers. We present a recently developed method called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) which enables the discrimination of the Raman spectrum of the content substance from the Raman spectrum of the container material with no prior knowledge of either, thereby allowing unambiguous identification of the container contents. The method is effective with coloured plastic containers that are several millimetres thick and which are not see-through to the eye and also for coloured glass bottles. Such cases do not typically yield to conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy (or have poor false-alarm rates) since the content signal is often overwhelmed by the signal from the container, which may in addition have a strong interfering fluorescence background. SORS measurement can be performed in a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods. The content spectrum can then be compared to a reference library of pure materials to give a threat evaluation with a confidence level not compromised by interfering signals originating from the container wall. In this paper, we describe the methods and their optimization, and characterize their performance in practical screening applications. The study shows that there is

  5. Big tobacco is watching: British American Tobacco's surveillance and information concealment at the Guildford depository.

    PubMed

    Muggli, Monique E; LeGresley, Eric M; Hurt, Richard D

    2004-05-29

    The 1998 State of Minnesota legal settlement with the tobacco industry required British American Tobacco (BAT) to provide public access to the 8 million pages housed in its document depository located near Guildford, UK, and to any company documents sent to the Minnesota depository. While the Minnesota depository is managed by an independent third party, BAT's Guildford depository is run by the company itself. Starkly different from the Minnesota depository, at the Guildford depository it is extraordinarily more difficult to access, search, and obtain requested documents. BAT's approach to running the Guildford depository, in our view, amounts to concealing what is supposed to be public information. Newly produced BAT documents from subsequent litigation, dating from 1996 to 2001 disclose the company's efforts to gather intelligence on visitors and their work. We believe that BAT has acted to make access to information more difficult by delaying document production requested by public visitors and refusing to supply requested documents in an electronic format despite, in the company's own words, the establishment of "big time imaging" capabilities at the Guildford depository. During testimony in 2000, then BAT Chairman, Martin Broughton stated to the UK House of Commons Health Select Committee that the scanning and subsequent placement of the Guildford collection online "would be an extreme effort for absolutely no purpose whatsoever", stating that "there is no indication to me that serious researchers are showing any interest in the papers em leader ". New documents show that not only did the company recognise the importance of research undertaken by visitors, but also invested substantial resources and undertook numerous scanning projects during that time. The vulnerability of this important resource is demonstrated by the decreased number of files listed on the electronic database and the inadvertent deletion of an audio tape housed at the depository. With

  6. Concealed carry weapon permits: a Second Amendment right or a recipe for disaster on our nation's campuses?

    PubMed

    Fennell, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Crimes on college campuses can "strike fear" into the lives of those in higher education and a shooting is one of the crimes that ranks at the top of the most feared acts of violence. Maybe more direct counseling for clients who have weapons with regard to anticipatory guidance on firearms is needed. However, the debate continues with proposed legislation in different states regarding Second Amendment rights to legally carry concealed weapons on our Nation's campuses. What should be our response to this legislation? PMID:19892645

  7. Concealed carry weapon permits: a Second Amendment right or a recipe for disaster on our nation's campuses?

    PubMed

    Fennell, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Crimes on college campuses can "strike fear" into the lives of those in higher education and a shooting is one of the crimes that ranks at the top of the most feared acts of violence. Maybe more direct counseling for clients who have weapons with regard to anticipatory guidance on firearms is needed. However, the debate continues with proposed legislation in different states regarding Second Amendment rights to legally carry concealed weapons on our Nation's campuses. What should be our response to this legislation?

  8. Noise-resistant system of concealed information transfer on a chaotic delayed feedback oscillator with switchable delay time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kul'minskii, D. D.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Karavaev, A. S.; Prokhorov, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a system of concealed information transfer based on a delayed feedback oscillator with switchable chaotic regimes. The proposed system is analyzed numerically and experimentally. The dependences of the bit error rate during transmission of a binary information signal on the signal-to-noise ratio, attenuation of the signal in the communication channel, and the duration of the time interval during which a bit is transferred are constructed. The high stability of the system to noise and amplitude distortions of a signal in the communication channel is demonstrated.

  9. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology.

  10. Using pretest data to screen low-reactivity individuals in the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro; Tsuneoka, Michiko; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) can be used to assess whether an individual possesses crime-related information. However, its discrimination performance has room for improvement. We examined whether screening out participants who do not respond distinctively on a pretest improves the diagnosticity of a mock-crime CIT. Before conducting the CIT, we gave a pretest to 152 participants, 80 of whom were assigned as guilty. Pretest screening significantly improved the diagnostic value of the mock-crime CIT; however, it also led to a substantial number of undiagnosed participants (33.6%). Pretest screening holds promise, but its application would benefit from dedicated measures for screening out participants. PMID:25208848

  11. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology. PMID:25466156

  12. Imaging the concealed section of the Whakatane fault below Whakatane city, New Zealand, with a shear wave land streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, Ulrich; Mueller, Christof; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2016-04-01

    The Mw 7.1 Darfield Earthquake in September 2010 ruptured the surface along the Greendale Fault that was not known prior to the earthquake. The subsequent Mw 6.3 Christchurch earthquake in February 2011 demonstrated that concealed active faults have a significant risk potential for urban infrastructure and human life in New Zealand if they are located beneath or close to such areas. Mapping exposures and analysis of active faults incorporated into the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) suggests that several thousands of these active structures are yet to be identified and have the potential to generate moderate to large magnitude earthquakes (i.e. magnitudes >5). Geological mapping suggests that active faults pass beneath, or within many urban areas in New Zealand, including Auckland, Blenheim, Christchurch, Hastings/Napier, Nelson, Rotorua, Taupo, Wellington, and Whakatane. Since no established methodology for routinely locating and assessing the earthquake hazard posed by concealed active faults is available, the principal objective of the presented study was to evaluate the usefulness of high-resolution shear wave seismic reflection profiling using a land streamer to locate buried faults in urban areas of New Zealand. During the survey carried out in the city of Whakatane in February 2015, the method was first tested over a well known surface outcrop of the Edgecumbe Fault 30 km south-west of Whakatane city. This allowed further to investigate the principle shear wave propagation characteristics in the unknown sediments, consisting mainly of effusive rock material of the Taupo volcanic zone mixed with marine transgression units. Subsequently the survey was continued within Whakatane city using night operation time slots to reduce the urban noise. In total, 11 profiles of 5.7 km length in high data quality were acquired, which clearly show concealed rupture structures of obviously different age in the shallow sediments down to 100 m depth. Subject to depth

  13. Hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction: endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the mouse penis by NAD(P)H oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Strong, Travis D.; Sezen, Sena F.; Johnson, Justin M.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hypercholesterolemia induces erectile dysfunction (ED) mostly by increasing oxidative stress and impairing endothelial function in the penis, but the mechanisms regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are not understood. AIMS We evaluated whether hypercholesterolemia activates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase in the penis, providing an initial source of ROS to induce endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and endothelial dysfunction resulting in ED. METHODS Low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)–null mice were fed Western diet for 4 weeks to induce early-stage hyperlipidemia. Wild type (WT) mice fed regular chow served as controls. Mice received NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Erectile function was assessed in response to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation. Markers of endothelial function (phospho [P]-vasodilator-stimulated-protein [VASP]-Ser-239), oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NAD[P]H oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), P-eNOS-Ser-1177, and eNOS were measured by Western blot in penes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Molecular mechanisms of ROS generation and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia-induced ED. RESULTS Erectile response was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in hypercholesterolemic LDLR-null mice compared to WT mice. Relative to WT mice, hypercholesterolemia increased (P<0.05) protein expressions of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox and gp91phox, eNOS uncoupling, and 4-HNE-modified proteins, and reduced (P<0.05) P-VASP-Ser-239 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of LDLR-null mice preserved (P<0.05) maximal intracavernosal pressure, and reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of gp67phox and gp47phox, 4-HNE, P-VASP-Ser-239, and eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters

  14. Pixel-level Matching Based Multi-hypothesis Error Concealment Modes for Wireless 3D H.264/MVC Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shafai, Walid

    2015-09-01

    3D multi-view video (MVV) is multiple video streams shot by several cameras around a single scene simultaneously. Therefore it is an urgent task to achieve high 3D MVV compression to meet future bandwidth constraints while maintaining a high reception quality. 3D MVV coded bit-streams that are transmitted over wireless network can suffer from error propagation in the space, time and view domains. Error concealment (EC) algorithms have the advantage of improving the received 3D video quality without any modifications in the transmission rate or in the encoder hardware or software. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D MVV, we propose an efficient adaptive EC algorithm with multi-hypothesis modes to conceal the erroneous Macro-Blocks (MBs) of intra-coded and inter-coded frames by exploiting the spatial, temporal and inter-view correlations between frames and views. Our proposed algorithm adapts to 3D MVV motion features and to the error locations. The lost MBs are optimally recovered by utilizing motion and disparity matching between frames and views on pixel-by-pixel matching basis. Our simulation results show that the proposed adaptive multi-hypothesis EC algorithm can significantly improve the objective and subjective 3D MVV quality.

  15. Electron beam injected into ground generates subsoil x-rays that may deactivate concealed electronics used to trigger explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Explosively formed projectiles (EFP) are a major problem in terrorism and asymmetrical warfare. EFPs are often triggered by ordinary infrared motion detectors. A potential weak link is that such electronics are not hardened to ionizing radiation and can latch-up or enter other inoperative states after exposure to a single short event of ionizing radiation. While these can often be repaired with a power restart, they also can produce shorts and permanent damage. A problem of course is that we do not want to add radiation exposure to the long list of war related hazards. Biological systems are highly sensitive to integrated dosage but show no particular sensitivity to short pulses. There may be a way to generate short pulsed subsoil radiation to deactivate concealed electronics without introducing radiation hazards to military personnel and civilian bystanders. Electron beams of 30 MeV that can be produced by portable linear accelerators (linacs) propagate >20 m in air and 10-12 cm in soil. X-radiation is produced by bremsstrahlung and occurs subsoil beneath the point of impact and is mostly forward directed. Linacs 1.5 m long can produce 66 MWatt pulses of subsoil x-radiation 1 microsecond or less in duration. Untested as yet, such a device could be mounted on a robotic vehicle that precedes a military convoy and deactivates any concealed electronics within 10-20 meters on either side of the road.

  16. Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Smith, S.M.; Giles, S.A.; Granitto, Matthew; Eppinger, R.G.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Shah, A.K.; Kelley, K.D.; Fey, D.L.; Minsley, B.J.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey began a multidisciplinary study in southwest Alaska to investigate the setting and detectability of mineral deposits in concealed volcanic and glacial terranes. The study area hosts the world-class Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, and through collaboration with the Pebble Limited Partnership, a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations was carried out in proximity to the deposit. The deposit is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-mineralization volcanic rocks. The discovery of mineral resources beneath cover is becoming more important because most of the mineral resources at the surface have already been discovered. Research is needed to identify ways in which to assess for concealed mineral resources. This report presents the uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010, and makes the data available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

  17. Cytology of the outer penis epithelium of Buccinum undatum (L.) from the arctic region — an observation of the imposex phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brick, M.; Bolte, M.

    1994-03-01

    TBT (tributyltin)-induced imposex is observed in female Buccinum undatum from the arctic region. The fine structure of the male penis epithelium was investigated and the results were compared between specimens from non-polluted (Spitsbergen, Norway) and highly-polluted (Brittany, France) areas. Differences in the arrangement and structure of the apical microvilli-border, the intercellular spaces, RER and SER content, as well as a high rate of parasitism in the tissue of individuals from Brittany can be detected between the species of both areas. The results indicate a higher degree of pathological changes in the penis epithelial cells of individuals from TBT-polluted areas than in those from Spitsbergen.

  18. A comment on Farwell (2012): brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Verschuere, Bruno; Donchin, Emanuel

    2013-04-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell's review covered much of his own work employing his "brain fingerprinting" technology. All his work showed a 100 % accuracy rate in detecting concealed information. We argue in this comment that Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) is misleading and misrepresents the scientific status of brain fingerprinting technology.

  19. Sonic hedgehog cascade is required for penile postnatal morphogenesis, differentiation, and adult homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, Carol A; Zelner, David J; Jiang, Hong Bin; Tang, Yi; Houston, John; McKenna, Kevin E; McVary, Kevin T

    2003-02-01

    The penis is unique in that it undergoes morphogenesis and differentiation primarily in the postnatal period. For complex structures such as the penis to be made from undifferentiated precursor cells, proliferation, differentiation, and patterning are required. This process involves coordinated activity of multiple signals. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) forms part of a regulatory cascade that is essential for growth and morphogenesis of many tissues. It is hypothesized that the penis utilizes regulatory mechanisms similar to those of the limb and accessory sex organs to pattern penile postnatal morphogenesis and differentiation and that the Shh cascade is critical to this process. To test this hypothesis, Shh, BMP-4, Ptc, and Hoxa-10 localization and function were examined in Sprague-Dawley rat penes by means of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. These genes were expressed in the penis during postnatal morphogenesis in a spatially and temporally restricted manner in adjacent layers of the corpora cavernosal sinusoids. The function of Shh and BMP-4 is to establish and maintain corpora cavernosal sinusoids. The data suggest that Ptc and Hoxa-10 are also important in penile morphogenesis. The continuing function of Shh and targets of its signaling in maintaining penile homeostasis in the adult is significant because disruption of Shh signaling affects erectile function. This is the first report that demonstrates the significant role that Shh plays in establishing and maintaining penile homeostasis and how this relates to erectile function. These studies provide valuable insight that may be applied to improve treatment options for erectile dysfunction. PMID:12533405

  20. Sildenafil Citrate-Restored eNOS and PDE5 Regulation in Sickle Cell Mouse Penis Prevents Priapism Via Control of Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Lewis L.; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders. PMID:23844149

  1. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of

  2. Discovery of a concealed geothermal resource in the Alturas Basin, and its implications for further exploration in northeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, B.; Juncal, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988 a so far unknown geothermal resource was drilled into under the City of Alturas in northeastern California. A fracture was tapped below 2300 feet, in cemented fine-grained tuffs and mudflows, producing 182{degrees}F water. The well has been used since 1990 to heat the local high school. A second well was drilled in 1991, producing about 250 gpm 182{degrees}F water from a fracture below 1893 ft. Well productivities and artesian pressures are variable, depending on distance from a major fault zone and local hydrologic regime. It appears as if the wells produce from deep reaching fractures in a caprock, that may conceal a 300 to 400{degrees}F resource between 4000 and 6000 feet depth. The results have important implications for geothermal exploration in northeastern California, i.e. just because there are no surface manifestations in a basin, it does not necessarily mean there is no geothermal resource at depth.

  3. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity.

  4. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity. PMID:25128283

  5. Packers, pushers and stuffers--managing patients with concealed drugs in UK emergency departments: a clinical and medicolegal review.

    PubMed

    Booker, R J; Smith, J E; Rodger, M P

    2009-05-01

    Body packing, pushing and stuffing are methods by which illicit drugs may be carried within the human body. Patients involved in these practices may present UK emergency departments with complex medical, legal and ethical considerations. This review article examines not only the evidence behind the clinical management of these patients, but also the legal powers afforded to the authorities to authorise the use of intimate searches and diagnostic imaging for forensic purposes. Serious complications from concealed drug packets are now rare, and most asymptomatic patients may be safely discharged from hospital after assessment. Emergency surgery is indicated for body packers with cocaine poisoning and for some cases of heroin poisoning. Urgent surgery is indicated for obstruction, perforation, the passage of packet fragments and failure of conservative treatment. Guidance is given for doctors who are faced with requests from the authorities to perform intimate searches and diagnostic imaging for forensic purposes.

  6. Lead isotopes in iron and manganese oxide coatings and their use as an exploration guide for concealed mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulson, B.L.; Church, S.E.; Mizon, K.J.; Meier, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Lead isotopes from Fe and Mn oxides that coat stream pebbles from around the Mount Emmons porphyry molybdenum deposit in Colorado were studied to assess the feasibility of using Pb isotopes to detect concealed mineral deposits. The Fe/Mn oxide coatings were analyzed to determine their elemental concentrations using ICP-AES. The Pb isotope compositions of solutions from a selected suite of samples were measured, using both thermal ionization and ICP mass spectrometry, to compare results determined by the two analytical methods. Heavy mineral concentrates from the same sites were also analyzed to compare the Pb isotope compositions of the Fe/Mn coatings with those found in panned concentrates. The Fe/Mn and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of the oxide coatings are related to the lithology of the host rocks; Fe/Mn oxide coatings on pebbles of black shale have higher Fe/Mn values than do the coatings on either sandstone or igneous rocks. The shale host rocks have a more radiogenic signature (e.g. higher 206Pb/ 204Pb) than the sandstone or igneous host rocks. The Pb isotope data from sandstone and igneous hosts can detect concealed mineralized rock on both a regional and local scale, even though there are contributions from: (1) metals from the main-stage molybdenite ore deposit; (2) metals from the phyllic alteration zone which has a more radiogenic Pb isotope signature reflecting hydrothermal leaching of Pb from the Mancos Shale; (3) Pb-rich base metal veins with a highly variable Pb isotope signature; and (4) sedimentary country rocks which have a more radiogenic Pb isotope signature. An investigation of within-stream variation shows that the Pb isotope signature of the molybdenite ore zone is retained in the Fe/Mn oxide coatings and is not camouflaged by contributions from Pb-rich base-metal veins that crop out upstream. In another traverse, the Pb isotope data from Fe/Mn oxide coatings reflect a complex mixing of Pb from the molybdenite ore zone and its hornfels margin, Pb

  7. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  8. Hidden from health: structural stigma, sexual orientation concealment, and HIV across 38 countries in the European MSM Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter; Berg, Rigmor C.; Marcus, Ulrich; Schmidt, Axel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Substantial country-level variation exists in prejudiced attitudes towards male homosexuality and in the extent to which countries promote the unequal treatment of MSM through discriminatory laws. The impact and underlying mechanisms of country-level stigma on odds of diagnosed HIV, sexual opportunities, and experience of HIV-prevention services, needs and behaviours have rarely been examined, however. Design Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS), which was administered between June and August 2010 across 38 European countries (N =174 209). Methods Country-level stigma was assessed using a combination of national laws and policies affecting sexual minorities and a measure of attitudes held by the citizens of each country. We also assessed concealment, HIV status, number of past 12-month male sex partners, and eight HIV-preventive services, knowledge, and behavioural outcomes. Results MSM living in countries with higher levels of stigma had reduced odds of diagnosed HIV and fewer partners but higher odds of sexual risk behaviour, unmet prevention needs, not using testing services, and not discussing their sexuality in testing services. Sexual orientation concealment mediated associations between country-level stigma and these outcomes. Conclusion Country-level stigma may have historically limited HIV transmission opportunities among MSM, but by restricting MSM’s public visibility, it also reduces MSM’s ability to access HIV-preventive services, knowledge and precautionary behaviours. These findings suggest that MSM in European countries with high levels of stigma are vulnerable to HIV infection. Although they have less opportunity to identify and contact other MSM, this might change with emerging technologies. PMID:26035323

  9. Mental Health Stigma, Self-Concealment, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among Asian American and European American College Students with No Help-Seeking Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…

  10. Attitudes toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Roles of Self-Concealment, Openness to Experience, Loss of Face, Stigma, and Disclosure Expectations among Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathje, Geoff J.; Kim, Eunha; Rau, Ellen; Bassiouny, Muhammad Adam; Kim, Taehoon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward face-to-face (f2f) and online counseling among 228 Korean college students. In addition, it tested a hypothesized model proposing that general propensities (i.e., self-concealment, openness to experience, and loss of face) would influence counseling-specific expectations (i.e., self-stigma and disclosure…

  11. Mental Health Stigma and Self-Concealment as Predictors of Help-Seeking Attitudes among Latina/o College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Hadrian; Masuda, Akihiko; Swartout, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether mental health stigma and self-concealment are uniquely related to various dimensions of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological services (i.e., help-seeking attitudes) in Latina/o college students. Data from 129 Latina/o undergraduates (76% female) were used in the analysis. Results revealed that mental…

  12. ‘I am doing fine only because I have not told anyone’: the necessity of concealment in the lives of people living with HIV in India

    PubMed Central

    George, Mathew Sunil; Lambert, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In HIV prevention and care programmes, disclosure of status by HIV-positive individuals is generally encouraged to contain the infection and provide adequate support to the person concerned. Lack of disclosure is generally framed as a barrier to preventive behaviours and accessing support. The assumption that disclosure is beneficial is also reflected in studies that aim to identify determinants of disclosure and recommend individual-level measures to promote disclosure. However, in contexts where HIV infection is stigmatised and there is fear of rejection and discrimination among those living with HIV, concealment of status becomes a way to try and regain as much as possible the life that was disrupted by the discovery of HIV infection. In this study of HIV-positive women and children in India, concealment was considered essential by individuals and families of those living with HIV to re-establish and maintain their normal lives in an environment where stigma and discrimination were prevalent. This paper describes why women and care givers of children felt the need to conceal HIV status, the various ways in which people tried to do so and the implications for treatment of people living with HIV. We found that while women were generally willing to disclose their status to their husband or partner, they were very keen to conceal their status from all others, including family members. Parents and carers with an HIV-positive child were not willing to disclose this status to the child or to others. Understanding the different rationales for concealment would help policy makers and programme managers to develop more appropriate care management strategies and train care providers to assist clients in accessing care and support without disrupting their lives. PMID:25706959

  13. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  14. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa.

  15. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  16. Investigation of the structure and lithology of bedrock concealed by basin fill, using ground-based magnetic-field-profile data acquired in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the Earth’s total-intensity magnetic field acquired near ground level and at measurement intervals as small as 1 m include information on the spatial distribution of nearsurface magnetic dipoles that in many cases are unique to a specific lithology. Such spatial information is expressed in the texture (physical appearance or characteristics) of the data at scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers. These magnetic textures are characterized by several descriptive statistics, their power spectrum, and their multifractal spectrum. On the basis of a graphical comparison and textural characterization, ground-based magnetic-field profile data can be used to estimate bedrock lithology concealed by as much as 100 m of basin fill in some cases, information that is especially important in assessing and exploring for concealed mineral deposits. I demonstrate that multifractal spectra of ground-based magnetic-field-profile data can be used to differentiate exposed lithologies and that the shape and position of the multifractal spectrum of the ground-based magnetic-field-profile of concealed lithologies can be matched to the upward-continued multifractal spectrum of an exposed lithology to help distinguish the concealed lithology. In addition, ground-based magnetic-field-profile data also detect minute differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks over small horizontal and vertical distances and so can be used for precise modeling of bedrock geometry and structure, even when that bedrock is concealed by 100 m or more of nonmagnetic basin fill. Such data contain valuable geologic information on the bedrock concealed by basin fill that may not be so visible in aeromagnetic data, including areas of hydrothermal alteration, faults, and other bedrock structures. Interpretation of these data in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona, has yielded results for estimating concealed lithologies, concealed structural geology, and a concealed potential mineral

  17. Correlative 3D-imaging of Pipistrellus penis micromorphology: Validating quantitative microCT images with undecalcified serial ground section histomorphology.

    PubMed

    Herdina, Anna Nele; Plenk, Hanns; Benda, Petr; Lina, Peter H C; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Hilgers, Helge; Metscher, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of histomorphology is a prerequisite for the understanding of function, variation, and development. In bats, as in other mammals, penis and baculum morphology are important in species discrimination and phylogenetic studies. In this study, nondestructive 3D-microtomographic (microCT, µCT) images of bacula and iodine-stained penes of Pipistrellus pipistrellus were correlated with light microscopic images from undecalcified surface-stained ground sections of three of these penes of P. pipistrellus (1 juvenile). The results were then compared with µCT-images of bacula of P. pygmaeus, P. hanaki, and P. nathusii. The Y-shaped baculum in all studied Pipistrellus species has a proximal base with two club-shaped branches, a long slender shaft, and a forked distal tip. The branches contain a medullary cavity of variable size, which tapers into a central canal of variable length in the proximal baculum shaft. Both are surrounded by a lamellar and a woven bone layer and contain fatty marrow and blood vessels. The distal shaft consists of woven bone only, without a vascular canal. The proximal ends of the branches are connected with the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa via entheses. In the penis shaft, the corpus spongiosum-surrounded urethra lies in a ventral grove of the corpora cavernosa, and continues in the glans under the baculum. The glans penis predominantly comprises an enlarged corpus spongiosum, which surrounds urethra and baculum. In the 12 studied juvenile and subadult P. pipistrellus specimens the proximal branches of the baculum were shorter and without marrow cavity, while shaft and distal tip appeared already fully developed. The present combination with light microscopic images from one species enabled a more reliable interpretation of histomorphological structures in the µCT-images from all four Pipistrellus species. PMID:25703625

  18. Correlative 3D-imaging of Pipistrellus penis micromorphology: Validating quantitative microCT images with undecalcified serial ground section histomorphology.

    PubMed

    Herdina, Anna Nele; Plenk, Hanns; Benda, Petr; Lina, Peter H C; Herzig-Straschil, Barbara; Hilgers, Helge; Metscher, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of histomorphology is a prerequisite for the understanding of function, variation, and development. In bats, as in other mammals, penis and baculum morphology are important in species discrimination and phylogenetic studies. In this study, nondestructive 3D-microtomographic (microCT, µCT) images of bacula and iodine-stained penes of Pipistrellus pipistrellus were correlated with light microscopic images from undecalcified surface-stained ground sections of three of these penes of P. pipistrellus (1 juvenile). The results were then compared with µCT-images of bacula of P. pygmaeus, P. hanaki, and P. nathusii. The Y-shaped baculum in all studied Pipistrellus species has a proximal base with two club-shaped branches, a long slender shaft, and a forked distal tip. The branches contain a medullary cavity of variable size, which tapers into a central canal of variable length in the proximal baculum shaft. Both are surrounded by a lamellar and a woven bone layer and contain fatty marrow and blood vessels. The distal shaft consists of woven bone only, without a vascular canal. The proximal ends of the branches are connected with the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa via entheses. In the penis shaft, the corpus spongiosum-surrounded urethra lies in a ventral grove of the corpora cavernosa, and continues in the glans under the baculum. The glans penis predominantly comprises an enlarged corpus spongiosum, which surrounds urethra and baculum. In the 12 studied juvenile and subadult P. pipistrellus specimens the proximal branches of the baculum were shorter and without marrow cavity, while shaft and distal tip appeared already fully developed. The present combination with light microscopic images from one species enabled a more reliable interpretation of histomorphological structures in the µCT-images from all four Pipistrellus species.

  19. Iatrogenic homosexuality: gender identity in seven 46,XX chromosomal females with hyperadrenocortical hermaphroditism born with a penis, three reared as boys, four reared as girls.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Daléry, J

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes seven chromosomal and gonadal females with the adrenogenital syndrome who were born with a penis as a result of extreme fetal androgenization. Four of them were reared as girls and differentiated a female gender identity with tomboyism. The other three were reared as boys, differentiated a male gender identity, and performed sexually as men with women partners. Even though these men are by no means homosexual in the everyday meaning of the term, the sexual relation is homosexual on the criteria of chromosomal and gonadal sex. The prenatal hormonal environment as well as the social experience of the rearing have thus demonstrated a formula for creating the perfect female homosexual.

  20. Burst Packet Loss Concealment Using Multiple Codebooks and Comfort Noise for CELP-Type Speech Coders in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Hong Kook; Jung, Min A; Lee, Seong Ro; Choi, Seung Ho

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a packet loss concealment (PLC) algorithm for CELP-type speech coders is proposed in order to improve the quality of decoded speech under burst packet loss conditions in a wireless sensor network. Conventional receiver-based PLC algorithms in the G.729 speech codec are usually based on speech correlation to reconstruct the decoded speech of lost frames by using parameter information obtained from the previous correctly received frames. However, this approach has difficulty in reconstructing voice onset signals since the parameters such as pitch, linear predictive coding coefficient, and adaptive/fixed codebooks of the previous frames are mostly related to silence frames. Thus, in order to reconstruct speech signals in the voice onset intervals, we propose a multiple codebook-based approach that includes a traditional adaptive codebook and a new random codebook composed of comfort noise. The proposed PLC algorithm is designed as a PLC algorithm for G.729 and its performance is then compared with that of the PLC algorithm currently employed in G.729 via a perceptual evaluation of speech quality, a waveform comparison, and a preference test under different random and burst packet loss conditions. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed PLC algorithm provides significantly better speech quality than the PLC algorithm employed in G.729 under all the test conditions. PMID:22163902

  1. Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for the Nondestructive Identification of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Boulton, Roger; Opastpongkarn, Arunwong; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2016-07-27

    Concealed damage (CD) is defined as a brown discoloration of the kernel interior (nutmeat) that appears only after moderate to high heat treatment (e.g., blanching, drying, roasting, etc.). Raw almonds with CD have no visible defects before heat treatment. Currently, there are no screening methods available for detecting CD in raw almonds. Herein, the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy between 1125 and 2153 nm for the detection of CD in almonds is demonstrated. Almond kernels with CD have less NIR absorbance in the region related with oil, protein, and carbohydrates. With the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and selection of specific wavelengths, three classification models were developed. The calibration models have false-positive and false-negative error rates ranging between 12.4 and 16.1% and between 10.6 and 17.2%, respectively. The percent error rates ranged between 8.2 and 9.2%. Second-derivative preprocessing of the selected wavelength resulted in the most robust predictive model. PMID:27309980

  2. Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for the Nondestructive Identification of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Boulton, Roger; Opastpongkarn, Arunwong; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2016-07-27

    Concealed damage (CD) is defined as a brown discoloration of the kernel interior (nutmeat) that appears only after moderate to high heat treatment (e.g., blanching, drying, roasting, etc.). Raw almonds with CD have no visible defects before heat treatment. Currently, there are no screening methods available for detecting CD in raw almonds. Herein, the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy between 1125 and 2153 nm for the detection of CD in almonds is demonstrated. Almond kernels with CD have less NIR absorbance in the region related with oil, protein, and carbohydrates. With the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and selection of specific wavelengths, three classification models were developed. The calibration models have false-positive and false-negative error rates ranging between 12.4 and 16.1% and between 10.6 and 17.2%, respectively. The percent error rates ranged between 8.2 and 9.2%. Second-derivative preprocessing of the selected wavelength resulted in the most robust predictive model.

  3. Memory detection with the Concealed Information Test: a meta analysis of skin conductance, respiration, heart rate, and P300 data.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Selle, Nathalie Klein; Elber, Lotem; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-09-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) uses psychophysiological measures to determine the presence or absence of crime-related information in a suspect's memory. We conducted a meta-analysis on the validity of the CIT based on four physiological measures-skin conductance response (SCR), respiration line length (RLL), changes in heart rate (HR), and enhanced amplitudes of the P300 component of the event-related potential (P300). This meta-analysis relied on laboratory studies that used either the mock-crime or the personal-item paradigm. Results showed a mean effect size (d*) of 1.55 for SCR, 1.11 for RLL, 0.89 for HR, and 1.89 for P300. However, P300 outperformed SCR only in the personal-item paradigm, but not in the mock-crime paradigm. Motivation level, number of questions, publication year, and the inclusion of innocent participants emerged as significant moderators for the SCR, while only the type of paradigm used moderated the P300 effect. PMID:24916920

  4. The dengue virus conceals double-stranded RNA in the intracellular membrane to escape from an interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Leo; Espada-Murao, Lyre Anni; Takamatsu, Yuki; Okamoto, Kenta; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Yu, Fuxun; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Buerano, Corazon C.; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV) circulates between humans and mosquitoes and requires no other mammals or birds for its maintenance in nature. The virus is well-adapted to humans, as reflected by high-level viraemia in patients. To investigate its high adaptability, the DENV induction of host type-I interferon (IFN) was assessed in vitro in human-derived HeLa cells and compared with that induced by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a closely related arbovirus that generally exhibits low viraemia in humans. A sustained viral spread with a poor IFN induction was observed in the DENV-infected cells, whereas the JEV infection resulted in a self-limiting and abortive infection with a high IFN induction. There was no difference between DENV and JEV double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as IFN inducers. Instead, the dsRNA was poorly exposed in the cytosol as late as 48 h post-infection (p.i.), despite the high level of DENV replication in the infected cells. In contrast, the JEV-derived dsRNA appeared in the cytosol as early as 24 h p.i. Our results provided evidence for the first time in DENV, that concealing dsRNA in the intracellular membrane diminishes the effect of the host defence mechanism, a strategy that differs from an active suppression of IFN activity. PMID:25491663

  5. The "good cop, bad cop" effect in the RT-based concealed information test: exploring the effect of emotional expressions displayed by a virtual investigator.

    PubMed

    Varga, Mihai; Visu-Petra, George; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Concealing the possession of relevant information represents a complex cognitive process, shaped by contextual demands and individual differences in cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. The Reaction Time-based Concealed Information Test (RT-CIT) is used to detect concealed knowledge based on the difference in RTs between denying recognition of critical (probes) and newly encountered (irrelevant) information. Several research questions were addressed in this scenario implemented after a mock crime. First, we were interested whether the introduction of a social stimulus (facial identity) simulating a virtual investigator would facilitate the process of deception detection. Next, we explored whether his emotional displays (friendly, hostile or neutral) would have a differential impact on speed of responses to probe versus irrelevant items. We also compared the impact of introducing similar stimuli in a working memory (WM) updating context without requirements to conceal information. Finally, we explored the association between deceptive behavior and individual differences in WM updating proficiency or in internalizing problems (state / trait anxiety and depression). Results indicated that the mere presence of a neutral virtual investigator slowed down participants' responses, but not the appended lie-specific time (difference between probes and irrelevants). Emotional expression was shown to differentially affect speed of responses to critical items, with positive displays from the virtual examiner enhancing lie-specific time, compared to negative facial expressions, which had an opposite impact. This valence-specific effect was not visible in the WM updating context. Higher levels of trait / state anxiety were related to faster responses to probes in the negative condition (hostile facial expression) of the RT-CIT. These preliminary findings further emphasize the need to take into account motivational and emotional factors when considering the transfer of

  6. The "good cop, bad cop" effect in the RT-based concealed information test: exploring the effect of emotional expressions displayed by a virtual investigator.

    PubMed

    Varga, Mihai; Visu-Petra, George; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Concealing the possession of relevant information represents a complex cognitive process, shaped by contextual demands and individual differences in cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. The Reaction Time-based Concealed Information Test (RT-CIT) is used to detect concealed knowledge based on the difference in RTs between denying recognition of critical (probes) and newly encountered (irrelevant) information. Several research questions were addressed in this scenario implemented after a mock crime. First, we were interested whether the introduction of a social stimulus (facial identity) simulating a virtual investigator would facilitate the process of deception detection. Next, we explored whether his emotional displays (friendly, hostile or neutral) would have a differential impact on speed of responses to probe versus irrelevant items. We also compared the impact of introducing similar stimuli in a working memory (WM) updating context without requirements to conceal information. Finally, we explored the association between deceptive behavior and individual differences in WM updating proficiency or in internalizing problems (state / trait anxiety and depression). Results indicated that the mere presence of a neutral virtual investigator slowed down participants' responses, but not the appended lie-specific time (difference between probes and irrelevants). Emotional expression was shown to differentially affect speed of responses to critical items, with positive displays from the virtual examiner enhancing lie-specific time, compared to negative facial expressions, which had an opposite impact. This valence-specific effect was not visible in the WM updating context. Higher levels of trait / state anxiety were related to faster responses to probes in the negative condition (hostile facial expression) of the RT-CIT. These preliminary findings further emphasize the need to take into account motivational and emotional factors when considering the transfer of

  7. The “Good Cop, Bad Cop” Effect in the RT-Based Concealed Information Test: Exploring the Effect of Emotional Expressions Displayed by a Virtual Investigator

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Mihai; Visu-Petra, George; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Concealing the possession of relevant information represents a complex cognitive process, shaped by contextual demands and individual differences in cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. The Reaction Time-based Concealed Information Test (RT-CIT) is used to detect concealed knowledge based on the difference in RTs between denying recognition of critical (probes) and newly encountered (irrelevant) information. Several research questions were addressed in this scenario implemented after a mock crime. First, we were interested whether the introduction of a social stimulus (facial identity) simulating a virtual investigator would facilitate the process of deception detection. Next, we explored whether his emotional displays (friendly, hostile or neutral) would have a differential impact on speed of responses to probe versus irrelevant items. We also compared the impact of introducing similar stimuli in a working memory (WM) updating context without requirements to conceal information. Finally, we explored the association between deceptive behavior and individual differences in WM updating proficiency or in internalizing problems (state / trait anxiety and depression). Results indicated that the mere presence of a neutral virtual investigator slowed down participants' responses, but not the appended lie-specific time (difference between probes and irrelevants). Emotional expression was shown to differentially affect speed of responses to critical items, with positive displays from the virtual examiner enhancing lie-specific time, compared to negative facial expressions, which had an opposite impact. This valence-specific effect was not visible in the WM updating context. Higher levels of trait / state anxiety were related to faster responses to probes in the negative condition (hostile facial expression) of the RT-CIT. These preliminary findings further emphasize the need to take into account motivational and emotional factors when considering the transfer of

  8. Novel, real-time standoff detection of explosives and other substances concealed under clothing, integrated into standard TV images via data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, G. G.; Gohel, R. B.

    2009-05-01

    A novel and low-cost technique of standoff detection is presented that permits the detection of explosives and other contraband substances that are hidden under clothing at standoff distances . The technique uses NIR beams of wavelengths found in ordinary domestic remote controls, combined with various signal recovery techniques commonly used in astronomy. This alternative technique, whilst sophisticated, utilises readily available optoelectronic components. It is inherently far more portable than currently available commercial alternatives and is easy to use. A pre-production prototype successfully detected and identified the common homemade explosives, ammonium nitrate and hydrogen peroxide, which were concealed behind clothing from a distance of 5 metres under daytime conditions. In principle, this distance could be extended as far as 50 metres without a significant increase in cost or complexity. Another advantage of this device is that apart from providing standoff chemical signatures and analyses of concealed substances, this it can simultaneously superimpose the chemical information on top of a normal TV image in a data fusion approach; that is, an image appears on the screen , the area/subject of interest can be zoomed in on and enlarged and a representation of a chemical spectrum appears on the screen underneath the image. A supplemental technique is also reported upon that, under the appropriate circumstances, enable actual imaging of concealed objects to be accomplished.

  9. Sulfur-containing particles emitted by concealed sulfide ore deposits: an unknown source of sulfur-containing particles in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J. J.; Li, Y. K.; Jiang, T.; Hu, G.

    2015-06-01

    Sources of sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and organic sulfur compounds, such as fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and animal feeding operations, have attracted considerable attention. In this study, we collected particles carried by geogas flows ascending through soil, geogas flows above the soil that had passed through the soil, and geogas flows ascending through deep faults of concealed sulfide ore deposits, and analysed them using transmission electron microscopy. Numerous crystalline and amorphous sulfur-containing particles or particle aggregations were found in the ascending geogas flows. In addition to S, the particles contained O, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Ti, Sr, Ba, Si, etc. Such particles are usually a few to several hundred nanometres in diameter with either regular or irregular morphology. The sulfur-containing particles originated from deep-seated weathering or faulting products of concealed sulfide ore deposits. The particles suspended in the ascending geogas flow migrated through faults from deep-seated sources to the atmosphere. This is a previously unknown source of the atmospheric particles. This paper reports, for the first time, the emission of sulfur-containing particles into the atmosphere from concealed sulfide ore deposits. The climatic and ecological influences of these sulfur-containing particles and particle aggregations should be assessed.

  10. Sulfur-containing particles emitted by concealed sulfide ore deposits: an unknown source of sulfur-containing particles in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Li, Y.; Jiang, T.; Hu, G.

    2014-11-01

    Sources of sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and organic sulfur compounds, such as fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and animal feeding operations, have attracted considerable attention. In this study, we collected particles carried by geogas flows ascending through soil, geogas flows above the soil that had passed through the soil, and geogas flows ascending through deep faults of concealed sulfide ore deposits and analyzed them using transmission electron microscopy. Numerous crystalline and amorphous sulfur-containing particles or particle aggregations were found in the ascending geogas flows. In addition to S, the particles contained O, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Ti, Sr, Ba, Si, etc. Such particles are usually a few to several hundred nanometers in diameter with either regular or irregular morphology. The sulfur-containing particles originated from deep-seated weathering or faulting products of concealed sulfide ore deposits. The particles suspended in the ascending geogas flow migrated through faults from deep-seated sources to the atmosphere. This is a previously unknown source of the atmospheric particles. This paper reports, for the first time, the emission of sulfur-containing particles into the atmosphere from concealed sulfide ore deposits. The climatic and ecological influences of these sulfur-containing particles and particle aggregations should to be assessed.

  11. The effects of sweep numbers per average and protocol type on the accuracy of the p300-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Ariana B; Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, we compared the accuracy of the P300 concealed information test protocol as a function of numbers of trials experienced by subjects and ERP averages analyzed by investigators. Contrary to Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), we found no evidence that 100 trial based averages are more accurate than 66 or 33 trial based averages (all numbers led to accuracies of 84-94 %). There was actually a trend favoring the lowest trial numbers. The second study compared numbers of irrelevant stimuli recalled and recognized in the 3-stimulus protocol versus the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld in Memory detection: theory and application of the concealed information test, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 63-89, 2011). Again, in contrast to expectations from Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), there were no differences between protocols, although there were more irrelevant stimuli recognized than recalled, and irrelevant 4-digit number group stimuli were neither recalled nor recognized as well as irrelevant city name stimuli. We therefore conclude that stimulus processing in the P300-based complex trial protocol-with no more than 33 sweep averages-is adequate to allow accurate detection of concealed information. PMID:24531833

  12. The effects of sweep numbers per average and protocol type on the accuracy of the p300-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Ariana B; Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, we compared the accuracy of the P300 concealed information test protocol as a function of numbers of trials experienced by subjects and ERP averages analyzed by investigators. Contrary to Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), we found no evidence that 100 trial based averages are more accurate than 66 or 33 trial based averages (all numbers led to accuracies of 84-94 %). There was actually a trend favoring the lowest trial numbers. The second study compared numbers of irrelevant stimuli recalled and recognized in the 3-stimulus protocol versus the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld in Memory detection: theory and application of the concealed information test, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 63-89, 2011). Again, in contrast to expectations from Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), there were no differences between protocols, although there were more irrelevant stimuli recognized than recalled, and irrelevant 4-digit number group stimuli were neither recalled nor recognized as well as irrelevant city name stimuli. We therefore conclude that stimulus processing in the P300-based complex trial protocol-with no more than 33 sweep averages-is adequate to allow accurate detection of concealed information.

  13. Protective effects of nutritional supplementation with arginine and glutamine on the penis of rats submitted to pelvic radiation.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, J L; Costa, W S; Felix-Patricio, B; Sampaio, F J B; Cardoso, L E M

    2014-11-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used to treat pelvic malignancies, but normal tissues near the target tumour are often affected. Our aims were thus to determine whether the structural organization of the rat penis is altered by radiation, and whether supplementation with L-arginine (ARG) or L-glutamine (GLN) would have protective effects against these alterations. Groups of rats were treated with: no intervention (CONTR); pelvic radiation, followed by sacrifice 7 (RAD7) or 15 (RAD15) days later; and pelvic radiation, daily supplementation with ARG or GLN, followed by sacrifice 7 (RAD7+ARG, RAD7+GLN) or 15 (RAD15+ARG, RAD15+GLN) days after radiation. Structural components in the corpus cavernosum (CC), tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum (TACS) and urethral epithelium (UE) were analysed using stereological and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that in the CC, connective tissue was increased by 18% in RAD15 (p < 0.04), but this change was partially prevented in RAD15+GLN (p < 0.05) and RAD15+ARG (p < 0.04). The fibrous matrix of the CC trabeculae stained evenly for collagen type I. In RAD15, the intensity of the labelling was increased, whereas in RAD15+GLN and RAD15+ARG the staining was similar to that of CONTR. No staining changes were seen in the groups that were sacrificed 7 days after radiation. Cavernosal elastic fibre content in RAD15 was increased by 61% (p < 0.004), and this was prevented in RAD15+ARG (p < 0.004) but not in RAD15+GLN. In TACS, the amino acids protected (p < 0.02) against the radiation-induced 92% increase in elastic fibre content, but only in RAD15. Cell density in the UE, as well as UE thickness, were reduced by 30% in RAD15 (p < 0.004), and there were protective effects of both amino acids. In conclusion, radiation-induced alterations in penile structures tend to be more pronounced 15 days after radiation session. Both ARG and GLN have protective effects against these changes, with the former being slightly more effective.

  14. Geometrical configurations of unphased diffraction-limited antennas in passive millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    This paper analyzes simple imaging configurations to scan a human body, suitable as passive or active millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection (CWD). The first cylindrical configuration allows a 360 degrees scan: N unphased diffraction-limited antennas each of size L are placed on a circular support surrounding the subject (allowing scanning in the horizontal plane with N non-overlapping independent beams), and this circle is mechanically displaced over the whole body height. An analytical formula gives the maximum obtainable spatial resolution for different dimensions of the circular scanning device and operating frequencies, and the number of receivers achieving this optimal resolution. Constraints to be taken into account are diffraction, the usable total length of the circle, and the full coverage by the N beams over the subject, which is modelled as a cylinder with variable radius, coaxial with the scanning circle. Numerical calculations of system resolution are shown for different operating microwave (MW) and millimetre-wave (MMW) frequencies; in order to study off-axis performances, situations where the subject is not coaxial with the scanning device are also considered. For the case of a parallelepiped to be imaged instead of a cylinder, a linear array configuration is analyzed similarly to the circular one. A theoretical study is carried out to design other curved arrays, filled with unphased diffraction-limited antennas, for the imaging of linear subjects with finer resolution. Finally, the application of such configurations is considered for the design of active imaging systems, and different system architectures are discussed.

  15. An algorithm to unveil the inner structure of objects concealed by beam divergence in radiographic image acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, G. L.; Silvani, M. I.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-11-11

    Two main parameters rule the performance of an Image Acquisition System, namely, spatial resolution and contrast. For radiographic systems using cone beam arrangements, the farther the source, the better the resolution, but the contrast would diminish due to the lower statistics. A closer source would yield a higher contrast but it would no longer reproduce the attenuation map of the object, as the incoming beam flux would be reduced by unequal large divergences and attenuation factors. This work proposes a procedure to correct these effects when the object is comprised of a hull - or encased in it - possessing a shape capable to be described in analytical geometry terms. Such a description allows the construction of a matrix containing the attenuation factors undergone by the beam from the source until its final destination at each coordinate on the 2D detector. Each matrix element incorporates the attenuation suffered by the beam after its travel through the hull wall, as well as its reduction due to the square of distance to the source and the angle it hits the detector surface. When the pixel intensities of the original image are corrected by these factors, the image contrast, reduced by the overall attenuation in the exposure phase, are recovered, allowing one to see details otherwise concealed due to the low contrast. In order to verify the soundness of this approach, synthetic images of objects of different shapes, such as plates and tubes, incorporating defects and statistical fluctuation, have been generated, recorded for further comparison and afterwards processed to improve their contrast. The developed algorithm which, generates processes and plots the images has been written in Fortran 90 language. As the resulting final images exhibit the expected improvements, it therefore seemed worthwhile to carry out further tests with actual experimental radiographies.

  16. An algorithm to unveil the inner structure of objects concealed by beam divergence in radiographic image acquisition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, G. L.; Silvani, M. I.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-11-01

    Two main parameters rule the performance of an Image Acquisition System, namely, spatial resolution and contrast. For radiographic systems using cone beam arrangements, the farther the source, the better the resolution, but the contrast would diminish due to the lower statistics. A closer source would yield a higher contrast but it would no longer reproduce the attenuation map of the object, as the incoming beam flux would be reduced by unequal large divergences and attenuation factors. This work proposes a procedure to correct these effects when the object is comprised of a hull - or encased in it - possessing a shape capable to be described in analytical geometry terms. Such a description allows the construction of a matrix containing the attenuation factors undergone by the beam from the source until its final destination at each coordinate on the 2D detector. Each matrix element incorporates the attenuation suffered by the beam after its travel through the hull wall, as well as its reduction due to the square of distance to the source and the angle it hits the detector surface. When the pixel intensities of the original image are corrected by these factors, the image contrast, reduced by the overall attenuation in the exposure phase, are recovered, allowing one to see details otherwise concealed due to the low contrast. In order to verify the soundness of this approach, synthetic images of objects of different shapes, such as plates and tubes, incorporating defects and statistical fluctuation, have been generated, recorded for further comparison and afterwards processed to improve their contrast. The developed algorithm which, generates processes and plots the images has been written in Fortran 90 language. As the resulting final images exhibit the expected improvements, it therefore seemed worthwhile to carry out further tests with actual experimental radiographies.

  17. Leiomyosarcoma of the penis.

    PubMed

    Katsikas, Vasilios S; Kalyvas, Konstantinos D; Ioannidis, Spiros S; Papathanasiou, Michalis V; Panagiotopoulou, Konstantina P; Hitiroglou, Panagiotis M; Yannakoyorgos, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of a 78-year-old patient with penile leiomyosarcoma, treated by radical penectomy. Two years after the operation the patient is without evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease.We also discuss the treatment options and attempt a review of the literature.

  18. Inflammation of the Penis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Puberty in Boys (Video) Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (News) Human Brains Aren't Distinctly Male or Female, Study Says ... hormone Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Human Brains Aren't Distinctly Male or Female, Study Says ...

  19. Concealed/Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Kate

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a cross-cultural, interdisciplinary approach to sculpture in a practice-based PhD. The research centred on context in relationship to the Giriama Commemorative Grave Posts of Kenya and my art practice in the UK. This heuristic investigation culminated in the construction of wall and floor fragments relating to vernacular…

  20. Overexpression of arginase in the aged mouse penis impairs erectile function and decreases eNOS activity: influence of in vivo gene therapy of anti-arginase.

    PubMed

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Champion, Hunter C

    2007-03-01

    Since both increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) abundance and diminished NO signaling have been reported in the aging penis, the role of NO in the adaptations of aging remains controversial. Here we tested the hypothesis that arginase, an enzyme that competes with NOS for the substrate l-arginine, contributes to erectile dysfunction with advanced age in the B6/129 mouse strain. Arginase protein abundance, mRNA expression, and enzyme activity were elevated in aged compared with young penile endothelial cells. In addition, endothelial NOS (NOS3) protein abundance was greater in aged versus young penile endothelial cells, whereas NOS activity and cGMP levels were reduced. Calcium-dependent l-arginine-to-l-citrulline conversion and cGMP formation increased significantly in aged mouse penes in the presence of the arginase inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH). However, there was no effect on l-arginine-to-l-citrulline conversion or cGMP accumulation in the endothelium from young mouse penes. To assess the functional role of arginase in the inhibition of NOS pathway responsiveness in the penis, we evaluated the effects of ABH and an adeno-associated virus encoding an antisense sequence to arginase I (AAVanti-arginase) on erectile function in vivo. ABH and AAVanti-arginase enhanced endothelium-dependent erectile responses in the aged mice without altering endothelium-independent responses. Paralleling our in vitro observations, ABH or AAVanti-arginase did not affect vascular responses in the young mice. Inhibition of the arginase pathway improves endothelial function in the aging penile circulation, suggesting that the arginase pathway may be exploited to improve erectile dysfunction associated with aging. PMID:17071735

  1. An enhanced MMW and SMMW/THz imaging system performance prediction and analysis tool for concealed weapon detection and pilotage obstacle avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2015-10-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has continued to develop and enhance a millimeter-wave (MMW) and submillimeter- wave (SMMW)/terahertz (THz)-band imaging system performance prediction and analysis tool for both the detection and identification of concealed weaponry, and for pilotage obstacle avoidance. The details of the MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security and Defence Symposium (Brugge). An advanced version of the base model that accounts for both the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system, and for the impact of target and background thermal emission, was reported on at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium (Orlando). Further development of this tool that includes a MODTRAN-based atmospheric attenuation calculator and advanced system architecture configuration inputs that allow for straightforward performance analysis of active or passive systems based on scanning (single- or line-array detector element(s)) or staring (focal-plane-array detector elements) imaging architectures was reported on at the 2011 SPIE Europe Security and Defence Symposium (Prague). This paper provides a comprehensive review of a newly enhanced MMW and SMMW/THz imaging system analysis and design tool that now includes an improved noise sub-model for more accurate and reliable performance predictions, the capability to account for postcapture image contrast enhancement, and the capability to account for concealment material backscatter with active-illumination- based systems. Present plans for additional expansion of the model's predictive capabilities are also outlined.

  2. Obstacle avoidance and concealed target detection using the Army Research Lab ultra-wideband synchronous impulse reconstruction (UWB SIRE) forward imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Wong, David; Ressler, Marc; Koenig, Francois; Stanton, Brian; Smith, Gregory; Sichina, Jeffrey; Kappra, Karl

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a mission and customer funded exploratory program, has developed a new low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for forward imaging to support the Army's vision of an autonomous navigation system for robotic ground vehicles. These unmanned vehicles, equipped with an array of imaging sensors, will be tasked to help detect man-made obstacles such as concealed targets, enemy minefields, and booby traps, as well as other natural obstacles such as ditches, and bodies of water. The ability of UWB radar technology to help detect concealed objects has been documented in the past and could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for autonomous navigation systems, which would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the survivability of the U. S. forces on the battlefield. One of the primary features of the radar is the ability to collect and process data at combat pace in an affordable, compact, and lightweight package. To achieve this, the radar is based on the synchronous impulse reconstruction (SIRE) technique where several relatively slow and inexpensive analog-to-digital (A/D) converters are used to sample the wide bandwidth of the radar signals. We conducted an experiment this winter at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) to support the phenomenological studies of the backscatter from positive and negative obstacles for autonomous robotic vehicle navigation, as well as the detection of concealed targets of interest to the Army. In this paper, we briefly describe the UWB SIRE radar and the test setup in the experiment. We will also describe the signal processing and the forward imaging techniques used in the experiment. Finally, we will present imagery of man-made obstacles such as barriers, concertina wires, and mines.

  3. Case study of concealed weapons detection at stand-off distances using a compact, large field-of-view THz camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, Linda E.; Terroux, Marc; Dufour, Denis; Bolduc, Martin; Chevalier, Claude; Généreux, Francis; Jerominek, Hubert; Bergeron, Alain

    2014-06-01

    The detection of concealed weapons in crowd situations is a critical need and solutions are being sought after by security agencies at the federal, state and municipal levels. Millimeter waves have been evaluated for these kinds of applications, but the currently available technologies are typically too large and bulky to allow for widespread deployment. Alternatively soft X-rays have been considered but safety issues hinder their acceptance. Terahertz technology is ideally suited for such an application as it has the ability to see through clothing, and offers higher resolution than in the millimeter band, also being more compact. THz photons have lower energy than infrared and do not show the ionizing properties of X-ray radiation. The longer Terahertz waves penetrate deeper into various materials then their visible and infrared counterparts. Though the wavelength is longer it has been shown that high resolution in a small form factor can be obtained in the THz wavebands thanks to the use of small pixel pitch detectors. In this paper, a case study for the use of a compact THz camera for active see-through imaging at stand-off distances is presented. More specifically, the cases of seeing through packages and clothing are analyzed in the perspective of concealed weapons detection. The paper starts with a review of the characteristics of a high resolution THz camera exhibiting small pixel size and large field-of-view. Some laboratory results of concealed object imaging along with details of a concept for live surveillance using a compact see-through imaging system are reviewed.

  4. Experiment of nurture: ablatio penis at 2 months, sex reassignment at 7 months, and a psychosexual follow-up in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S J; Oliver, G D; Chernick, A B; Zucker, K J

    1998-07-01

    Guidelines of psychosexual management for infants born with physical intersex conditions are intended to assist physicians and parents in making decisions about sex of assignment and rearing including the following: 1) sex assignment should be to the gender that carries the best prognosis for good reproductive function, good sexual function, normal-looking external genitalia and physical appearance, and a stable gender identity; 2) the decision regarding sex assignment should be made as early as possible, preferably during the newborn period, with an upper age limit for reversal of an initial sex assignment no later than 18 to 24 months; and 3) there should be minimal uncertainty and ambiguity on the part of parents and professionals regarding the final decision about sex assignment and rearing. J. Money used these guidelines in a case of a biologically normal male infant (one of a pair of monozygotic twins) whose penis was accidentally ablated during a circumcision at the age of 7 months. The decision to reassign the infant boy to the female sex and to rear him as a girl was made at 17 months, with surgical castration and initial genital reconstruction occurring at 21 months. Money reported follow-up data on this child through the age of 9 years. Although the girl was described as having many "tomboyish" behavioral traits, a female gender identity had apparently differentiated. Thus, it was concluded that gender identity is sufficiently incompletely differentiated at birth as to permit successful assignment of a genetic male as a girl, in keeping with the experiences of rearing. Subsequent follow-up by other investigators reported that by early adolescence the patient had rejected the female identity and began to live as a male at the age of 14 years. In adulthood, the patient recalled that he had never felt comfortable as a girl, and his mother reported similar recollections. At age 25, the patient married a woman and adopted her children. The patient reported

  5. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  6. Exposing a β-Lactamase “Twist”: the Mechanistic Basis for the High Level of Ceftazidime Resistance in the C69F Variant of the Burkholderia pseudomallei PenI β-Lactamase

    PubMed Central

    Becka, Scott A.; Taracila, Magdalena A.; Winkler, Marisa L.; Gatta, Julian A.; Rholl, Drew A.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, Burkholderia spp. are emerging as pathogens highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics, especially ceftazidime. Clinical variants of Burkholderia pseudomallei possessing the class A β-lactamase PenI with substitutions at positions C69 and P167 are known to demonstrate ceftazidime resistance. However, the biochemical basis for ceftazidime resistance in class A β-lactamases in B. pseudomallei is largely undefined. Here, we performed site saturation mutagenesis of the C69 position and investigated the kinetic properties of the C69F variant of PenI from B. pseudomallei that results in a high level of ceftazidime resistance (2 to 64 mg/liter) when expressed in Escherichia coli. Surprisingly, quantitative immunoblotting showed that the steady-state protein levels of the C69F variant β-lactamase were ∼4-fold lower than those of wild-type PenI (0.76 fg of protein/cell versus 4.1 fg of protein/cell, respectively). However, growth in the presence of ceftazidime increases the relative amount of the C69F variant to greater than wild-type PenI levels. The C69F variant exhibits a branched kinetic mechanism for ceftazidime hydrolysis, suggesting there are two different conformations of the enzyme. When incubated with an anti-PenI antibody, one conformation of the C69F variant rapidly hydrolyzes ceftazidime and most likely contributes to the higher levels of ceftazidime resistance observed in cell-based assays. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the electrostatic characteristics of the oxyanion hole are altered in the C69F variant. When ceftazidime was positioned in the active site, the C69F variant is predicted to form a greater number of hydrogen-bonding interactions than PenI with ceftazidime. In conclusion, we propose “a new twist” for enhanced ceftazidime resistance mediated by the C69F variant of the PenI β-lactamase based on conformational changes in the C69F variant. Our findings explain the biochemical basis of ceftazidime resistance in

  7. Sexual Venue Selection and Strategies for Concealment of Same-Sex Behavior Among Non-Disclosing Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Siegel, Karolynn

    2011-01-01

    In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar/club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: 1) avoiding certain venues; 2) attending venues away from home; 3) meeting partners on the Internet, 4) preferring venues that have potential non-sexual uses, 5) having sex at the partner’s place, and 6) limiting their on-site sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205

  8. "Some of My Best Friends": Intergroup Contact, Concealable Stigma, and Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.; Capitanio, John P.

    1996-01-01

    In a 2-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (n=538) and toward both gay men and lesbians approximately 1 year later (n=382). Discusses findings of the study and theoretical and policy implications of the results. (KW)

  9. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  10. The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision-making and post-disclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity

    PubMed Central

    Chaudoir, Stephenie R.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Disclosure is a critical aspect of the experience of people who live with concealable stigmatized identities. This article presents the Disclosure Processes Model (DPM)— a framework that examines when and why interpersonal disclosure may be beneficial. The DPM suggests that antecedent goals representing approach and avoidance motivational systems moderate the effect of disclosure on numerous individual, dyadic, and social contextual outcomes and that these effects are mediated by three distinct processes: (1) alleviation of inhibition, (2) social support, and (3) changes in social information. Ultimately, the DPM provides a framework that advances disclosure theory and identifies strategies that can assist disclosers in maximizing the likelihood that disclosure will benefit well-being. PMID:20192562

  11. Evidence suggesting superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in the P300-based, Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Frigo, Vincent; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena

    2015-04-01

    One group of participants received a series of city name stimuli presented on trials of the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of a P300-based, concealed information test (CIT). Stimuli were presented on alternating trials in either auditory or visual presentation modality. In 1/7 of the trials the participant's home town (probe) repeatedly appeared in a series of 6 other (irrelevant) repeated city names. In both modalities, probe stimuli produced larger P300s than irrelevant stimuli. Visual stimuli produced shorter behavioral reaction times and P300 latencies, as well as larger P300 probe amplitudes, probe-irrelevant amplitude differences, and individual diagnostic accuracies than the same stimuli presented in the auditory modality. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed, and subject to discussed limitations, the applied conclusion reached is that in all CITs, visual presentation of stimuli, if feasible, should be preferentially used. PMID:25728461

  12. Superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in a P300-based CIT: The Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohong; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Labkovsky, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This paper continues our efforts to determine which modality is best for presentation of stimuli in the P300-based concealed information test (CIT) called the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP). The first part of the CTP trial involves presentation of the key probe or irrelevant stimuli, and is followed by presentation of target (T) or non-target (NT). In Rosenfeld et al. (2015), probes and irrelevants regularly alternated modality over trials, but Ts and NTs were always visual. In the present study, (in both its experiments, EXP 1 and EXP 2), probes and irrelevants alternated modalities on successive trials, as before. In present EXP 1, Ts and NTs were always auditory, but in EXP 2, they were simultaneously auditory and visual. Probe P300 data were different in each study: In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) and EXP 2 here, the bootstrap-based detection rates based on probe-minus-irrelevant differences, significantly differed favoring visual probe and irrelevant presentation modality. In EXP 1 here, detection rates were the same for the two modalities. In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) there was no main effect of probe modality, visual vs. auditory on probe-minus-irrelevant P300 difference. There were such effects here in EXP 1 (p<0.08, effect size=0.19) and EXP 2 (p<0.02, effect size=0.31), favoring the visual modality. Probe P300 latencies were shorter for visual than for auditory stimuli in Rosenfeld et al. (2015), a trend specifically reversed in the present pair of studies. RT was faster for visual stimuli in the present studies. The T and NT modality appears to interact with probe/irrelevant modality, and the best protocol for detecting concealed information is with the 2015 study protocol or that of EXP 2, using visual stimulus presentation.

  13. Choledochal Cyst – Presentation and Treatment in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Hasani, Antigona; Limani, Dalip; Shabani, Skender; Beka, Fadil; Zatriqi, Skender; Murati, Skender; Jashari, Hysni

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Choledochal cyst is a congenital cystic dilation of a part of bile duct that occurs most commonly in the main part of common bile duct. Diagnosis of choledochal cyst is concluded upon disproportionate expansion of extrahepatic bile duct. Symptom trias are: abdominal pain, jaundice and abdominal mass represent clinical guideline signs of diagnosis. Furthermore, hepato-biliary diseases in adults can conceal the primary condition. In addition to this, ultrasound, CT, MRI, cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), transhepatic percutane cholangiography (PTC) guide us for a detailed examination in order to verify the diagnosis. Active endoscopic cholangiography represents an important technique that provides needed anatomic solution and details in diagnosis of choledochal cyst. PMID:24058256

  14. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  15. Tuberculosis Penis with ‘Watering Can Penis’ Appearance: Report of a Rare Case with Retrograde Urethrography and Voiding Cystourethrography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mayilvaganan, Kamala Retnam; Naren Satya Srinivas, M.; Reddy, Vikram N.; Singh, Ranjeet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A ‘watering can penis’ secondary to penile tuberculosis is an extremely rare clinical entity. Retrograde Urethrography – Voiding Cystourethrography evaluation of the urethra and the urinary bladder plays a very important role in the diagnostics as well as further management of the urethral abnormalities. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case in literature where a ‘watering can penis’ was noted secondary to penile TB. This is also the first documented case of ‘watering can penis’ as a consequence of venereal transmission of TB. Case Report A 50-year-old male presented with multiple discharging sinuses along the penis. RGU revealed multiple, contrast-filled, narrow, irregular, fistulous tracts arising from the pendulous part of the anterior urethra. This distal segment of the pendulous part of the anterior urethra also showed significant distortion and irregular, beaded narrowing. VCUG showed a markedly-contracted and small-capacity urinary bladder with a thickened, irregular and edematous wall with multiple hypertrophied trabeculae along its walls. The patient was administered anti-tubercular treatment. At the end of this treatment regimen, a repeat RGU-VCUG will be performed and decision regarding urethroplasty and further management will be planned depending upon the presence of any remaining fistulas or strictures involving the urethra. Conclusions ‘Watering can penis’ as a result of penile TB is a very rare clinical entity. The differential diagnoses of a ‘watering can penis’ should be kept in mind in the evaluation of these patients. RGU and VCUG evaluation is an important conventional imaging modality used in the evaluation of urethral strictures and fistulas in case of ‘watering can penis’. PMID:27733889

  16. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  17. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  18. How Much Did Maine's Molocket and Metallak Know about Rapid Climate Change? Did They Utilize Psychological Strategies and Cover Stories to Conceal Their Impact Communities, Observational Sites and Data Collection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Tiffany R.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2003-10-01

    The Pequakets Molocket (adherent of God La[ngued]oc Christ Cathar Spirit-signal) and Metallak operated in NH and the western border area of ME, during the early 1800s. Molocket requested shelter in South Paris, ME during a powerful thunderstorm. Denied access, she cursed that area. Our interests have led us to recognize that there may be psychological reasons that deception is good strategic procedure for concealing valuable activities associated with impact power groups striving to protect their operating turf. Many sites associated with tradition-respecting Native Americans are quite electromagnetically responsive to climate change. Metallak (mathematician-applied astronomer God Spirit-signal) is purported to have driven off his son over purloined furs; that elder son then operated among the MiKmaw/Micmacs of ME and the Canadian Maritimes. They are purported to make the weather. Information protection and surreptitious data collection may indicate an impact groups concealed interests.

  19. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  20. External validity of Concealed Information Test experiment: Comparison of respiration, skin conductance, and heart rate between experimental and field card tests.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a memory detection method based on an examinee's physiological responses to crime-relevant items (critical items) in comparison with crime-irrelevant items (noncritical items). I examined the external validity of CIT laboratory experiments by comparing respiratory speed (RS), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart rate (HR) between a laboratory experiment (n = 30) and a field test (n = 30) in a card test. A linear mixed models analysis showed that the critical items in both CIT contexts elicited CIT effects: RS repression, SCR increase, and HR deceleration. Additionally, the critical items in the field elicited a larger RS suppression than those in the laboratory; however, SCR and HR on the critical items showed no statistical differences between the laboratory and field CITs. Moreover, the tonic HRs in the field tests were higher than in the CIT experiments, but there were no significant correlations between the tonic HR and each CIT effect in RS, SCR, and HR. These results suggested that CIT detection efficiency was not affected by arousal levels and may imply that the CIT effects observed with RS, SCR, and HR in the CIT laboratory experiments has adequate external validity and can be generalized to the CIT field. PMID:27031043

  1. The Comparison Question Test versus the Concealed Information Test? That was the question in Japan: a comment on Palmatier and Rovner (2015).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Tsuneoka, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Palmatier and Rovner (2015) discussed the possible interplay of two major methods of polygraph examination, the Comparison Question Test (CQT) and the Concealed Information Test (CIT). In this comment, we argue that such an attempt overlooks fundamental differences between the two methods. Specifically, both methods differ in their criterion variables; detecting deception versus detecting memory traces. This difference can lead to a different evaluation concerning their outcomes within a forensic context. However, Palmatier and Rovner's (2015) attempt may blur the distinction between the two methods. Furthermore, at least for the present, it is difficult to give a unified explanation of physiological responses in the CQT and CIT based on the preliminary process theory of the orienting response. In sum, Palmatier and Rovner's (2015) paper may add further confusion to the research and practice of polygraph testing. Additionally, their paper has no relevance to the current practice of Japanese polygraph examination, because Japanese law enforcement uses only the CIT for memory detection in real-life criminal investigations. PMID:25242502

  2. External validity of Concealed Information Test experiment: Comparison of respiration, skin conductance, and heart rate between experimental and field card tests.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a memory detection method based on an examinee's physiological responses to crime-relevant items (critical items) in comparison with crime-irrelevant items (noncritical items). I examined the external validity of CIT laboratory experiments by comparing respiratory speed (RS), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart rate (HR) between a laboratory experiment (n = 30) and a field test (n = 30) in a card test. A linear mixed models analysis showed that the critical items in both CIT contexts elicited CIT effects: RS repression, SCR increase, and HR deceleration. Additionally, the critical items in the field elicited a larger RS suppression than those in the laboratory; however, SCR and HR on the critical items showed no statistical differences between the laboratory and field CITs. Moreover, the tonic HRs in the field tests were higher than in the CIT experiments, but there were no significant correlations between the tonic HR and each CIT effect in RS, SCR, and HR. These results suggested that CIT detection efficiency was not affected by arousal levels and may imply that the CIT effects observed with RS, SCR, and HR in the CIT laboratory experiments has adequate external validity and can be generalized to the CIT field.

  3. The Comparison Question Test versus the Concealed Information Test? That was the question in Japan: a comment on Palmatier and Rovner (2015).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Tsuneoka, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Palmatier and Rovner (2015) discussed the possible interplay of two major methods of polygraph examination, the Comparison Question Test (CQT) and the Concealed Information Test (CIT). In this comment, we argue that such an attempt overlooks fundamental differences between the two methods. Specifically, both methods differ in their criterion variables; detecting deception versus detecting memory traces. This difference can lead to a different evaluation concerning their outcomes within a forensic context. However, Palmatier and Rovner's (2015) attempt may blur the distinction between the two methods. Furthermore, at least for the present, it is difficult to give a unified explanation of physiological responses in the CQT and CIT based on the preliminary process theory of the orienting response. In sum, Palmatier and Rovner's (2015) paper may add further confusion to the research and practice of polygraph testing. Additionally, their paper has no relevance to the current practice of Japanese polygraph examination, because Japanese law enforcement uses only the CIT for memory detection in real-life criminal investigations.

  4. Depth profiling for the identification of unknown substances and concealed content at remote distances using time-resolved stand-off Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Gasser, Christoph; Ramer, Georg; Chrysostom, Engelene t H; Lendl, Bernhard

    2012-08-01

    Time-resolved stand-off Raman spectroscopy was used to determine both the position and identity of substances relative to each other at remote distances (up to tens of meters). Spectral information of three xylene isomers, toluene, and sodium chlorate was obtained at a distance of 12 m from the setup. Pairs and triplets of these samples were placed at varying distances (10-60 cm) relative to each other. Via the photon time of flight the distance between the individual samples was determined to an accuracy of 7% (corresponding to a few cm) of the physically measured distance. Furthermore, at a distance of 40 m, time-resolved Raman depth profiling was used to detect sodium chlorate in a white plastic container that was non-transparent to the human eye. The combination of the ranging capabilities of Raman LIDAR (sample location usually determined using prior knowledge of the analyte of interest) with stand-off Raman spectroscopy (analyte detection at remote distances) provides the capability for depth profile identification of unknown substances and analysis of concealed content in distant objects. To achieve these results, a 532 nm laser with a pulse length of 4.4 ns was synchronized to an intensified charge-coupled device camera with a minimum gate width of 500 ps. For automated data analysis a multivariate curve resolution algorithm was employed. PMID:22800681

  5. Overcoming concealment effects of targeting moieties in the PEG corona: controlled permeable polymersomes decorated with folate-antennae for selective targeting of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohamed A; Appelhans, Dietmar; Wiedemuth, Ralf; Formanek, Petr; Boye, Susanne; Lederer, Albena; Temme, Achim; Voit, Brigitte

    2015-04-01

    In the context of diligent efforts to improve the tumor targeting efficiency of drug carriers, a shape-persistent polymersome which possess a pH-tunable membrane as well as folate targeting antennae is reported. The membrane of such polymersomes behaves as gate which undergoes "on" and "off" switches in response to pH stimuli. Thus, polymersomes can effectively prohibit the premature release of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin in physiological conditions, but promote drug release once they are triggered in the acidified endosomal compartment. Importantly, the folate moieties are installed on the surface of polymersomes as protruding antennae by doping the polymersomes with folate-terminated block copolymers designed to have longer PEG segments. Thereby, the folate moieties are freed from concealment and steric effects exerted by the dense PEG corona. The cellular uptake of the FA-antennae polymersomes by tumor cells is significantly enhanced facilitated by the freely accessible folate antennae; however, the normal cells record a low level of cellular uptake due to the stealth property of the PEG corona. Overall, the excellent biocompatibility, controlled permeability, targeted internalization, as well as selective cytotoxicity of such polymersomes set up the basis for properly smart carrier for targeted drug delivery.

  6. A Packet Loss Concealment Algorithm Robust to Burst Packet Loss Using Multiple Codebooks and Comfort Noise for CELP-Type Speech Coders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Hong Kook; Jung, Min A.; Lee, Seong Ro; Choi, Seung Ho

    In this paper, a packet loss concealment (PLC) algorithm for CELP-type speech coders is proposed to improve the quality of decoded speech under burst packet loss. A conventional PLC algorithm is usually based on speech correlation to reconstruct decoded speech of lost frames by using the information on the parameters obtained from the previous frames that are assumed to be correctly received. However, this approach is apt to fail to reconstruct voice onset signals since the parameters such as pitch, LPC coefficient, and adaptive/fixed codebooks of the previous frames are almost related to silence frames. Thus, in order to reconstruct speech signals in the voice onset intervals, we propose a multiple codebook based approach which includes a traditional adaptive codebook and a new random codebook composed of comfort noise. The proposed PLC algorithm is designed as a PLC algorithm for G.729 and its performance is then compared with that of the PLC algorithm employed in G.729 by means of perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ), a waveform comparison, and an A-B preference test under different random and burst packet loss conditions. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed PLC algorithm provides significantly better speech quality than the PLC of G.729, especially under burst packet loss and voice onset conditions.

  7. Truth concealed behind "Zero Increase of Total Water Use" and coordination approach of socio-economic and eco-environmental water uses in the Weihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Wei, N.; Hao, C.; You, J.; Niu, C.; Qiu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The water resources situation in the water-stressed Weihe River Basin, China, is more serious now than ever before because of a decrease in water resources and socio-economic development. A "Zero increase of socio-economic water use" in recent years gives people a wrong understanding and conceals the water crisis in the basin because the socio-economic water consumption has actually increased. Water use for the hydro-ecological system has been greatly reduced by a decrease in water resources and socio-economic water consumption increase. New concepts of hierarchical water uses for every sector and water consumption control are suggested for coordinating water uses of the socio-economy and ecosystems in the water-stressed basin. The traditional water resources allocation and regulation in China usually set up a priority sequence for water use sectors. Generally speaking, domestic water use has the highest priority and a highest guarantee rate, followed by industrial water use, irrigation and lastly ecological water use. The concept of hierarchical water use for every sector is to distinguish the water use of every sector into minimum part, appropriate part, and expected extra part with different guarantee rates, and the minimum parts of all sectors should be first guaranteed. By applying a water allocation model, we compared the water allocation results of the traditional approach and the newly suggested approach. Although further study is desired, the results are believed to be of an important referential value to sustainable development in the basin.

  8. Depth profiling for the identification of unknown substances and concealed content at remote distances using time-resolved stand-off Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Gasser, Christoph; Ramer, Georg; Chrysostom, Engelene t H; Lendl, Bernhard

    2012-08-01

    Time-resolved stand-off Raman spectroscopy was used to determine both the position and identity of substances relative to each other at remote distances (up to tens of meters). Spectral information of three xylene isomers, toluene, and sodium chlorate was obtained at a distance of 12 m from the setup. Pairs and triplets of these samples were placed at varying distances (10-60 cm) relative to each other. Via the photon time of flight the distance between the individual samples was determined to an accuracy of 7% (corresponding to a few cm) of the physically measured distance. Furthermore, at a distance of 40 m, time-resolved Raman depth profiling was used to detect sodium chlorate in a white plastic container that was non-transparent to the human eye. The combination of the ranging capabilities of Raman LIDAR (sample location usually determined using prior knowledge of the analyte of interest) with stand-off Raman spectroscopy (analyte detection at remote distances) provides the capability for depth profile identification of unknown substances and analysis of concealed content in distant objects. To achieve these results, a 532 nm laser with a pulse length of 4.4 ns was synchronized to an intensified charge-coupled device camera with a minimum gate width of 500 ps. For automated data analysis a multivariate curve resolution algorithm was employed.

  9. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  11. Fertility Potential in Adult Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher Singh; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract characterized by abnormal location of the external urethral meatus over ventral aspect of penis. The ideal time to correct primary hypospadias is when aged 6-12 months. However, in some developing countries, such as ours, this anomaly may be left untreated until adulthood. There are multiple risk factors responsible for development of this anomaly, out of which paternal sub fertility is one of them. As the child grows into adulthood, fertility status becomes an important issue, frequently raised by patients. Aim To evaluate the fertility potential of adult hypospadiac patients and to rule out the effect of age of surgical correction over fertility potential. Materials and Methods Seventy three adult patients of hypospadias were prospectively evaluated, out of which 43 were operated during adulthood. All patients underwent measurement of penile length and circumference in both flaccid and erect positions along with testicular volume, serum LH, FSH and testosterone and semen analysis. A set of questionnaire was given to all the patients which included assessment of erectile function (IIEF-5), ejaculatory function, strength of libido and level of satisfaction after sexual intercourse. Results were compared with an age matched control group of 70 healthy person. Results Out of 73 patients with a mean age of 23.73 years, 14(19.17%) had proximal and rest 59(80.82%) had distal type of hypospadias. Mean penile length in both type of hypospadiac patients under both flaccid and erect conditions (7.92±1.33 and 9.62±1.31cm) were significantly shorter than those of control (10.78±0.94 and 13.15±1.15 cm) (p<0.001). In spite of short penile length, the level of satisfaction of all patients and their partner after penetrating intercourse were comparable to control (p>0.05). The strength of libido (p>0.05) was comparable with control in both type of hypospadiac patients; however IIEF-5 scores was poor in

  12. Radiation dose delivered to the proximal penis as a predictor of the risk of erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Valicenti, Richard . E-mail: richard.valicenti@mail.tju.edu; DiEva, Kelly; Houser, Christopher; Pequignot, Ed

    2004-12-01

    Purpose/objective: In this study, we evaluated in a serial manner whether radiation dose to the bulb of the penis is predictive of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory difficulty (EJ), and overall satisfaction with sex life (quality of life) by using serial validated self-administered questionnaires. Methods and materials: Twenty-nine potent men with AJCC Stage II prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy alone to a median dose 72.0 Gy (range: 66.6-79.2 Gy) were evaluated by determining the doses received by the penile bulb. The penile bulb was delineated volumetrically, and the dose-volume histogram was obtained on each patient. Results: The median follow-up time was 35 months (range, 16-43 months). We found that for D{sub 30}, D{sub 45}, D{sub 60}, and D{sub 75} (doses to a percent volume of PB: 30%, 45%, 60%, and 75%), higher than the corresponding median dose (defined as high-dose group) correlated with an increased risk of impotence (erectile dysfunction firmness score = 0) (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 8.6, p = 0.008; and OR = 6.9, p = 0.015, respectively). Similarly, for EJD D{sub 30}, D{sub 45}, D{sub 60}, and D{sub 75}, doses higher than the corresponding median ones correlated with worsening ejaculatory function score (EJ = 0 or 1) (OR = 8, p = 0.013; OR = 8, p 0.013; OR = 9.2, p = 0.015; and OR = 8, p = 0.026, respectively). For quality of life, low ({<=}median dose) dose groups of patients improve over time, whereas high-dose groups of patients worsen. Conclusions: This study supports the existence of a penile bulb dose-volume relationship underlying the development of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. Our data may guide the use of inverse treatment planning to maximize the probability of maintaining sexual potency after radiation therapy.

  13. Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    The question of how adult educators can make their teaching of adults more effective is explored in the context of recent work on adult lifelong learning. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) modes of adult education and the shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning; (2) the contract between adult student and adult…

  14. Fournier’s gangrene after adult male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the advent of mass voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for the partial prevention of HIV, previously rare adverse events associated with adult male circumcision are likely to be encountered with higher frequency. Fournier’s gangrene, defined as a polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, perianal or genital areas, is one such rare and life-threatening adverse event. In this report, we present two cases that were identified in the context of a VMMC programme over a 3-year period during which approximately 100,000 adult circumcisions were performed. Case presentations Case 1: A 19-year-old male who had VMMC performed using the dorsal slit technique developed pain and blisters on the scrotal skin on the sixth postoperative day. He had no co-morbidities, and serology for HIV was negative. On examination, locally he had scrotal skin necrosis with an offensive odour and was dehydrated but afebrile. Repeated aggressive debridement was done while he stayed in a hospital for 3 weeks; at which point, he had healthy granulation tissue and was free of infection. The wound had closed spontaneously and completely by the fifth month. Case 2: A 52-year-old male who had VMMC performed with the sleeve resection method developed pain and swelling of the penis and scrotum on the fourth postoperative day. He had a low-grade fever of 37.6°C. He was not diabetic or immunosuppressed and had a negative HIV serology. He was admitted and was given IV antibiotics, and repeated aggressive debridement was performed. On the third week of hospitalization, he had healthy granulation tissue and received a split skin graft on the penile shaft. At 4 months, the scrotal defect had completely closed. Conclusion Fournier’s gangrene is a rare occurrence after adult male circumcision with associated high morbidity. These are the first descriptions in the VMMC era. PMID:25635197

  15. Integrated geophysical imaging of a concealed mineral deposit: a case study of the world-class Pebble porphyry deposit in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James

    2013-01-01

    We combined aeromagnetic, induced polarization, magnetotelluric, and gravity surveys as well as drillhole geologic, alteration, magnetic susceptibility, and density data for exploration and characterization of the Cu-Au-Mo Pebble porphyry deposit. This undeveloped deposit is almost completely concealed by postmineralization sedimentary and volcanic rocks, presenting an exploration challenge. Individual geophysical methods primarily assist regional characterization. Positive chargeability and conductivity anomalies are observed over a broad region surrounding the deposit, likely representing sulfide minerals that accumulated during multiple stages of hydrothermal alteration. The mineralized area occupies only a small part of the chargeability anomaly because sulfide precipitation was not unique to the deposit, and mafic rocks also exhibit strong chargeability. Conductivity anomalies similarly reflect widespread sulfides as well as water-saturated glacial sediments. Mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility data indicate magnetite destruction primarily within the Cu-Au-Mo mineralized area. The magnetic field does not show a corresponding anomaly low but the analytic signal does in areas where the deposit is not covered by postmineralization igneous rocks. The analytic signal shows similar lows over sedimentary rocks outside of the mineralized area, however, and cannot uniquely distinguish the deposit. We find that the intersection of positive chargeability anomalies with analytic signal lows, indicating elevated sulfide concentrations but low magnetite at shallow depths, roughly delineates the deposit where it is covered only by glacial sediments. Neither chargeability highs nor analytic signal lows are present where the deposit is covered by several hundred meters of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, but a 3D resistivity model derived from magnetotelluric data shows a corresponding zone of higher conductivity. Gravity data highlight geologic features within the

  16. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, J.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., <2 weeks of age). Older calves (i.e., 3–10 weeks of age) still selected areas in relation to distance to cover, but also preferred areas with higher visibility. At the larger spatial scale of calf-rearing habitat selection by the adult female, concealing cover (e.g., rocks, shrubs, and logs) and other variables important to the hiding calves were still in the most supported models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  18. HIV infection of the penis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deborah; Politch, Joseph A.; Pudney, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The penile foreskin, shaft, glans/corona, meatus and urethral introitus are all potential sites of HIV-1 acquisition in men. Circumcision decreases HIV infection in heterosexual men by 50–60%, indicating that the foreskin plays an important role, but that other sites are also involved. HIV target cells have been described throughout the male genital epithelium, but appear to be more accessible in the inner foreskin and urethral introitus, both of which are mucosal (wet) epithelia and infectable with HIV in vitro. Sexually transmitted co-infections can increase the risk of HIV infection at these and other sites by eroding the protective epithelial layer and by attracting and activating HIV target cells in the mucosal epithelium. The moist subpreputial cavity hosts a unique microbiome that may also play a role in HIV infection. Both innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms are operative in the lower male genital region. The penile urethral mucosa contains accumulations of IgA+ plasma cells and T lymphocytes, and may provide a responsive target for future mucosal vaccines to prevent HIV sexual transmission. PMID:21214659

  19. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  20. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  1. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and micropenis: effect of testosterone treatment on adult penile size why sex reversal is not indicated.

    PubMed

    Bin-Abbas, B; Conte, F A; Grumbach, M M; Kaplan, S L

    1999-05-01

    Micropenis is commonly due to fetal testosterone deficiency. The clinical management of this form of micropenis has been contentious, with disagreement about the capacity of testosterone treatment to induce a functionally adequate adult penis. As a consequence, some clinicians recommend sex reversal of affected male infants. We studied 8 male subjects with micropenis secondary to congenital pituitary gonadotropin deficiency from infancy or childhood to maturity (ages 18 to 27 years). Four patients were treated with testosterone before 2 years of age (group I) and four between age 6 and 13 years (group II). At presentation, the mean penile length in group I was 1.1 cm (-4 SD; range, 0.5 to 1.5 cm) and in group II it was 2.7 cm (-3.4 SD; range, 1.5 to 3.5 cm). All patients received one or more courses of 3 intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate (25 or 50 mg) at 4-week intervals in infancy or childhood. At the age of puberty the dose was gradually increased to 200 mg monthly and later to an adult replacement regimen. As adults, both group I and II had attained a mean final penile length of 10.3 cm 2.7 cm with a range of 8 to 14 cm (mean adult stretched penile length for Caucasians is 12.4 2.7 cm). Six of 8 men were sexually active, and all reported normal male gender identity and psychosocial behavior. We conclude that 1 or 2 short courses of testosterone therapy in infancy and childhood augment penile size into the normal range for age in boys with micropenis secondary to fetal testosterone deficiency; replacement therapy at the age of puberty results in an adult size penis within 2 SD of the mean. We found no clinical, psychologic, or physiologic indications to support conversion of affected male infants to girls. Further, the results of this study do not support the notion, derived from data in the rat, that testosterone treatment in infancy or childhood impairs penile growth in adolescence and compromises adult penile length.

  2. Concealing compensation from the IRS.

    PubMed

    Burda, D; Greene, J

    1991-01-28

    Tougher reporting requirements from the Internal Revenue Service are prompting some not-for-profit hospitals to seek ways to hide compensation arrangements from the public and the media. Critics believe those tactics could get hospitals in hot water with the law, especially now that the IRS has launched a new, aggressive auditing offensive.

  3. Remote imaging of concealed objects

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, Aner Sfez, Bruno

    2014-05-27

    Optical detection of objects hidden behind opaque screening layers is a challenging problem. We demonstrate an optically detected echographic-like method that combines collimated acoustic and laser beams. The acoustic waves cross the screening layers and their back-reflection from the hidden objects is detected through the analysis of a dynamic laser speckle pattern created at the outer surface of the screening layer. Real-time remote detection of moving targets 15 meters away, with a few mm resolutions is demonstrated using a very sensitive camera detection scheme.

  4. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  5. Field Vectors to Metamorphosed Ores: A Prelude to Finding Currently Concealed Volcano-Plutonic Arc Settings and Their Mineral Deposits in The Grenville Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corriveau, L.; Bonnet, A.; van Breemen, O.

    2004-05-01

    Recent mineral deposits synthesis highlights the largely barren nature of the high-grade metamorphic terrains of the Canadian Shield in terms of large mining camps. No where is the gap most startling than in the Grenville Province even though a lot of its Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic crust consists of magmatic arcs renown worldwide to host IOCG, VHMS and Porphyry Cu deposits. All these deposit types have significant alteration halos that can serve as vectors to ore. The use of such vectors forced a complete reinterpretation of the nature of the La Romaine domain in the eastern Grenville Province. Mapped in the 70's as being a metasedimentary basin with >500 km2 of meta-arkose and minor pelite, quartzite, conglomerate and marble, the domain is herein reassessed as a major 1.5 Ga Pinwarian continental magmatic arc fertile in Cu-sulphides and Fe-oxides mineralizing systems. The original markers used to prognosticate a sedimentary origin can now be demonstrated to be a series of rhyolitic to dacitic lapillistone, sericitized tuff with Al nodules and veins, Al gneiss locally with lapilli textures, garnetite, ironstones and calc-silicate rocks. The distribution, paragenesis and mode of the Al-, Fe- and Ca-rich units significantly depart from those of normal metasediments but are very diagnostic of metamorphosed hydrothermal alteration zones and meta-exhalites. Mapping alteration vectors provided clues to search for and find the volcanic rocks concealed among the composite granitic gneiss, the zones of hydrothermal leaching (e.g., sericitic, argillic and advanced argillic alterations) and discharge, the cap rocks, and the Cu mineralization. Spatial and stratigraphic relationships provided a means to compare their settings with ore deposit models. Roof pendants of Ba-rich meta-exhalite in surrounding 1.5 Ga granitic plutons and intrusion of 1495 Ma Qtz-Kfs porphyry across hydrothermally altered 1500 Ma tuffs attest to coeval hydrothermal activity and sub-volcanic plutons. The

  6. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  7. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  8. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  9. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Evans, Trent D.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction. PMID:26733880

  10. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling.

    PubMed

    Harrell, John W; Johansson, Rebecca E; Evans, Trent D; Sebranek, Joshua J; Walker, Benjamin J; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Serlin, Ronald C; Schrage, William G

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction. PMID:26733880

  11. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  12. Differences in alarm calls of juvenile and adult European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus): Findings on permanently marked animals from a semi-natural enclosure.

    PubMed

    Schneiderov, Irena; Schnitzerov, Petra; Uhlikov, Jitka; Brandl, Pavel; Zouhar, Jan; Matejů, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) emits alarm calls that warn conspecifics of potential danger. Although it has been observed that inexperienced juveniles of this species emit alarm calls that sound similar to those of adults, studies focusing on juvenile alarm calls are lacking. We analyzed the acoustic structure of alarm calls emitted by six permanently marked European ground squirrels living in a semi-natural enclosure when they were juveniles and after 1 year as adults. We found that the acoustic structure of the juvenile alarm calls was significantly different from those of adults and that the alarm calls underwent nearly the same changes in all studied individuals. All juveniles emitted alarm calls consisting of one element with almost constant frequency, but their alarm calls included a second frequency-modulated element after their first hibernation as adults. Our data show that the duration of the first element is significantly shorter in adults than in juveniles. Additionally, the frequency of the first element is significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. Similar to previous findings in other Palearctic ground squirrel species, our data are inconsistent with the assumption that juvenile mammals emit vocalizations with higher fundamental frequencies than adults. However, our results do not support the previously suggested hypothesis that juvenile ground squirrels conceal information regarding their age in their alarm calls because we found significant differences in alarm calls of juveniles and adults.

  13. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  14. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  15. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  16. Liberal Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toiviainen, Timo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses providers of and the concept of liberal adult education in Finland. Providers include (1) folk high schools, (2) adult education centers, (3) voluntary popular organizations, (4) public libraries, (5) evening schools, (6) cooperative groups formed of universities and other adult education providers, (7) summer universities, and (8)…

  17. Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

    Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

  18. Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeds, Andrew, Ed.

    Designed primarily for adult literacy teachers and tutors, this curriculum describes the content of what should be taught in numeracy programs in order to meet the individual needs of adults through the selection and teaching of skills appropriate to those adults' needs. An introduction describes national standards and qualifications, learners,…

  19. Adult Educators' Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…

  20. Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…