Science.gov

Sample records for adult control group

  1. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  2. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout.

  3. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  4. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  5. Effects of a Psychoeducational Group on Mood and Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trozzolino, Linda; Thompson, Pamela S.; Tansman, Mara S.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-week psychoeducational group therapy program in improving mood and glycemic control in 48 adults with diabetes and visual impairments. Participants made statistically significant gains in glycemic control. There was a significant positive relationship between control and improvement in depression, but…

  6. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  7. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension (COACH) trial: design and methodology of a group-based lifestyle intervention for hypertensive minority older adults.

    PubMed

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Fernandez, Senaida; Fournier, Leanne; Silver, Stephanie A; Kong, Jian; Gallagher, Sara; de la Calle, Franze; Plumhoff, Jordan; Sethi, Sheba; Choudhury, Evelyn; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2013-05-01

    The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 250 African-American and Latino seniors, 60 years and older with uncontrolled hypertension, who attend senior centers. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effect of a therapeutic lifestyle intervention delivered via group classes and individual motivational interviewing sessions versus health education, on blood pressure reduction. The primary outcome is change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are blood pressure control at 12 months; changes in levels of physical activity; body mass index; and number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables from baseline to 12 months. The intervention group will receive 12 weekly group classes followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions. The health education group will receive an individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and standard hypertension education materials. Findings from this study will provide needed information on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions delivered in senior centers. Such information is crucial in order to develop implementation strategies for translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions to senior centers, where many minority elders spend their time, making the centers a salient point of dissemination.

  8. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend < 0.001), milk·dairy product (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.10-5.31, p for trend = 0.071) and beverage (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.35-7.48, p for trend = 0.002) intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high

  9. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  10. DVD training for depression identification and treatment in older adults: a two-group, randomized, wait-list control study.

    PubMed

    Lysack, Cathy; Leach, Carrie; Russo, Theresa; Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To test the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving mental health knowledge and skills in occupational therapists working with older rehabilitation patients. METHOD. The DVD-format educational intervention was evaluated using a two-group randomized wait-list control design. Occupational therapists (n = 75) completed a 32-item knowledge questionnaire at three time points. Patient charts were reviewed (n = 960) at 3 months before and 3 and 6 months after DVD training to evaluate clinical practice change. RESULTS. A two-way analysis of variance showed knowledge scores increased significantly for both groups after DVD training. A significant Group × Time interaction and significant main effects for time and group were found. Chart review data also showed significant increases in desired clinical behaviors in both groups after training. The greatest single item of clinical practice change was use of a standardized depression screen. CONCLUSION. DVD-based training can significantly improve mental health practice.

  11. Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Efficacy of a Chronic Pain Self-Management Group for Older Adults [ISRCTN11899548

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Mary; Turner, Judith A.; Cain, Kevin C.; Kemp, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common, disabling problem in older adults. Pain self-management training is a multimodal therapy that has been found to be effective in young to middle-aged adult samples; however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of this therapy in older adults. In this randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated a pain self-management training group (SMG) intervention as compared with an education-only (BOOK) control condition. Participants, 65 years of age or older who experienced persistent, noncancer pain that limited their activities, were recruited from 43 retirement communities in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The primary outcome was physical disability, as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were depression (Geriatric Depression Scale), pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory), and pain-related interference with activities (Brief Pain Inventory). Randomization occurred by facility to minimize cross-contamination between groups. Two-hundred and fifty-six individuals, mean age=81.8 (SD: 6.5), enrolled and 218 completed the study. No significant differences in outcomes were found between groups at post-intervention, 6-month follow-up, or 12-month follow-up. The SMG group showed a significantly greater increase over time, relative to the BOOK group, in two process measures, as measured by the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory: use of relaxation and use of exercise/stretching. In both cases, the increase was greatest from baseline to the post-intervention assessment. Study findings indicate that additional research is needed to determine the most effective content and delivery methods for self-management therapies targeted at older adults with chronic pain. PMID:18086516

  12. Safety evaluation of the consumption of high dose milk fat globule membrane in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sayaka; Ochiai, Ryuji; Shioya, Yasushi; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in combination with habitual exercise suppresses age-associated muscle loss. The effects of high dose MFGM, however, are not known. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design was conducted to evaluate the safety of consuming high dose MFGM tablets. The subjects were 32 healthy adult men and women. Subjects were given 5 times the recommended daily intake of the tablets containing 6.5 g of MFGM or whole milk powder for 4 weeks. Stomach discomfort and diarrhea were observed; however, these symptoms were transitory and slight and were not related to consumption of the test tablets. In addition, there were no clinically significant changes in anthropometric measurements or blood tests. Total degree of safety assessed by the physicians of all subjects was "safe." These findings suggest that consumption of the tablets containing 6.5 g MFGM for 4 weeks is safe for healthy adults.

  13. Support Groups for Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Kathryn Mederise

    2011-01-01

    A total of 35 adults (24-77 years; 24 males and 11 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) who were in, were waiting to get in, or had been in support groups participated in the study. In general, the adults were highly educated but unemployed or underemployed and living alone with family members as friends. The participants were interviewed,…

  14. Group B Strep Infection in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) CDC Streptococcus Laboratory Sepsis Group B Strep Infection in Adults ... Related Links Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) CDC Streptococcus Laboratory Sepsis Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  15. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting). Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills-based programs in an online

  16. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Background There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. Methods We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. Results The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. Conclusion The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving

  17. Expressive Group Psychotherapy with the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwabo, Peggy; Thale, Thomas T.

    Traditionally, the elderly have not been viewed as appropriate candidates for dynamic psychotherapy. To examine the effectiveness of a psycho-dynamically oriented group (focusing on the issues of aging, conflict resolution, and self-actualization) on 6 older adult participants, ages 63 to 87 years, systematic clinical observations of group…

  18. A Piagetian framework as a basis for the assessment of cognitive organization in schizophrenia: a comparison of adolescent and adult patients to a normal control group.

    PubMed

    Katz, N; Tolchinsky-Landsmann, L

    1992-01-01

    Piaget's theoretical framework was utilized in this study to investigate the cognitive organization of schizophrenic patients. Data from a battery of eight Piagetian tasks of concrete and formal operations was collected for adolescent and adult-acute and chronic schizophrenic patients, and was compared to matched normal control groups. Findings show significant differences between patients and controls; among the patients' chronicity, age and hospitalization are contributing variables to lower cognitive performance. Concrete operational tasks in the physical and spatial domains are retained better than in the logico-mathematical domain, or formal operational tasks in all domains. Major problems appear in the ability to abstract general criteria and to mentally work with more than one dimension at a time. A logical approach to the solution of concrete problems and solving problems which seem to present a contradiction, or cause problems in the accommodation and integration of one's thinking. Further studies are needed in order to draw conclusions and to understand the implications for every day functioning, deficient in the schizophrenic patient.

  19. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  1. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  2. Creative Procedures for Adult Groups; Improving Teaching in the Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Harold D., Ed.

    This guide to creative procedures for improving teaching adult church groups deals with the following: (1) steps in planning for instructional and learning experiences in adult groups; (2) techniques for admitting new ideas into a class; (3) using personal creativity through such means as role-playing, real-life experiences, brainstorming,…

  3. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  4. Rehabilitation Teaching of Adults in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soucy-Moloney, Lisa-Anne; Paskin, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of the group model for the Adaptive Skills Program used by the New York Lighthouse Vision Rehabilitation Services. Recommendations are provided for program site selection, transportation, consumer selection and group size, program schedule, and curriculum. The benefits of group instruction are described.…

  5. LISTENING GROUPS, MASS MEDIA IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OHLINGER, JOHN

    THE AUTHOR EXAMINES LISTENING GROUP PROJECTS IN OVER 30 COUNTRIES SINCE THE 1920S. THE HISTORICAL STUDY AND THE REVIEW OF RESEARCH DEAL WITH PURPOSES AND OUTCOMES OF PROJECTS, CLIENTELE, BROADCASTS AND SUPPLEMENTAL PRINTED MATERIALS, METHODS OF GROUP ORGANIZATION, METHODS OF POST-BROADCAST DISCUSSIONS, GROUP LEADERSHIP, AND FEEDBACK. DIRECT AND…

  6. Group Dynamics in a Discussion Group for Older Adults: Does Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Medeiros, Kate; Harris-Trovato, Dana; Bradley, Evelyn; Gaines, Jean; Parrish, John

    2007-01-01

    Lifelong learning programs continue to grow in span and scope. Few studies, however, have investigated how older adults themselves participate in group learning. The central question explored in our study was as follows: Does gender play a role in group dynamics for older adults? Two groups of volunteers (age 62 to 96 years) enrolled in a 16-week…

  7. A Model for Group Treatment of Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Shirley; McBride, Martha C.

    It has been estimated that 85% of all women seeking therapy are adults molested as children (AMACs). Group counseling with AMACs is recommended, with groups having homogeneity in terms of presenting problems and heterogeneity in group members' ability to deal with their sexual abuse. Groups should be closed, meet once or twice a week for 2-hour…

  8. ADULTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Krupa N.; Majeed, Zahraa; Yoruk, Yilmaz B.; Yang, Hongmei; Hilton, Tiffany N.; McMahon, James M.; Hall, William J.; Walck, Donna; Luque, Amneris E.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected older adults (HOA) are at risk of functional decline. Interventions promoting physical activity that can attenuate functional decline and are easily translated into the HOA community are of high priority. We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate whether a physical activity counseling intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) improves physical function, autonomous motivation, depression and the quality of life (QOL) in HOA. Methods A total of 67 community-dwelling HOA with mild-to-moderate functional limitations were randomized to one of two groups: a physical activity counseling group or the usual care control group. We used SDT to guide the development of the experimental intervention. Outcome measures that were collected at baseline and final study visits included a battery of physical function tests, levels of physical activity, autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL. Results The study participants were similar in their demographic and clinical characteristics in both the treatment and control groups. Overall physical performance, gait speed, measures of endurance and strength, and levels of physical activity improved in the treatment group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Measures of autonomous regulation such as identified regulation, and measures of depression and QOL improved significantly in the treatment group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Across the groups, improvement in intrinsic regulation and QOL correlated with an improvement in physical function (p<0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that a physical activity counseling program grounded in SDT can improve physical function, autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL in HOA with functional limitations. PMID:26867045

  9. Thermal Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  10. Efficacy of Diosmectite (Smecta)® in the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhoea in Adults: A Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Khediri, Faouzi; Mrad, Abdennebi Ilhem; Azzouz, Moussadek; Doughi, Hedi; Najjar, Taoufik; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hélène; Garnier, Philippe; Cortot, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although diosmectite has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in children, its efficacy in adults still needs to be assessed. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the efficacy of diosmectite on the time to recovery in adults with acute diarrhoea. Methods. A total of 346 adults with at least three watery stools per day over a period of less than 48 hours were prospectively randomized to diosmectite (6 g tid) or placebo during four days. The primary endpoint was time to diarrhoea recovery. Results. In the intention-to-treat population, median time to recovery was 53.8 hours (range [3.7–167.3]) with diosmectite (n = 166) versus 69.0 hours [2.2–165.2] with placebo, (n = 163; P = .029), which corresponds to a difference of 15.2 hours. Diosmectite was well tolerated. Conclusion. Diosmectite at 6 g tid was well tolerated and reduced the time to recovery of acute watery diarrhoea episode in a clinically relevant manner. PMID:21760777

  11. Tailored, iterative, printed dietary feedback is as effective as group education in improving dietary behaviours: results from a randomised control trial in middle-aged adults with cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tailored nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing dietary behaviours, particularly fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake. But further research examining efficacy of tailored nutrition education in comparison to other nutrition education methods and across a wider range of dietary behaviours is needed. The Stages to Healthy Eating Patterns Study (STEPs) was an intervention study, in middle-aged adults with cardiovascular risk factors, to examine the effectiveness of printed, tailored, iterative dietary feedback delivered by mail in improving short-term dietary behaviour in the areas of saturated fat, fruit, vegetable and grain and cereal intake. Methods STEPs was a 3-month randomised controlled trial with a pre and post-test design. There were three experimental conditions: 1) tailored, iterative, printed dietary feedback (TF) with three instalments mail-delivered over a 3-month period that were re-tailored to most recent assessment of dietary intake, intention to change and assessment of self-adequacy of dietary intake. Tailoring for dietary intake was performed on data from a validated 63-item combination FFQ designed for the purpose 2) small group nutrition education sessions (GE): consisting of two 90-minute dietitian-led small group nutrition education sessions and 3) and a wait-listed control (C) group who completed the dietary measures and socio-demographic questionnaires at baseline and 3-months later. Dietary outcome measures in the areas of saturated fat intake (g), and the intake of fruit (serves), vegetables (serves), grain and cereals as total and wholegrain (serves) were collected using 7-day estimated dietary records. Descriptive statistics, paired t-tests and general linear models adjusted for baseline dietary intake, age and gender were used to examine the effectiveness of different nutrition interventions. Results The TF group reported a significantly greater increase in

  12. A Community Art Therapy Group for Adults with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…

  13. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  14. Quality Control in Small Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, L. F.

    2008-11-01

    The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

  15. A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients’ short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Methods/design Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically

  16. A randomized controlled trial to promote volunteering in older adults.

    PubMed

    Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention.

  17. Assessing Undergraduate Curriculum for the Adult Learner: Focus Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia B.

    Focus group discussions were held to determine the perceptions of 8 male and 28 female adult students regarding the quality of their undergraduate evening program at a medium-sized public liberal arts college. The students voluntarily participated in one of three group sessions at which the following topics were discussed: whether evening students…

  18. Factors of Group Psychotherapy for Adult Alcoholics: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan K.

    Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…

  19. Postural Control in Children, Teenagers and Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Mainardi, Luca; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze postural control in Down syndrome (DS) participants considering three different groups composed by children, teenagers and adults with DS. An analysis of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement during standing position was therefore performed for the three groups of subjects. The obtained signal of COP was…

  20. Relational Control in Two Group Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    Examines and explains relational control interaction patterns in two decision-making groups and two women's consciousness-raising groups. Analyzes the interaction data using a Markov model and tracking the control dimension of relationships over time. (JMF)

  1. The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups.

    PubMed

    Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C; England, Clare Y; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-11-28

    Weight loss is crucial for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear which dietary intervention is best for optimising glycaemic control, or whether weight loss itself is the main reason behind observed improvements. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary interventions on glycaemic control in overweight and obese adults with T2DM when controlling for weight loss between dietary interventions. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) was conducted. Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science databases were conducted. Inclusion criteria included RCT with minimum 6 months duration, with participants having BMI≥25·0 kg/m2, a diagnosis of T2DM using HbA1c, and no statistically significant difference in mean weight loss at the end point of intervention between dietary arms. Results showed that eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Only four RCT indicated the benefit of a particular dietary intervention over another in improving HbA1c levels, including the Mediterranean, vegan and low glycaemic index (GI) diets. However the findings from one of the four studies showing a significant benefit are questionable because of failure to control for diabetes medications and poor adherence to the prescribed diets. In conclusion there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that any particular diet is superior in treating overweight and obese patients with T2DM. Although the Mediterranean, vegan and low-GI diets appear to be promising, further research that controls for weight loss and the effects of diabetes medications in larger samples is needed.

  2. Self-controlled practice benefits motor learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Helena Thofehrn; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2015-04-01

    Providing learners with the chance to choose over certain aspects of practice has been consistently shown to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills in several populations. However, studies investigating the effects of providing autonomy support during the learning process of older adults remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled amount of practice on the learning of a sequential motor task in older adults. Participants in the self-control group were able to choose when to stop practicing a speed cup stacking task, while the number of practice trials for a yoked group was pre-determined, mirroring the self-control group. The opportunity to choose when stop practicing facilitated motor performance and learning compared to the yoked condition. The findings suggest that letting older adult learners choose the amount of practice, supporting their autonomy needs, has a positive influence on motor learning.

  3. Attitude Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

    1986-01-01

    The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

  4. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  5. Immune Response to Invasive Group B Streptococcus Disease in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rench, Marcia A.; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Fabbrini, Monica; Tuscano, Giovanna; Buffi, Giada; Bartolini, Erika; Bonacci, Stefano; Baker, Carol J.; Margarit, Immaculada

    2016-01-01

    Immunization of nonpregnant adults could help prevent invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, but adult immune responses have not been investigated. We defined capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and pilus island (PI) surface antigen distribution and expression and immune responses to GBS infection in nonpregnant adults. Prospective surveillance from 7 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA, identified 102 adults with GBS bacteremia; 43% had skin/soft tissue infection, 16% bacteremia without focus, and 12% osteomyelitis. CPS-specific IgG was determined by ELISA and pilus-specific IgG by multiplex immunoassay. CPS types were Ia (24.5%), Ib (12.7%), II (9.8%), III (16.7%), IV (13.7%), and V (12.7%); 9.8% were nontypeable by serologic methods. Pili, expressed by 89%, were most often PI-2a. CPS and pilus-specific IgG increased during convalescence among patients with strains expressing CPS or PI. All GBS expressed CPS or PI; 79% expressed both. Increased antibodies to CPS and PI during recovery suggests that GBS bacteremia in adults is potentially vaccine preventable. PMID:27767008

  6. Postural control in children, teenagers and adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Mainardi, Luca; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze postural control in Down syndrome (DS) participants considering three different groups composed by children, teenagers and adults with DS. An analysis of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement during standing position was therefore performed for the three groups of subjects. The obtained signal of COP was then analyzed in both time and frequency domains in order to perform a thorough analysis of the signal. Even if several parameters revealed more differences between the control and DS participants in adulthood, results indicated a divergence of these two groups starting from their early age, although the limit of this study considering a cross-sectional, and not a longitudinal comparison. In particular, COP medio-lateral range of motion pointed out a decrease for both groups considered (pathological and control) in time domain analysis that could lead to the same conclusion in developing strategies, but frequency domain analysis evidenced how this result is reached by the different population: DS people showed a larger frequency of movement in ML more evidenced in adults group (Down Syndrome Adults Group vs. Adults Control Group; 0.35 ± 0.22 Hz vs. 0.17 ± 0.15 Hz; p < 0.05). Even if less pronounced also for the other parameters computed these differences emerged. Aims for the two macro-groups, DS and CG, are different: DS people focused on overcoming the lack of equilibrium caused by hypotonia and ligament laxity, while control group attempted to improve their strategy in term of efficiency, pointing out a different strategy development.

  7. Group Influences on Young Adult Warfighters Risk-Taking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Group Influences on Young Adult Warfighters’ Risk-Taking 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0124 5c. PROGRAM ...for the U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program : The Global Assessment Tool. American Psychologist, 66, 10-18. 15. Zuckerman, M., Eysenck...GAT pertain to the domain of the Human Spirit: they are not "religious" in nature. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program defines spiritual

  8. Group treatment of adult male inpatients abused as children.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, L Y

    1994-10-01

    Recent research indicates that childhood abuse experiences characterize a large subset of psychiatric inpatients. This paper presents a time-limited pilot group developed for adult male abuse survivors in an inpatient setting using: (1) techniques adapted from the existing literature on treatment of abuse survivors; and (2) approaches deriving from the interface of theory and current manifestations of distress. The eclectic therapeutic approach incorporated psychoeducational, cognitive, behavioral, and art therapy techniques presented below in a session-by-session format.

  9. Group Influences on Young Adult Warfighters Risk-Taking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Temple University of the Commonwealth System Philadelphia, PA 19122, 215-204-1429 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF... males (ages 18-22), acting alone or within groups, under varying situational circumstances. In experiment 1 (completed), we established a test battery...attenuates the peer effect, making young males in a peer context less impulsive and reward sensitive than they are when there is no adult present. We

  10. Agrobacterium sp.-derived β-1,3-glucan enhances natural killer cell activity in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kwon, Dae Young; Yang, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated the hypothesis that a highly pure linear β-1,3-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. R259 enhances human natural killer (NK) cell activity and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines. SUBJECTS/METHODS In an eight-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 83 healthy adults with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000 cells/µL were participated and randomly assigned to take two capsules per day containing either 350 mg β-1,3-glucan or placebo. Six participants withdrew their study consent or were excluded due to NK cell activity levels outside the normal range. NK cell activity and serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. RESULTS NK cell activity and the serum levels of IL-10 were significantly higher from baseline to week 8 in the β-glucan group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.048, P = 0.029). Consumption of β-1,3-glucan also significantly increased NK cell activity compared with placebo after adjusting for smoking and stress status (P = 0.009). In particular, the effect of β-1,3-glucan on NK cell activity was greater in participants with severe stress than in those experiencing mild stress. However, the administration β-1,3-glucan did not significantly modulate the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IgG compared with the placebo. CONCLUSION The results showed that supplementation with bacterial β-1,3-glucan significantly increased NK cell activity without causing any adverse effects. Additionally, the beneficial effect of β-1,3-glucan on NK cell activity was greater in participants experiencing severe stress. PMID:28194264

  11. Shrub control by browsing: Targeting adult plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira Pontes, Laíse; Magda, Danièle; Gleizes, Benoît; Agreil, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling the well known benefits of shrubs for forage with environmental goals, whilst preventing their dominance, is a major challenge in rangeland management. Browsing may be an economical solution for shrubby rangelands as herbivore browsing has been shown to control juvenile shrub growth. Less convincing results have been obtained for adult plants, and long-term experiments are required to investigate the cumulative effects on adult plants. We therefore assessed the impact of different levels of browsing intensity on key demographic parameters for a major dominant shrub species (broom, Cytisus scoparius), focusing on adult plants. We assigned individual broom plants to one of three age classes: 3-5 years (young adults); 5-7 years (adults); and 7-9 years (mature adults). These plants were then left untouched or had 50% or 90% of their total edible stem biomass removed in simulated low-intensity and high-intensity browsing treatments, respectively. Morphological, survival and fecundity data were collected over a period of four years. Browsing affected the morphology of individual plants, promoting changes in subsequent regrowth, and decreasing seed production. The heavily browsed plants were 17% shorter, 32% narrower, and their twigs were 28% shorter. Light browsing seemed to control the growth of young adult plants more effectively than that of older plants. Reproductive output was considerably lower than for control plants after light browsing, and almost 100% lower after heavy browsing. High-intensity browsing had a major effect on survival causing high levels of plant mortality. We conclude that suitable browsing practices could be used to modify adult shrub demography in the management of shrub dominance and forage value.

  12. Group B streptococcal necrotizing pneumonia in a diabetic adult patient.

    PubMed

    Pacha, Andrea; Luna Cian, Ramiro; Bonofiglio, Laura; Solari, Melisa; Strada, Virginia; Suárez, Mariana; Vigliarolo, Laura; Tersigni, Carina; Mollerach, Marta; Lopardo, Horacio

    2017-03-18

    The aim of this report is to describe a rare case of necrotizing pneumonia due to group B Streptococcus serotype III in a relatively young male adult (48 years old) suffering from diabetes. The organism was isolated from his pleural fluid and was only resistant to tetracycline. The patient first received ceftazidime (2g/8h i.v.)+clindamycin (300mg/8h) for 18 days and then he was discharged home and orally treated with amoxicillin clavulanic acid (1g/12h) for 23 days with an uneventful evolution. As in the cases of invasive infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, clindamycin could prevent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

  13. Experiences of older adults in a group physiotherapy program at a rehabilitation hospital: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Melissa J; Burge, Angela T; Soh, Sze-Ee; Jeffs, Kimberley J; Winter, Adele; Holland, Anne E

    2016-05-01

    Physiotherapy delivered in a group setting has been shown to be effective in a variety of populations. However, little is known about the attitudes of older adults toward participating in group physiotherapy. The objectives of this study were to explore older inpatients' perceptions and experiences of group physiotherapy using qualitative methods. Twelve hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years who were involved in a larger randomized controlled trial undertook individual semistructured interviews regarding their experiences in group physiotherapy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and line by line, iterative thematic analysis was undertaken. Descriptive codes were developed, compared, and grouped together to create themes. Analysis revealed 6 major themes and 10 subthemes. All participants reported feeling happy to attend group sessions, a satisfactory alternative to individual physiotherapy. Participants described physical benefits that increased their motivation, and comparisons with their peers either motivated them or made them feel gratitude for their own health. Perceived attentiveness of group instructors contributed to participants reporting that treatment was individualized and similar to individual physiotherapy. Motivation and camaraderie with peers contributed to their enjoyment of group physiotherapy. Hospitalized older adults enjoyed exercising with their peers and valued the physical and social benefits of group physiotherapy. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:358-362. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. BDNF control of adult SVZ neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bath, Kevin G; Akins, Michael R; Lee, Francis S

    2012-09-01

    The sensory processing of odorants is a dynamic process that requires plasticity at multiple levels. In the olfactory bulb (OB), inhibitory interneurons undergo lifelong replacement through a process known as adult neurogenesis. These newly born cells are incorporated in a learning-dependent fashion, a process which has led some to suggest this as a primary mechanism through which the OB retains a high degree of plasticity throughout life. A continued focus of researchers in this field has been to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and the innate functional role of these cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been identified as a strong candidate molecule regulating adult OB neurogenesis. We review what is known regarding the functional role of newly born cells, highlight the role of BDNF in this process, and describe preliminary findings from our lab implicating BDNF in the process of selecting of newly born cells for survival.

  15. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  16. Top-down control in contour grouping.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Gregor; Wutz, Andreas; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Human observers tend to group oriented line segments into full contours if they follow the Gestalt rule of 'good continuation'. It is commonly assumed that contour grouping emerges automatically in early visual cortex. In contrast, recent work in animal models suggests that contour grouping requires learning and thus involves top-down control from higher brain structures. Here we explore mechanisms of top-down control in perceptual grouping by investigating synchronicity within EEG oscillations. Human participants saw two micro-Gabor arrays in a random order, with the task to indicate whether the first (S1) or the second stimulus (S2) contained a contour of collinearly aligned elements. Contour compared to non-contour S1 produced a larger posterior post-stimulus beta power (15-21 Hz). Contour S2 was associated with a pre-stimulus decrease in posterior alpha power (11-12 Hz) and in fronto-posterior theta (4-5 Hz) phase couplings, but not with a post-stimulus increase in beta power. The results indicate that subjects used prior knowledge from S1 processing for S2 contour grouping. Expanding previous work on theta oscillations, we propose that long-range theta synchrony shapes neural responses to perceptual groupings regulating lateral inhibition in early visual cortex.

  17. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  18. Postural Control of Elderly Adults on Inclined Surfaces.

    PubMed

    da Costa Barbosa, Renata; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the postural control of older adults on inclined surfaces, and was conducted in 17 elderly adults and 18 young adults of both genders. Ground reaction forces and moments were collected using two AMTI force platforms, one of which was in a horizontal position (HOR), while the other was inclined 14° in relation to the horizontal plane. Each participant executed three 70 s-trials of bipedal standing with their eyes open and eyes closed in three inclination conditions: the HOR, the inclined position at ankle dorsi-flexion (UP), and the inclined position at ankle plantar-flexion (DOWN). Spectral analysis, global (mean velocity-Velm, ellipse area-Area and F80), and structural stabilometric descriptors (sway density curve-SDC, detrended fluctuation analysis-DFA, sample entropy-SEn) were employed to assess the center of pressure sway. Velm and F80 were greater for the elderly, whereas SDC, DFA, and SEn were smaller for this group. Global, SDC and DFA variables were sensitive to visual deprivation, however the relative difference from the EO to EC condition was higher in young than in elderly. The DOWN condition was more stable than the UP condition for both young and older adults. With regard to the UP condition, the challenge observed is essentially associated with the corresponding biomechanical constraints. In conclusion, the elderly showed significant differences compared to the young, but age per se may not necessarily result in compromised postural control.

  19. Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Maraver, Maria J; Bajo, M Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J

    2016-01-01

    Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC) and two (active/passive) control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC), whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop), near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span) and IC (Stop-Signal). Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices) and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT) that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift toward a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a general

  20. Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maraver, Maria J.; Bajo, M. Teresa; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities. Young adults were divided into two training (WM/IC) and two (active/passive) control conditions. Over six sessions, the training groups engaged in three different computer-based adaptive activities (WM or IC), whereas the active control group completed a program with low control-demanding activities that mainly involved processing speed. In addition, motivation and engagement were monitored through the training. The WM-training activities required maintenance, updating and memory search processes, while those from the IC group engaged response inhibition and interference control. All participants were pre- and post-tested in criterion tasks (n-back and Stroop), near transfer measures of WM (Operation Span) and IC (Stop-Signal). Non-trained far transfer outcome measures included an abstract reasoning test (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices) and a well-validated experimental task (AX-CPT) that provides indices of cognitive flexibility considering proactive/reactive control. Training results revealed that strongly motivated participants reached higher levels of training improvements. Regarding transfer effects, results showed specific patterns of near transfer effects depending on the type of training. Interestingly, it was only the IC training group that showed far transfer to reasoning. Finally, all trained participants showed a shift toward a more proactive mode of cognitive control, highlighting a general

  1. Adult Age Differences in Functional Connectivity during Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Costello, Matthew C.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Davis, Simon W.; Shepler, Anne M.; Spaniol, Julia; Bucur, Barbara; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires executive control processes that undergo age-related decline. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified age-related differences in brain activation associated with global switching effects (dual-task blocks vs. single-task blocks), but age-related differences in activation during local switching effects (switch trials vs. repeat trials, within blocks) have not been investigated. This experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to examine adult age differences in task switching across adjacent trials (i.e., local task switching). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a cued, word categorization task. From interspersed cue-only trials, switch-related processing associated with the cue was estimated separately from the target. Activation associated with task switching, within a distributed frontoparietal network, differed for cue- and target-related processing. The magnitude of event-related activation for task switching was similar for younger adults (n = 20; 18-27 years) and older adults (n = 20; 60-85 years), although activation sustained throughout the on-tasks periods exhibited some age-related decline. Critically, the functional connectivity of switch-related regions, during cue processing, was higher for younger adults than for older adults, whereas functional connectivity during target processing was comparable across the age groups. Further, individual differences in cue-related functional connectivity shared a substantial portion of the age-related variability in the efficiency of target categorization response (drift rate). This age-related difference in functional connectivity, however, was independent of white matter integrity within task-relevant regions. These findings highlight the functional connectivity of frontoparietal activation as a potential source of age-related decline in executive control. PMID:20434565

  2. A Study of Developmental Collaborative Diagnosis in Small Groups of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rominger, Roger Kyle

    The author developed a theory of developmental collaborative diagnosis for small groups of adult learners, constructed a procedural model, and identified possible advantages of such diagnosis. Data were gathered from the fields of adult education, diagnosis, and social psychology, from consultations with adult education professors, and from…

  3. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  4. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  5. Transpersonal experiences in childhood: an exploratory empirical study of selected adult groups.

    PubMed

    Hunt, H T; Gervais, A; Shearing-Johns, S; Travis, F

    1992-12-01

    A questionnaire was developed to assess adult recall for a range of transpersonal experiences throughout childhood and adolescence (mystical experience, out-of-body experience, lucid dreams, archetypal dreams, ESP), as well as nightmares and night terrors as indicators of more conflicted, negative states. In two exploratory studies this questionnaire was administered to subjects with high estimated levels of early transpersonal experiences and practising meditators, with respective undergraduate controls. A cognitive skills/precocity model of early transpersonal experience was contrasted with a vulnerability of self model by comparisons of these groups on questionnaire categories, imaginative absorption, neuroticism, and visual-spatial skills, with some support found for both models depending on experience type, age of estimated recall, and adult meditative practice.

  6. Structured group psychotherapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of an open multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p < 0.001). The factors treatment site and medication did not contribute to the overall improvement. Patients regarded the program topics "behavioral analyses," "mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies.

  7. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  8. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  9. A randomized clinical trial of a coping improvement group intervention for HIV-infected older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan; Kochman, Arlene; Heh, Victor; Neufeld, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    This research tested if a 12-session coping improvement group intervention (n = 104) reduced depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults compared to an interpersonal support group intervention (n = 105) and an individual therapy upon request (ITUR) control condition (n = 86). Participants were 295 HIV-infected men and women 50-plus years of age living in New York City, Cincinnati, OH, and Columbus, OH. Using A-CASI assessment methodology, participants provided data on their depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Screening Scale (GDS) at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 4- and 8-month follow-up. Whether conducted with all participants (N = 295) or only a subset of participants diagnosed with mild, moderate, or severe depressive symptoms (N = 171), mixed models analyses of repeated measures found that both coping improvement and interpersonal support group intervention participants reported fewer depressive symptoms than ITUR controls at post-intervention, 4-month follow-up, and 8-month follow-up. The effect sizes of the differences between the two active interventions and the control group were greater when outcome analyses were limited to those participants with mild, moderate, or severe depressive symptoms. At no assessment period did coping improvement and interpersonal support group intervention participants differ in depressive symptoms. PMID:20857188

  10. A randomized clinical trial of a coping improvement group intervention for HIV-infected older adults.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Timothy G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan; Kochman, Arlene; Heh, Victor; Neufeld, Sharon

    2011-04-01

    This research tested if a 12-session coping improvement group intervention (n = 104) reduced depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults compared to an interpersonal support group intervention (n = 105) and an individual therapy upon request (ITUR) control condition (n = 86). Participants were 295 HIV-infected men and women 50-plus years of age living in New York City, Cincinnati, OH, and Columbus, OH. Using A-CASI assessment methodology, participants provided data on their depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Screening Scale (GDS) at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 4- and 8-month follow-up. Whether conducted with all participants (N = 295) or only a subset of participants diagnosed with mild, moderate, or severe depressive symptoms (N = 171), mixed models analyses of repeated measures found that both coping improvement and interpersonal support group intervention participants reported fewer depressive symptoms than ITUR controls at post-intervention, 4-month follow-up, and 8-month follow-up. The effect sizes of the differences between the two active interventions and the control group were greater when outcome analyses were limited to those participants with mild, moderate, or severe depressive symptoms. At no assessment period did coping improvement and interpersonal support group intervention participants differ in depressive symptoms.

  11. Using a Group Approach to Motivate Adults to Learn Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Kendra R.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching braille is one of the most time-consuming tasks for a vision rehabilitation therapist. Complicating this process, adults who might be considered to be good candidates for learning braille are often resistant to the idea (Ponchillia & Ponchillia, 1996). In an attempt to address these challenges, a combination of correspondence braille…

  12. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K control, a helpful tool in assessing whether a child is following a normal developmental pattern.

  13. Two cases of group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults in a sexual health setting.

    PubMed

    Bray, Susan; Morgan, Jane

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of group A streptococcus (GAS) causing vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults are described. A review of the literature of genital GAS is made, as this is an uncommon cause of vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults. Contrasts are made between anogenital carriage of GAS and group B streptococcus (GBS) to highlight the differences in anogenital carriage between these two organisms.

  14. Socioeconomic status and weight control practices in British adults

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, J; Griffith, J

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Attitudes and practices concerning weight control in British adults were examined to test the hypothesis that variation in concern about weight and deliberate weight control might partly explain the socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in obesity. Higher SES groups were hypothesised to show more weight concern and higher levels of dieting.
SETTING—Data were collected as part of the monthly Omnibus Survey of the Office of National Statistics in March 1999.
PARTICIPANTS—A stratified, probability sample of 2690 households was selected by random sampling of addresses in Britain. One randomly selected person in each household was interviewed at their home.
MAIN RESULTS—As predicted, higher SES men and women had higher levels of perceived overweight, monitored their weight more closely, and were more likely to be trying to lose weight. Higher SES groups also reported more restrictive dietary practices and more vigorous physical activity.
CONCLUSIONS—The results are consistent with the idea that part of the protection against weight gain in higher SES groups could be a higher frequency of weight monitoring, a lower threshold for defining themselves as overweight, and a greater likelihood of deliberate efforts at weight control.


Keywords: socioeconomic status; weight control; obesity PMID:11160173

  15. Balance control during stair negotiation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heng-Ju; Chou, Li-Shan

    2007-01-01

    Stair negotiation is among the most challenging and hazardous types of locomotion for older people. However, the effect of aging on balance control during stair negotiation has not been investigated. Instantaneous inclination angles between the center of mass (CoM) and center of pressure (CoP) have been reported to detect gait instability effectively in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to compare the CoM-CoP inclination angles between 12 healthy elderly and 13 healthy young adults when performing stair ascent (SA) and descent (SD) on a three-step staircase. Whole body motion data were collected with an eight-camera motion analysis system. Four force plates were mounted on the floor as well as the first two steps to measure ground reaction forces. No significant group differences were detected in any of the temporal-distance gait measures and CoM-CoP inclination angles during SA and SD. Compared to the floor-to-stair transition phase, both groups demonstrated a significantly greater CoM-CoP medial inclination angle while ascending the stairs. However, a significant reduction in medial inclination was only detected in young adults when transferring from SD to level ground walking. Elderly adults were found to demonstrate a significantly greater medial inclination angle during the stair-to-floor transition phase when compared to young adults. Age-related degenerations in the elderly could compromise their ability to regulate body sway during the stair-to-floor transition, which may subsequently increase the risk of falling.

  16. ADAPTATION OF GROUP B COXSACKIE VIRUS TO ADULT MOUSE PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, Gilbert; Gifford, Rebecca

    1952-01-01

    An alteration of tissue tropism of a Coxsackie virus has been observed following different methods of propagation of the virus in animals. Tropism for the adult mouse pancreas, as described by Pappenheimer, appeared to be irrevocably lost following prolonged brain-to-brain transfer. It was present in the same strain on reisolation from human feces, was intensified following pancreas transfers, and suppressed by brain transfers. Pancreatotropism may be correlated with the titer of virus in the pancreas. PMID:13000059

  17. Adult attachment anxiety: using group therapy to promote change.

    PubMed

    Marmarosh, Cheri L; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2013-11-01

    Group therapy can facilitate changes for members with greater attachment anxiety who tend to struggle with negative self-perceptions, difficulties regulating emotions, poor reflective functioning, and compromised interpersonal relationships. A clinical example of a therapy group with members who had elevated attachment anxiety and who were diagnosed with binge eating disorder demonstrates how attachment theory can be applied to group treatment. The clinical material from the beginning, middle, and end of group is presented to highlight how attachment anxiety influences members' emotional reactions and behaviors in the group, how group factors facilitate change, and how the leader fosters the development of a secure base within the group. Pre- to posttreatment outcomes indicate positive changes in binge eating, depressive symptoms, and attachment avoidance and anxiety. To facilitate change in individuals with greater attachment anxiety, group therapists may foster a secure base in the group through group cohesion, which will facilitate down regulation of emotions, better reflective functioning, and relationships that are less preoccupied with loss and more secure.

  18. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  19. External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, G.; Alstrom, B.; Colonius, T.; Dannenhoffer, J.; Glauser, M.; Helenbrook, B.; Higuchi, H.; Hodson, H.; Jha, R.; Kabiri, P.; LaGraff, J.; Low,K.; McKeon, B.; Morrison, J.; Obcid, S.; Orbaker, A.; Samimy, M.; Schmit, R.; Seifert, A.; Seume, J.; Shahabi, A.; Shea, P.; Ukeiley, L.; Wallace, R.

    2010-01-01

    Broad Flow Control Issues: a) Understanding flow physics. b) Specific control objective(s). c) Actuation. d) Sensors. e) Integrated active flow control system. f) Development of design tools (CFD, reduced order models, controller design, understanding and utilizing instabilities and other mechanisms, e.g., streamwise vorticity).

  20. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND CONTROL OF ASTHMA IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, I.A.; Ladipo, M.M.A.; Ige, O.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a chronic disease which places considerable economic, social and public health burdens on the society. Education, occupation and income are the most widely used indicators of socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have shown increased asthma hospital admissions for those who are materially deprived and increased asthma severity in low social class groups. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on control of asthma in adults. Method: The study was a cross-sectional analytical one, conducted over a year at the Medical Outpatient Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan. The study population was composed of 355 randomly selected adults aged between 18years and 55years with an established diagnosis of asthma already on treatment. Results: Respondents with monthly income of 40000 and above had a higher proportion with good asthma control (74.1%) compared to those that earned 10000 to 39999 (69.0%) and less than 10000 (47.8%). This was statistically significant. Respondents in occupational class I/II had a slightly higher proportion with good asthma control (70.9%) compared to those in occupation class III/IV (70.1%) and occupation class V/VI (50.6%). This was statistically significant at p = 0.003. Conclusion: Respondents in the higher occupational class had better asthma control than respondents in the lower occupational class. Respondents who were earning 40000 and above as monthly income had better control of asthma than other respondents. After adjusting for other variables, the predictor of good asthma control was monthly income of the respondents. PMID:28337093

  1. Whitby Research Group: A Pioneering Concept in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rosalin; Lewis, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Years of meticulous research work can be lost when projects are discontinued. Institutional support can make all the difference. The Whitby Research Group coordinates projects, provides access to computers, and enables researchers to share their work in seminars. (JOW)

  2. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anguera, J A; Boccanfuso, J; Rintoul, J L; Al-Hashimi, O; Faraji, F; Janowich, J; Kong, E; Larraburo, Y; Rolle, C; Johnston, E; Gazzaley, A

    2013-09-05

    Cognitive control is defined by a set of neural processes that allow us to interact with our complex environment in a goal-directed manner. Humans regularly challenge these control processes when attempting to simultaneously accomplish multiple goals (multitasking), generating interference as the result of fundamental information processing limitations. It is clear that multitasking behaviour has become ubiquitous in today's technologically dense world, and substantial evidence has accrued regarding multitasking difficulties and cognitive control deficits in our ageing population. Here we show that multitasking performance, as assessed with a custom-designed three-dimensional video game (NeuroRacer), exhibits a linear age-related decline from 20 to 79 years of age. By playing an adaptive version of NeuroRacer in multitasking training mode, older adults (60 to 85 years old) reduced multitasking costs compared to both an active control group and a no-contact control group, attaining levels beyond those achieved by untrained 20-year-old participants, with gains persisting for 6 months. Furthermore, age-related deficits in neural signatures of cognitive control, as measured with electroencephalography, were remediated by multitasking training (enhanced midline frontal theta power and frontal-posterior theta coherence). Critically, this training resulted in performance benefits that extended to untrained cognitive control abilities (enhanced sustained attention and working memory), with an increase in midline frontal theta power predicting the training-induced boost in sustained attention and preservation of multitasking improvement 6 months later. These findings highlight the robust plasticity of the prefrontal cognitive control system in the ageing brain, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of how a custom-designed video game can be used to assess cognitive abilities across the lifespan, evaluate underlying neural mechanisms, and serve as a powerful tool

  3. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  4. Dynamics and controls working group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology status of the dynamics and controls discipline as it applies to energy storage wheel systems was evaluated. No problems were identified for which an adequate solution could not be proposed. Design issues that influence control were addressed. The dynamics and control aspects associated with the energy storage system concept and its various constituent parts, and the control tasks attendant to large, manned spacecraft are discussed.

  5. Effects of online group exercises for older adults on physical, psychological and social wellbeing: a randomized pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Khaghani Far, Iman; Ibarra, Francisco; Ferron, Michela; Didino, Daniele; Casati, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Background Intervention programs to promote physical activity in older adults, either in group or home settings, have shown equivalent health outcomes but different results when considering adherence. Group-based interventions seem to achieve higher participation in the long-term. However, there are many factors that can make of group exercises a challenging setting for older adults. A major one, due to the heterogeneity of this particular population, is the difference in the level of skills. In this paper we report on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes of a technology-based intervention that enable online group exercises in older adults with different levels of skills. Methods A total of 37 older adults between 65 and 87 years old followed a personalized exercise program based on the OTAGO program for fall prevention, for a period of eight weeks. Participants could join online group exercises using a tablet-based application. Participants were assigned either to the Control group, representing the traditional individual home-based training program, or the Social group, representing the online group exercising. Pre- and post- measurements were taken to analyze the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes. Results After the eight-weeks training program there were improvements in both the Social and Control groups in terms of physical outcomes, given the high level of adherence of both groups. Considering the baseline measures, however, the results suggest that while in the Control group fitter individuals tended to adhere more to the training, this was not the case for the Social group, where the initial level had no effect on adherence. For psychological outcomes there were improvements on both groups, regardless of the application used. There was no significant difference between groups in social wellbeing outcomes, both groups seeing a decrease in loneliness despite the presence of social features in the Social group. However

  6. The moderating role of sexual identity in group teletherapy for adults aging with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Lovejoy, Travis I; Heckman, Timothy G; Anderson, Timothy; Grimes, Tiffany; Sutton, Mark; Bianco, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Older adults living with HIV/AIDS experience high rates of depression and suicidal ideation but are less likely than their younger counterparts to seek psychological services. HIV continues to disproportionately impact older men who have sex with men (MSM), many of whom were infected in their 20s and 30s. This study examined whether therapy attendance rates and the efficacies of two group-format teletherapies for the treatment of depression (coping effectiveness group training and supportive-expressive group therapy) were comparable for older MSM and older heterosexuals living with HIV. Intervention-outcome analyses found that older MSM and older heterosexuals living with HIV attended comparable numbers of teletherapy sessions. Older heterosexuals living with HIV who received telephone-administered supportive-expressive group therapy reported significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms than SOC controls. A similar pattern was not found in older MSM. More research is needed to personalize and tailor group teletherapies for older MSM living with HIV.

  7. The relationship between executive function and fine motor control in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Corti, Emily J; Johnson, Andrew R; Riddle, Hayley; Gasson, Natalie; Kane, Robert; Loftus, Andrea M

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between executive function (EF) and fine motor control in young and older healthy adults. Participants completed 3 measures of executive function; a spatial working memory (SWM) task, the Stockings of Cambridge task (planning), and the Intra-Dimensional Extra-Dimensional Set-Shift task (set-shifting). Fine motor control was assessed using 3 subtests of the Purdue Pegboard (unimanual, bimanual, sequencing). For the younger adults, there were no significant correlations between measures of EF and fine motor control. For the older adults, all EFs significantly correlated with all measures of fine motor control. Three separate regressions examined whether planning, SWM and set-shifting independently predicted unimanual, bimanual, and sequencing scores for the older adults. Planning was the primary predictor of performance on all three Purdue subtests. A multiple-groups mediation model examined whether planning predicted fine motor control scores independent of participants' age, suggesting that preservation of planning ability may support fine motor control in older adults. Planning remained a significant predictor of unimanual performance in the older age group, but not bimanual or sequencing performance. The findings are discussed in terms of compensation theory, whereby planning is a key compensatory resource for fine motor control in older adults.

  8. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  9. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  10. The Effectiveness of Group Treatment for Female Adult Incest Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donalee; Reyes, Sonia; Brown, Brienne; Gonzenbach, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Very few clinicians receive training in the treatment of sexual abuse, yet during their careers many will encounter victims of sexual abuse. This article discusses the incidence of child sexual abuse, defines incest, and discusses treatment options. A review of group treatment is explored, with results being documented providing support for the…

  11. The Others-Concept and Adult Behavior in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burzynski, Peter R.

    In other studies to be reported in this symposium, the others-concept is seen to be a psychological construct of emerging importance for understanding children's behavior. It would appear, however, to have relevance for all age groups. Thus this researcher sought to investigate whether or not the relationships which had been previously found…

  12. Connecting Critical Reflection and Group Development in Online Adult Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Barnett, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the space where critical reflection and group development met within the online environment for the adult learner. Using critical reflection with adult learners through their responses to Stephen Brookfield's (1995) Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ) in the online environment precipitated instructional…

  13. Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spek, Annelies A; van Ham, Nadia C; Nyklíček, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric concern in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been found effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, however research in autism is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of a modified MBT protocol (MBT-AS) in high-functioning adults with ASD. 42 participants were randomized into a 9-week MBT-AS training or a wait-list control group. Results showed a significant reduction in depression, anxiety and rumination in the intervention group, as opposed to the control group. Furthermore, positive affect increased in the intervention group, but not in the control group. Concluding, the present study is the first controlled trial to demonstrate that adults with ASD can benefit from MBT-AS.

  14. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  15. Efficacy of Group Art Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Adult Heterogeneous Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Ainlay Anand, Susan; Avent, Lindsay Cherryl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential benefit of weekly group art therapy in groups of adult psychiatric outpatients at a university medical center. Eighteen patients participated in 4 successive 8-week groups of 6 to 8 patients each that met weekly and were led by 2 therapists (a board-certified art therapist and a psychiatry resident). The…

  16. Focus Groups to Explore the Perceptions of Older Adults on a Pedometer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David B.; Richeson, Nancy E.; Croteau, Karen A.; Farmer, Bonnie Cashin

    2009-01-01

    Focus group methodology was used to explore in depth the perceptions of older adults who had participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention. Nineteen women and 8 men, ages 55-86 years, volunteered to take part in the focus groups following participation in the intervention. Four focus groups of six to eight participants were scheduled at…

  17. [Postprandial lipemia in Colombian young adults from different ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Aguilar de Plata, Cecilia; Velasco de Echeverri, Maria Teresa; Gracia de Ramírez, Beatriz; Pradilla Ferreira, Alberto; Cruz Naranjo, Martha Liliana; Mosquera Escudero, Mildrey

    2004-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been associated with atherogenesis and other non infectious chronic diseases. A descriptive, non aleatory study of 51 healthy young adults (23.8 +/- 4 years) of different ethnic background was carried out to identify possible personal or life style factors associated with the response of plasma lipids after a mixed carbohydrate and lipid load. Personal, family, life styles including use of drugs and activity and ethnic background were recorded. Anthropometrical measurements, a short insulin and postprandial lipemia tests were done. From these observations body mass index (BMI) and area under the curve (AUC) for lipids and glucose were calculated. High mean values were observed in AUC for glucose, triacylglycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Postprandial glucose with differences by age (p=0.05 Bonferroni) but no ethnic, gender, BMI or insulin sensitivity related significant differences were found. Mestizos (40%) showed two, and Negroes three (27%) postprandial triglyceridemia peaks. Noteworthy, subjects presenting four peaks had elevated BMI. Higher triglyceridemia values were found in white and mestizos (p<0.05), in subjects older than 29 and in males (p<0.05). Statistical correlation (r2=0.70) between BMI and triglyceridemia and change in postprandial trigliceridemia was found in white and black subjects. NEFA declined up to the second hour, but at 6-7 hours they reached levels higher than base values. Higher than reported values for UCA and BMI and an abnormal response to fat intake with an early release of NEFA was found. The high correlation between BMI and postprandial trigliceridemia suggests that body mass index could be a good predictor of postprandial trigliceridemia.

  18. Children's and Adults' Judgments of the Controllability of Cognitive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-grade children's and adults' judgments related to the controllability of cognitive activities, including object recognition, inferential reasoning, counting, and pretending. In Experiment 1, fifth-grade children and adults rated transitive inference and interpretation of ambiguous pictures as more…

  19. Locus of Control and Completion in an Adult Retraining Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    Since attrition is often a problem in adult training programs, a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between locus of control and course completion of adults enrolled in a retraining program. Rotter's Social Learning Theory of Personality was used as a starting point for the study. The study population was a sample of 108…

  20. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention; A Focus-Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J. A.; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living. PMID:27920744

  1. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention; A Focus-Group Study.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J A; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  2. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  3. Interview skills for adults with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lindee; Leatzow, Allison; Clark, Sarah; Siller, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of the interview skills curriculum (ISC), a manualized 12-week group-delivered intervention for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This intervention aims to increase social-pragmatic skills essential to a successful job interview. Twenty-eight adults (18-36 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: ISC or waitlist control. Results revealed that the experimental group showed larger gains in social-pragmatic skills observed during a mock job interview than the control group. Treatment effects on distal outcomes, including social adaptive behaviors and depressive symptoms were not significant, although the respective effect sizes were medium/large. Results indicate that a brief, low-intensity treatment can improve the job-interview performance of young adults with ASD.

  4. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  5. Command Control Group Behaviors. Objective 1. A Methodology for and Identification of Command Control Group Behaviors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    recordings were DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED i SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (K4hen Data Entered) ’Ii...numbers of per- sonnet and 2weapons we now have at our disposal. The command and control (C ) process is one such factor where deficiencies invite...OBSERVATIONAL TASKS Position Codes: 01 10 S1 02 20 S2 03 Brigade 3 30 S3 04 40 S4 05 50 XO 06 60 Entire Group 07 70 Commander (71-"A" Co, 72-"B" Co, 73 -"C" Co

  6. Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    cycloadditions to modify reactive groups within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst ...within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst , the azide, and the alkyne, affect the...the copper catalyst , the azide, and the alkyne, affect the location and yield of the resulting product in the phospholipid membrane. 2. Reasons why

  7. Similar Subgroups Based on Cognitive Performance Parse Heterogeneity in Adults With ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Jeanette C.; Hoogman, Martine; Onnink, A. Marten H.; van Rooij, Daan; von Rhein, Daniel; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Norris, David G.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize heterogeneity in adults with ADHD we aimed to identify subgroups within the adult ADHD spectrum, which differ in their cognitive profile. Method Neuropsychological data from adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy control participants (n = 132) were used in a confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting six cognitive factors were correlated across participants to form networks. We used a community detection algorithm to cluster these networks into subgroups. Results Both the ADHD and control group separated into three profiles that differed in cognitive performance. Profile 1 was characterized by aberrant attention and inhibition, profile 2 by increased delay discounting, and profile 3 by atypical working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion Our findings suggest that qualitative differences in neuropsychological performance exist in both control and ADHD adult individuals. This extends prior findings in children with and without ADHD and provides a framework to parse participants into well-defined subgroups. PMID:26374770

  8. Group Rhythm and Drumming with Older Adults: Music Therapy Techniques and Multimedia Training Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuer, Barbara Louise; Crowe, Barbara; Bernstein, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Written by a team of creative and highly qualified music therapists, this publication provides content training for the use of group percussion strategies with mature adults. In fact, the book promotes senior peers as group facilitators and/or coleaders. The grace of this approach is that no previous musical training is necessary in order to…

  9. Sociometric Status and Social Drinking: Observations of Modelling and Persuasion in Young Adult Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bot, Sander M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Because young adult drinking occurs primarily in peer groups, this should be taken into account when studying influences on drinking behaviour. This paper aimed to assess influences on drinking by observing existing peer groups in a naturalistic setting. We first analysed the basic levels at which two types of influence take place. The first,…

  10. Functions of an Adult Sickle Cell Group: Education, Task Orientation, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Dennis J.; Beltran, Lou R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on development of adult sickle cell support group and provides description of psychosocial factors most prevalent in patients' lives (anxiety about death, disruption of social support network, disability, dependence on pain medication, conflicts with health care providers). Notes that support group enhanced participants' knowledge about…

  11. Justice Making in Groups for Homeless Adults: The Emancipatory Communitarian Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Michael D.; Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Rivera, Edil Torres; Tate, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The need for group counseling services for homeless adults is increasing with recent economic and natural disasters, representing crises that exacerbate the ongoing financial and social marginalization of this population. To address their needs, Emancipatory Communitarianism (EC; Prilleltensky, 1997) is suggested for group counselors working to…

  12. Charting the Learning Journey of a Group of Adults Returning to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Des

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative case study method the researcher studied a group of adult returning students completing a childcare course. Methods used included focus groups, a questionnaire and observations. Using a holistic analysis approach (Yin 2003) of the case the researcher then focused on a number of key issues. From this analysis the themes of…

  13. A psychoeducational codependency support group for older adults who reside in the community: friends supporting friends.

    PubMed

    McIinnis-Perry, Gloria J; Good, Jim M

    2006-08-01

    Older adults with loved ones who are dependent on alcohol or drugs often experience the adverse effects of a codependent relationship. Many experience anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, and suicidal thoughts. A pilot psychoeducational codependency support group was developed to promote well-being and reduce the adverse effects of codependency among older persons. The study participants were a voluntary convenience sample of 22 older adults (ages 65 and older) residing in the community. A pretest and posttest were administered. Six 90-minute group sessions based on a curriculum developed by the authors were held during a 2-month period. Yalom's Therapeutic Factors were used to evaluate the group process. Results indicated that older adults benefit from a psychoeducational support group format and that codependency issues can be reduced.

  14. Evaluation of an ongoing psychoeducational inflammatory bowel disease support group in an adult outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Kristin; Aguinaldo, Laika; Parekh, Nimisha K

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies assessing efficacy of support groups for patients with inflammatory bowel disease showed mixed results in terms of attendance and overall effectiveness. In this study, researchers evaluated the use of an ongoing open psychoeducational support group for adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease in an outpatient tertiary setting. The sample consisted of 18 adults who have attended more than 2 meetings of the support group. Topics addressed in the support group include complementary medicine, diet and nutrition, the psychological impact of inflammatory bowel disease, medication and side effects, and insurance/disability. Participants were asked to complete the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire, Multidimensional Support Scale, 11 general demographic questions, and a brief open-ended qualitative questionnaire developed by the researchers. Results demonstrated that participants reported very high satisfaction with the support group and rated the adequacy of peer support from others with inflammatory bowel disease higher than support from family/friends and professionals. A majority of group members reported joining the group for mutual support and education; this expectation was met through the psychoeducational structure of the group. This study demonstrates the potential for success of an ongoing psychoeducational inflammatory bowel disease support group for adult patients and their caregivers.

  15. Quantum group signature scheme based on controlled quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F. L.; Han, Z. F.

    2016-11-01

    Group signature scheme is a method of allowing a member of a group to sign a message anonymously on behalf of the group. The group administrator is in charge of adding group members and has the ability to reveal the original signer in the event of disputes. Based on controlled quantum teleportation with three-particle entangled W states, we propose a new quantum group signature scheme with designated receiver. Security analysis proves that the proposed scheme possesses the characteristics of group signature and resists the usual attacks. Compared with previous proposed schemes, this scheme follows security definition of group signature fully and meets its basic requirements.

  16. Deficits in inhibitory force control in young adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Neely, Kristina A; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda P; Samimy, Shaadee; Tucker, Jacqueline; Merida, Andrea; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia

    2017-03-09

    Poor inhibitory control is a well-established cognitive correlate of adults with ADHD. However, the simple reaction time (RT) task used in a majority of studies records performance errors only via the presence or absence of a single key press. This all-or-nothing response makes it impossible to capture subtle differences in underlying processes that shape performance. Subsequently, all-or-nothing tasks may underestimate the prevalence of executive function deficits in ADHD. The current study measured inhibitory control using a standard Go/No-Go RT task and a more sensitive continuous grip force task among adults with (N=51, 22 female) and without (N=51, 29 female) ADHD. Compared to adults without ADHD, adults with ADHD made more failed inhibits in the classic Go/No-Go paradigm and produced greater and more variable force during motor inhibition. The amount of force produced on failed inhibits was a stronger predictor of ADHD-related symptoms than the number of commissions in the standard RT task. Adults with ADHD did not differ from those without ADHD on the mean force and variability of force produced in Go trials. These findings suggest that the use of a precise and continuous motor task, such as the force task used here, provides additional information about the nature of inhibitory motor control in adults with ADHD.

  17. A novel approach to enhancing limb control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jason B; Kennedy, Deanna M; Shea, Charles H

    2015-07-01

    Two recent experiments have demonstrated that young adult participants were able to make faster and more harmonic movements in a typical reciprocal Fitts task (ID = 6) following a practice session of sine wave tracking (Boyle et al. in Exp Brain Res 223:377-387, 2012; J Mot Behav 46:277-285, 2014). The purpose of the present experiment was to replicate these findings with a young adult population (age 18-25) and determine whether sine wave tracking also enhances goal-directed limb movements in an older adult population (age 65-90). To establish a performance baseline, all participants were first pretested on a typical ID = 6 Fitts task. Participants in each age group were then randomly assigned to one of the two training conditions where they practiced (45 trials) on a typical Fitts task (ID = 6) or they were asked to track a sine wave template (45 trials). Following practice, all participants were then posttested under the ID = 6 Fitts conditions. The results demonstrated that both young and older adult participants that practiced under the sine wave conditions enhanced their Fitts task performance compared to participants in their respective age groups who practiced under the Fitts conditions. These enhancements included faster movement times, smaller dwell times, and more harmonic movements, all without decreases in movement accuracy. These results replicate our previous findings with young adults and extend the finding to older adult participants. Interestingly, the performances of the older adults following sine wave practice were as fast and as accurate as the young adults following Fitts task practice.

  18. Priming for immunologic memory in adults by meningococcal group C conjugate vaccination.

    PubMed

    Vu, David M; de Boer, Alberdina W; Danzig, Lisa; Santos, George; Canty, Bridget; Flores, Betty M; Granoff, Dan M

    2006-06-01

    Meningococcal group C polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (MCV) prime infants and children for memory anticapsular responses upon subsequent exposure to unconjugated polysaccharide. The objective of this study was to determine whether MCV primes vaccine-naïve adults and adults previously vaccinated with meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV) for memory antibody responses. Meningococcal vaccine-naïve adults were randomized to receive either MCV (MCV/naïve group) (n = 35) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (PCV/naïve group) (n = 34). Participants with a history of receiving MPSV were given MCV (MCV/MPSV group) (n = 26). All subjects were challenged 10 months later with one-fifth of the usual dose of MPSV (10 mug of each polysaccharide). Sera were obtained before the conjugate vaccination and before and 7 days after the MPSV challenge and assayed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) anticapsular antibody concentrations and bactericidal titers. The MCV/naïve group had 7- to 10-fold-higher serum IgG and bactericidal responses after the MPSV challenge than the PCV/naïve group (P < 0.001). The increases (n-fold) in anticapsular antibody concentrations in the MCV/naïve group were greatest in subjects with antibody concentrations of 2 microg/ml before the challenge; P < 0.0001). Only 3 of 11 MCV-vaccinated subjects who had received MPSV before enrollment and who had antibody concentrations of adults primes for robust memory antibody responses. There was no evidence of induction of memory by MCV in adults previously vaccinated with MPSV.

  19. Relaxation Therapy and Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Emotional Regulation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who…

  20. The Effects of Slackline Balance Training on Postural Control in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Monika; Kalicinski, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated whether slackline training enhances postural control in older adults. Twenty-four participants were randomized into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group received 6 weeks of slackline training, two times per week. Pre-post measurement included the time of different standing positions on a balance platform with and without an external disturbance and the acceleration of the balance platform. Results showed significantly improved standing times during one-leg stance without external disturbance and a significantly reduced acceleration of the balance platform for the intervention group after the training period during tandem stance with and without an external disturbance. We conclude that slackline training in older adults has a positive impact on postural control and thus on the reduction of fall risk.

  1. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  2. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  3. Mindfulness meditation in older adults with postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meize-Grochowski, Robin; Shuster, George; Boursaw, Blake; DuVal, Michelle; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Schrader, Ron; Smith, Bruce W; Herman, Carla J; Prasad, Arti

    2015-01-01

    This parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot study examined daily meditation in a diverse sample of older adults with postherpetic neuralgia. Block randomization was used to allocate participants to a treatment group (n = 13) or control group (n = 14). In addition to usual care, the treatment group practiced daily meditation for six weeks. All participants completed questionnaires at enrollment in the study, two weeks later, and six weeks after that, at the study's end. Participants recorded daily pain and fatigue levels in a diary, and treatment participants also noted meditation practice. Results at the 0.10 level indicated improvement in neuropathic, affective, and total pain scores for the treatment group, whereas affective pain worsened for the control group. Participants were able to adhere to the daily diary and meditation requirements in this feasibility pilot study.

  4. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. Materials and methods This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Results Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. Conclusion This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development. PMID:28203113

  5. An Annotated Bibliography of Materials Designed and Organized for Adult Use in Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, John W.

    This first annotated bibliography of materials designed and organized for adult use in disucssion groups includes both book and nonbook material. Areas dealt with are: art, censorship, change, child guidance, communication, crime, democracy, economics, education, evolution, food, foreign affairs, forgetting, generation gap, gold, good and evil,…

  6. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  7. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  8. Coming Together to Calm the Hunger: Group Therapy Program for Adults Diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponech, Heather; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on anorexia nervosa in female adults and concludes by offering 14 group therapy lesson plans for anorexia nervosa that therapists may use in their practice. There is a remarkable lack of research on the efficacy of treatment designed for individuals diagnosed with anorexia…

  9. Which Group Teaching Styles Best Promote Information Gain for Adults with Mental Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emer, Denise; McLarney, Amber; Goodwin, Melinda; Keller, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    Group psychoeducation formats were evaluated to determine which promoted the greatest learning and retention of therapeutically relevant information in adult clients with mental disorders. Study 1 compared lecture and interactive formats; Study 2 compared two types of interactive formats. Both studies also measured client satisfaction with the…

  10. Literacy Practices and Linguistic Choices: A Sociocultural Study of a Multilingual Adult Literacy Student Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen R.; Thorp, Kay

    The report describes a study of a multilingual group of six adult literacy students, five women and one man, enrolled in an English literacy class at an Australian college. Subjects' countries of origin include Afghanistan, Indonesia/China, Lebanon, Iran, and China. The study examined factors affecting subjects' daily literacy practices and…

  11. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  12. Effect of resistance training on strength, postural control, and gait velocity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Topp, R; Mikesky, A; Dayhoff, N E; Holt, W

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 14-week resistance training program on the ankle strength, training intensity, postural control, and gait velocity of older adults. Forty-two older adults (mean age = 72), 21 in the resistance and control groups, completed the 14-week project. The resistance training group participated in 14 weeks of resistance training three times per week using elastic bands (Theraband) for resistance. Isokinetic ankle strength, training intensity, postural stability, and gait velocity were measured prior to and following the 14-week intervention. Following the training, the resistance group exhibited improved ankle dorsiflexion, training resistances, and gait velocity, but showed no change in plantar flexion or postural control. The control group also exhibited improvements in dorsiflexion, but these gains were approximately one-half of the gains observed in the resistance training group. Finally, when adjusted for baseline differences, subjects in the resistance training group demonstrated no changes in the dependent measures over the control group.

  13. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients' engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed.

  14. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed. PMID:27774073

  15. Motion Control for Nonholonomic Systems on Matrix Lie Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    representations of systems on a certain nilpotent matrix group. After studying the technique of nilpotentization in the setting of systems on matrix ...the technique of nilpotentization in the setting of systems on matrix Lie groups we show how motion control laws derived for nilpotent systems can be...of systems on a certain nilpotent matrix group. After studying the technique of nilpotentization in the setting of systems on matrix Lie groups we show

  16. European Network of Interaction Projects in Adult Education. Pilot Seminar on the Training of Adult Educators Working for Underprivileged Groups (Kungalv, Sweden, May 19-23, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claude, Armand; And Others

    These proceedings of a workshop designed to test a model for a seminar to train adult educators and to discuss the characteristics of adult education in Nordic countries (with special attention to underprivileged groups) consist of a general report and syntheses of two group sessions. Discussed in the general report are the background and…

  17. Generalization of Adult's Stimulus Control of Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Generalization of stimulus control in different situations and with novel adults occurred with those children who were trained by contingent reinforcement, but not with those trained by both contingent and noncontingent reinforcement. This research was submitted as part of the author's dissertation. (MH)

  18. 76 FR 12117 - Call for Comments on the Draft Report of the Adult Immunization Working Group to the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Call for Comments on the Draft Report of the Adult Immunization Working Group to the... Immunization Working Group (AIWG) of NVAC has developed a draft report and recommendations for the... Adult Immunization Working Group, Telephone (202) 260-2325; Fax: (202) 690-4631; E-mail:...

  19. The internet and locus of control in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert J.; Harris, Kimberly D.; Wabby, James

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how training older adults to find medical information using the Internet affects their locus of control. METHODS: Quantitative methods were utilized. Specifically, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control survey was distributed at the onset of each seminar and again at the conclusion. RESULTS: Paired t-tests revealed that the subjects did not change their locus of control regarding their health beliefs over the period of the seminar. However, there was statistical significance with regard to eight specific questions. CONCLUSION: Subjects scored high on their level of internal locus of control coming into the study. The majority of subjects had already learned to use the computer, owned a home computer, and had access to the Internet, but had not used the Internet to search for healthcare information. The challenge continues to be reaching those older adults who have not encountered the computer and the Internet. PMID:12463794

  20. Supportive-expressive and coping group teletherapies for HIV-infected older adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Mohr, David; Sutton, Mark; Bianco, Joseph A; Gau, Jen-Tzer

    2013-11-01

    This clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered supportive-expressive group therapy or coping effectiveness training reduce depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults. Participants from 24 states (N = 361) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 4- and 8-month follow-up and were randomized to one of three study arms: (1) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, supportive-expressive group therapy (tele-SEGT; n = 122); (2) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, coping effectiveness training (tele-CET; n = 118); or (3) a standard of care (SOC) control group (n = 121). Tele-SEGT participants reported fewer depressive symptoms than SOC controls at post-intervention (MSEGT = 11.9, MSOC = 14.3) and 4- (MSEGT = 12.5, MSOC = 14.4) and 8-month follow-up (MSEGT = 12.7, MSOC = 14.5) and fewer depressive symptoms than tele-CET participants at post-intervention (MSEGT = 12.4, MCET = 13.6) and 8-month follow-up (MSEGT = 12.7, MCET = 14.1). Tele-CET participants reported no statistically significant differences from SOC controls in GDS values at any assessment period. Tele-SEGT constitutes an efficacious treatment to reduce depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults.

  1. Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Julie; Peretz, Isabelle; Hyde, Krista

    2002-02-01

    The condition of congenital amusia, commonly known as tone-deafness, has been described for more than a century, but has received little empirical attention. In the present study, a research effort has been made to document in detail the behavioural manifestations of congenital amusia. A group of 11 adults, fitting stringent criteria of musical disabilities, were examined in a series of tests originally designed to assess the presence and specificity of musical disorders in brain-damaged patients. The results show that congenital amusia is related to severe deficiencies in processing pitch variations. The deficit extends to impairments in music memory and recognition as well as in singing and the ability to tap in time to music. Interestingly, the disorder appears specific to the musical domain. Congenital amusical individuals process and recognize speech, including speech prosody, common environmental sounds and human voices, as well as control subjects. Thus, the present study convincingly demonstrates the existence of congenital amusia as a new class of learning disabilities that affect musical abilities.

  2. Identification of group B rotaviruses with short genome electropherotypes from adult cows with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Parwani, A V; Lucchelli, A; Saif, L J

    1996-05-01

    Two field strains (BB-RVLV and KD) of group B rotaviruses from adult dairy cows with diarrhea displayed short genome electropherotypes. Gnotobiotic calves inoculated with fecal filtrates of each group B rotavirus developed diarrhea, and only group B rotaviruses or antigens were detected in the feces by immunoelectron microscopy and in intestinal epithelial cells by immunofluorescent staining, respectively. The feces or intestinal contents of the cows and inoculated calves were negative for group A and C rotaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoelectron microscopy, or cell culture immunofluorescence assays. Comparison of the genome electropherotypes of the calf-passaged BB-RVLV and KD strains with the original samples and reference bovine group A, B, and C rotaviruses revealed conservative of their short-genome electropherotypes and double-stranded RNA migration patterns characteristics of group B rotaviruses. To our knowledge, our previous study (L.J. Saif, K.V. Brock, D.R. Redman, and E.M. Kohler, Vet. Rec. 128:447-449, 1991) and this report are the first description of bovine group B rotaviruses (in a mixed infection with bovine coronavirus or singly in fecal contents) in adult cows with diarrhea and this is the first report of short-genome electropherotypes among group B rotaviruses.

  3. Diversity of group B streptococcus serotypes causing urinary tract infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Ulett, Kimberly B; Benjamin, William H; Zhuo, Fenglin; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Schembri, Mark A; Ulett, Glen C

    2009-07-01

    Serotypes of group B streptococcus (GBS) that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) are poorly characterized. We conducted a prospective study of GBS UTI in adults to define the clinical and microbiological characteristics of these infections, including which serotypes cause disease. Patients who had GBS cultured from urine over a 1-year period were grouped according to symptoms, bacteriuria, and urinalysis. Demographic data were obtained by reviewing medical records. Isolates were serotyped by latex agglutination and multiplex PCR-reverse line blotting (mPCR/RLB). Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion. GBS was cultured from 387/34,367 consecutive urine samples (1.1%): 62 patients had bacteriuria of >10(7) CFU/liter and at least one UTI symptom; of these patients, 31 had urinary leukocyte esterase and pyuria (others not tested), 50 (81%) had symptoms consistent with cystitis, and 12 (19%) had symptoms of pyelonephritis. Compared with controls (who had GBS isolated without symptoms), a prior history of UTI was an independent risk factor for disease. Increased age was also significantly associated with acute infection. Serotyping results were consistent between latex agglutination and mPCR/RLB for 331/387 (85.5%) isolates; 22 (5.7%) and 7 (1.8%) isolates were nontypeable with antisera and by mPCR/RLB, respectively; and 45/56 (80.4%) isolates with discrepant results were typed by mPCR/RLB as belonging to serotype V. Serotypes V, Ia, and III caused the most UTIs; serotypes II, Ib, and IV were less common. Nontypeable GBS was not associated with UTI. Erythromycin (39.5%) and clindamycin (26.4%) resistance was common. We conclude that a more diverse spectrum of GBS serotypes causes UTI than previously recognized, with the exception of nontypeable GBS.

  4. Reliability of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC), Assessed by Different Groups of Health Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, M.; Moe-Nilssen, R.; Ljunggren, A. E.; Strand, L. I.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating pain in adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) is a challenge. The Non-Communicating Adults Pain Checklist (NCAPC) was recently developed from the Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC) and examined in a group of adults with IDD (N = 228) and found to hold satisfactory construct validity, internal…

  5. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from

  6. A multicentre comparative trial of sodium valproate and carbamazepine in adult onset epilepsy. Adult EPITEG Collaborative Group.

    PubMed Central

    Richens, A; Davidson, D L; Cartlidge, N E; Easter, D J

    1994-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of sodium valproate and carbamazepine in adult outpatients with newly diagnosed primary generalised or partial and secondarily generalised seizures were compared in a randomised, open, multicentre study at 22 neurology outpatient clinics. Patients were randomised to oral sodium valproate (Epilim EC enteric coated 200 mg tablets twice daily, n = 149) or oral carbamazepine (100 mg twice daily increasing to 200 mg twice daily in week 2, n = 151) and followed up for three years. If clinically necessary, dosages were regularly increased until seizures were controlled or toxicity developed. Sodium valproate and carbamazepine controlled both primary generalised and partial seizures equally effectively overall. Significantly more patients on sodium valproate than carbamazepine (126/140 (90%) v 105/141 (75%), p = 0.001) remained on randomised treatment for at least six months. Skin rashes occurred significantly more often in carbamazepine recipients than in sodium valproate recipients (11.2% v 1.7%, p < 0.05) and carbamazepine was associated with a higher withdrawal rate because of adverse events (15% v 5% on sodium valproate) in the first six months of treatment. There was no difference between the drugs in the rate of withdrawal because of poor seizure control at any stage, regardless of seizure type. At the end of the three year trial period, over 70% of the available patients were still on randomised treatment or had recently stopped treatment after achieving full seizure control. Sodium valproate and carbamazepine were both associated with a high degree of overall seizure control regardless of seizure type and both have good long-term tolerability in adult patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Recommendations are made for a higher initial dosage regime for sodium valproate in partial seizures. PMID:8006647

  7. Roundabout receptor 2 maintains inhibitory control of the adult midbrain.

    PubMed

    Gore, Bryan B; Miller, Samara M; Jo, Yong Sang; Baird, Madison; Hoon, Mrinalini; Sanford, Christina A; Hunker, Avery; Lu, Weining; Wong, Rachel O; Zweifel, Larry S

    2017-04-10

    The maintenance of excitatory and inhibitory balance in the brain is essential for its function. Here we find that the developmental axon guidance receptor Roundabout 2 (Robo2) is critical for the maintenance of inhibitory synapses in the adult ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain region important for the production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Following selective genetic inactivation of Robo2 in the adult VTA of mice, reduced inhibitory control results in altered neural activity patterns, enhanced phasic dopamine release, behavioral hyperactivity, associative learning deficits, and a paradoxical inversion of psychostimulant responses. These behavioral phenotypes could be phenocopied by selective inactivation of synaptic transmission from local GABAergic neurons of the VTA, demonstrating an important function for Robo2 in regulating the excitatory and inhibitory balance of the adult brain.

  8. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled...

  9. Adolescents in Peer Groups Make More Prudent Decisions When a Slightly Older Adult Is Present.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karol; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents make more reckless decisions when with peers than when alone, which poses a challenge for organizations that place adolescents in situations in which risky and myopic decision making is problematic. We asked whether the effect of peers on adolescents' decision making is mitigated by the presence of a slightly older adult. We examined whether target subjects' risk taking was greater when they were in groups of 4 late-adolescent males (ages 18-22) than when they were in groups that mixed 3 late-adolescent males with 1 slightly older adult (age 25-30); risk taking in both of these conditions was compared with that of adolescents tested alone. We found that adolescents took more risks and expressed stronger preference for immediate rewards when they were grouped with 3 same-age peers than when they were alone. When 1 adolescent was replaced by someone slightly older, however, adolescents' decision making and reward processing resembled that seen when adolescents were tested alone. Adding a young adult to a work team of adolescents may improve group decision making.

  10. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  11. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-11

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  12. Optimizing a Text Message Intervention to Reduce Heavy Drinking in Young Adults: Focus Group Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, Jeffrey; Person Mecca, Laurel; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent trial results show that an interactive short message service (SMS) text message intervention, Texting to Reduce Alcohol Consumption (TRAC), is effective in reducing heavy drinking in non-treatment-seeking young adults, but may not be optimized. Objective To assess the usability of the TRAC intervention among young adults in an effort to optimize future intervention design. Methods We conducted five focus groups with 18 young adults, aged 18-25 years, who had a history of heavy drinking and had been randomized to 12 weeks of the TRAC intervention as part of a clinical trial. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed to identify themes. Results We identified four themes regarding user experiences with the TRAC intervention: (1) ease of use, (2) comfort and confidentiality, (3) increased awareness of drinking behavior, and (4) accountability for drinking behavior. Participants’ comments supported the existing features of the TRAC intervention, as well as the addition of other features to increase personalization and continuing engagement with the intervention. Conclusions Young adults perceived the TRAC intervention as a useful way to help them reduce heavy drinking on weekends. Components that promote ease of use, ensure confidentiality, increase awareness of alcohol consumption, and increase accountability were seen as important. PMID:27335099

  13. Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brenda J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Steklis, H. Dieter; Steklis, Netzin Gerald; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Christophe; Vigilant, Linda

    2005-01-01

    To determine who fathers the offspring in wild mountain gorilla groups containing more than one adult male silverback, we genotyped nearly one-fourth (n = 92) of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) living in the Virunga Volcanoes region of Africa. Paternity analysis of 48 offspring born into four groups between 1985 and 1999 revealed that, although all infants were sired by within-group males, the socially dominant silverback did not always monopolize reproduction within his group. Instead, the second-ranking male sired an average of 15% of group offspring. This result, in combination with previous findings that second-ranking males fare best by not leaving the group but by staying and waiting to assume dominance even if no reproduction is possible while waiting, is not consistent with expectations from a reproductive skew model in which the silverback concedes controllable reproduction to the second-ranking male. Instead, the data suggest a “tug-of-war” scenario in which neither the dominant nor the second-ranking male has full control over his relative reproductive share. The two top-ranked males were typically unrelated and this, in combination with the mixed paternity of group offspring, means that multimale gorilla groups do not approximate family groups. Instead, as long-term assemblages of related and unrelated individuals, gorilla groups are similar to chimpanzee groups and so offer interesting possibilities for kin-biased interactions among individuals. PMID:15964984

  14. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  15. Exploring the impact of a community hospital closure on older adults: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults.

  16. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF A COMMUNITY HOSPITAL CLOSURE ON OLDER ADULTS: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults. PMID:24448403

  17. Bronchodilator efficacy of 18 μg once-daily tiotropium inhalation via Discair® versus HandiHaler® in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group, open-label, Phase IV trial

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Pinar; Bayraktaroglu, Mesut; Gorgun, Didem; Secik, Funda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the bronchodilator efficacy of 18 μg once-daily tiotropium inhalation administered via Discair® versus HandiHaler® in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and methods Fifty-eight patients with moderate-to-severe COPD were enrolled in this randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group, open-label, Phase IV non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomly assigned to a test group (n=29, inhalation with Discair) or a reference group (n=29, inhalation with HandiHaler). The primary efficacy parameter was the average maximum change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, in L). Change in forced vital capacity (FVC, in L), %FEV1 and %FVC, the standardized area under the response–time curve (AUC) for the absolute change in FEV1 and FVC, time to onset and peak of response, and safety data were also evaluated. Results The test inhaler was non-inferior to the reference inhaler in terms of maximum change in FEV1 at 24 h (unadjusted change: 0.0017 L [95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.0777, 0.0812]; change adjusted for time to reach maximum change in FEV1 and smoking in pack-years: 0.0116 L [95% CI: −0.0699, 0.0931]), based on a non-inferiority margin of 0.100 L. There were also no significant differences between the two groups in maximum change in FVC value from baseline (0.3417 L vs 0.4438 L, P=0.113), percent change from baseline (22.235 vs 20.783 for FEV1, P=0.662; 16.719 vs 20.337 for FVC, P=0.257), and AUC0–24 h (2.949 vs 2.833 L for FEV1, P=0.891; 2.897 vs 4.729 L for FVC, P=0.178). There were no adverse events, serious adverse events, or deaths. Conclusion Our findings show that the Discair was non-inferior to the HandiHaler. More specifically, these devices had similar clinical efficacy in terms of time-dependent response over 24 h for patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. PMID:27920513

  18. Older Adult Perceptions of Participation in Group- and Home-Based Falls Prevention Exercise.

    PubMed

    Robins, Lauren M; Hill, K D; Day, Lesley; Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline; Haines, Terry

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes why older adults begin, continue, and discontinue group- and home-based falls prevention exercise and benefits and barriers to participation. Telephone surveys were used to collect data for 394 respondents. Most respondents reported not participating in group- (66%) or home-based (78%) falls prevention exercise recently. Reasons for starting group-based falls prevention exercise include health benefits (23-39%), health professional recommendation (13-19%), and social interaction (4-16%). They discontinued because the program finished (44%) or due to poor health (20%). Commonly reported benefits were social interaction (41-67%) and health (15-31%). Disliking groups was the main barrier (2-14%). Home-based falls prevention exercise was started for rehabilitation (46-63%) or upon health professional recommendation (22-48%) and stopped due to recovery (30%). Improvement in health (18-46%) was the main benefit. These findings could assist health professionals in prescribing group-based falls prevention exercise by considering characteristics of older adults who perceive social interaction to be beneficial.

  19. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control.

  20. Aggression, Recognition and Qualification: On the Social Psychology of Adult Education in Everyday Life. [Publications from the Adult Education Research Group].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kirsten

    This paper discusses the impact of life history and everyday life in the context of training unskilled adults for social work in Denmark. It describes origins of these two texts used as empirical material: a discussion by a group of long-term unemployed skilled adult male workers who went through a 2-year training program to obtain permanent…

  1. Sociometric status and social drinking: observations of modelling and persuasion in young adult peer groups.

    PubMed

    Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Knibbe, Ronald A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2007-12-01

    Because young adult drinking occurs primarily in peer groups, this should be taken into account when studying influences on drinking behaviour. This paper aimed to assess influences on drinking by observing existing peer groups in a naturalistic setting. We first analysed the basic levels at which two types of influence take place. The first, modelling (imitating others' drinking), was found to significantly influence individual drinking, whereas for the second one, persuasion (drinking resulting from others offering drinks), no predictions were found. Subsequently, we examined whether peer group members' sociometric status in the group affected the amount of influence and persuasion exerted and received. No indications were found that sociometric status had an impact on influence in alcohol consumption within a drinking situation. Features and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  2. Presynaptic modulation of Ia afferents in young and old adults when performing force and position control.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Stéphane; Maerz, Adam H; Enoka, Roger M

    2010-02-01

    The present work investigated presynaptic modulation of Ia afferents in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) when young and old adults exerted a wrist extension force either to support an inertial load (position control) or to achieve an equivalent constant torque against a rigid restraint (force control) at 5, 10, and 15% of the maximal force. H reflexes were evoked in the ECR by stimulating the radial nerve above the elbow. A conditioning stimulus was applied to the median nerve above the elbow to assess presynaptic inhibition of homonymous Ia afferents (D1 inhibition) or at the wrist (palmar branch) to assess the ongoing presynaptic inhibition of heteronymous Ia afferents that converge onto the ECR motor neuron pool (heteronymous Ia facilitation). The young adults had less D1 inhibition and greater heteronymous Ia facilitation during the position task (79 and 132.1%, respectively) compared with the force task (69.1 and 115.1%, respectively, P < 0.05). In contrast, the old adults exhibited no difference between the two tasks for either D1 inhibition ( approximately 72%) or heteronymous Ia facilitation ( approximately 114%). Contraction intensity did not influence the amount of D1 inhibition or heteronymous Ia facilitation for either group of subjects. The amount of antagonist coactivation was similar between tasks for young adults, whereas it was greater in the position task for old adults (P = 0.02). These data indicate that in contrast to young adults, old adults did not modulate presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents when controlling the position of a compliant load but rather increased coactivation of the antagonist muscle.

  3. Geometric Attitude Controls And Estimations On The Special Orthogonal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tse-Huai

    This dissertation is concerned with spacecraft attitude control and estimation problems from the point of view of geometric mechanics. The controllers and observers are built on the special orthogonal group without any parameterizations, where the attitude dynamics is treated in a global and unique manner. The dissertation is composed of three parts. A leader-follower attitude formation control scheme is reported such that the leader spacecraft control its absolute attitude with respect to the inertial reference frame and the follower spacecraft control relative attitude with respect to other spacecraft in the formation. The unique feature is that both the absolute attitude and the relative attitude control systems are developed directly in terms of the line-of-sight observations, where attitude determination and estimation processes are not required. Second, an angular velocity observer is developed such that the estimated angular velocity is guaranteed to converge to the true angular velocity asymptotically from almost all initial estimates. Then, the presented observer is integrated with a proportional-derivative attitude tracking controller to show a separation type property for attitude tracking in the absence of angular velocity measurements. A hybrid observer for the attitude dynamics of a rigid body is proposed to guarantee global asymptotic stability. By designing a set of attitude error functions, attitude estimates are expelled from undesired equilibria to achieve global asymptotic stability. To guarantee that the estimated attitudes evolve on the special orthogonal group, a numerical algorithm based on the Lie group method is presented.

  4. Perceived parental control in childhood and sexual preferences of adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2003-06-01

    To assess the relation between perceived parental control during childhood and sexual preferences of offspring during adulthood, 80 adult offspring of heterosexual orientation reported significantly lower parental control during childhood than 7 adult offspring with nonheterosexual orientation.

  5. The malleability of working memory and visuospatial skills: a randomized controlled study in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stepankova, Hana; Lukavsky, Jiri; Buschkuehl, Martin; Kopecek, Miloslav; Ripova, Daniela; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    There is accumulating evidence that training on working memory (WM) generalizes to other nontrained domains, and there are reports of transfer effects extending as far as to measures of fluid intelligence. Although there have been several demonstrations of such transfer effects in young adults and children, they have been difficult to demonstrate in older adults. In this study, we investigated the generalizing effects of an adaptive WM intervention on nontrained measures of WM and visuospatial skills. We randomly assigned healthy older adults to train on a verbal n-back task over the course of a month for either 10 or 20 sessions. Their performance change was compared with that of a control group. Our results revealed reliable group effects in nontrained standard clinical measures of WM and visuospatial skills in that both training groups outperformed the control group. We also observed a dose-response effect, that is, a positive relationship between training frequency and the gain in visuospatial skills; this finding was further confirmed by a positive correlation between training improvement and transfer. The improvements in visuospatial skills emerged even though the intervention was restricted to the verbal domain. Our work has important implications in that our data provide further evidence for plasticity of cognitive functions in old age.

  6. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  7. Improved Glycemic Control in Intensively Treated Adult Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Using Insulin Guidance Software

    PubMed Central

    Bookout, Tevin R.; McFann, Kim K.; Kelly, William C.; Beatson, Christie; Ellis, Samuel L.; Gutin, Raymond S.; Gottlieb, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Management of type 1 diabetes could be significantly improved with the availability of computerized insulin algorithms for home use. Methods This was a 1-year open label randomized control trial involving 123 adult subjects with type 1 diabetes (hemoglobin A1c values 7.5–11%) assigned to either the insulin guidance software (ACCU-CHEK® [Roche, Indianapolis, IN] Advisor) for personal data assistant (experimental group) or the control group. The primary aim of the study was to see if subjects using insulin dosing advisor software will improve glucose control over 1 year. The principal end point was an improvement in A1c at 6 and 12 months by ≥0.4%. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the two groups. Mean A1c was 8.54 ± 0.11% in the control group and 8.42 ± 0.11% (P = 0.4265) in the experimental group. The mean A1c was significantly lower from 3 to 12 months in the experimental group (P < 0.02). A1c reduction of ≥0.6% was maintained at 12 months in the experimental group. Also, a significantly higher number of subjects achieved A1c <7.5% in the experimental group from 3 to 9 months. Within target range glycemia (70–150 mg/dL) was higher in the experimental group at 3–9 months without any change in insulin dose or weight. Above target range glycemia was lower in the experimental group throughout the study. Frequency of testing per day was higher in the experimental group. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was not different between groups; however, the experimental group experienced more severe hypoglycemic events. Conclusions This is the first report that shows improved glycemic control can be maintained over 12 months in patients with type 1 diabetes by using Advisor with no change in insulin dose and weight. PMID:18715213

  8. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing.

  9. Scope of Attention, Control of Attention, and Intelligence in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson; Fristoe, Nathanael M.; Elliott, Emily M.; Brunner, Ryan P.; Saults, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimentation has shown that cognitive aptitude measures are predicted by tests of the scope of an individual’s attention or capacity in simple working-memory tasks, and also by the ability to control attention. However, these experiments do not indicate how separate or related the scope and control of attention are. An experiment with 52 children 10 to 11 years old and 52 college students included measures of the scope and control of attention as well as verbal and nonverbal aptitude measures. The children showed little evidence of using sophisticated attentional control, but the scope of attention predicted intelligence in that group. In adults, the scope and control of attention both varied among individuals, and they accounted for considerable individual variance in intelligence. About 1/3 that variance was shared between scope and control, the rest being unique to one or the other. Scope and control of attention appear to be related but distinct contributors to intelligence. PMID:17489300

  10. Characterization of a normal control group: are they healthy?

    PubMed

    Aine, C J; Sanfratello, L; Adair, J C; Knoefel, J E; Qualls, C; Lundy, S L; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, J M

    2014-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18-81years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust

  11. Characterization of a Normal Control Group: Are they Healthy?

    PubMed Central

    Aine, CJ; Sanfratello, L; Adair, JC; Knoefel, JE; Qualls, C; Lundy, SL; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, JM

    2013-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18–81 years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust

  12. Control of Cell Survival in Adult Mammalian Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, H Georg

    2015-10-28

    The fact that continuous proliferation of stem cells and progenitors, as well as the production of new neurons, occurs in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) raises several basic questions concerning the number of neurons required in a particular system. Can we observe continued growth of brain regions that sustain neurogenesis? Or does an elimination mechanism exist to maintain a constant number of cells? If so, are old neurons replaced, or are the new neurons competing for limited network access among each other? What signals support their survival and integration and what factors are responsible for their elimination? This review will address these and other questions regarding regulatory mechanisms that control cell-death and cell-survival mechanisms during neurogenesis in the intact adult mammalian brain.

  13. Early-onset psychoses: comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in 3 diagnostic groups.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Maria Giuseppina; Fratta, Anna Lisa; Pintor, Manuela; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2009-09-01

    A comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in adolescents with three types of psychotic disorders: schizophrenic (SPh), schizoaffective (SA) and bipolar with psychotic features (BPP). Subjects (n = 41) were finally diagnosed (DSM-IV criteria) with SPh (n = 17), SA (n = 11) or BPP (n = 13). Clinical evaluation took place at onset and at a 3-year follow-up in all 41, and at least after 5 years in 36 patients. Symptoms were rated on the basis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), integrating items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). The Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) and the Global Assessment Scale (GAF) were used to evaluate global functioning. Significant differences in clinical features were found in the three diagnostic groups as regards several parameters, some present on one and not on other rating scales, underscoring the insufficiency of a single scale for accurate analysis of the features of a psychotic disorder. At onset, a comparison using the simple presence/absence of symptoms showed scant differences among groups, while differences emerged if symptom severity was included in the comparison. Functioning at 3- and 5-year follow-ups showed a significantly better outcome in the BPP group and more substantial deterioration, with similar evolution, in the SPh and SA groups. The integration of several rating scales differentiated between diagnostic groups more effectively. The similar adult functioning outcome in the SPh and SA groups showed how difficult it is to clearly separate these two disorders.

  14. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice... December 2013 from 0900-1300 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is...

  15. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION... 14 December 2012 from 0900-1600 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is...

  16. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  17. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of public hearing on a notice of proposed rulemaking providing...

  18. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  19. Axonal control of the adult neural stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D; Tecott, Laurence H; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-04-03

    The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSCs) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain's neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C.

  20. Axonal Control of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D.; Tecott, Laurence H.; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSC) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain’s neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. PMID:24561083

  1. Perceived control in health care: a conceptual model based on experiences of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Claassens, L; Widdershoven, G A; Van Rhijn, S C; Van Nes, F; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H; Huisman, M

    2014-12-01

    Frail older adults are increasingly encouraged to be in control of their health care, in Western societies. However, little is known about how they themselves perceive control in health care. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the concept of health care-related perceived control from the viewpoint of frail older adults. A qualitative interview study was conducted following a Grounded Theory approach. Thirty-two Dutch frail older adults, aged 65 and over, participated in 20 in-depth interviews (n=20) and three focus group discussions (n=12). Data were analysed according to techniques of coding and constant comparison. From this analysis constituting factors of perceived control emerged, providing elements of a conceptual model. Perceived control reflects the feeling or belief that health care is under control, which is constituted by five, either internal or external, factors: (I) self-confidence in organising professional and/or informal care, (II) self-confidence in health management in the home setting, (III) perceived support from people in the social network, (IV) perceived support from health care professionals and organisations, and (V) perceived support from (health care) infrastructure and services. Therefore, the concept does not only consist of people's own perceived efforts, but also includes the influence of external sources. Our conceptual model points out what external factors should be taken into consideration by health care professionals and policy makers when enhancing older people's perceived control. Moreover, it can serve as the basis for the development of a measurement instrument, to enable future quantitative research on health care-related perceived control among older adults.

  2. Physical activity in adults with controlled and uncontrolled asthma as compared to healthy adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common among asthmatics, physical activity (PA) seems important in asthma management. Still, various studies point at avoidance of sports and certain daily life activities like walking stairs, even by patients with mild symptoms. We aimed to compare physical activity levels between healthy subjects and asthmatics with controlled and uncontrolled disease. Methods Data on asthma and PA were drawn from the Portuguese National Asthma Survey. The short telephone version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA levels. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma and at least one of these criteria: one or more asthma symptoms in the last twelve months, currently taking asthma medication or an asthma medical appointment in the previous twelve months. Controlled asthma was defined as a CARAT global score > 24 or a CARAT second factor score ≤ 16. Healthy subjects were defined as individuals without atopy, heart disease or any respiratory symptom. X2 and Mann–Whitney/Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to compare groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess relations between asthma status and PA dimensions. Results A total of 606 non-asthmatics, 125 controlled and 78 uncontrolled asthmatic subjects were included. In both genders, overall PA level did not differ significantly between groups. Controlled (men) and uncontrolled (women) asthmatics did more vigorous PA than healthy respondents. Male controlled asthmatics also did more moderate PA. Crude logistic regression showed positive relations between daily sitting time, vigorous and moderate PA and controlled asthma in men and between vigorous PA and uncontrolled asthma in women. After adjustments for confounders, moderate PA remained a predictor of controlled asthma in men, while vigorous PA doubled the risk of uncontrolled asthma in women. Conclusion Our study showed that adult asthmatics, independent

  3. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  4. Social interaction experiences of adults with Moebius Syndrome: a focus group.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Kathleen R; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Joffe, Matthew S

    2012-11-01

    This focus group study explored the social interaction experiences and strategies of 12 adults with Moebius Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by facial paralysis. Content analysis revealed five themes of social functioning: social engagement/disengagement; resilience/sensitivity; social support/stigma; being understood/misunderstood; and public awareness/lack of awareness of Moebius Syndrome. Participants used compensatory expressive strategies such as vocal tone, gestures, and humor. The combination of being unable to express oneself with the face, having a facial difference, and having a rare disease is particularly stigmatizing. Increasing public awareness and developing social skills programs for people with facial paralysis could facilitate social functioning.

  5. Ventilatory control in infants, children, and adults with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bates, Melissa L; Pillers, De-Ann M; Palta, Mari; Farrell, Emily T; Eldridge, Marlowe W

    2013-11-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), or chronic lung disease of prematurity, occurs in ~30% of preterm infants (15,000 per year) and is associated with a clinical history of mechanical ventilation and/or high inspired oxygen at birth. Here, we describe changes in ventilatory control that exist in patients with BPD, including alterations in chemoreceptor function, respiratory muscle function, and suprapontine control. Because dysfunction in ventilatory control frequently revealed when O2 supply and CO2 elimination are challenged, we provide this information in the context of four important metabolic stressors: stresses: exercise, sleep, hypoxia, and lung disease, with a primary focus on studies of human infants, children, and adults. As a secondary goal, we also identify three key areas of future research and describe the benefits and challenges of longitudinal human studies using well-defined patient cohorts.

  6. Does gender affect asthma control in adult asthmatics?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Adile Berna; Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Bayiz, Hulya; Ozkan, Emre; Cakaloglu, Aslihan; Karasoy, Durdu

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have shown gender differences in prevalence of asthma but there is little information about asthma control. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of gender on asthma control in adult asthmatics. Medical records of 242 patients older than 18 years of age who regularly visited the allergy unit were evaluated. Standardized asthma questionnaires like the asthma control test (ACT) were performed. ACT scores, clinical characteristics, and demographic data such as smoking status, education, duration and severity of asthma, atopic status, family history of asthma, analgesic hypersensitivity, number of emergency visits, and hospitalization in the previous year were compared based on gender. In this study, 77.3% of the patients were female. Mean age, body mass index, and duration of asthma were 39.0 ± 0.7, 27.3 ± 0.3, and 6.6 ± 0.4 years, respectively. Of the total, 14.9% of the patients were smokers. Also, 55.8% of them were graduated from middle school, 22.7% from high school, and 14% from university. Atopy rate was 57%. Analgesic hypersensitivity was found in 18.6% of them. There was 30.2% family history of asthma. The asthma severity was mild in 45.5%, moderate in 40.9%, and severe in 13.6% of the patients. One-third of the patients were admitted to emergency room; 1/10th were hospitalized due to asthma in the previous year. ACT scores indicated complete control in 67.8%, partial control in 17.8%, and uncontrolled asthma in 14.5%. Comparing the results of males with females having asthma, there was no statistically significant difference between the two gender according to ACT scores and clinical characteristics. Finally, the results conclude that there was no effect of gender on asthma control assessed with standardized questionnaire in adult asthmatics.

  7. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  8. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-05-26

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  9. Puppy Temperament Assessments Predict Breed and American Kennel Club Group but Not Adult Temperament.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lauren M; Skiver Thompson, Rebekah; Ha, James C

    2016-01-01

    Puppy assessments for companion dogs have shown mixed long-term reliability. Temperament is cited among the reasons for surrendering dogs to shelters. A puppy temperament test that reliably predicts adult behavior is one potential way to lower the number of dogs given to shelters. This study used a longitudinal design to assess temperament in puppies from 8 different breeds at 7 weeks old (n = 52) and 6 years old (n = 34) using modified temperament tests, physiological measures, and a follow-up questionnaire. For 7-week-old puppies, results revealed (a) puppy breed was predictable using 3 variables, (b) 4 American Kennel Club breed groups had some validity based on temperament, (c) temperament was variable within litters of puppies, and (d) certain measures of temperament were related to physiological measures (heart rate). Finally, puppy temperament assessments were reliable in predicting the scores of 2 of the 8 adult dog temperament measures. However, overall, the puppy temperament scores were unreliable in predicting adult temperament.

  10. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes of title IV of ERISA: (a)(1) The PBGC will determine that trades and businesses (whether or...

  11. Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

  12. Does Food Group Consumption Vary by Differences in Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Lifestyle Factors in Young Adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. The design is cross-sectional. The subjects are young adults (n = 1,266, 74% European-American, 26% ...

  13. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  14. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  15. Explanations for improvement in both experimental and control groups.

    PubMed

    Becker, Heather; Roberts, Greg; Voelmeck, Wayne

    2003-10-01

    A true experimental design with random assignment to groups protects against false causal inferences that could be made when both the treatment and control groups change because of factors such as testing effects, reactivity, contamination, maturation, history, and other measurement effects. The occurrence of these phenomena, however, provides interesting information about factors affecting health care attitudes, knowledge, and behavior change, which can interfere with a nursing study's ability to demonstrate an experimental effect. In this article, we discuss these design threats, illustrate them with examples from recent health research, and suggest strategies for decreasing them in clinical nursing studies.

  16. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  17. The effects of group music therapy on mood states and cohesiveness in adult oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Waldon, E G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the efficacy of a music therapy protocol on mood states and levels of group cohesiveness in adult oncology patients. Eleven oncology patients in 2 groups (ages 30 to 84 years) took part in the study over a 10-week period of time (10 participants completed the study). During that period, participants took part in 8 music therapy sessions consisting of 2 types of interventions: (a) 4 "music making" sessions (where the mechanism for change included the process of making music) and (b) 4 "music responding" sessions (where the mechanism included the process of responding to music). The two types of music therapy sessions and their effectiveness on improving mood states and group cohesiveness were examined. The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) was used to assess changes in participants' mood states. A content analysis, attendance records, and a questionnaire were used to assess levels of group cohesiveness. Results showed significant improvement in mood state scores (from presession levels to postsessions levels) after involvement in all music therapy sessions. Similar significant findings were found within each of the "music making" and "music responding" conditions but no differences were found when comparisons were made between those conditions. No statistically significant effects were found with respect to group cohesiveness measures. Study implications and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Adherence of group B streptococci to adult and neonatal epithelial cells mediated by lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Teti, G; Tomasello, F; Chiofalo, M S; Orefici, G; Mastroeni, P

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the role of lipoteichoic acid in mediating the adherence of different serotypes of group B streptococci to human adult and neonatal epithelial cells. Pretreatment of neonatal buccal and vaginal epithelial cells with lipoteichoic acid, but not with deacylated lipoteichoic acid, induced a marked inhibition in the adherence of all strains tested. Pretreatment of bacteria with substances known to bind lipoteichoic acid, such as monoclonal and polyclonal antipolyglycerophosphate antibodies and albumin, also resulted in adherence inhibition. Group B streptococci adhered in 6- to 10-fold-higher numbers to buccal epithelial cells from neonates older than 3 days than to those from neonates less than 1 day old. This increase in receptiveness for group B streptococci was paralleled by an increased ability of epithelial cells from older neonates to bind group B streptococcal lipoteichoic acid. These data suggest a role for the lipid portion of lipoteichoic acid in the adherence of different serotypes of group B streptococci to vaginal and neonatal epithelial cells. PMID:3316030

  19. Support and Control among "Friends" and "Special Friends": Peer Groups' Social Resources as Emotional and Moral Performances amidst Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkiamaki, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Children are often regarded as being supported and controlled by adults, rather than their peer groups. In contrast, drawing on research carried out in Finland, this article considers peers as a resource. Using mainly a 14-year-old's oral narratives, it is shown how the spatial and social context enables and inhibits children's mutual support and…

  20. Adults' perceptions of being overweight or obese: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching Thon; Chang, Kam Hock; Cheah, Whye Lian

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the perception of, feelings and attitudes toward overweight or obesity, and the perceived barriers to weight loss among native adults from lower socio-economic background. A total of six gender- and ethnic-specific focus groups consisted of 38 overweight and obese purposefully and criterion selected adults (21 women and 17 men), participated in this study. An unstructured discussion guide based on the study objectives were used for the focus groups. The results showed that some participants perceived themselves as ugly, felt ashamed of their body size and were frustrated because they did not desire to be overweight. Due to their excess weight, most also expressed they were less effective in their work performances. Although some participants had negative attitudes toward themselves because of excess weight, this appeared to link to self-stigmatization rather than anti-obesity discrimination. The participants remained in the Pre-contemplation stage of losing weight probably because of perceived barriers such as difficulty to resist eating, lack of know how and previous failed attempts to lose weight. Importantly, this study provided some evidence that individuals in the Pre-contemplation stage are unable to take action to lose weight, even if effective strategies are suggested.

  1. Ethnic Disparities in Glycemic Control Among Rural Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Glycemic control is a predictor of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about how well older adults in rural communities, with limited access to self-care resources and specialty care practitioners, control their diabetes. Even less is known about whether minority, older, rural adults are at increased risk for poor glycemic control. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected older (≥65 years) adults with type 2 diabetes in rural North Carolina. Participants (N=693) were men and women from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. Capillary blood samples were collected for HbA1C analysis. HbA1C levels (<7%, 7%–<8%, and ≥8%) were compared across ethnic and gender groups. Two multiple logistic regression models (model 1: personal characteristics; model 2: personal and health characteristics) were used to evaluate potential predictors of HbA1C ≥7%. Overall, 36.4% had HbA1C ≥7%. Native Americans and African-American men had the highest proportion at levels of poor glycemic control (≥7%), and African-American women and White men had the lowest. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, living arrangements, use of medications for diabetes, having a diabetes-related healthcare visit in the past year, and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with glycemic control. In multivariate analysis (model 1), being Native American, having low income without Medicaid, and being married were associated with poor glycemic control. Adding health characteristics (model 2), longer diabetes duration and diabetes medication therapy were significant predictors. These data indicate that older ethnic minorities in rural communities are at increased risk for diabetes complications and need diabetes management strategies to improve glycemic control. PMID:16259490

  2. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  3. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ling M.; Tassone, Flora; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs) have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the FMR1 gene and are at increased risk of developing fragile x-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB) task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18–48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (n = 19) and age-matched male controls (n = 20). We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of executive working memory. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, in control participants we replicated a previously observed effect and demonstrated that it persists under more stringent theoretical constraints, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared. PMID:25698960

  4. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for

  5. Decreased postural control in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Einarsson, Einar-Jón; Patel, Mitesh; Petersen, Hannes; Wiebe, Thomas; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Moëll, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of cancer treatment is to secure survival. However, as chemotherapeutic agents can affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, patients must undergo a process of central compensation. We explored the effectiveness of this compensation process by measuring postural behaviour in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTS). We recruited sixteen adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood for malignant solid (non-CNS) tumours and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Subjects performed posturography with eyes open and closed during quiet and perturbed standing. Repeated balance perturbations through calf vibrations were used to study postural adaptation. Subjects were stratified into two groups (treatment before or from 12 years of age) to determine age at treatment effects. Both quiet (p = 0.040) and perturbed standing (p ≤ 0.009) were significantly poorer in CTS compared to controls, particularly with eyes open and among those treated younger. Moreover, CTS had reduced levels of adaptation compared to controls, both with eyes closed and open. Hence, adults treated with chemotherapy for childhood cancer may suffer late effects of poorer postural control manifested as reduced contribution of vision and as reduced adaptation skills. These findings advocate development of chemotherapeutic agents that cause fewer long-term side effects when used for treating children. PMID:27830766

  6. Decreased postural control in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, Einar-Jón; Patel, Mitesh; Petersen, Hannes; Wiebe, Thomas; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Moëll, Christian

    2016-11-10

    The objective of cancer treatment is to secure survival. However, as chemotherapeutic agents can affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, patients must undergo a process of central compensation. We explored the effectiveness of this compensation process by measuring postural behaviour in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTS). We recruited sixteen adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood for malignant solid (non-CNS) tumours and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Subjects performed posturography with eyes open and closed during quiet and perturbed standing. Repeated balance perturbations through calf vibrations were used to study postural adaptation. Subjects were stratified into two groups (treatment before or from 12 years of age) to determine age at treatment effects. Both quiet (p = 0.040) and perturbed standing (p ≤ 0.009) were significantly poorer in CTS compared to controls, particularly with eyes open and among those treated younger. Moreover, CTS had reduced levels of adaptation compared to controls, both with eyes closed and open. Hence, adults treated with chemotherapy for childhood cancer may suffer late effects of poorer postural control manifested as reduced contribution of vision and as reduced adaptation skills. These findings advocate development of chemotherapeutic agents that cause fewer long-term side effects when used for treating children.

  7. Resistances in the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy group with adults.

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2010-06-01

    Resistance refers to all types of behaviour that oppose the exploration processes in the therapeutic process and inhibit work. Very common types of resistances, such as forgetting the time of session, being late, non-payment of sessions and such are found in every type of psychotherapy, including psychodrama psychotherapy. The attempt to break resistance in order to evoke changes could be dangerous as it represents the necessary defence mechanism and it is also a vital element of the person's functioning in therapy. In psychodrama, which is a type of action method of group psychotherapy, resistance can manifest through continuous verbalization of problems, in not wanting to act out the problem, the protagonist's typical non-verbal message or the most obvious manifestation: the absence of the protagonist. This paper will be on the typical resistance which the therapist has noticed during the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy, with a small group of adult clients. As the group was young and with undeveloped cohesiveness, resistance represented a certain balancing power for maintaining mental homeostasis of the group.

  8. Dominance of Serotype Ia among Group B Streptococci Causing Invasive Infections in Nonpregnant Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E. R.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2012-01-01

    The population of group B streptococci (GBS) associated with invasive infections in nonpregnant adults from 2001 to 2008 was analyzed in isolates submitted from 24 hospital laboratories in Portugal (n = 225). The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and surface protein gene profiling. GBS invasive cases were found more frequently among men in all age groups. In addition, serotype Ia was the most frequent in our collection, whereas serotype V is dominant elsewhere. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by a single PFGE cluster defined by sequence type 23 (ST23) and surface protein gene eps and by ST24 and bca, similarly to neonatal invasive infections in Portugal, indicating that the same genetic lineages can be responsible for both vaginal colonization and invasive disease in all age groups. In contrast, the hypervirulent serotype III/ST17 neonatal lineage was responsible for a minority of infections. Serotype V isolates were distributed into two genetic lineages, one defined by ST1 and surface protein gene alp3 and macrolide resistant, and another presenting with ST2 and eps and fully susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The erm(TR) gene was the most frequently found among erythromycin-resistant isolates, while the bovine-associated tet(O) gene was found in a minority of tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our data emphasize the importance of local identification of the genetic lineages responsible for GBS invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. The dominance of serotype Ia in invasive disease in Portugal highlights the importance of this serotype in GBS pathogenesis. PMID:22219307

  9. Dominance of serotype Ia among group B Streptococci causing invasive infections in nonpregnant adults in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, E R; Melo-Cristino, J; Ramirez, M

    2012-04-01

    The population of group B streptococci (GBS) associated with invasive infections in nonpregnant adults from 2001 to 2008 was analyzed in isolates submitted from 24 hospital laboratories in Portugal (n = 225). The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and surface protein gene profiling. GBS invasive cases were found more frequently among men in all age groups. In addition, serotype Ia was the most frequent in our collection, whereas serotype V is dominant elsewhere. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by a single PFGE cluster defined by sequence type 23 (ST23) and surface protein gene eps and by ST24 and bca, similarly to neonatal invasive infections in Portugal, indicating that the same genetic lineages can be responsible for both vaginal colonization and invasive disease in all age groups. In contrast, the hypervirulent serotype III/ST17 neonatal lineage was responsible for a minority of infections. Serotype V isolates were distributed into two genetic lineages, one defined by ST1 and surface protein gene alp3 and macrolide resistant, and another presenting with ST2 and eps and fully susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The erm(TR) gene was the most frequently found among erythromycin-resistant isolates, while the bovine-associated tet(O) gene was found in a minority of tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our data emphasize the importance of local identification of the genetic lineages responsible for GBS invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. The dominance of serotype Ia in invasive disease in Portugal highlights the importance of this serotype in GBS pathogenesis.

  10. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  11. Dynamic stability during running gait termination: Differences in strategies between children and adults to control forward momentum.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Guilherme M; Sigward, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Rapid deceleration during running is key for successful participation in most childhood activities and sports; this requires modulation of body momentum and consequent challenges to postural equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strategies employed by adults and children to control forward momentum and terminate running gait. Sixteen young adults and 15 pre-pubertal children completed two tasks as fast as possible: an unobstructed run (RUN) and a run and stop (STOP) at a pre-determined location. For STOP, center of mass (COM) approach velocity and momentum prior to deceleration and spatiotemporal characteristics and COM position during deceleration were compared between groups. Position and velocity variables were normalized to height and maximum velocity during RUN, respectively. Children used fewer steps with relatively longer step length to decelerate over a relatively longer distance and longer time than adults. Children approached at higher relative velocity than adults, but adults approached with greater momentum. Adults positioned their COM lower and more posterior than children throughout deceleration. Our results suggest that pre-pubertal children and young adults employ different strategies to modulate body momentum, with adults exhibiting mechanics characteristic of a more stable strategy. Despite less stable mechanics, children and adults achieved similar success.

  12. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  13. ERP Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control in Treatment-Naïve Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Endestad, Tor; Aasen, Ida Emilia S.; Kropotov, Juri; Knight, Robert Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether treatment naïve adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 33; 19 female) differed from healthy controls (n = 31; 17 female) in behavioral performance, event-related potential (ERP) indices of preparatory attention (CueP3 and late CNV), and reactive response control (Go P3, NoGo N2, and NoGo P3) derived from a visual cued Go/NoGo task. On several critical measures, Cue P3, late CNV, and NoGo N2, there were no significant differences between the groups. This indicated normal preparatory processes and conflict monitoring in ADHD patients. However, the patients had attenuated Go P3 and NoGoP3 amplitudes relative to controls, suggesting reduced allocation of attentional resources to processes involved in response control. The patients also had a higher rate of Go signal omission errors, but no other performance decrements compared with controls. Reduced Go P3 and NoGo P3 amplitudes were associated with poorer task performance, particularly in the ADHD group. Notably, the ERPs were not associated with self-reported mood or anxiety. The results provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced effortful engagement of attentional resources to both Go and NoGo signals when reactive response control is needed. The absence of group differences in ERP components indexing proactive control points to impairments in specific aspects of cognitive processes in an untreated adult ADHD cohort. The associations between ERPs and task performance provided additional support for the altered electrophysiological responses. PMID:27448275

  14. Short term modulation of trunk neuromuscular responses following spinal manipulation: a control group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal conditions in industrialized countries and its economic impact is important. Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is believed to be a valid approach in the treatment of both acute and chronic LBP. It has also been shown that SMT can modulate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paraspinal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a group of patients with low back pain, the persistence of changes observed in trunk neuromuscular responses after a spinal manipulation (SMT). Methods Sixty adult participants with LBP performed a block of 5 flexion-extension movements. Participants in the experimental group (n=30) received lumbar SMT whereas participants in the control group (n=30) were positioned similarly for the treatment but did not receive SMT. Blocks of flexion-extension movements were repeated immediately after the manipulation as well as 5 and 30 minutes after SMT (or control position). EMG activity of paraspinal muscles was recorded at L2 and L5 level and kinematic data were collected to evaluate the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Pain intensity was noted after each block. Normalized EMG, pain intensity and lumbo-pelvic kinematics were compared across experimental conditions. Results Participants from the control group showed a significant increase in EMG activity during the last block (30 min) of flexion-extension trials in both flexion and full-flexion phases at L2. Increase in VAS scores was also observed in the last 2 blocks (5 min and 30 min) in the control group. No significant group x time interaction was seen at L5. No significant difference was observed in the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Conclusion Changes in trunk neuromuscular control following HVLA spinal manipulation may reduce sensitization or muscle fatigue effects related to repetitive movement. Future studies should investigate short term changes in neuromuscular components, tissue properties and clinical

  15. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms.

  16. Hepatitis A outbreak among adults with developmental disabilities in group homes--Michigan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Susan R; Berger, Keira Wickliffe; Hackert, Pamela B; Renas, Richard; Brunette, Suzanne; Parker, Nicole; Padro, Carolyn; Hocking, Anne; Hedemark, Mary; Edwards, Renai; Bush, Russell L; Khudyakov, Yury; Nelson, Noele P; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-20

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections among persons with developmental disabilities living in institutions were common in the past, but with improvements in care and fewer persons institutionalized, the number of HAV infections has declined in these institutions. However, residents in institutions are still vulnerable if they have not been vaccinated. On April 24, 2013, a resident of a group home (GH) for adults with disabilities in southeast Michigan (GH-A) was diagnosed with hepatitis A and died 2 days later of fulminant liver failure. Four weeks later, a second GH-A resident was diagnosed with hepatitis A. None of the GH-A residents or staff had been vaccinated against hepatitis A. Over the next 3 months, six more cases of hepatitis A were diagnosed in residents in four other Michigan GHs. Three local health departments were involved in case investigation and management, including administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Serum specimens from seven cases were found to have an identical strain of HAV genotype 1A. This report describes the outbreak investigation, the challenges of timely delivery of PEP for hepatitis A, and the need for preexposure vaccination against hepatitis A for adults living or working in GHs for the disabled.

  17. An experimental analysis of acquired impulse control among adult humans intolerant to alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxin; Rao, Yulei; Houser, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control tempting impulses impacts health, education, and general socioeconomic outcomes among people at all ages. Consequently, whether and how impulse control develops in adult populations is a topic of enduring interest. Although past research has shed important light on this question using controlled intervention studies, here we take advantage of a natural experiment in China, where males but not females encounter substantial social pressure to consume alcohol. One-third of our sample, all of whom are Han Chinese, is intolerant to alcohol, whereas the remaining control sample is observationally identical but alcohol tolerant. Consistent with previous literature, we find that intolerant males are significantly more likely to exercise willpower to limit their alcohol consumption than alcohol-tolerant males. In view of the strength model of self-control, we hypothesize that this enables improved impulse control in other contexts as well. To investigate this hypothesis, we compare decisions in laboratory games of self-control between the tolerant and intolerant groups. We find that males intolerant to alcohol and who regularly encounter drinking environments control their selfish impulses significantly better than their tolerant counterparts. On the other hand, we find that female Han Chinese intolerant to alcohol do not use self-control to limit alcohol consumption more than tolerant females, nor do the tolerant and intolerant females exhibit differences in self-control behaviors. Our research indicates that impulse control can be developed in adult populations as a result of self-control behaviors in natural environments, and shows that this skill has generalizable benefits across behavioral domains. PMID:28119501

  18. An Evaluation of the Implementation of Hand Held Health Records with Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Vicky; Burchell, Sarah; Burrha, Sukhjinder; Corney, Roslyn; Elliott, Sandra; Kerry, Sally; Molloy, Catherine; Painter, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Background: Personal health records were implemented with adults with learning disabilities (AWLD) to try to improve their health-care. Materials and Method: Forty GP practices were randomized to the Personal Health Profile (PHP) implementation or control group. Two hundred and one AWLD were interviewed at baseline and 163 followed up after 12…

  19. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  20. Multiple Family Groups for Adult Cancer Survivors and Their Families: A 1-Day Workshop Model

    PubMed Central

    STEINGLASS, PETER; OSTROFF, JAMIE S.; STEINGLASS, ABBE STAHL

    2015-01-01

    With marked advances in early detection and aggressive multimodality treatment, many adult cancers are now associated with good prognoses for disease-free survival. A burgeoning literature examining posttreatment quality-of-life issues has highlighted the numerous challenges experienced by patients and families in the aftermath of cancer treatment, further underscoring a need for new family-based psychosocial support interventions for cancer survivors and their families. This paper describes the clinical protocol for one such intervention, a 1-day “workshop” version of a multiple family group (MFG) for head and neck cancer survivors and their families. Data are reported from our experiences in running five 1-day workshops. Families uniformly reported that they were highly satisfied with their MFG participation, leading us to conclude that the abbreviated 1-day MFG model we are advocating is a promising family-focused support intervention for cancer survivors and their families. PMID:21884077

  1. Psychosocial mediators of group cohesion on physical activity intention of older adults.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that group-based physical activity may be a promising approach to reducing and preventing age-related illness. However, this research has not examined the mechanisms by which cohesion may impact on behaviour. The purpose of the present research was to utilise the theory of planned behaviour to investigate the mechanism by which group cohesion may affect physical activity intention. Participants were recruited from an existing physical activity intervention studying the effects of group cohesion on physical activity behaviour. The outcomes of this intervention are reported elsewhere. This paper presents data from a sub-sample of the intervention population (N=74) that examined the mediating relationships between the theory of planned behaviour and group cohesion on physical activity intention. Analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between specific group cohesion concepts and physical activity intention. The direct measure of subjective norm failed to display a mediating relationship. The mediating relationships displayed between attitude and perceived behavioural control and physical activity intention provide insight into potential mechanisms by which group cohesion may affect behaviour.

  2. Genetic, spatial, and social relationships among adults in a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Milton, Katharine; Nolin, David A; Ellis, Kelsey; Lozier, Jeffrey; Sandel, Brody; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-04-01

    Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease as the tendency to disperse increases. In primate species characterized by bisexual dispersal, relatedness among adult group-mates is predicted to be low, with social interactions shaped largely by factors other than kinship. To date, however, few studies have examined the role of kinship in social interactions in bisexually dispersing species. Accordingly, we collected genetic, spatial and behavioral data on all adult members (three males, six females) in a group of free-ranging mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata)--a bisexually dispersing species of atelid primate--from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Analyses of microsatellite variation revealed that relatedness was greater among adult males in this group (mean pairwise relatedness = 0.32 for males versus 0.09 for females). Relatedness among individuals, however, was not associated with either spatial proximity or frequency of social interactions. Instead, sex was a better predictor of both of these aspects of social behavior. While relatedness among adults had no discernible effect on the intra-group social interactions documented in this study, we postulate that kinship may facilitate affiliative and cooperative behaviors among male group-mates when interacting competitively with neighboring howler groups over access to food or potential mates.

  3. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner.

  4. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  5. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  6. Plasticity of Attentional Functions in Older Adults after Non-Action Video Game Training: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayas, Julia; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Andrés, Pilar; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of recent research in aging has been to examine cognitive plasticity in older adults and its capacity to counteract cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether older adults could benefit from brain training with video games in a cross-modal oddball task designed to assess distraction and alertness. Twenty-seven healthy older adults participated in the study (15 in the experimental group, 12 in the control group. The experimental group received 20 1-hr video game training sessions using a commercially available brain-training package (Lumosity) involving problem solving, mental calculation, working memory and attention tasks. The control group did not practice this package and, instead, attended meetings with the other members of the study several times along the course of the study. Both groups were evaluated before and after the intervention using a cross-modal oddball task measuring alertness and distraction. The results showed a significant reduction of distraction and an increase of alertness in the experimental group and no variation in the control group. These results suggest neurocognitive plasticity in the old human brain as training enhanced cognitive performance on attentional functions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616 PMID:24647551

  7. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals. PMID:18834625

  8. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  9. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C.; Wang, Q.; Shukla, R.; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  10. Perceptual inhibition is associated with sensory integration in standing postural control among older adults.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Mendelson, David; Nebes, Robert D

    2009-09-01

    In older adults, maintaining balance and processing information typically interfere with each other, suggesting that executive functions may be engaged for both. We investigated associations between measures of inhibitory processes and standing postural control in healthy young and older adults. Perceptual and motor inhibition was measured using a protocol adapted from Nassauer and Halperin (2003, Dissociation of perceptual and motor inhibition processes through the use of novel computerized conflict tasks. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 25-30). These measures were then correlated to postural sway during standing conditions that required resolving various levels of sensory conflict, for example, world-fixed versus sway-referenced floor and visual scene. In the older adults, perceptual inhibition was positively correlated with sway amplitude on a sway-referenced floor and with a fixed visual scene (r = .68, p < .001). Motor inhibition was not correlated with sway on either group. Perceptual inhibition may be a component of the sensory integration process important for maintaining balance in older adults.

  11. A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging…

  12. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

  13. Assisting Unemployed Adults Find Suitable Work: A Group Intervention Embedded in Community and Grounded in Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti

    2010-01-01

    Addressing unemployment, which is currently at the highest levels in recent times, is a social justice imperative. A 3-week (15-day) group intervention for long-term unemployed adults grounded in empowerment and advocacy is presented. The group incorporates the Job Club model with personal awareness and career self-efficacy. In addition to working…

  14. A New Comprehensive Educational Group Program for Older Adults with Cognitive Complaints: Background, Content, and Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoogenhout, Esther M.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive group intervention for older adults with cognitive complaints. It offers psychoeducation about cognitive aging and contextual factors, focuses on skills and compensatory behavior, and incorporates group discussion. The intervention reduced negative emotional reactions towards cognitive functioning in a…

  15. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report From an NHLBI/ACHA Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S; Daniels, Curt J; Fuller, Stephanie M P N; Honein, Margaret A; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Mahle, William T; Mann, Douglas L; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Starling, Randall C; Tringali, Glenn R; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C; Califf, Robert M

    2016-04-26

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary working group to identify high-impact research questions in adult CHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease, and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single-ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy.

  16. The effect of performing a dual-task on postural control and selective attention of older adults when stepping backward

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William Wai-Nam; Chan, Vito Wai-Lok; Wong, Henry Hei; Yip, Tony Wai-Cheong; Lu, Xi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the postural control and cognitive performance of older adults when stepping backward with and without a concurrent cognitive task. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty young adults and twenty-eight older adults (mean age=21.3 ± 1.2 and 72.2 ± 5.7 years, respectively) were recruited. Participants were asked to step backward and then maintain a single-leg stance for 10 seconds with and without a concurrent auditory response task. The reaction time and error rate while performing the cognitive task were recorded. Postural stability after stepping back was measured in terms of total sway path and total sway area. [Results] The older subjects had significantly longer reaction times and higher error rates in both single- and dual-tasking. When dual-tasking, both groups had significantly longer reaction times than when single-tasking. Only the older adults showed significantly higher error rates. The older adults also had significantly longer total sway paths and larger total sway areas of single-leg stance after stepping back. Neither group showed a significant difference in total sway path and sway area between single- and dual-tasking. [Conclusion] Older adults have poorer cognitive performance and postural stability during both single- and dual-tasking. They tend to prioritize postural control over cognition in dual-tasking. PMID:27821940

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  18. Diagnostic Grouping among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Staffed Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, D.; Perry, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence to guide the commissioning of residential provision for adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the UK. We aim to explore the degree and impact of diagnostic congregation among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and ASD living in staffed housing. Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven adults with…

  19. Participation in Kansas Noncredit Adult Education. A Survey of Seven Participant Groups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaklief, Charles R.; Oaklief, Margery M.

    This project studied participation and benefits of noncredit adult education in Kansas. It was geared to determine appropriate roles for the state of Kansas in delivering educational services for adults through lifelong learning and noncredit educational programs. The population included 1,334 participants in noncredit adult learning experiences…

  20. A cognitive training intervention improves modality-specific attention in a randomized controlled trial of healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ashley B.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Rawley-Payne, Melissa; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Age-related deficits in cognitive and sensory function can result in increased distraction from background sensory stimuli. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a cognitive training intervention aimed at helping healthy older adults suppress irrelevant auditory and visual stimuli. Sixty-six participants received 8 weeks of either the modality-specific attention training program or an educational lecture control program. Participants who completed the intervention program had larger improvements in modality-specific selective attention following training than controls. These improvements also correlated with reductions in bimodal integration during selective attention. Further, the intervention group showed larger improvements than the control group in non-trained domains such as processing speed and dual-task completion, demonstrating the utility of modality-specific attention training for improving cognitive function in healthy older adults. PMID:19428142

  1. Control system developments for the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martin; Wilkes, John D.; Amos, Clive S.

    1995-06-01

    A number of improvements have been made to the servo control systems of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The successful upgrading of both the Cassegrain and prime focus rotators to meet more stringent science and engineering requirements is described. Simulation (using Matlab(superscript R) and Simulink(superscript R)) of a model reference adaptive controller to improve azimuth tracking in the presence of torque disturbances is presented together with some preliminary results and a discussion of the way forward. Further enhancements to the WHT's subsystems are also discussed. The smaller 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) and the 1 m Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope (JKT) are also being considered for major improvements to their drives and encoders. Studies are being carried out to determine the requirements and appropriate goals of such improvements and whether modern control approaches can offer cost-effective solutions with minimal re-engineering work. The current performance, generally pointing and tracking, of these telescopes is presented and the subsystems which limit performance are examined; these may be drives, encoders, mirror supports, and structural components. A range of solutions is considered and the technical proposals developed so far are discussed.

  2. “Teens are from Mars, Adults are from Venus”: Analyzing and Predicting Age Groups with Behavioral Characteristics in Instagram

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kyungsik; Lee, Sanghack; Jang, Jin; Jung, Yong; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-06-22

    We present behavioral characteristics of teens and adults in Instagram and prediction of them from their behaviors. Based on two independently created datasets from user profiles and tags, we identify teens and adults, and carry out comparative analyses on their online behaviors. Our study reveals: (1) significant behavioral differences between two age groups; (2) the empirical evidence of classifying teens and adults with up to 82% accuracy, using traditional predictive models, while two baseline methods achieve 68% at best; and (3) the robustness of our models by achieving 76%—81% when tested against an independent dataset obtained without using user profiles or tags.

  3. High-fluoride toothpaste: a multicenter randomized controlled trial in adults

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Murali; Schimmel, Martin; Riesen, Martine; Ilgner, Alexander; Wicht, Michael J; Warncke, Michael; Ellwood, Roger P; Nitschke, Ina; Müller, Frauke; Noack, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this single – blind, multicenter, parallel, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of a high-fluoride toothpaste on root caries in adults. Methods Adult patients (n = 130, ♂ = 74, ♀ = 56; mean age ± SD: 56.9 ± 12.9) from three participating centers, diagnosed with root caries, were randomly allocated into two groups: Test (n = 64, ♂ = 37, ♀ = 27; lesions = 144; mean age: 59.0 ± 12.1; intervention: high-fluoride toothpaste with 5000 ppm F), and Control (n = 66, ♂ = 37, ♀ = 29; lesions = 160; mean age: 54.8 ± 13.5; intervention: regular-fluoride toothpaste with 1350 ppm F) groups. Clinical examinations and surface hardness scoring of the carious lesions were performed for each subject at specified time intervals (T0 – at baseline before intervention, T1 – at 3 months and T2 – at 6 months after intervention). Mean surface hardness scores (HS) were calculated for each patient. Statistical analyses comprised of two-way analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons using the Bonferroni–Dunn correction. Results At T0, there was no statistical difference between the two groups with regard to gender (P = 0.0682, unpaired t-test), or age (P = 0.9786, chi-squared test), and for the overall HS (Test group: HS = 3.4 ± 0.61; Control group: HS = 3.4 ± 0.66; P = 0.8757, unpaired t-test). The anova revealed significantly better HS for the test group than for the control groups (T1: Test group: HS = 2.9 ± 0.67; Control group: HS = 3.1 ± 0.75; T2: Test group: HS = 2.4 ± 0.81; Control group: HS = 2.8 ± 0.79; P < 0.0001). However, the interaction term time-point*group was not significant. Conclusions The application of a high-fluoride containing dentifrice (5000 ppm F) in adults, twice daily, significantly improves the surface hardness of otherwise untreated root caries lesions when compared with the use of regular fluoride

  4. Vitamin D intakes by children and adults in the United States differ among ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carolyn E; Murphy, Mary M; Holick, Michael F

    2005-10-01

    Concerns about vitamin D status in the United States have resurfaced due to increasing reports of insufficiency and deficiency. Few foods contain vitamin D naturally, and currently few foods are fortified in the United States. Intakes of vitamin D in the United States from food and food plus supplements by age, sex, and race/ethnicity group were estimated. Individuals > or = 1 y old who participated in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000) were included in the analysis. Vitamin D intake by non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and all individuals in the United States was estimated and compared with recommended levels. Vitamin D intakes were highest among children and teenagers, and lowest in the oldest age categories. Among children age 1-8 y, adequate intake (AI) levels for vitamin D from food were met or exceeded by 69% of Mexican American, 59% of NH white, and 48% of NH black subpopulations. Among adults > or = 51 y old, only 4% met or exceeded the AI from food alone. Few women 19-50 y old or men and women > or = 51 y old were estimated to consume recommended vitamin D levels from food. Mean dietary intakes of vitamin D from food plus supplements were consistently highest among NH white populations, although only small proportions of all those > or = 51 y old had intakes above the recommended levels. The large discrepancy between vitamin D intake by older individuals from food plus supplements and recommended levels, especially for NH black and Mexican American adults, warrants intervention.

  5. Group B streptococcus infections of soft tissue and bone in California adults, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Khan, M A; Reingold, A; Watt, J P

    2015-11-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an increasing cause of disease in adults. We present long-term trends in incidence of overall infections and identify characteristics of patients with GBS cellulitis, bone and joint infections. Active, population-based surveillance was conducted from 1995-2012 in three California counties and the data were analysed retrospectively. All cases had isolation of GBS from a normally sterile site. Cases of cellulitis were classified based on clinical diagnosis. GBS bone or joint infection was defined as isolation of GBS from a bone or joint or a diagnosis of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Medical charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical information. There were 3917 cases of GBS; the incidence of disease increased from 5·8 to 8·3 cases/100 000 persons (P < 0·001) from 1995 to 2012. In adults aged ⩾40 years, the overall incidence of GBS increased from 8·5 to 14·2 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001) persons during the study period. The incidence of cellulitis increased from 1·6 to 3·8 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001), bone infection increased from 0·7 to 2·6 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001), and the incidence of joint infection remained approximately constant at an average rate of 1·0 case/100 000. The highest incidence rates were observed in men, persons aged ⩾80 years, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (51·2% cellulitis cases, 76·3% bone infections, 29·8% joint infections).

  6. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Karen L; Bergman, Shawn M; Collier, Scott R; Triplett, N Travis; Quin, Rebecca; Bergquist, John; Pieper, Carl F

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine feasibility and estimate the effect of a 10-week tai chi chuan (TCC) intervention on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults. Participants Seventy-five adults (18–40 years) from a predominately undergraduate midsized university. Methods This was an assessor blinded, randomized feasibility trial, and participants were randomized into one of three groups: 10 weeks of TCC meeting 2 times per week, 10 weeks of TCC with a DVD of the curriculum, and control group receiving a handout on anxiety management. Anxiety and sleep quality were assessed 4 times: baseline, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (immediate post-intervention), and 2 months post-intervention. Retention was defined as a participant attending the baseline assessment and at least one other assessment. Adherence to the intervention was set a priori as attendance at 80% of the TCC classes. Results Eighty-five percent of participants were retained during the intervention and 70% completed the 2 month follow-up assessments. To increase statistical power, the two TCC groups were combined in the analyses of anxiety and sleep quality measures. No significant changes in anxiety were found in the control group, while levels of anxiety decreased significantly over time in the two TCC groups. Sleep quality scores improved across time for all three groups, but adherent TCC participants reported greater improvement than control participants. Conclusion TCC may be an effective nonpharmaceutical means of improving anxiety and poor sleep quality in young adults. PMID:27895522

  7. Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Karbach, Julia; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-11-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effects of process-based executive-function and working memory training (49 articles, 61 independent samples) in older adults (> 60 years). The interventions resulted in significant effects on performance on the trained task and near-transfer tasks; significant results were obtained for the net pretest-to-posttest gain relative to active and passive control groups and for the net effect at posttest relative to active and passive control groups. Far-transfer effects were smaller than near-transfer effects but were significant for the net pretest-to-posttest gain relative to passive control groups and for the net gain at posttest relative to both active and passive control groups. We detected marginally significant differences in training-induced improvements between working memory and executive-function training, but no differences between the training-induced improvements observed in older adults and younger adults, between the benefits associated with adaptive and nonadaptive training, or between the effects in active and passive control conditions. Gains did not vary with total training time.

  8. Changes in sexual behavior of HIV-infected older adults enrolled in a clinical trial of standalone group psychotherapies targeting depression

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, Travis I.; Heckman, Timothy G.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, one-half of all HIV-positive persons in the U.S. will be 50-plus years of age, and as many as 30% of older adults living with HIV/AIDS continue to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Contemporary positive prevention models often include mental health treatment as a key component of HIV prevention interventions. This secondary data analysis characterized longitudinal patterns of sexual behavior in HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of group mental health interventions and assessed the efficacy of psychosocial treatments that targeted depression to reduce sexual risk behavior. Participants were 295 HIV-positive adults ≥ 50 years of age experiencing mild to severe depressive symptoms, randomized to one of three study conditions: a 12-session coping improvement group intervention, a 12-session interpersonal support group intervention, or individual therapy upon request. Approximately one-fifth of participants reported one or more occasions of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with HIV-negative sexual partners or persons of unknown HIV serostatus over the study period. Changes in sexual behavior did not vary by intervention condition, indicating that standalone treatments that target and reduce depression may be insufficient to reduce sexual risk behavior in depressed HIV-positive older adults. PMID:24668254

  9. Changes in sexual behavior of HIV-infected older adults enrolled in a clinical trial of standalone group psychotherapies targeting depression.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Travis I; Heckman, Timothy G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B; Kochman, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    By 2015, one-half of all HIV-positive persons in the U.S. will be 50-plus years of age, and as many as 30 % of older adults living with HIV/AIDS continue to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Contemporary positive prevention models often include mental health treatment as a key component of HIV prevention interventions. This secondary data analysis characterized longitudinal patterns of sexual behavior in HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of group mental health interventions and assessed the efficacy of psychosocial treatments that targeted depression to reduce sexual risk behavior. Participants were 295 HIV-positive adults ≥50 years of age experiencing mild to severe depressive symptoms, randomized to one of three study conditions: a 12-session coping improvement group intervention, a 12-session interpersonal support group intervention, or individual therapy upon request. Approximately one-fifth of participants reported one or more occasions of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with HIV-negative sexual partners or persons of unknown HIV serostatus over the study period. Changes in sexual behavior did not vary by intervention condition, indicating that standalone treatments that target and reduce depression may be insufficient to reduce sexual risk behavior in depressed HIV-positive older adults.

  10. A pilot evaluation of group-based programming offered at a Canadian outpatient adult eating disorders clinic.

    PubMed

    Mac Neil, Brad A; Leung, Pauline; Nadkarni, Pallavi; Stubbs, Laura; Singh, Manya

    2016-10-01

    Eating disorder clinics across Canada place heavy reliance on group-based programming. However, little work has examined whether this modality of treatment is well-received by patients and results in clinical improvements. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate patient satisfaction and outcomes for group-based programming offered through an adult eating disorders clinic. Participants were 81 adults who met DSM-5 criteria for an eating disorder and participated in the study as part of the clinic's program evaluation. Participants received medical monitoring, psychiatric follow-up, adjunct nutrition and pre-psychological treatment, and participated in the clinic's core cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group. Demographic information and weight were collected at intake. Participants also completed pre- and post-group programming measures of life satisfaction, depressive and anxiety symptoms, psychological symptoms of the eating disorder, and satisfaction with the programming. Participants' experienced a significant increase in satisfaction with life, and decreases in depressive symptoms and psychological symptoms of the eating disorder post-group. Adults endorsed feeling fairly satisfied with the group-based services provided. Results draw attention to the importance of program evaluation as an integral component of an adult outpatient eating disorder clinic by providing a voice for patients' views of the services received and program outcomes.

  11. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18–35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition–M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant’s body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS’ growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control. PMID:28099522

  12. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Craig, Chesney E; Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS' growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control.

  13. Group cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with Asperger syndrome and anxiety or mood disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome are at increased risk for mental health problems compared with the general population, especially with regard to mood and anxiety disorders. Generic mental health services are often ill-equipped to offer psychotherapeutic treatments to this population, and specialized supports are difficult to find. This case series used a manualized cognitive behaviour therapy group programme (Mind Over Mood) with three adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, who were each unable to access psychotherapy through mainstream mental health services. This review highlights the benefits of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) group approach for adults with Asperger syndrome and suggests some potential modifications to traditional CBT provision. 

  14. Pleiotropic effect of a novel mutation in GCNT2 causing congenital cataract and a rare adult i blood group phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Sek-Shir; Hull, Sarah; Jones, Benjamin; Chana, Ravinder; Thornton, Nicole; Plagnol, Vincent; Moore, Anthony T; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in GCNT2 have been associated with the rare adult i blood group phenotype with or without congenital cataract. We report a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.1163_1166delATCA, p.(Asn388Argfs*20) as the cause of congenital cataract in two affected siblings. Blood group typing confirmed that both affected males have the rare adult i phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that the partial association of I/i phenotype and congenital cataract is due to the differential expression of GCNT2 isoforms. PMID:28224043

  15. Mitigating Cellular Inflammation in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tai Chi Chih

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of a behavioral intervention, Tai Chi Chih (TCC) on circulating markers of inflammation in older adults. DESIGN A prospective, randomized, controlled trial with allocation to two arms, TCC and health education (HE), 16 weeks of intervention administration, and 9 weeks follow-up. PARTICIPANTS A total of 83 healthy older adults, aged 59 to 86 years. MEASUREMENTS The primary endpoint was circulating levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Secondary outcomes were circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), sIL-6R, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and IL-18. Severity of depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and physical activity was also assessed over the treatment trial. RESULTS Among those older adults with high levels IL-6 at entry, a trend for a treatment group by time interaction was found (F(1,70)=3.48, P = .07), in which TCC produced a drop of IL-6 levels comparable to those found in TCC and HE subgroups who had low levels of IL-6 at entry (t’s(72)=0.80, 1.63, P’s>0.10), whereas IL-6 in HE remained higher than the TCC- and HE subgroups with low entry IL-6 (t(72)=2.47, P=0.02; t(72)=1.71, P=0.09). Decreases in depressive symptoms in the two treatment groups correlated with decreases of IL-6 (r=.28, P <.05). None of the other cellular markers of inflammation changed in TCC vs. HE. CONCLUSION TCC can be considered a useful behavioral intervention to reduce circulating levels of IL-6 in older adults who show elevated levels of this inflammatory marker and are at risk for inflammation-related morbidity. PMID:21934474

  16. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  17. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme.

  18. No effect of bicarbonate treatment on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in non-diabetic older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mild metabolic acidosis is common among older adults, and limited evidence suggests that it may contribute to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. This analysis was conducted to determine whether bicarbonate supplementation, an alkalinizing treatment, improves insulin sensitivity or glucose control in non-diabetic older adults. Fasting blood glucose and insulin were measured in stored samples from subjects who had completed a 3-month clinical trial of bicarbonate supplementation to improve indicators of bone and muscle health. One hundred and fifty three ambulatory, non-diabetic adults aged 50 years and older were studied. Subjects were randomized to one of two bicarbonate groups (67.5 mmol/day of potassium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate) or to one of two no-bicarbonate groups (67.5 mmol/day of placebo or potassium chloride). Subjects remained on treatment throughout the 3-month study. The primary outcome measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR, an index of insulin resistance. Bicarbonate supplementation reduced net acid excretion (adjusted mean ± SEM for the change in NAE/creatinine, mmol/mmol, was 0.23 ± 0.22 in the no-bicarbonate group compared with −3.53 ± 0.22 in the bicarbonate group, P<0.001) but had no effect on fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, or HOMA-IR. In conclusion, bicarbonate supplementation does not appear to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose control in non-diabetic older adults. PMID:21046483

  19. Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice modulates functional connectivity of the cognitive control network in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Chen, Xiangli; Egorova, Natalia; Liu, Jiao; Xue, Xiehua; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Hong, Wenjun; Sun, Sharon; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most common problem saffecting older adults. In this study, we investigated whether Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can modulate mental control functionand the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cognitive control network in older adults. Participants in the two exercise groups practiced either Tai Chi Chuan or Baduanjin for 12 weeks, and those in the control group received basic health education. Memory tests and fMRI scans were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study. Seed-based (bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) rsFC analysis was performed. We found that compared to the controls, 1) both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups demonstrated significant improvements in mental control function; 2) the Tai Chi Chuan group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) the Baduanjin group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left putamen and insula. Mental control improvement was negatively associated with rsFC DLPFC-putamen changes across all subjects. These findings demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercises in preventing cognitive decline. PMID:28169310

  20. Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice modulates functional connectivity of the cognitive control network in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Chen, Xiangli; Egorova, Natalia; Liu, Jiao; Xue, Xiehua; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Hong, Wenjun; Sun, Sharon; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2017-02-07

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most common problem saffecting older adults. In this study, we investigated whether Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can modulate mental control functionand the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cognitive control network in older adults. Participants in the two exercise groups practiced either Tai Chi Chuan or Baduanjin for 12 weeks, and those in the control group received basic health education. Memory tests and fMRI scans were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study. Seed-based (bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) rsFC analysis was performed. We found that compared to the controls, 1) both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups demonstrated significant improvements in mental control function; 2) the Tai Chi Chuan group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) the Baduanjin group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left putamen and insula. Mental control improvement was negatively associated with rsFC DLPFC-putamen changes across all subjects. These findings demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercises in preventing cognitive decline.

  1. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term...

  2. Effects of Weight Loss on Foot Structure and Function in Obese Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinsup; Kane, Reagan; Tango, Dana N.; Vander Veur, Stephanie S.; Furmato, James; Komaroff, Eugene; Foster, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of weight reduction on foot structure, gait, and dynamic plantar loading in obese adults. Design In a 3-month randomized-controlled trial, participants were randomized to receive either a weight loss intervention based on portion-controlled meals or a delayed-treatment control. Participants 41 adults (32 F, 9 M) with a mean + SD age of 56.2 + 4.7 years and a BMI of 35.9 + 4.2 kg/m2. Measurements Arch Height Index (AHI), Malleolar Valgus Index (MVI), spatial and temporal gait parameters, plantar peak pressure (PP) and weight were measured at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Results The intervention group experienced significantly greater weight loss than did the control group (5.9 ± 4.0 kg versus 1.9 ± 3.2 kg, p = 0.001) after 3 months. There were no differences between the groups in anatomical foot structure or gait. However, the treatment group showed a significantly reduced PP than the control group beneath the lateral arch and the metatarsals 4 (all P values < .05) at 3 months. The change in PP correlated significantly with the change in weight at the metatarsal 2 (r=0.57, p=0.0219), metatarsal 3 (r=0.56, p=0.0064) and the medial arch (r=0.26, p<0.0001) at 6 months. Conclusion This was the first RCT designed to assess the effects of weight loss on foot structure, gait, and plantar loading in obese adults. Even a modest weight loss significantly reduced the dynamic plantar loading in obese adults. However, weight loss appeared to have no effects on foot structure and gait. PMID:25245307

  3. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were included in the analysis. A total of 802 control cases were selected from the same cohort, and matched individually (1:1) by age (±2 years) and area of residence for control group 1 and additionally by sex for control group 2. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis using the control group 1 showed that females and those with a family history of thyroid cancer had an increased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas ever-smokers and those with a higher monthly household income had a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the analysis using control group 2 showed that a family history of cancer and alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas higher body mass index (BMI) and family history of thyroid cancer were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Conclusion These findings suggest that females, those with a family history of thyroid cancer, those with a higher BMI, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and those with a lower monthly household income have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. PMID:27338034

  4. Hearing Loss, Control, and Demographic Factors Influencing Hearing Aid Use among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garstecki, Dean C.; Erler, Susan F.

    1998-01-01

    Older adults (N=131) with hearing loss completed measures of hearing, hearing handicap, psychological control, depression, and ego strength. Older adults who accepted advice from hearing professionals to acquire and use hearing aids differed from those not accepting such advice on measures of hearing sensitivity, psychological control, and…

  5. Quality of Life for Diverse Older Adults in Assisted Living: The Centrality of Control.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon D; Mahmood, Atiya N; Stott-Eveneshen, Sarah

    This pilot project asked: How do ethnically diverse older adult residents of assisted living (AL) facilities in British Columbia (BC) experience quality of life? And, what role, if any, do organizational and physical environmental features play in influencing how quality of life is experienced? The study was conducted at three AL sites in BC: two ethnoculturally targeted and one nontargeted. Environmental audits at each site captured descriptive data on policies, fees, rules, staffing, meals, and activities, and the built environment of the AL building and neighborhood. Using a framework that understands the quality of life of older adults to be contingent on their capability to pursue 5 conceptual attributes-attachment, role, enjoyment, security, and control-we conducted 3 focus groups with residents (1 per site) and 6 interviews with staff (2 per site). Attributes were linked to the environmental features captured in the audits. All dimensions of the environment, especially organizational, influence tenants' capability to attain the attributes of quality of life, most importantly control. Although many tenants accept the trade-off between increased safety and diminished control that accompanies a move into AL, more could be done to minimize that loss. Social workers can advocate for the necessary multi-sectoral changes.

  6. Promoting advance planning for health care and research among older adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing the frequency of documented preferences for health care and research. It also investigates the financial impact on the healthcare system of improving substitute decision-making. Methods/Design Dyads (n = 240) comprising an older adult and his/her self-selected proxy are randomly allocated to the experimental or control group, after stratification for type of designated proxy and self-report of prior documentation of healthcare preferences. At baseline, clinical and research vignettes are used to elicit older adult preferences and assess the ability of their proxy to predict those preferences. Responses are elicited under four health states, ranging from the subject's current health state to severe dementia. For each state, we estimated the public costs of the healthcare services that would typically be provided to a patient under these scenarios. Experimental dyads are visited at home, twice, by a specially trained facilitator who communicates the dyad-specific results of the concordance assessment, helps older adults convey their wishes to their proxies, and offers assistance in completing a guide entitled My Preferences that we designed specifically for that purpose. In between these meetings, experimental dyads attend a group information session about My Preferences. Control dyads attend three monthly workshops aimed at promoting healthy behaviors. Concordance assessments are repeated at the

  7. German-American Workshop on Adult Education with Target Groups = Deutsch-amerikanisches Doppelseminar zur Zielgruppenarbeit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Claus, Ed.; Odenbrett, Glenn, Ed.

    This collection includes eight papers (authored by Germans) on adult education programs in Cleveland, Ohio, and eight papers (authored by Americans) about adult education programs in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as German and English introductions to the collection. The following papers are included: "Neue Wege in der…

  8. Quality Outcomes in Group Home Dementia Care for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicki, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dementia, as a public health challenge, is a phenomenon vexing many care organisations providing specialised residential and family supports for older adults with intellectual disabilities. With increasing survivorship to ages when risk is greatest, expectations are that many more adults in service will present with cognitive decline…

  9. A positive association between active lifestyle and hemispheric lateralization for motor control and learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; D'Amato, Arthur; Bambrough, Jennifer; Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is well known to have general health benefits for older adults, but it is unclear whether it can also positively affect brain function involved in motor control and learning. We have previously shown that interlimb transfer of visuomotor adaptation occurs asymmetrically in young adults, while that occurs symmetrically in older adults, which suggests that the lateralized function of each hemisphere during motor tasks is diminished with aging. Here, we investigated the association between the level of PA and hemispheric motor lateralization by comparing the pattern of interlimb transfer following visuomotor adaptation between physically active and inactive older adults. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their PA level (active, inactive). They were further divided into two groups, such that a half of the subjects in each group adapted to a 30° rotation during targeted reaching movements with the left arm first, then with the right arm; and the other half with the right arm first, then with the left arm. Results indicated asymmetrical transfer (from left to right only) in the active subjects, whereas symmetrical transfer (from left to right, and vice versa) was observed in the inactive subjects. These findings suggest that older adults who maintain active lifestyle have a central nervous system that is more intact in terms of its lateralized motor function as compared with those who are inactive.

  10. Goal-directed memory: the role of cognitive control in older adults' emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Mather, Mara; Knight, Marisa

    2005-12-01

    The present study revealed that older adults recruit cognitive control processes to strengthen positive and diminish negative information in memory. In Experiment 1, older adults engaged in more elaborative processing when retrieving positive memories than they did when retrieving negative memories. In Experiment 2, older adults who did well on tasks involving cognitive control were more likely than those doing poorly to favor positive pictures in memory. In Experiment 3, older adults who were distracted during memory encoding no longer favored positive over negative pictures in their later recall, revealing that older adults use cognitive resources to implement emotional goals during encoding. In contrast, younger adults showed no signs of using cognitive control to make their memories more positive, indicating that, for them, emotion regulation goals are not chronically activated.

  11. Problematic Internet Use, Mental Health and Impulse Control in an Online Survey of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.; White, Marney A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Internet use has become a popular entertainment source and has become highly integrated into daily life. However, some people display problematic or addictive usage of the Internet. The present study attempts to fill current knowledge gaps regarding at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) and its relation to various health and functioning measures. Methods Online survey data from 755 adults in the United States were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVAs. Results The ARPIU group did not differ from the non-ARPIU group with respect to substance use. Individuals with ARPIU were, however, more likely to report at-risk/problematic engagement in video-game playing and gambling. Compared to the non-ARPIU group, the ARPIU group reported poorer self-control and higher levels of impulsivity and depression. Conclusions ARPIU appears associated with other risk behaviors, particularly those that might be performed on the Internet. Future studies should examine the extent to which the Internet may promote engagement in these risk behaviors and the extent to which preventative interventions targeting better self-control or negative mood states might help a range of non-substance-related addictive behaviors. PMID:24294501

  12. Where It's at! The Role of Best Friends and Peer Group Members in Young Adults' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Bot, Sander M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Sentse, Miranda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger

    2011-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that best friends and members from a broader peer group would not differ in the amount of influence they have on young adults' alcohol consumption and that what counts would be the mere presence of drinking peers in a given context--irrespective of the type of relationship such peers would have with the target young…

  13. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  14. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  15. A Group of Indonesian Adult EFL Students' Mastery of Tenses and Aspects: Investigating the Internal and External Factors of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlisin; Salikin, Hairus

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed, firstly, to assess a group of Indonesian adult EFL students' mastery of tenses and aspects as part of their mastery of English grammar and, secondly, to identify if their experience of going through the instructional processes, their perceptions of and habits in studying English grammar shaped their mastery of tenses and aspects.…

  16. Effectiveness of an exercise program on postural control in frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Abril-Carreres, Àngels; Boldó-Alcaine, Maria; Rusca-Castellet, Elisabet; Garreta-Figuera, Roser; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise programs have proved to be helpful for frail older adults. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise program with a focus on postural control exercises in frail older adults. Method Twenty-six older adults (76.7 ± 4.9 years) deemed clinically stable, chosen from the Falls Unit, University Hospital Mútua Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain, participated in this single-group study. Volunteers’ postural control was evaluated using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the Guralnik test battery, and their static and dynamic posturography were evaluated using the Synapsys Posturography System®. These evaluations were performed before and after the intervention program, which included an educational session and two weekly 1-hour sessions over an 8-week period of stretching exercises, proprioception, balance, and motor coordination. Data were analyzed using the Student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon test, with a significance level of 5%. Results The TUG and Guralnik tests did not show significant differences. Concerning static posturography, there was improvement in the base of support (P = 0.006), anteroposterior displacement with eyes open (P = 0.02) and closed (P = 0.03), and the total amplitude of the center of pressure with eyes closed (P = 0.02). Regarding dynamic posturography, a decrease of the oscillation speed in the anteroposterior direction (P = 0.01) was observed in individuals with their eyes open. Conclusion The program used in this study was safe and was able to promote some improvement in postural control, especially in the anteroposterior direction and in the base of support. However, it is noteworthy that further improvements could be obtained from a program of longer duration and greater frequency. PMID:23269865

  17. Changing epidemiology of group B streptococcal infections among adults in Iceland: 1975-2014.

    PubMed

    Björnsdóttir, E S; Martins, E R; Erlendsdóttir, H; Haraldsson, G; Melo-Cristino, J; Kristinsson, K G; Ramirez, M

    2016-04-01

    We studied the bacterial characteristics and incidence of invasive infections caused by group B streptococci (GBS) in adults in Iceland in 1975-2014. A total of 145 isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility, multilocus sequence typing and surface protein gene profiling. Disease incidence increased during the studied period (p <0.001), reaching 2.17 cases/100 000 person-years in 2013-14. Overall, serotype Ia was the most frequently found (23%), but serotypes Ib, II, III and V showed similar prevalence (14%-17%). Although there were notable changes in the proportion of most serotypes during the study period, only the decline of serotype III was statistically supported (p = 0.003) and was reflected in a decrease of clonal complexes CC17 and CC19 that included most serotype III isolates (p <0.04). On the other hand, the increase in frequency of CC1 was caused by two lineages expressing distinct serotypes: ST1/V/alp3 and ST196/IV/eps. Underlying the relative stability of serotype Ia were major changes in the lineages expressing this serotype, with an increase in the relative importance of CC23, including both ST23/Ia/eps and ST24/Ia/bca lineages, and a decrease in CC7. Nine cases of invasive GBS disease were caused by ST7, of possible zoonotic origin. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Rates of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance were 8.3% and 9.7%, respectively. An over-representation of resistance solely to clindamycin was associated with the unusual lsaC gene and serotype III ST19/rib lineage (p <0.001).

  18. Self-Reported Health Problems of Young Adults in Clinical Settings: Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lisa A.; Mao, Jun J.; Werba, Branlyn E.; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Carlson, Claire A.; Mougianis, Ifigenia D.; Ogle, Sue K.; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Increasing numbers of childhood cancer survivors are seen in primary care settings as young adults. It is unknown how their self-reported health problems differ from those of healthy young adults. Self-reported health problems of cancer survivors and healthy controls are compared in this study. Methods 156 cancer survivors visiting a cancer survivorship program and 138 controls in primary care centers (mean age of 20 years) completed the Health Knowledge Inventory (HKI), a checklist of 35 health problems. Results Cancer survivors reported significantly more health problems than healthy controls (5.6 vs 2.6 problems, p < .001). For cancer survivors, more intense treatment and older age related to Organic/Major problems and Constitutional/Other problems. Female gender related to report of Organic/Major and Constitutional/Other problems for the controls. While at least 20% of both healthy controls and survivors endorsed dermatologic, headache, gastrointestinal and weight problems, survivors endorsed growth, thyroid, kidney, immunological, heart, and fertility problems fourfold over controls. Conclusions Cancer survivors endorse significantly more health problems than healthy controls. However, some problems are reported with equal frequency among the groups. Understanding these similarities and differences between survivors and healthy controls will facilitate patient-centered comprehensive care for young adult cancer survivors. PMID:20453176

  19. Impact of Osteopathic Treatment on Pain in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis – A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Dominique; Soubeiran, Lucile; Gourmelon, Fabrice; Grenet, Dominique; Serreau, Raphaël; Perrodeau, Elodie; Zegarra-Parodi, Rafael; Boutron, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is a common complication in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with shorter survival. We evaluated the impact of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on pain in adults with CF. Methods A pilot multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted with three parallel arms: OMT (group A, 16 patients), sham OMT (sham treatment, group B, 8 patients) and no treatment (group C, 8 patients). Medical investigators and patients were double-blind to treatment for groups A and B, who received OMT or sham OMT monthly for 6 months. Pain was rated as a composite of its intensity and duration over the previous month. The evolution of chest/back pain after 6 months was compared between group A and groups B+C combined (control group). The evolution of cervical pain, headache and quality of life (QOL) were similarly evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups in the decrease of chest/back pain (difference = −2.20 IC95% [−4.81; 0.42], p = 0.098); also, group A did not differ from group B. However, chest/back pain decreased more in groups A (p = 0.002) and B (p = 0.006) than in group C. Cervical pain, headache and QOL scores did not differ between the treatment and control groups. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of evaluating the efficacy of OMT to treat the pain of patients with CF. The lack of difference between the group treated with OMT and the control group may be due to the small number of patients included in this trial, which also precludes any definitive conclusion about the greater decrease of pain in patients receiving OMT or sham OMT than in those with no intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01293019 PMID:25029347

  20. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  1. Interview Skills for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lindee; Leatzow, Allison; Clark, Sarah; Siller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of the interview skills curriculum (ISC), a manualized 12-week group-delivered intervention for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This intervention aims to increase social-pragmatic skills essential to a successful job interview. Twenty-eight adults (18-36 years) were…

  2. The effect of standing desks on manual control in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Britten, L; Shire, K; Coats, R O; Astill, S L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish if and how the additional postural constraint of standing affects accuracy and precision of goal directed naturalistic actions. Forty participants, comprising 20 young adults aged 20-23 years and 20 children aged 9-10 years completed 3 manual dexterity tasks on a tablet laptop with a handheld stylus during two separate conditions (1) while standing and (2) while seated. The order of conditions was counterbalanced across both groups of participants. The tasks were (1) a tracking task, where the stylus tracked a dot in a figure of 8 at 3 speeds, (2) an aiming task where the stylus moved from dot to dot with individual movements creating the outline of a pentagram and (3) a tracing task, where participants had to move the stylus along a static pathway or maze. Root mean squared error (RMSE), movement time and path accuracy, respectively, were used to quantify the effect that postural condition had on manual control. Overall adults were quicker and more accurate than children when performing all 3 tasks, and where the task speed was manipulated accuracy was better at slower speeds for all participants. Surprisingly, children performed these tasks more quickly and more accurately when standing compared to when sitting. In conclusion, standing at a desk while performing goal directed tasks did not detrimentally affect children's manual control, and moreover offered a benefit.

  3. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD – a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing. PMID:20856608

  4. Dejian Mind-Body Intervention on Depressive Mood of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Cheung, Mei-chun; Tsui, Wilson J.; Sze, Sophia L.; Shi, Dejian

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a short-term mind-body intervention program on improving the depressive mood of an adult community sample. Forty adult volunteers with various degrees of depressive mood were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Dejian Mind-Body Intervention, DMBI) and control group (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, CBT). For each group, a total of four 90-min weekly sessions were conducted. Treatment-related changes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), an electroencephalographic indicator of positive affect (i.e., prefrontal activation asymmetry), and self-report ratings on physical health. Results indicated that both the DMBI and the CBT group demonstrated significant reduction in depressive mood. However, among individuals with moderate to severe depressive mood at baseline, only those in the DMBI but not the CBT group showed significant reduction in depressive mood. Besides, only the DMBI group demonstrated a significant increase in prefrontal activation asymmetry, suggesting increase in positive affect. While most psychological therapies for depressive mood normally take several months to show treatment effect, the present findings provided initial data suggesting that the DMBI was effective in improving depressive mood of community adults after 1 month of training. PMID:19474241

  5. Prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders in a group of Mexican adolescents and youth adults.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia

    2006-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a university sample of Campeche, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 506 subjects aged 14-25 years. The subjects were requested to answer questionnaires concerning sociodemographic variables, history of stress, lifestyle, and anxiety. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) was used as TMD diagnostic system by four examiners capacitated and standardized. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression in STATA. The results showed that 46.1% of the subjects exhibited some grade of TMD. Logistic regression analysis with TMD as the dependent variable identified sex (women odds ratio [OR]=1.7), bruxism (OR=1.5), anxiety (OR=1.6), unilateral chewing (OR=1.5), and an interaction between number of tooth loss and stress as the most significant associated variables, thus (1) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects without tooth loss (OR=1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.8) and (2) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects with at least one tooth lost (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.01-5.9). The variables associated with diagnosis of pain were principally psychosocial (stress and anxiety), whereas for the non-pain diagnosis group, the variables were clinical, such as bruxism, chewing site preference, and restorations in mouth. We found associations among variables that were similar to findings in other studies, such as bruxism, tooth loss, stress, and anxiety. The final model explains that the effect of stress on TMD depends of the tooth loss, controlling for sex, bruxism, unilateral chewing, and anxiety. Finally, it can be concluded that the variables associated with pain and non-pain diagnosis were of distinct nature.

  6. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  7. Cervical spinal cord dimensions and clinical outcomes in adults with klippel-feil syndrome: a comparison with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woojin; Lee, Dong-Ho; Auerbach, Joshua D; Sehn, Jennifer K; Nabb, Colin E; Riew, K Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Retrospective case-control study. Objectives To confirm the fact that spinal cord dimensions are smaller in adults with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) than in pediatric patients with KFS and to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of neurologic complications in patients with KFS with matched controls. Methods We performed an independent 1:2 case-control retrospective radiographic and chart review of a consecutive series of adults with KFS who underwent surgical intervention. The control group consisted of consecutive non-KFS surgical patients. Patients were matched in 1:2 case-control manner. Their charts were reviewed and the clinical characteristics were compared. Axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure the anteroposterior and mediolateral axial spinal cord and spinal canal at the operative levels and measurements were compared. Results A total of 22 patients with KFS and 44 controls were identified. The KFS group had a tendency of more myeloradiculopathy, and the control group had a tendency toward more radiculopathy. Both tendencies, however, were not significantly different. MRIs of 10 patients from the KFS group and 22 controls were available. There was no difference in the area of both spinal cord and canal at the operative levels. Conclusion Contrary to the finding in previous reports on pediatric patients, there were no differences between KFS and well-matched control groups in terms of age of onset, presentation, revision rate, complication rate, surgical outcome, and cross-sectional spinal cord and canal dimensions at the operative level.

  8. A Community-based Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for Older Adults with Chronic Stroke: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco Y.C.; Eng, Janice J.; Dawson, Andrew S.; McKay, Heather A.; Harris, Jocelyn E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of a community-based group exercise program for older individuals with chronic stroke. DESIGN Prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING Intervention was community-based. Data collection was performed in a research laboratory located in a rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-three older individuals (≥50 years) with a chronic stroke (post-stroke duration ≥ 1 year) who were living in the community. INTERVENTION Participants were randomized into intervention group (n=32) or control group (n=31). The intervention group underwent a Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) program designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility, leg muscle strength, balance and hip bone mineral density (BMD) (1-hour sessions, 3 sessions/week, for 19 weeks). The control group underwent a seated upper extremity program. MEASUREMENTS (1) cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption), (2) mobility (Six Minute Walk Test), (3) leg muscle strength (isometric knee extension), (4) balance (Berg Balance Scale), (5) activity and participation (Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities) and (6) femoral neck BMD (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). RESULTS The intervention group had significantly more gains in cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility, and paretic leg muscle strength than controls. Femoral neck BMD of the paretic leg was maintained in the intervention group whereas a significant decline of the same occurred in controls. There was no significant time × group interaction for balance, activity and participation, non-paretic leg muscle strength and non-paretic femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSION The FAME program is feasible and beneficial for improving some of the secondary complications resulting from physical inactivity in older adults living with stroke. It may serve as a good model of community-based fitness program for preventing secondary diseases in older adults living with

  9. Differences in Resting State Functional Connectivity between Young Adult Endurance Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Raichlen, David A.; Bharadwaj, Pradyumna K.; Fitzhugh, Megan C.; Haws, Kari A.; Torre, Gabrielle-Ann; Trouard, Theodore P.; Alexander, Gene E.

    2016-01-01

    Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the motor network (MN). We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex), suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area), somatosensory functions (post-central region), and visual association abilities (occipital cortex). DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between-group

  10. Differences in Resting State Functional Connectivity between Young Adult Endurance Athletes and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Bharadwaj, Pradyumna K; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Haws, Kari A; Torre, Gabrielle-Ann; Trouard, Theodore P; Alexander, Gene E

    2016-01-01

    Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the motor network (MN). We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex), suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area), somatosensory functions (post-central region), and visual association abilities (occipital cortex). DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between-group

  11. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  12. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

  13. A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials Evaluating Interventions in Adult Literacy and Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgerson, Carole; Porthouse, Jill; Brooks, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic review of the quasi-experimental literature in the field of adult literacy and numeracy, published between 1980 and 2002. We included 27 controlled trials (CTs) that evaluated strategies and pedagogies designed to increase adult literacy and numeracy: 18 CTs with no effect sizes (incomplete data) and 9 CTs with full…

  14. A Case Control Study of Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for serious suicidal behavior among older adults were examined in a case control study of adults aged 55 and older who died by suicide or made suicide attempts and who were compared with randomly selected comparison subjects. Multivariate analyses suggested that mood disorders were the most significant risk factor for suicidal…

  15. Modulation, Adaptation, and Control of Orofacial Pathways in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Meredith E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the healthy adult possesses a large repertoire of coordinative strategies for oromotor behaviors, a range of nonverbal, speech-like movements can be observed during speech. The extent of overlap among sensorimotor speech and nonspeech neural correlates and the role of neuromodulatory inputs generated during oromotor behaviors are unknown.…

  16. Endangered Children and the Misuse of Intoxication by Controlling Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walonick, David

    A review of the academic literature regarding the existence or lack of relationship between chemically dependent adults and neglected or abused children supports the conclusion that alcohol and other drugs are a significant factor in most behavioral patterns associated with endangering children. The author identifies five modes of parent-child…

  17. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults With Parkinson's Disease, Adults With Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014). Method Speakers read Harvard sentences in habitual, clear, loud, and slow conditions. Sentence stimuli were equated for peak intensity and mixed with multitalker babble. A total of 50 listeners orthographically transcribed sentences. Procedures were identical to those for a VAS reported in Tjaden, Sussman, and Wilding (2014). Results The percent correct scores from transcription were significantly higher in magnitude than the VAS scores. Multivariate linear modeling indicated that the pattern of findings for transcription and VAS was virtually the same with respect to differences among groups and speaking conditions. Correlation analyses further indicated a moderately strong, positive relationship between the two metrics. The majority of these correlations were significant. Last, intrajudge and interjudge listener reliability metrics for the two intelligibility tasks were comparable. Conclusion Results suggest that there may be instances when the less time-consuming VAS task may be a viable substitute for an orthographic transcription task when documenting intelligibility in mild dysarthria. PMID:26556727

  18. Controlling the motion of a group of mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. A.; Osipov, G. V.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method of controlling an ensemble of mobile agents with variable coupling topology that is based on the principles of phase synchronization in a system of regular and chaotic oscillators. Results of modeling of the controlled motion of mobile agents in systems with serial, parallel, and strictly preset motion are presented.

  19. A written self-help intervention for depressed adults comparing behavioural activation combined with physical activity promotion with a self-help intervention based upon behavioural activation alone: study protocol for a parallel group pilot randomised controlled trial (BAcPAc)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Challenges remain to find ways to support patients with depression who have low levels of physical activity (PA) to overcome perceived barriers and enhance the perceived value of PA for preventing future relapse. There is an evidence-base for behavioural activation (BA) for depression, which focuses on supporting patients to restore activities that have been avoided, but practitioners have no specific training in promoting PA. We aimed to design and evaluate an integrated BA and PA (BAcPAc) practitioner-led, written, self-help intervention to enhance both physical and mental health. Methods/design This study is informed by the Medical Research Council Complex Intervention Framework and describes a protocol for a pilot phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the feasibility and acceptability of the trial methods to inform a definitive phase III RCT. Following development of the augmented written self-help intervention (BAcPAc) incorporating behavioural activation with physical activity promotion, depressed adults are randomised to receive up to 12 sessions over a maximum of 4 months of either BAcPAc or behavioural activation alone within a written self-help format, which represents treatment as usual. The study is located within two ‘Improving Access to Psychological Therapies’ services in South West England, with both written self-help interventions supported by mental health paraprofessionals. Measures assessed at 4, 9, and 12 month follow-up include the following: CIS-R, PHQ-9, accelerometer recorded (4 months only) and self-reported PA, body mass index, blood pressure, Insomnia Severity Index, quality of life, and health and social care service use. Process evaluation will include analysis of recorded support sessions and patient and practitioner interviews. At the time of writing the study has recruited 60 patients. Discussion The feasibility outcomes will inform a definitive RCT to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the

  20. Evaluation of a group intervention to assist aging parents with permanency planning for an adult offspring with special needs.

    PubMed

    Botsford, Anne L; Rule, David

    2004-07-01

    More than three-fourths of older adults with developmental disabilities and mental illness live in the community with aging parents, the majority of whom do not complete plans for the residential, financial, and legal future of their offspring. The authors used a true experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of a six-week psychoeducational group intervention with 27 older mothers. Data collected in pre- and posttest telephone interviews were analyzed with repeated measures MANCOVA to test five hypotheses. Significant multivariate effects were found for mothers' knowledge and awareness about permanency planning, confidence and competence to plan, planning activities, and stage of planning. Findings support use of group interventions with older parents and underscore the need for professional education about planning for adults with special needs.

  1. Reactive and proactive interference control in adults with autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Marsman, Maarten; Geurts, Hilde M

    2017-02-01

    As a large heterogeneity is observed across studies on interference control in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research may benefit from the use of a cognitive framework that models specific processes underlying reactive and proactive control of interference. Reactive control refers to the expression and suppression of responses and proactive control refers to the adjustment of response to previous situations. We administered a Simon conflict task in 2 independent adult samples (IQ >80) and applied distributional analyses to examine temporal dynamics of interference control in ASD. Along comparable interference effects in both reactive and proactive control, young men (n = 23, 18-36 years) diagnosed with ASD made as many fast errors on conflict trials as neurotypical controls (n = 19) and showed similar suppression on slow responses (Study 1). However, over the adult life span (19-79 years), individuals with ASD (n = 118) made fewer fast errors on conflict trials, and had overall slower and more accurate responses than controls (n = 160; Study 2). These results converge to the idea that individuals with ASD adopt a more cautious response bias over the adult life span, which is not yet observed among young adults. Our findings suggest that it is fruitful to distinguish different processes involved in interference control and contribute to an increased understanding of interference control mechanisms in adults with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Early-Onset Psychoses: Comparison of Clinical Features and Adult Outcome in 3 Diagnostic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledda, Maria Giuseppina; Fratta, Anna Lisa; Pintor, Manuela; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in adolescents with three types of psychotic disorders: schizophrenic (SPh), schizoaffective (SA) and bipolar with psychotic features (BPP). Subjects (n = 41) were finally diagnosed (DSM-IV criteria) with SPh (n = 17), SA (n = 11) or BPP (n = 13). Clinical evaluation took place at onset and at a…

  3. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  4. Focus-Group Evaluation of Nutrition Education Displays by Hispanic Adults Who Live in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Delores H.; Munoz, Alejandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of visual displays of nutrition educational information for low-income Hispanic adults in the USA and to determine whether this population have different perceptions of the same nutrition education displays or express different needs than low-income Caucasian…

  5. Beyond Blame: Challenging Violence in the Media. Leader's Guide D: Teen/Adult Classes and Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Barbara Bliss

    This guide provides an approach for high school educators and instructors of adult learners to teach media literacy and promote an informed public conversation about the impact of violent imagery in the culture today. Five key goals govern the program: (1) to reduce exposure to media violence; (2) to change the impact of violent images that are…

  6. Controlled mechanical ventilation with LMA Sureme versus i-gel in anesthetized adult patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed Z; Ebied, Reeham S; El-Tawdy, Amr F; Refaat, Ahmed I; Kamal, Nabawya M

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy, safety and ease of insertion of LMA Supreme and the i-gel in adult cases undergoing elective surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia with controlled mechanical ventilation. This study included 60 ASA physical status I-II adult patients of both sexes scheduled for elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into one of two groups; LMA-S GI (n=30) and i-gel GII (n=30). A size 4 LMA Supreme and a size 4 i-gel were used with standard monitoring. Number of insertion attempts, ease of insertion, presence of gastric insufflation, laryngeal leak, leak pressure, ease of gastric tube insertion, ventilatory parameters, complications as well as hemodynamic variables was recorded. The results showed no clinically significant changes of heart rate, MAP, SpO2 or P(ET)CO2 in GI & GII. The i-gel showed higher frequency of ease of insertion (p=0.048) and gastric tube (p< 0.001). First attempt of insertion was successful in 60% of LMA-S GI and 73.3% of the i-gel GII (p=0.460) without failures in both groups. Leak pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel (25.5 +/- 4.8 cm H2O) compared to the LMA-S (21.1 +/- 7.6 cm H2O) (p=0.010) while both peak and plateau pressures were significantly lower in i-gel GI (19.35 +/- 2.25 cm H2O & 17.75 +/- 2.07 cm H2O) compared to LMA-S GII (30.05 +/- 3.82 cm H2O & 28.80 +/- 3.99cm H2O) (p<0.001) respectively. There was no significant difference between both groups in the frequency of complications encountered during insertion or recovery.

  7. 29 CFR 4043.62 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. 4043.62... § 4043.62 Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a change in a plan's contributing sponsor or controlled group,...

  8. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... knowledge of the transaction and of the controlled group relationship; and (3) Press releases; Forms 10Q. If... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. 4043.29... Events § 4043.29 Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. (a) Reportable event. A...

  9. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Companies B and C will leave plan A's controlled group. Company B (Plan B's contributing sponsor) and the plan administrator of Plan B are required to report that Company A will leave Plan B's controlled group... the structure of Company Q's controlled group. On the effective date of the sale, Company R...

  10. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Companies B and C will leave plan A's controlled group. Company B (Plan B's contributing sponsor) and the plan administrator of Plan B are required to report that Company A will leave Plan B's controlled group... the structure of Company Q's controlled group. On the effective date of the sale, Company R...

  11. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    PubMed

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices.

  12. Randomised controlled trial of montelukast plus inhaled budesonide versus double dose inhaled budesonide in adult patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Price, D; Hernandez, D; Magyar, P; Fiterman, J; Beeh, K; James, I; Konstantopoulos, S; Rojas, R; van Noord, J A; Pons, M; Gilles, L; Leff, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affect many inflammatory pathways in asthma but have little impact on cysteinyl leukotrienes. This may partly explain persistent airway inflammation during chronic ICS treatment and failure to achieve adequate asthma control in some patients. This double blind, randomised, parallel group, non-inferiority, multicentre 16 week study compared the clinical benefits of adding montelukast to budesonide with doubling the budesonide dose in adults with asthma. Methods: After a 1 month single blind run in period, patients inadequately controlled on inhaled budesonide (800 µg/day) were randomised to receive montelukast 10 mg + inhaled budesonide 800 µg/day (n=448) or budesonide 1600 µg/day (n=441) for 12 weeks. Results: Both groups showed progressive improvement in several measures of asthma control compared with baseline. Mean morning peak expiratory flow (AM PEF) improved similarly in the last 10 weeks of treatment compared with baseline in both the montelukast + budesonide group and in the double dose budesonide group (33.5 v 30.1 l/min). During days 1–3 after start of treatment, the change in AM PEF from baseline was significantly greater in the montelukast + budesonide group than in the double dose budesonide group (20.1 v 9.6 l/min, p<0.001), indicating faster onset of action in the montelukast group. Both groups showed similar improvements with respect to "as needed" ß agonist use, mean daytime symptom score, nocturnal awakenings, exacerbations, asthma free days, peripheral eosinophil counts, and asthma specific quality of life. Both montelukast + budesonide and double dose budesonide were generally well tolerated. Conclusion: The addition of montelukast to inhaled budesonide is an effective and well tolerated alternative to doubling the dose of inhaled budesonide in adult asthma patients experiencing symptoms and inadequate control on budesonide alone. PMID:12612295

  13. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    evolution equation with Hamiltonians which may possess discrete , continuous, and mixed spectrum. For such a quantum system, the Hamiltonian operator...study of classical linear and nonlinear systems, which proves to be very useful in understanding the design problems such as disturbance decoupling...developed by Kunita can then be implemented to establish controllability conditions for the original time-dependent Schrodinger control problem. The end

  14. Cognitive control adjustments in healthy older and younger adults: Conflict adaptation, the error-related negativity (ERN), and evidence of generalized decline with age.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Keith, Cierra M; Hunt, Isaac J; Hedges, Dawson W; Nielsen, Brent L; Call, Vaughn R A

    2016-03-01

    Older adults display alterations in neural reflections of conflict-related processing. We examined response times (RTs), error rates, and event-related potential (ERP; N2 and P3 components) indices of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects) a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency influences current-trial performance, along with post-error slowing, correct-related negativity (CRN), error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in 65 healthy older adults and 94 healthy younger adults. Older adults showed generalized slowing, had decreased post-error slowing, and committed more errors than younger adults. Both older and younger adults showed conflict adaptation effects; magnitude of conflict adaptation did not differ by age. N2 amplitudes were similar between groups; younger, but not older, adults showed conflict adaptation effects for P3 component amplitudes. CRN and Pe, but not ERN, amplitudes differed between groups. Data support generalized declines in cognitive control processes in older adults without specific deficits in conflict adaptation.

  15. 76 FR 22336 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... investment and sells the land at a loss to another member of its consolidated group (B), and B develops the land and sells developed lots to unrelated customers, S's intercompany loss will be taken into...

  16. Exercise training and the control of skin blood flow in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tew, G A; Saxton, J M; Hodges, G J

    2012-03-01

    The ability to control skin blood flow decreases with primary aging, making older adults less able to adequately thermoregulate and repair cutaneous wounds. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity, diet, and smoking might interact with the aging process to modulate "normal" age-associated changes in the cutaneous microcirculation. The main focus of this brief review is the effects of exercise training on the control of skin blood flow in older adults.

  17. Understanding Associations of Control Beliefs, Social Relations, and Well-Being in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2006-01-01

    Control beliefs and social relationships have been individually assessed in relation to adaptation to chronic illness, although only rarely together. Further, some control scales show psychometric limitations in older adult samples. To address these concerns, a scale assessing external control was created by factor analyzing the items from…

  18. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Berven, Frode S; Brundin, Lou; Comabella, Manuel; Degn, Matilde; Deisenhammer, Florian; Fazekas, Franz; Franciotta, Diego; Frederiksen, Jette L; Galimberti, Daniela; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hintzen, Rogier; Hughes, Steve; Iacobaeus, Ellen; Kroksveen, Ann C; Kuhle, Jens; Richert, John; Tumani, Hayrettin; Villar, Luisa M; Drulovic, Jelena; Dujmovic, Irena; Khalil, Michael; Bartos, Ales

    2013-11-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.

  19. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  20. Differential Effects of Controllable Stress Exposure on Subsequent Extinction Learning in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Brande-Eilat, Noa; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS) avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC), followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC), as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL), but not prelimbic (PL) cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place.

  1. Differential Effects of Controllable Stress Exposure on Subsequent Extinction Learning in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Brande-Eilat, Noa; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS) avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC), followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC), as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL), but not prelimbic (PL) cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place. PMID:26793083

  2. New insights into neck-pain-related postural control using measures of signal frequency and complexity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Quek, June; Brauer, S G; Clark, Ross; Treleaven, Julia

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence to implicate the role of the cervical spine in influencing postural control, however the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to explore standing postural control mechanisms in older adults with neck pain (NP) using measures of signal frequency (wavelet analysis) and complexity (entropy). This cross-sectional study compared balance performance of twenty older adults with (age=70.3±4.0 years) and without (age=71.4±5.1 years) NP when standing on a force platform with eyes open and closed. Anterior-posterior centre-of-pressure data were processed using wavelet analysis and sample entropy. Performance-based balance was assessed using the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). The NP group demonstrated poorer functional performance (TUG and DGI, p<0.01) than the healthy controls. Wavelet analysis revealed that standing postural sway in the NP group was positively skewed towards the lower frequency movement (very-low [0.10-0.39Hz] frequency content, p<0.01) and negatively skewed towards moderate frequency movement (moderate [1.56-6.25Hz] frequency content, p=0.012). Sample entropy showed no significant differences between groups (p>0.05). Our results demonstrate that older adults with NP have poorer balance than controls. Furthermore, wavelet analysis may reveal unique insights into postural control mechanisms. Given that centre-of-pressure signal movements in the very-low and moderate frequencies are postulated to be associated with vestibular and muscular proprioceptive input respectively, we speculated that, because NP demonstrate a diminished ability to recruit the muscular proprioceptive system compared to controls, they rely more on the vestibular system for postural stability.

  3. A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of Group Exercise and Animal-Assisted Therapy in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Brandon; Artese, Ashley; Schmitt, Karla; Cormier, Eileen; Panton, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility of incorporating animal-assisted therapy teams (ATT) into a 6-week group exercise program for older adults (77 ± 6 years). Fifteen participants were randomly assigned to an exercise with ATT (E+ATT; n = 8) or exercise only (E; n = 7) group. Groups exercised 3x/week for 45 min. Feasibility was assessed by three objectives: (1) ATT will not need extensive preparation beyond their original therapy training; (2) the study will require minimal cost; and (3) ATT must not impair the effectiveness of the exercise program. By the study conclusion, all objectives were met. Time and cost were minimal for ATT, and adherence was 93% and 90% for E+ATT and E, respectively. There were significant improvements in both groups (p ≤ .05) for arm curls, get-up and go, and 6-min walk. The results of this pilot study suggest that it is feasible to incorporate ATT into group exercise programming for older adults.

  4. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  5. ABO blood groups in oral cancer: a first case-control study in a defined group of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Hajian, Shima; Fadavi, Elnaz; Sabour, Siamak; Baharvand, Maryam; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    The ABO blood group has been recently proposed to influence development of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the type of ABO blood group and oral cancer. In a case-control study, 104 patients with oral cancer were compared with 90 blood donors without cancer as controls. Data regarding the patient demographics, blood groups, Rh status, cancer characteristics and oral habits were also compared between two subgroups of squamous and non-squamous oral cancers. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, t-student Test and Logistic Regression were used to analyze the relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer. The frequency of blood group B was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than controls (32% vs 13%) (p value=0.01), but Rh factor did not show significant difference between cases and controls. According to Logistic Regression, people with blood group B and those older than 50 had 3.5 and 19.4 times elevated risk of developing oral cancer, respectively. The frequency of squamous cell cancer was also significantly higher in men and people older than 50. On the other hand, females, people under 50, and those with blood group B were at 5.6, 2.9 and 4.3 times higher risk of developing non-squamous cell oral cancer,respectively. People with blood group B are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer, and female patients under 50 years of age with blood group B have the highest risk to develop non-squamous cell oral cancer.

  6. Communication Control and Leadership in Telecommunications by Small Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    used in this experiment (see section on Prob- lems). Dependent measures have generally included the time it takes groups to solve the problems, the... section , Questionnaire subsection). :. 10 HYPOTHESES Three main hypotheses were generated from the re- sults found in the literature: 1. Subjects who...similar to the MRC network. A decentralized network is provided by continuously open audio and video channels (see Method section , Switching subsection). 2

  7. Effect of haptic supplementation on postural control of younger and older adults in an unstable sitting task.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Inke Marie; Temprado, Jean Jacques; Berton, Eric; Heuer, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Standing postural control is known to be altered during aging, but age-related changes in sitting postural control have scarcely been explored. The present experiment studied the roles of visual and haptic information in a sitting task in both young and older adults. Fifteen young and fifteen older adults participated in this study. Six experimental conditions were performed with eyes open and eyes closed: quiet sitting, rocker-board sitting, and 4 conditions of haptic supplementation, provided by a hand-held pen, during rocker-board sitting. Classical variables were extracted from the center of pressure (COP) and pen trajectories, and the stabilogram diffusion analysis was performed on the COP data. Three-way ANOVAs (Group×Vision×Condition) were carried out. Postural instability was strongly attenuated by haptic supplementation in both age groups. Furthermore, instability due to visual deprivation was compensated by haptic supplementation. Long- and short-term diffusion coefficients were smaller in conditions of haptic supplementation. The present study confirmed the effect of haptic supplementation on both open-loop and closed-loop mechanisms of postural control and extended it to unstable sitting in young and older adults despite the complex biomechanical systems involved in sitting postural tasks.

  8. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  9. Clonal Complex 17 Group B Streptococcus strains causing invasive disease in neonates and adults originate from the same genetic pool

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Ramoutar, Erin; McGeer, Allison; Li, Aimin; Melano, Roberto G.; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of group B Streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease, particularly late-onset disease, is associated with strains of serotype III, clonal complex (CC) 17. CC17 strains also cause invasive infections in adults. Little is known about the phylogenetic relationships of isolates recovered from neonatal and adult CC17 invasive infections. We performed whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis of 93 temporally and geographically matched CC17 strains isolated from both neonatal and adult invasive infections in the metropolitan region of Toronto/Peel, Canada. We also mined the whole-genome data to reveal mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance genes. We discovered that CC17 GBS strains causing neonatal and adult invasive disease are interspersed and cluster tightly in a phylogenetic tree, signifying that they are derived from the same genetic pool. We identified limited variation due to recombination in the core CC17 genome. We describe that loss of Pilus Island 1 and acquisition of different mobile genetic elements carrying determinants of antimicrobial resistance contribute to CC17 genetic diversity. Acquisition of some of these mobile genetic elements appears to correlate with clonal expansion of the strains that possess them. Our results provide a genome-wide portrait of the population structure and evolution of a major disease-causing clone of an opportunistic pathogen. PMID:26843175

  10. Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morone, Natalia E; Greco, Carol M; Weiner, Debra K

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this pilot study were to assess the feasibility of recruitment and adherence to an eight-session mindfulness meditation program for community-dwelling older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to develop initial estimates of treatment effects. It was designed as a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Participants were 37 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older with CLBP of moderate intensity occurring daily or almost every day. Participants were randomized to an 8-week mindfulness-based meditation program or to a wait-list control group. Baseline, 8-week and 3-month follow-up measures of pain, physical function, and quality of life were assessed. Eighty-nine older adults were screened and 37 found to be eligible and randomized within a 6-month period. The mean age of the sample was 74.9 years, 21/37 (57%) of participants were female and 33/37 (89%) were white. At the end of the intervention 30/37 (81%) participants completed 8-week assessments. Average class attendance of the intervention arm was 6.7 out of 8. They meditated an average of 4.3 days a week and the average minutes per day was 31.6. Compared to the control group, the intervention group displayed significant improvement in the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire Total Score and Activities Engagement subscale (P=.008, P=.004) and SF-36 Physical Function (P=.03). An 8-week mindfulness-based meditation program is feasible for older adults with CLBP. The program may lead to improvement in pain acceptance and physical function.

  11. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.

  12. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  13. Cognitive behavioural group training (CBGT) for patients with type 1 diabetes in persistent poor glycaemic control: who do we reach?

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Nicole C W; Lubach, Caroline H C; Hogenelst, Marloes H E; van Iperen, Ada; Tromp-Wever, Anita M E; Vriend, Annelies; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Heine, Robert J; Snoek, Frank J

    2005-03-01

    Approximately a quarter of adults with type 1 diabetes do not succeed in achieving satisfactory glycaemic control, partly due to problems with the demanding self-management regimen. To improve glycaemic control, interventions with a cognitive behavioural approach, aimed at modifying dysfunctional beliefs, reducing negative emotions and enhancing self-care practices are a potentially successful tool. Little is known about the reach of such an approach. This article describes characteristics of participants in a randomized, controlled trial of cognitive behavioural group training for patients with type 1 diabetes in poor glycaemic control. Results show that outpatients from seven hospitals in the area of Amsterdam, selected on long-standing high HbA1c and volunteering to participate, report high levels of psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, self-care behaviours were perceived as important, but burdensome. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy was relatively low. It is concluded that this selected group of adults with type 1 diabetes would potentially benefit from a cognitive-behavioural intervention in order to reduce negative emotions, enhance diabetes self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic outcomes.

  14. Comparability and representativeness of control groups in a case-control study of infant leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Puumala, Susan E; Spector, Logan G; Robison, Leslie L; Bunin, Greta R; Olshan, Andrew F; Linabery, Amy M; Roesler, Michelle A; Blair, Cindy K; Ross, Julie A

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, controls in US pediatric cancer studies were selected through random digit dialing. With declining participation and lack of nonparticipant information, random digit dialing (RDD) controls may be substandard. Birth certificate (BC) controls are an alternative, because they are population based and include data from nonparticipants. The authors examined controls collected by random digit dialing and birth certificates for a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of infant leukemia in 1995-2006. Demographic variables were used to assess differences in RDD and BC controls and their representativeness. RDD and BC controls did not differ significantly with regard to maternal variables (age, race, education, marital status, alcohol during pregnancy) or child variables (sex, gestational age, birth weight), but they varied in smoking during pregnancy (22% RDD controls, 12% BC controls) (P = 0.05). The study's combined control group differed significantly from US births: Mothers of controls were more likely to be older (29.8 vs. 27.2 years), white (84% vs. 59%), and married (85% vs. 67%) and to have >16 years of education (37% vs. 25%). Control children were more often full term (88% vs. 81%) and heavier (3,436 vs. 3,317 g). Finally, participating BC mothers were likely to be older and to have more education than nonparticipants. Thus, the study's control groups were comparable but differed from the population of interest.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  16. A Text Messaging-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Adult Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bağcı Bosi, A Tülay; Korchmaros, Josephine; Emri, Salih

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite promising data in Western countries, there is a dearth of research into the efficacy of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in other settings, including the Middle East, where smoking prevalence rates are higher. Objective This paper reports cessation rates observed in SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers in Ankara, Turkey. Methods This study was a small-scale, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were adult daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the next 15 days and living in Ankara, Turkey. The text messaging intervention, SMS Turkey, provided 6 weeks of daily messages aimed at giving participants skills to help them quit smoking. Messages were sent in an automated fashion, except 2 days and 7 days after the initial quit day. On days 2 and 7, the research assistant manually assigned participants to content “paths” based on whether they were still not smoking or had relapsed. The control arm received a brochure that provided similar information about smoking cessation. The main outcome measure was self-reported 3-month sustained abstinence, verified by carbon monoxide (CO) readings. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to arm assignment. Results The 151 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 76 to the SMS Turkey intervention group and 75 to the brochure control group. Using intention to treat, all 151 participants were included in analyses. Three-month cessation trends were not significantly higher in the intervention group: 11% intervention vs 5% control had quit (χ2 1=1.4, P=.24; R2=2.0, 95% CI 0.62-6.3). When the sample was stratified by sex, female intervention participants (14%, n=5) were significantly more likely to have quit at 3 months than female control participants (0%, n=0; χ2 1=3.7, P=.05). Among light smokers (ie, those smoking less than 20 cigarettes per day

  17. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group.

    PubMed

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2016-05-03

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: -0.10 to -0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: -0.26 to -0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 May 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.60.

  18. A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study of a Single-Session Psychoeducation Treatment for Urban, Culturally Diverse, Trauma-Exposed Adults.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Bita; Fisher, Dennis; Korosteleva, Olga; Hong, Madelyn

    2016-06-01

    This randomized pilot study aimed to determine whether a single session of psychoeducation improved mental health outcomes, attitudes toward treatment, and service engagement among urban, impoverished, culturally diverse, trauma-exposed adults. Sixty-seven individuals were randomly assigned to a single-session psychoeducation treatment or a delayed treatment comparison control group. The control group was found to be superior to the treatment group at posttest with respect to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and occupational and family disability. At follow-up, all participants had completed the psychoeducation treatment, and a mixed-effects model indicated significant improvements over time in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, somatization, and attitudes toward treatment. Ninety-eight percent of the participants reported the psychoeducation was helpful at follow-up. Participants also reported a 19.1% increase in mental health service utilization at follow-up compared with baseline. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.

  19. Spin-Orbit Twisted Spin Waves: Group Velocity Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Baboux, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Vignale, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Coulomb interaction, and motion of conduction electrons in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas. Via a transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian we introduce the concept of spin-orbit twisted spin waves, whose energy dispersions and damping rates are obtained by a simple wave-vector shift of the spin waves without SOC. These theoretical predictions are validated by Raman scattering measurements. With optical gating of the density, we vary the strength of the SOC to alter the group velocity of the spin wave. The findings presented here differ from that of spin systems subject to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our results pave the way for novel applications in spin-wave routing devices and for the realization of lenses for spin waves.

  20. Time to Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVC) for Five Different Muscle Groups in College Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, A. F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    College men and women were studied to ascertain the force-time components of a rapid voluntary muscle contraction for five muscle groups. Researchers found that the time required for full contraction differs: (1) in men and women; and (2) among the five muscle groups. (Authors/PP)

  1. Can arterial wave augmentation in young adults help account for variability of cardiovascular risk in different British ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Faconti, Luca; Silva, Maria J.; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Enayat, Zinat E.; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Nanino, Elisa; Read, Ursula M.; Dall, Philippa; Stansfield, Ben; Harding, Seeromanie; Cruickshank, Kennedy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully account for ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease. We tested if arterial function indices, particularly augmentation index (AIx), and their determinants from childhood could underlie such ethnic variability among young British adults in the ‘DASH’ longitudinal study. Methods: DASH, at http://dash.sphsu.mrc.ac.uk/, includes representative samples of six main British ethnic groups. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and AIx were recorded using the Arteriograph device at ages 21–23 years in a subsample (n = 666); psychosocial, anthropometric, and blood pressure (BP) measures were collected then and in two previous surveys at ages 11–13 years and 14–16 years. For n = 334, physical activity was measured over 5 days (ActivPal). Results: Unadjusted values and regression models for PWVs were similar or lower in ethnic minority than in White UK young adults, whereas AIx was higher – Caribbean (14.9, 95% confidence interval 12.3–17.0%), West African (15.3, 12.9–17.7%), Indian (15.1, 13.0–17.2%), and Pakistani/Bangladeshi (15.7, 13.7–17.7%), compared with White UK (11.9, 10.2–13.6%). In multivariate models, adjusted for sex, central SBP, height, and heart rate, Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi young adults had higher AIx (β = 3.35, 4.20, respectively, P < 0.01) than White UK with a similar trend for West Africans and Caribbeans but not statistically significant. Unlike PWV, physical activity, psychosocial or deprivation measures were not associated with AIx, with borderline associations from brachial BP but no other childhood variables. Conclusion: Early adult AIx, but not arterial stiffness, may be a useful tool for testing components of excess cardiovascular risk in some ethnic minority groups. PMID:27490950

  2. Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive training and aerobic training are known to improve cognitive functions. To examine the separate and combined effects of such training on cognitive performance, four groups of healthy older adults embarked on a 4 months cognitive and/or mild aerobic training. A first group [n = 33, mean age = 80 (66–90)] engaged in cognitive training, a second [n = 29, mean age = 81 (65–89)] in mild aerobic training, a third [n = 29, mean age = 79 (70–93)] in the combination of both, and a fourth [n = 31, mean age = 79 (71–92)] control group engaged in book-reading activity. The outcome was a well-validated multi-domain computerized cognitive evaluation for older adults. The results indicate that, when compared to older adults who did not engage in cognitive training (the mild aerobic and control groups) older adults who engaged in cognitive training (separate or combined training groups) showed significant improvement in cognitive performance on Hand-Eye Coordination, Global Visual Memory (GVM; working memory and long-term memory), Speed of Information Processing, Visual Scanning, and Naming. Indeed, individuals who did not engage in cognitive training showed no such improvements. Those results suggest that cognitive training is effective in improving cognitive performance and that it (and not mild aerobic training) is driving the improvement in the combined condition. Results are discussed in terms of the special circumstances of aerobic and cognitive training for older adults who are above 80 years of age. PMID:23531885

  3. The Role of Adolescent Friendship Group Integration and Cohesion in Weapon-Related Violent Crime as a Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I

    2017-01-16

    Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.

  4. Control of Blood Vessel Identity: From Embryo to Adult

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Arteries and veins have been historically defined by the direction of blood flow and oxygen tension within the vessel, in addition to their functional, hemodynamic, and anatomical differences. It is now known that the molecular identity of these vessels is genetically predetermined, with specific molecular pathways activated during the development of arteries and veins. Eph-B4 is a determinant of venous differentiation and Ephrin-B2 is a determinant of arterial differentiation. Placement of a vein into the higher pressure and flow of the arterial circulation results in adaptation of the vein to the arterial environment. There is selective loss of Eph-B4 expression without induction of Ephrin-B2 expression during vein graft adaptation. These findings suggest that loss of venous identity is the crucial mechanism in vein graft adaptation and that developmentally critical determinants of vessel identity are plastic during adult life. PMID:23555335

  5. Context Processing and Cognitive Control in Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Reimer, Jason F.

    2008-01-01

    T. S. Braver and colleagues (e.g., T. S. Braver, J. D. Cohen, & D. M. Barch, 2002) have provided a theory of cognitive control that focuses on the role of context processing. According to their theory, an underlying context-processing mechanism is responsible for the cognitive control functions of attention, inhibition, and working memory. In the…

  6. Predicting Changes in Older Adults' Interpersonal Control Strivings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorkin, Dara H.; Rook, Karen S.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Billimek, John

    2009-01-01

    People vary in the importance they ascribe to, and efforts they invest in, maintaining positive relationships with others. Research has linked such variation in interpersonal control strivings to the quality of social exchanges experienced, but little work has examined the predictors of interpersonal control strivings. Given the importance of…

  7. Group Psychotherapy with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults: Evidence-Based Practice Applications.

    PubMed

    Heck, Nicholas C

    2017-03-01

    Although there are descriptions of transgender-affirmative group psychotherapy services in the literature, there is limited research on the topic. Mental health professionals who plan to offer such services should draw on evidence-based treatments, where appropriate, and have a working knowledge of current standards of care, practice guidelines, and counseling competencies. This article reviews and synthesizes the existing research and scholarship on this topic, placing an emphasis on group-specific competencies and intervention components that can be integrated into psychotherapy groups for transgender and gender nonconforming clients.

  8. Mobile Technology for Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Maya; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile apps present a potentially cost-effective tool for delivering behavior change interventions at scale, but no known studies have tested the efficacy of apps as a tool to specifically increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the initial efficacy and user acceptability of a theory-driven mobile app to increase vegetable consumption. Methods A total of 17 overweight adults aged 42.0 (SD 7.3) years with a body mass index (BMI) of 32.0 (SD 3.5) kg/m2 were randomized to the use of Vegethon (a fully automated theory-driven mobile app enabling self-monitoring of vegetable consumption, goal setting, feedback, and social comparison) or a wait-listed control condition. All participants were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial). Researchers who performed data analysis were blinded to condition assignment. The primary outcome measure was daily vegetable consumption, assessed using an adapted version of the validated Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire administered at baseline and 12 weeks after randomization. An analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in 12-week vegetable consumption between intervention and control conditions, controlling for baseline. App usability and satisfaction were measured via a 21-item post-intervention questionnaire. Results Using intention-to-treat analyses, all enrolled participants (intervention: 8; control: 9) were analyzed. Of the 8 participants randomized to the intervention, 5 downloaded the app and logged their vegetable consumption a mean of 0.7 (SD 0.9) times per day, 2 downloaded the app but did not use it, and 1 never downloaded it. Consumption of vegetables was significantly greater among the intervention versus control condition at the end of the 12-week pilot study (adjusted mean difference: 7.4 servings; 95% CI 1.4-13.5; P=.02). Among secondary outcomes defined a priori, there was significantly greater

  9. The amyloid precursor protein controls adult hippocampal neurogenesis through GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baiping; Wang, Zilai; Sun, Lu; Yang, Li; Li, Hongmei; Cole, Allysa L; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jennifer; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zheng, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Impaired neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has been implicated in AD pathogenesis. Here we reveal that the APP plays an important role in the neural progenitor proliferation and newborn neuron maturation in the mouse dentate gyrus. APP controls adult neurogenesis through a non cell-autonomous mechanism by GABAergic neurons, as selective deletion of GABAergic, but not glutamatergic, APP disrupts adult hippocampal neurogenesis. APP, highly expressed in the majority of GABAergic neurons in the dentate gyrus, enhances the inhibitory tone to granule cells. By regulating both tonic and phasic GABAergic inputs to dentate granule cells, APP maintains excitatory-inhibitory balance and preserves cognitive functions. Our studies uncover an indispensable role of APP in the GABAergic system for controlling adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and our findings indicate that APP dysfunction may contribute to impaired neurogenesis and cognitive decline associated with AD.

  10. Interaction of Polycomb-group proteins controlling flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chanvivattana, Yindee; Bishopp, Anthony; Schubert, Daniel; Stock, Christine; Moon, Yong-Hwan; Sung, Z Renee; Goodrich, Justin

    2004-11-01

    In Arabidopsis, the EMBYRONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2), VERNALISATION2 (VRN2) and FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM2 (FIS2) genes encode related Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins. Their homologues in animals act together with other Pc-G proteins as part of a multimeric complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which functions as a histone methyltransferase. Despite similarities between the fis2 mutant phenotype and those of some other plant Pc-G members, it has remained unclear how the FIS2/EMF2/VRN2 class Pc-G genes interact with the others. We have identified a weak emf2 allele that reveals a novel phenotype with striking similarity to that of severe mutations in another Pc-G gene, CURLY LEAF (CLF), suggesting that the two genes may act in a common pathway. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that EMF2 and CLF interact genetically and that this reflects interaction of their protein products through two conserved motifs, the VEFS domain and the C5 domain. We show that the full function of CLF is masked by partial redundancy with a closely related gene, SWINGER (SWN), so that null clf mutants have a much less severe phenotype than emf2 mutants. Analysis in yeast further indicates a potential for the CLF and SWN proteins to interact with the other VEFS domain proteins VRN2 and FIS2. The functions of individual Pc-G members may therefore be broader than single mutant phenotypes reveal. We suggest that plants have Pc-G protein complexes similar to the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) of animals, but the duplication and subsequent diversification of components has given rise to different complexes with partially discrete functions.

  11. Quality of life assessment in Hodgkin's disease: a new comprehensive approach. First experiences from the EORTC/GELA and GHSG trials. EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group. Groupe D'Etude des Lymphomes de L'Adulte and German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Flechtner, H; Rüffer, J U; Henry-Amar, M; Mellink, W A; Sieber, M; Fermé, C; Eghbali, H; Josting, A; Diehl, V

    1998-01-01

    Previous reports from available trials have dealt with negative long-term sequelae in Hodgkin's disease (HD) survivors. There is, however, a lack of longitudinal data showing the correlation between outcome and various treatment-related variables and the process of re-adaptation into normal life after the end of treatment. In order to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of patients with HD in different dimensions during active treatment and follow-up and to identify longitudinal patterns of QoL dimensions during re-adaptation to normal life within the EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group and Groupe D'Etude des Lymphomes de L'Adulte (EORTC/GELA) and the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG), QoL assessment strategies were put into use over the last three to five years. Furthermore, the efforts aimed at obtaining cross-cultural comparisons between the participating countries and study groups (EORTC/GELA and GHSG). Within the randomised EORTC/GELA Trial 'H8' for clinical stage I-II HD which started in September 1993, patients receive a QoL questionnaire for completion at each follow-up visit during the first 10 years after the end of active therapy. The corresponding 'HD8' study of the GHSG employs the assessment of QoL during and after active treatment periods. Within both studies, the EORTC QLQ C30 is used for QoL assessment incorporated in the QLQ-S (quality of life questionnaire for survivors), which additionally addresses the aspects of fatigue/malaise, sexuality, specific side effects, and retrospective evaluation of treatment. In total the QLQ-S includes 45 questions on 14 functional, symptom, and fatigue scales, 15 additional single items, and 3 open questions. In addition to the longitudinal QoL assessment, the GHSG carried out cross-sectional QoL trials with all cured surviving patients from the past HD1-6 studies and a matched normal control sample employing the QLQ-S and the life situation questionnaire (LSQ), an instrument covering objective data from 45

  12. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  13. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  14. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research and Development within the USEPA developed the Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) to characterize the endocrine action of a suspected EDC. One important endpoint of the MEOGRT is fecundity of breeding pairs of medaka. Power analyses were conducted to determine the number of replicates needed in proposed test designs and to determine the effects that varying reproductive parameters (e.g. mean fecundity, variance, and days with no egg production) will have on the statistical power of the test. A software tool, the MEOGRT Reproduction Power Analysis Tool, was developed to expedite these power analyses by both calculating estimates of the needed reproductive parameters (e.g. population mean and variance) and performing the power analysis under user specified scenarios. The manuscript illustrates how the reproductive performance of the control medaka that are used in a MEOGRT influence statistical power, and therefore the successful implementation of the protocol. Example scenarios, based upon medaka reproduction data collected at MED, are discussed that bolster the recommendation that facilities planning to implement the MEOGRT should have a culture of medaka with hi

  15. Mobile phone intervention and weight loss among overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchao; Kong, Xiaomu; Cao, Jie; Chen, Shufeng; Li, Changwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika N

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the association of mobile phone intervention with net change in weight-related measures among overweight and obese adults. We searched electronic databases and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published between the inception date of each database and March 27, 2014. Fourteen trials (including 1,337 participants in total) that met the eligibility criteria were included. Two investigators independently abstracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across trials using random-effects models. Compared with the control group, mobile phone intervention was associated with significant changes in body weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of -1.44 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.12, -0.76) and -0.24 units (95% CI: -0.40, -0.08), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the associations were consistent across study-duration and intervention-type subgroups. For example, net body weight changes were -0.92 kg (95% CI: -1.58, -0.25) and -1.85 kg (95% CI: -2.99, -0.71) in trials of shorter (<6 months) and longer (≥6 months) duration, respectively. These findings provide evidence that mobile phone intervention may be a useful tool for promoting weight loss among overweight and obese adults.

  16. The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adult Cognitive Reappraisal: Detached and Positive Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control- shifting, updating or inhibition-might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults.

  17. PARO robot affects diverse interaction modalities in group sensory therapy for older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Šabanović, Selma; Bennett, Casey C; Chang, Wan-Ling; Huber, Lesa

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the seal-like robot PARO in the context of multi-sensory behavioral therapy in a local nursing home. Participants were 10 elderly nursing home residents with varying levels of dementia. We report three principle findings from our observations of interactions between the residents, PARO, and a therapist during seven weekly therapy sessions. Firstly, we show PARO provides indirect benefits for users by increasing their activity in particular modalities of social interaction, including visual, verbal, and physical interaction, which vary between primary and non-primary interactors. Secondly, PARO's positive effects on older adults' activity levels show steady growth over the duration of our study, suggesting they are not due to short-term "novelty effects." Finally, we show a variety of ways in which individual participants interacted with PARO and relate this to the "interpretive flexibility" of its design.

  18. Angular cheilitis in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a clinical and microbiologic study.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, K A; Samaranayake, L P; Peiris, J S

    1991-04-01

    The relative importance of various factors in the pathogenesis of angular cheilitis in a population of Sri Lankan adults was studied. Forty-nine patients with cheilitis were examined clinically and microbiologically. Only 5 of 49 patients were full denture wearers. The clinical presentation of the lesions could be categorized as mild (Type I), moderate (Type II) or severe (Type III) and the duration of the lesions ranged from 1 month to more than 4 yr. Hematologic investigations revealed 18 patients with low hemoglobin 8 of whom had hypochromic, microcytic anaemia. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from 59% of the lesions; Candida spp. in 24 patients and Staph. aureus in 11 patients. A significant positive relationship between commissural leukoplakia and an infective etiology of angles was noted. This study confirms the multifactorial etiology of angular cheilitis while highlighting the varied clinical presentation of the lesions in an Asian population.

  19. Quantifying swallowing function for healthy adults in different age groups using acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Man-Yin

    Dysphagia is a medical condition that can lead to devastating complications including weight loss, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; hence, timely identification is essential. Current dysphagia evaluation tools are either invasive, time consuming, or highly dependent on the experience of an individual clinician. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, quantitative screening tool for dysphagia identification by capturing acoustic data from swallowing and mastication. The first part of this study explores the feasibility of using acoustic data to quantify swallowing and mastication. This study then further identifies mastication and swallowing trends in a neurotypical adult population. An acoustic capture protocol for dysphagia screening is proposed. Finally, the relationship among speaking, lingual and mastication rates are explored. Results and future directions are discussed.

  20. Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Controlled Memory Judgment: fMRI Evidence from Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Antonio; Selmeczy, Diana; O'Connor, Akira R.; Diaz, Michael; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical regions supporting cognitive control and memory judgment are structurally immature in adolescents. Here we studied adolescents (13-15 y.o.) and young adults (20-22 y.o.) using a recognition memory paradigm that modulates cognitive control demands through cues that probabilistically forecast memory probe status. Behaviorally, adolescence…

  1. Clinical characteristics of destructive periodontitis in a risk group of Swedish urban adults.

    PubMed

    Söder, B; Jin, L J; Söder, P O; Wikner, S

    1995-01-01

    An initial screening investigation of 1681 Swedish urban adults aged 31-40 years with untreated periodontitis showed that 17.2% (289) had at least one site with probing depth > or = 5 mm. The 289 subjects were offered a complete clinical examination and treatment. 144 subjects, 85 men and 59 women, agreed to participate and 145 were non-responding subjects and used as a drop out sample. The results from the screening data showed that the attendants had poorer oral hygiene status and more severe periodontitis than the drop out subjects. The present report describes clinical data of this representative sample with adult periodontitis. Clinical indices were recorded and bone height (BH%) for all teeth was measured with a computer digitizing system. In the 144 attendants, Plaque Index was > 1 in 56.2%, Calculus Index was > 1 in 57.0%, Gingival Index was > 1 in 97.2% and bleeding on probing was found in 89.1% of the sites. 11.1% of the subjects had 1-3 teeth with probing depth > or = 5 mm, 59.0% 4-10 teeth, 25.7% 11-20 teeth and 4.2% > 20 teeth. 47.9% of the subjects had mean BH% less than 80. 45.1% of the subjects had at least one site with an intrabony defect, of which 20% had 3-4 sites and 27.7% > or = 5 sites. It is concluded that advanced generalized periodontitis exists in a limited number of 31-40 year-olds in Sweden. Specific risk factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  2. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  3. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Hooke, Mary C; Friedman, Debra L; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy.

  4. Offline and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences.

  5. Difference in Postural Control during Quiet Standing between Young Children and Adults: Assessment with Center of Mass Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Oba, Naoko; Sasagawa, Shun; Yamamoto, Akio; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    The development of upright postural control has often been investigated using time series of center of foot pressure (COP), which is proportional to the ankle joint torque (i.e., the motor output of a single joint). However, the center of body mass acceleration (COMacc), which can reflect joint motions throughout the body as well as multi-joint coordination, is useful for the assessment of the postural control strategy at the whole-body level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate children's postural control during quiet standing by using the COMacc. Ten healthy children and 15 healthy young adults were instructed to stand upright quietly on a force platform with their eyes open or closed. The COMacc as well as the COP in the anterior-posterior direction was obtained from ground reaction force measurement. We found that both the COMacc and COP could clearly distinguish the difference between age groups and visual conditions. We also found that the sway frequency of COMacc in children was higher than that in adults, for which differences in biomechanical and/or neural factors between age groups may be responsible. Our results imply that the COMacc can be an alternative force platform measure for assessing developmental changes in upright postural control.

  6. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the CD-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul; Reeve, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    Current regulatory thinking allows for the use of single control groups for rodent carcinogenicity testing although there has been a trend until recently to use dual control groups. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether a shift from dual to single control groups will affect the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. A recent evaluation of dual control carcinogenicity data in the rat (Baldrick, Toxicol Pathol 2005, 33: 283-291) showed that although no major differences in tumor incidences between the control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred and in cases were a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. In this paper, the results of 10 mouse carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2004, with 2 control groups, are presented. As in the rat, interstudy variation was seen and in some cases, the use of dual control groups assisted in the tumor risk assessment. Thus, the continued use of 2 control groups can have a vital role in mouse carcinogenicity studies. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used mouse strain.

  7. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  8. A cognitive-behavioral intervention for emotion regulation in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in social communication; thus, these individuals have trouble understanding the mental states of others. Recent research also suggests that adults with ASD are unable to understand their own mental states, which could lead to difficulties in emotion-regulation. Some studies have reported the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving emotion-regulation among children with ASD. The current study will investigate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with ASD. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, waitlist controlled, single-blinded trial. The participants will be 60 adults with ASD; 30 will be assigned to a CBT group and 30 to a waitlist control group. Primary outcome measures are the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Motion Picture Mind-Reading task, and an ASD questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale 26-item version, the Global Assessment of Functioning, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. All will be administered during the pre- and post-intervention, and 12 week follow-up periods. The CBT group will receive group therapy over an 8 week period (one session per week) with each session lasting approximately 100 minutes. Group therapy will consist of four or five adults with ASD and two psychologists. We will be using visual materials for this program, mainly the Cognitive Affective Training kit. Discussion This trial will hopefully indicate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with high- functioning ASD. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry No. UMIN000006236. PMID:23880333

  9. Thematic Analysis of the Effectiveness of an Inpatient Mindfulness Group for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiran, Hatice; Holt, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the effectiveness of group mindfulness for people with intellectual disabilities in an assessment and treatment unit. Six participants with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The interviews focused on identifying the benefits and difficulties of using mindfulness. The…

  10. Dream Interpretation Groups: Facilitating Identity Development of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joanne

    A systems perspective recognizes the necessity of drawing on numerous resources for strengthening the family. The dream interpretation group method, in some ways an elitist approach, focuses on the transitional individual as the nodal point for building family strengths. The individual experiencing changes in identity development is equipped with…

  11. Taking Control: Power and Contradiction in First Nations Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig-Brown, Celia

    This book is a critical ethnography of the Native Education Centre (NEC) in Vancouver, British Columbia. It presents an intimate view of the center, focusing on the people that work there--First Nations students, board members, teachers--and revealing their beliefs about First Nations control of education and how they put those beliefs into…

  12. Control Judgments by Deaf Adults and by Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.

    First language acquisition studies reveal that children overextend the minimal distance principle (MDP) during their acquisition of infinitive complement structures. The MDP dictates the interpretation of the logical subject of the infinitive in these structures and overrides marked lexical features such as subject control. Misinterpretations by…

  13. [Control of epilepsy in adult patients with tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Tur, Alejandro; García-Martín, Guillermina; Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; Romero-Godoy, Jorge; Romero-Acebal, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad genetica cuyas manifestaciones principales son la formacion de tumores neuroectodermicos, que asocia epilepsia secundaria muy frecuentemente. Objetivo. Describir el perfil epileptico, el control, la frecuencia de crisis y la efectividad del tratamiento en pacientes adultos con esclerosis tuberosa. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo en el que se han incluido pacientes adultos (mayores de 14 anos) con diagnostico confirmado de esclerosis tuberosa. Se ha analizado la frecuencia y tipos de crisis. Se ha realizado un estudio y contabilizacion de los diferentes farmacos antiepilepticos en cada paciente, la frecuencia de uso de cada principio activo y un estudio comparativo entre control de crisis y tipo de terapia. Resultados. De 19 adultos estudiados, tuvieron crisis epilepticas 16 (84%). Presentaron control de crisis completo, crisis esporadicas y crisis frecuentes el 44%, 25% y 31%, respectivamente. Hubo frecuencia de crisis focales, generalizadas y ambas en el 38%, 6% y 25%, respectivamente. Estaban en tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos en monoterapia, biterapia y triterapia el 38%, 44% y 19%, respectivamente. El mas consumido globalmente fue el levetiracetam, seguido de la carbamacepina y el acido valproico. En monoterapia, el mas frecuente fue la carbamacepina, con mayor proporcion de control completo. Conclusiones. La epilepsia en la esclerosis tuberosa es relativamente benigna, y se consigue un aceptable control en la mayoria de casos con un numero de antiepilepticos acorde con lo aconsejado en las guias de tratamiento. Se observa estabilidad de lesiones, y no hay malignizacion en nuestra serie. El bajo numero de la muestra limita el estudio, pero se observan proporciones similares de efectividad del tratamiento respecto a otra serie publicada.

  14. The Role of Cognitive Control in Older Adult Cognitive Reappraisal: Detached and Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control– shifting, updating or inhibition–might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults. PMID:28326024

  15. A Case-Controlled Study of Successful Aging in Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Moore, David J.; Thompson, Wesley; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Grant, Igor; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There is a growing public health interest in the aging HIV-infected (HIV+) population, although there is a dearth of research on successful aging with HIV. This study aimed to understand the risk and protective factors associated with self-rated successful aging (SRSA) with HIV. DESIGN Cross-sectional, case-controlled. SETTING HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program and the Stein Institute for Research on Aging at University of California, San Diego. PARTICIPANTS Eighty-three community-dwelling HIV+ and 83 demographically matched HIV-uninfected (HIV−) individuals, enrolled between 12/1/11 and 5/10/12, mean age of 59 years, primarily Caucasian males, 69% with AIDS, who had been living with an HIV diagnosis for 16 years. Diagnostic criteria for HIV/AIDS was obtained through a blood draw. MEASUREMENTS Participants provided ratings of SRSA as part of a comprehensive survey which included measures of physical and emotional functioning and positive psychological traits. Relationships between how the different variables related to SRSA were explored. RESULTS While SRSA was lower in the HIV+ individuals than their HIV− counterparts, 66% of adults with HIV reported scores of 5 or higher on a 10-point scale of SRSA. Despite worse physical and mental functioning and greater psychosocial stress among the HIV+ participants, the two groups had comparable levels of optimism, personal mastery, and social support. SRSA in HIV+ individuals was associated with better physical and emotional functioning and positive psychological factors, but not HIV disease status or negative life events. CONCLUSION Successful psychosocial aging is possible in older HIV+ individuals. Positive psychological traits such as resilience, optimism, and sense of personal mastery have stronger relationship with SRSA than duration or severity of HIV disease. Research on interventions to enhance these positive traits in HIV+ adults is warranted. PMID:23759460

  16. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  17. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Emotions and Behaviours of Adult Men from Three Ethnic Groups in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Frank H.; Williams, John K.; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E.; Myers, Hector F.

    2014-01-01

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 U.S. men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing health care to men with CSA histories. PMID:24393013

  18. Age-related changes in the control of episodic retrieval: an ERP study of recognition memory in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Czernochowski, Daniela; Mecklinger, Axel; Johansson, Mikael

    2009-11-01

    We examined developmental aspects of the ability to monitor the temporal context of an item's previous occurrence while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In a continuous recognition task, children between 10 and 12 years and young adults watched a stream of pictures repeated with a lag of 10-15 intervening items and indicated recurrences. In a second run, these already familiar pictures were repeated as non-targets along with new pictures, while subjects were instructed to indicate only recurrences within the run. Young adults were able to maintain high performance levels in both tasks, whereas children had longer response times and committed a large number of false alarms to non-targets. ERPs in both age groups showed similar parietal old/new effects for target repetitions within runs. In addition, adults' ERPs showed similar old/new effects at frontal electrodes for repetitions and non-targets, presumably reflecting assessments of familiarity, whereas for children repeated relative to first presentations were associated with more negative-going waveforms at anterior frontal recording sites. Together, these results suggest a continuing maturation of the brain networks assessing novelty or familiarity. Recollection as indexed by parietal old/new effects appeared similar between young adults and children, but the development of controlled episodic retrieval, resulting in recollection of non-target information, appears to continue well into adolescence.

  19. Knockdown mortality, repellency, and residual effects of insecticides for control of adult Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Gharalari, A H; Nansen, C; Lawson, D S; Gilley, J; Munyaneza, J E; Vaughn, K

    2009-06-01

    The psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of a bacterial pathogen causing zebra chip (ZC) disease in potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). Recently, ZC has become important to potato growers and the potato chipping industry in the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. In the current study, we evaluated the knockdown effect of 12 insecticides against adult B. cockerelli, and we examined the effects of treating potato leaves: top side only, bottom side only, or both sides. Within 48 h of exposure, abamectin showed the highest and most consistent rate of adult B. cockerelli mortality and a dosage response to three dosages within labeled field rates. Choice tests conducted in petri dishes, involving untreated potato leaves and leaves treated with abamectin, revealed that abamectin did not affect host preference of adult B. cockerelli. A residual test under field conditions revealed that, although highly effective immediately after application, abamectin-effect was nonsignificantly different from control treatments 24 and 48 h after field application. Higher adult B. cockerelli mortality was recorded from potato plants treated with ground application compared with aerial 48 h after application. Our results indicated that abamectin has a high knockdown effect on adult B. cockerelli and that it can be used effectively in insecticide rotation programs against adult B. cockerelli and ZC control in potatoes.

  20. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  1. Control of adult neurogenesis by programmed cell death in the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Ryun; Hong, Caroline Jeeyeon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Sun, Woong; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-04-21

    The presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the production of new neurons in the adult brain have received great attention from scientists and the public because of implications to brain plasticity and their potential use for treating currently incurable brain diseases. Adult neurogenesis is controlled at multiple levels, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and programmed cell death (PCD). Among these, PCD is the last and most prominent process for regulating the final number of mature neurons integrated into neural circuits. PCD can be classified into apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagic cell death and emerging evidence suggests that all three may be important modes of cell death in neural stem/progenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate PCD and thereby impact the intricate balance between self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation during adult neurogenesis are not well understood. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the extent, mechanism, and biological significance of PCD for the control of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. The role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the regulation of PCD at the molecular and systems levels is also discussed. Adult neurogenesis is a dynamic process, and the signals for differentiation, proliferation, and death of neural progenitor/stem cells are closely interrelated. A better understanding of how adult neurogenesis is influenced by PCD will help lead to important insights relevant to brain health and diseases.

  2. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake.

  3. [Double-blind controlled study of the efficacy of nifuroxazide versus placebo in the treatment of acute diarrhea in adults].

    PubMed

    Bourée, P; Chaput, J C; Krainik, F; Michel, H; Trépo, C

    1989-05-01

    In a double-blind, controlled randomized trial, 88 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 400 mg of nifuroxazide twice daily or placebo for 5 days. The mean duration of diarrhea in the nifuroxazide group was 2.09 days versus 3.26 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.004). The number of bowel movements per day diminished and mucus disappeared more quickly in patients treated by nifuroxazide than in patients of the placebo group. Nifuroxazide was well tolerated and no side effects were observed. Nifuroxazide is an effective therapy for acute diarrhea and can be prescribed from the onset of diarrhea without waiting for stool culture results which can be late or negative.

  4. Reducing TV watching during adult obesity treatment: two pilot randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S

    2013-12-01

    The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participants (n=24) were randomized into one of two conditions: (a) reduce energy intake and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (INCREASE PA); or (b) reduce energy intake and decrease TV watching (DECREASE TV). As findings from the first pilot study did not show an increase in MVPA in the DECREASE TV group, the second study was designed to examine the effect of adding a reduced TV prescription to a standard intervention to optimize outcomes. In Pilot Study 2, participants (n=28) were randomized to INCREASE PA or to INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Outcomes included objectively measured TV watching and MVPA, self-reported light physical activity (LPA-Pilot Study 2 only), self-reported dietary intake while watching TV, and weight. Conditions with TV watching prescriptions significantly reduced TV watching. Both studies showed medium to large effect sizes for conditions with TV watching prescriptions to show greater reductions in dietary intake while watching TV. Pilot Study 1 found a trend for an increase in MVPA in INCREASE PA and Pilot Study 2 found significant increases in MVPA in both conditions. Pilot Study 2 found a significant increase in LPA in the INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Results indicate adding a TV watching prescription to a standard obesity intervention did not enhance increases in MVPA, but may assist with reducing dietary intake while TV watching and

  5. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD.

  6. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Anthony; Mathew, Shilpa; Moore, Chris T; Russell, Jean; Robinson, Emma; Soumpasi, Vithleem; Barker, Margo E

    2014-06-01

    Tart cherries are a particularly rich source of anthocyanins. Evidence indicates that dietary intake of anthocyanins is inversely associated with arterial stiffness. We conducted an open-label randomised placebo controlled study to determine whether a tart cherry juice concentrate (Cherry Active) reduced arterial stiffness, inflammation and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in 47 healthy adults (30-50 years). Participants consumed 30 ml of cherry concentrate diluted to a volume of 250 ml with water or the same volume of an energy matched control drink daily for six weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on arterial stiffness (P = 0.218), c-reactive protein (P = 0.220), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.163), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.121), total cholesterol (P = 0.342) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.127). At the end of the intervention, plasma antioxidant capacity (measured as the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.012). We conclude that a tart cherry juice concentrate rich in anthocyanins has no effect on arterial stiffness, c-reactive protein and risk markers for cardiovascular disease, but evokes a minor increase in antioxidant status in healthy adults.

  7. Processing of visual information compromises the ability of older adults to control novel fine motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Kwon, MinHyuk; Onushko, Tanya; Wright, David L; Corcos, Daniel M; Christou, Evangelos A

    2015-12-01

    We performed two experiments to determine whether amplified motor output variability and compromised processing of visual information in older adults impair short-term adaptations when learning novel fine motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 12 young and 12 older adults underwent training to learn how to accurately trace a sinusoidal position target with abduction-adduction of their index finger. They performed 48 trials, which included 8 blocks of 6 trials (the last trial of each block was performed without visual feedback). Afterward, subjects received an interference task (watched a movie) for 60 min. We tested retention by asking subjects to perform the sinusoidal task (5 trials) with and without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, 12 young and 10 older adults traced the same sinusoidal position target with their index finger and ankle at three distinct visual angles (0.25°, 1° and 5.4°). In Experiment 1, the movement error and variability were greater for older adults during the visual feedback trials when compared with young adults. In contrast, during the no-vision trials, age-associated differences in movement error and variability were ameliorated. Short-term adaptations in learning the sinusoidal task were similar for young and older adults. In Experiment 2, lower amount of visual feedback minimized the age-associated differences in movement variability for both the index finger and ankle movements. We demonstrate that although short-term adaptations are similar for young and older adults, older adults do not process visual information as well as young adults and that compromises their ability to control novel fine motor tasks during acquisition, which could influence long-term retention and transfer.

  8. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  9. Community-based group exercise for persons with Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Combs, Stephanie A; Diehl, M Dyer; Chrzastowski, Casey; Didrick, Nora; McCoin, Brittany; Mox, Nicholas; Staples, William H; Wayman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare group boxing training to traditional group exercise on function and quality of life in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A convenience sample of adults with PD (n = 31) were randomly assigned to boxing training or traditional exercise for 24-36 sessions, each lasting 90 minutes, over 12 weeks. Boxing training included: stretching, boxing (e.g. lateral foot work, punching bags), resistance exercises, and aerobic training. Traditional exercise included: stretching, resistance exercises, aerobic training, and balance activities. Participants were tested before and after completion of training on balance, balance confidence, mobility, gait velocity, gait endurance, and quality of life. The traditional exercise group demonstrated significantly greater gains in balance confidence than the boxing group (p < 0.025). Only the boxing group demonstrated significant improvements in gait velocity and endurance over time with a medium between-group effect size for the gait endurance (d = 0.65). Both groups demonstrated significant improvements with the balance, mobility, and quality of life with large within-group effect sizes (d ≥ 0.80). While groups significantly differed in balance confidence after training, both groups demonstrated improvements in most outcome measures. Supporting options for long-term community-based group exercise for persons with PD will be an important future consideration for rehabilitation professionals.

  10. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Abbas, Mostafa A. F.; Abuzaid, Lamiaa Z.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension. PMID:21912737

  11. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bundy, Rafe; Walker, Ann F; Middleton, Richard W; Wallis, Carol; Simpson, Hugh C R

    2008-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the chief causes of death in the UK, and are associated with high circulating levels of total cholesterol in the plasma. Artichoke leaf extracts (ALEs) have been reported to reduce plasma lipids levels, including total cholesterol, although high quality data is lacking. The objective of this trial was to assess the effect of ALE on plasma lipid levels and general well-being in otherwise healthy adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. 131 adults were screened for total plasma cholesterol in the range 6.0-8.0 mmol/l, with 75 suitable volunteers randomised onto the trial. Volunteers consumed 1280 mg of a standardised ALE, or matched placebo, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in the treatment group by an average of 4.2% (from 7.16 (SD 0.62) mmol/l to 6.86 (SD 0.68) mmol/l) and increased in the control group by an average of 1.9% (6.90 (SD 0.49) mmol/l to 7.03 (0.61) mmol/l), the difference between groups being statistically significant (p=0.025). No significant differences between groups were observed for LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. General well-being improved significantly in both the treatment (11%) and control groups (9%) with no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, ALE consumption resulted in a modest but favourable statistically significant difference in total cholesterol after 12 weeks. In comparison with a previous trial, it is suggested that the apparent positive health status of the study population may have contributed to the modesty of the observed response.

  12. Simulated Physician Learning Program Improves Glucose Control in Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sperl-Hillen, JoAnn M.; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Rush, William A.; Johnson, Paul E.; Gilmer, Todd; Biltz, George; Asche, Stephen E.; Ekstrom, Heidi L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Inexpensive and standardized methods to deliver medical education to primary care physicians (PCPs) are desirable. Our objective was to assess the impact of an individualized simulated learning intervention on diabetes care provided by PCPs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eleven clinics with 41 consenting PCPs in a Minnesota medical group were randomized to receive or not receive the learning intervention. Each intervention PCP was assigned 12 simulated type 2 diabetes cases that took about 15 min each to complete. Cases were designed to remedy specific physician deficits found in their electronic medical record observed practice patterns. General linear mixed models that accommodated the cluster randomized study design were used to assess patient-level change from preintervention to 12-month postintervention of A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol. The relationship between the study arm and the total of intervention and patient health care costs was also analyzed. RESULTS Intervention clinic patients with baseline A1C ≥7% significantly improved glycemic control at the last postintervention A1C measurement, intervention effect of −0.19% mean A1C (P = 0.034) and +6.7% in A1C <7% goal achievement (P = 0.0099). Costs trended lower, with the cost per patient −$71 (SE = 142, P = 0.63) relative to nonintervention clinic patients. The intervention did not significantly improve blood pressure or LDL control. Models adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidity showed similar results. PCPs reported high satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS A brief individualized case-based simulated learning intervention for PCPs led to modest but significant glucose control improvement in adults with type 2 diabetes without increasing costs. PMID:20668151

  13. Factors associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Matejko, Bartłomiej; Skupien, Jan; Mrozińska, Sandra; Grzanka, Małgorzata; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by insulin pump seems to improve glycemia and quality of life as compared to conventional insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, while many T1DM subjects achieve excellent glycemic control, some others cannot reach recommended goals. In a retrospective analysis, we searched for factors associated with glycemic control in T1DM patients treated with insulin pump therapy. Data from 192 patients (133 women and 59 men) treated with personal insulin pumps at the Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland were analyzed. Sources of information included medical records, memory read-outs from insulin pumps and data from glucose meters. Univariate, multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis for the association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 28.9 (±11.2) years, the mean duration of T1DM-14.6 (±7.6) years, mean body mass index-23.5 (±3.1) kg/m2. The mean HbA1c level in the entire study group was 7.4% (57 mmol/mol). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, HbA1c correlated with the mean number of daily blood glucose measurements, number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 blood glucose measurements, age at the examination, and continuous glucose monitoring system use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for reaching the therapeutic target of HbA1c<7.0% (53 mmol/mol) showed that the independent predictors of achieving this goal included the same four variables. In a large clinical observation, we identified that patient-related and technological factors associated with glycemic control in adult pump-treated T1DM subjects.

  14. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  15. A dance movement therapy group for depressed adult patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic: effects of the treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pylvänäinen, Päivi M.; Muotka, Joona S.; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    We were interested in investigating the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic with patients diagnosed with depression. DMT aims to engage the patients in physical and verbal exploration of their experiences generated in movement based interaction. The assumption was that DMT, which includes both physical engagement as well as emotional and social exploration, would alleviate the mood and psychiatric symptoms. All adult patients (n = 33) included in the study received treatment as usual (TAU). Twenty-one patients participated in a 12-session DMT group intervention, and the remaining 12 patients chose to take TAU only. The majority of the patients suffered from moderate or severe depression, recurrent and/or chronic type. The effects of the interventions were investigated after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the TAU, adding DMT seemed to improve the effect of the treatment. The effect of the DMT was observable whether the patient was taking antidepressant medication or not. At follow-up, between group effect sizes (ES) were medium in favor for the DMT group (d = 0.60–0.79). In the DMT group, the within ES at the 3 months follow-up varied from 0.62 to 0.82 as compared to TAU 0.15–0.37. The results indicated that DMT is beneficial in the treatment of depressed patients. PMID:26217292

  16. A dance movement therapy group for depressed adult patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic: effects of the treatment.

    PubMed

    Pylvänäinen, Päivi M; Muotka, Joona S; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    We were interested in investigating the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic with patients diagnosed with depression. DMT aims to engage the patients in physical and verbal exploration of their experiences generated in movement based interaction. The assumption was that DMT, which includes both physical engagement as well as emotional and social exploration, would alleviate the mood and psychiatric symptoms. All adult patients (n = 33) included in the study received treatment as usual (TAU). Twenty-one patients participated in a 12-session DMT group intervention, and the remaining 12 patients chose to take TAU only. The majority of the patients suffered from moderate or severe depression, recurrent and/or chronic type. The effects of the interventions were investigated after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the TAU, adding DMT seemed to improve the effect of the treatment. The effect of the DMT was observable whether the patient was taking antidepressant medication or not. At follow-up, between group effect sizes (ES) were medium in favor for the DMT group (d = 0.60-0.79). In the DMT group, the within ES at the 3 months follow-up varied from 0.62 to 0.82 as compared to TAU 0.15-0.37. The results indicated that DMT is beneficial in the treatment of depressed patients.

  17. The Influence of Emotional State on the Masticatory Muscles Function in the Group of Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anna, Stocka; Joanna, Kuc; Teresa, Sierpinska; Maria, Golebiewska; Aneta, Wieczorek

    2015-01-01

    Stress may affect the function of all the components of the masticatory system and may ultimately lead to differentiated symptoms and finally to systemic and structural dysfunctions. Objective. To determine the effect of stress on the masticatory muscles function in young healthy adults. Material and Methods. A total of 201 young, Angle's first class, healthy volunteers, 103 female and 98 male, in the age between 18 and 21 years were recruited into the study. All the participants underwent clinical examination according to the Slavicek scheme, questionnaire survey according to Perceived Stress Scale, and assessment of masticatory muscles function in central occlusion. Results. Symptoms of masticatory system dysfunction were found in the group of 86 subjects (46,24%). All the muscles activity in central occlusion was comparable in female and male groups. Mean values of masseters activities in the group of low stress subjects (75,52 µV ± 15,97) were statistically different from the groups with medium (82,43 µV ± 15,04) and high (81,33 ± 12,05) perceived stress (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Chronic stress may reveal or exacerbate symptoms of masticatory dysfunction. PMID:25883942

  18. Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes in Adults: Is This a High-Risk Group for Screening?

    PubMed

    DeMelo, Emilia N; McDonald, Charlotte; Saibil, Fred; Marcon, Margaret A; Mahmud, Farid H

    2015-12-01

    The association between celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune condition involving intestinal inflammation related to gluten ingestion, and type 1 diabetes has long been recognized. CD prevalence rates 4 to 6 times greater in adults with type 1 diabetes than in the general population. Much of the existing literature focuses on important implications related to the impact of a gluten-free diet on short-term outcomes in metabolic control and quality of life. Canadian Diabetes Association guidelines recommend targeted CD screening in patients with type 1 diabetes who have classic symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, unexplained weight loss or labile metabolic control; however, a significant proportion (40% to 60%) of patients may have mild or absent symptoms. Recent evidence suggests that adult patients with both conditions are at higher risk for diabetes microvascular comorbidities, increased mortality and impaired bone health if the CD is untreated. The purpose of this review is to describe the association between CD and type 1 diabetes and to summarize recent literature that evaluates risks in patients with both conditions.

  19. Acknowledging adult bias: a focus-group approach to utilizing beauty salons as health-education portals for inner-city adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Alexis; Harris, Diana

    2007-04-01

    To assess the feasibility of using beauticians as health literacy agents and beauty salons as health-education portals for adolescent, inner-city, African American girls, the authors conducted focus groups with 25 women: salon clients, salon owners, and medical students. Facilitators to program development included (a) beautician-client relationships, (b) teens' access to health information, and (c) beauticians as information resources. Barriers included (a) adult opinions of teen behaviors, (b) teen mistrust of adults, and (c) low health literacy of beauticians. In developing a health-education program for this population, beauticians and salons may be excellent health information agents and portals if barriers including beautician poor health literacy, adolescent mistrust in adults, and adults' anti-adolescent bias are improved. Program implementation must not solely focus on teens but should also include adult salon users, with the goal of reaching the teens first through these adults and, with time and trust, reaching the teens directly.

  20. Is group singing special? Health, well-being and social bonds in community-based adult education classes.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N=84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N=51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being, and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion.

  1. Notch-independent RBPJ controls angiogenesis in the adult heart

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Trelles, Ramón; Scimia, Maria Cecilia; Bushway, Paul; Tran, Danh; Monosov, Anna; Monosov, Edward; Peterson, Kirk; Rentschler, Stacey; Cabrales, Pedro; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Mercola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Increasing angiogenesis has long been considered a therapeutic target for improving heart function after injury such as acute myocardial infarction. However, gene, protein and cell therapies to increase microvascularization have not been successful, most likely because the studies failed to achieve regulated and concerted expression of pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors needed to produce functional microvasculature. Here, we report that the transcription factor RBPJ is a homoeostatic repressor of multiple pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factor genes in cardiomyocytes. RBPJ controls angiogenic factor gene expression independently of Notch by antagonizing the activity of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In contrast to previous strategies, the cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Rbpj increased microvascularization of the heart without adversely affecting cardiac structure or function even into old age. Furthermore, the loss of RBPJ in cardiomyocytes increased hypoxia tolerance, improved heart function and decreased pathological remodelling after myocardial infarction, suggesting that inhibiting RBPJ might be therapeutic for ischaemic injury. PMID:27357444

  2. Controlled diet in phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia may cause serum selenium deficiency in adult patients: the Czech experience.

    PubMed

    Procházková, Dagmar; Jarkovský, Jiří; Vinohradská, Hana; Konečná, Petra; Machačová, Lucie; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2013-08-01

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine caused by a deficit of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. It is treated with a low-protein diet containing a low content of phenylalanine to prevent mental affection of the patient. Because of the restricted intake of high-biologic-value protein, patients with phenylketonuria may have lower than normal serum concentrations of pre-albumin, selenium, zinc and iron. The objective of the present study was to assess the compliance of our phenylketonuric (PKU) and hyperphenylalaninemic (HPA) patients; to determine the concentration of serum pre-albumin, selenium, zinc and iron to discover the potential correlation between the amount of proteins in food and their metabolic control. We studied 174 patients of which 113 were children (age 1-18), 60 with PKU and 53 with HPA and 61 were adults (age 18-42), 51 with PKU and 10 with HPA. We did not prove a statistically significant difference in the concentration of serum pre-albumin, zinc and iron among the respective groups. We proved statistically significant difference in serum selenium concentrations of adult PKU and HPA patients (p = 0.006; Mann-Whitney U test). These results suggest that controlled low-protein diet in phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia may cause serum selenium deficiency in adult patients.

  3. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Mental Fitness for Mildly Depressed Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haverman, Merel; Kramer, Jeannet; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Walburg, Jan A; Boon, Brigitte; Bohlmeijer, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a worldwide problem warranting global solutions to tackle it. Enhancing well-being has benefits in its own right and could be a good strategy for preventing depression. Providing well-being interventions via the Internet may have synergetic effects. Objective Psyfit (“mental fitness online”) is a fully automated self-help intervention to improve well-being based on positive psychology. This study examines the clinical effects of this intervention. Methods We conducted a 2-armed randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of access to Psyfit for 2 months (n=143) to a waiting-list control condition (n=141). Mild to moderately depressed adults in the general population seeking self-help were recruited. Primary outcome was well-being measured by Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5); secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, vitality, and general health measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), and Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS-SF) vitality and general health subscales, respectively. Online measurements were taken at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months after baseline. Results The dropout rate was 37.8% in the Psyfit group and 22.7% in the control group. At 2-month follow-up, Psyfit tended to be more effective in enhancing well-being (nonsignificantly for MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.27, P=.06; significantly for WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.31, P=.01), compared to the waiting-list control group. For the secondary outcomes, small but significant effects were found for general health (Cohen’s d=0.14, P=.01), vitality (d=0.22, P=.02), anxiety symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.32, P=.001), and depressive symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.36, P=.02). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant effects on well-being (MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.01, P=.90; WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.26, P=.11), whereas depressive symptoms

  4. Controlled-release phentermine/topiramate in severely obese adults: a randomized controlled trial (EQUIP).

    PubMed

    Allison, David B; Gadde, Kishore M; Garvey, William Timothy; Peterson, Craig A; Schwiers, Michael L; Najarian, Thomas; Tam, Peter Y; Troupin, Barbara; Day, Wesley W

    2012-02-01

    A 56-week randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy of a controlled-release combination of phentermine and topiramate (PHEN/TPM CR) for weight loss (WL) and metabolic improvements. Men and women with class II and III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) were randomized to placebo, PHEN/TPM CR 3.75/23 mg, or PHEN/TPM CR 15/92 mg, added to a reduced-energy diet. Primary end points were percent WL and proportions of patients achieving 5% WL. Secondary end points included waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, and lipid measures. In the primary analysis (randomized patients with at least one postbaseline weight measurement who took at least one dose of assigned drug or placebo), patients in the placebo, 3.75/23, and 15/92 groups lost 1.6%, 5.1%, and 10.9% of baseline body weight (BW), respectively, at 56 weeks (P < 0.0001). In categorical analysis, 17.3% of placebo patients, 44.9% of 3.75/23 patients, and 66.7% of 15/92 patients, lost at least 5% of baseline BW at 56 weeks (P < 0.0001). The 15/92 group had significantly greater changes relative to placebo for WC, systolic and diastolic BP, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The most common adverse events were paresthesia, dry mouth, constipation, dysgeusia, and insomnia. Dropout rate from the study was 47.1% for placebo patients, 39.0% for 3.75/23 patients, and 33.6% of 15/92 patients. PHEN/TPM CR demonstrated dose-dependent effects on weight and metabolic variables in the direction expected to be beneficial with no evidence of serious adverse events induced by treatment.

  5. Effects of a Web-Based Tailored Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Candel, Math JJM; Kremers, Stef PJ; Reinwand, Dominique A; Jander, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based tailored interventions provide users with information that is adapted to their individual characteristics and needs. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of tailored alcohol self-help programs among adults are scarce. Furthermore, it is a challenge to develop programs that can hold respondents’ attention in online interventions. Objective To assess whether a 3-session, Web-based tailored intervention is effective in reducing alcohol intake in high-risk adult drinkers and to compare 2 computer-tailoring feedback strategies (alternating vs summative) on behavioral change, dropout, and appreciation of the program. Methods A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with an experimental group and a control group (N=448) in Germany in 2010-2011. Follow-up took place after 6 months. Drinking behavior, health status, motivational determinants, and demographics were assessed among participants recruited via an online access panel. The experimental group was divided into 2 subgroups. In the alternating condition (n=132), the tailored feedback was split into a series of messages discussing individual topics offered while the respondent was filling out the program. Participants in the summative condition (n=181) received all advice at once after having answered all questions. The actual texts were identical for both conditions. The control group (n=135) only filled in 3 questionnaires. To identify intervention effects, logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted among complete cases (n=197) and after using multiple imputation. Results Among the complete cases (response rate: 197/448, 44.0%) who did not comply with the German national guideline for low-risk drinking at baseline, 21.1% of respondents in the experimental group complied after 6 months compared with 5.8% in the control group (effect size=0.42; OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.14-6.16, P=.02). The experimental group decreased by 3.9 drinks per week compared to 0

  6. Understanding deficient emotional self-regulation in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Miller, Carolyn A.; McDermott, Katie M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2014-01-01

    While symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) such as low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts, emotional impulsivity, and mood lability are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about their nature. The main aim of this post hoc study was to examine the correlates of DESR in a large sample of adults with and without ADHD. Subjects were 206 adults with ADHD and 123 adults without ADHD from a family study of ADHD. Emotional impulsivity was operationalized using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. Subjects were comprehensively assessed for psychiatric comorbidity using structured diagnostic interview methodology. We used the Quality of Life, Enjoyment, and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (QLES-Q-SF) and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) to assess quality of life and psychosocial functioning. DESR was more common among ADHD compared with non-ADHD adults, and 55 % of adults with ADHD reported extreme DESR of greater severity than 95 % of control subjects. The association of ADHD and DESR was not entirely accounted for by either current or lifetime comorbid disorders. DESR was also associated with significant functional impairment as evaluated by the QLES-Q-SF and SAS-SR, and with reduced marital status, as well as higher risk for traffic accidents and arrests. DESR adversely impacts quality of life in adults with ADHD. More work is needed to further evaluate DESR in clinical and investigational studies of subjects with ADHD. PMID:23413201

  7. Understanding deficient emotional self-regulation in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Surman, Craig B H; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Miller, Carolyn A; McDermott, Katie M; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-09-01

    While symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) such as low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts, emotional impulsivity, and mood lability are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about their nature. The main aim of this post hoc study was to examine the correlates of DESR in a large sample of adults with and without ADHD. Subjects were 206 adults with ADHD and 123 adults without ADHD from a family study of ADHD. Emotional impulsivity was operationalized using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. Subjects were comprehensively assessed for psychiatric comorbidity using structured diagnostic interview methodology. We used the Quality of Life, Enjoyment, and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (QLES-Q-SF) and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) to assess quality of life and psychosocial functioning. DESR was more common among ADHD compared with non-ADHD adults, and 55% of adults with ADHD reported extreme DESR of greater severity than 95% of control subjects. The association of ADHD and DESR was not entirely accounted for by either current or lifetime comorbid disorders. DESR was also associated with significant functional impairment as evaluated by the QLES-Q-SF and SAS-SR, and with reduced marital status, as well as higher risk for traffic accidents and arrests. DESR adversely impacts quality of life in adults with ADHD. More work is needed to further evaluate DESR in clinical and investigational studies of subjects with ADHD.

  8. Intensive Group Learning and On-Site Services to Improve Sexual and Reproductive Health Among Young Adults in Liberia: A Randomized Evaluation of HealthyActions

    PubMed Central

    Firestone, Rebecca; Moorsmith, Reid; James, Simon; Urey, Marilyn; Greifinger, Rena; Lloyd, Danielle; Hartenberger-Toby, Lisa; Gausman, Jewel; Sanoe, Musa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Young Liberians, particularly undereducated young adults, face substantial sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges, with low uptake of contraceptive methods, high rates of unintended pregnancy, and low levels of knowledge about HIV status. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-day intensive group learning intervention combined with on-site SRH services (called HealthyActions) among out-of-school young adults, implemented through an existing alternative education program, on uptake of contraception and HIV testing and counseling (HTC). Methods: The intervention was implemented among young women and men ages 15–35 who were enrolled in alternative basic education learning sites in 5 counties of Liberia. We conducted a randomized evaluation to assess program impact. Baseline data were collected in January–March 2014, and endline data in June–July 2014. Key outcomes of condom use, contraceptive use, and HTC were estimated with difference-in-difference models using fixed effects. All analyses were conducted in Stata 13. Results: We assessed outcomes for 1,157 learners at baseline and 1,052 learners at endline, across 29 treatment and 26 control sites. After adjusting for potential confounders, learners in the HealthyActions intervention group were 12% less likely to report never using a condom with a regular partner over the last month compared with the control group (P = .02). Female learners who received HealthyActions were 13% more likely to use any form of modern contraception compared with learners in control sites (P<.001), with the greatest increase in the use of contraceptive implants. Learners in HealthyActions sites were 45% more likely to have received HTC (P<.001). Conclusion: Providing intensive group learning in a supportive environment coupled with on-site health services improved SRH outcomes among participating learners. The focus of HealthyActions on participatory learning for low

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants: Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list…

  10. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2.

  11. Personalisation of Adult Social Care: Self-Directed Support and the Choice and Control Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sophie; Cameron, Ailsa

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, "self-directed support" was introduced in adult social care in England to establish choice and control--in the assessment process itself and over service provision--for "all" service users. The personalisation agenda is underpinned by a range of ideologies, particularly a civil rights empowerment approach and…

  12. Development of Independence: Locus of Control, Achievement Motivation and Self vs. Adult Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.

    The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…

  13. The Neural Basis of Sustained and Transient Attentional Control in Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banich, Marie T.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Depue, Brendan E.; Ruzic, Luka; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Hitt-Laustsen, Sena; Du, Yiping P.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in neural activation during performance on an attentionally demanding Stroop task were examined between 23 young adults with ADHD carefully selected to not be co-morbid for other psychiatric disorders and 23 matched controls. A hybrid blocked/single-trial design allowed for examination of more sustained vs. more transient aspects of…

  14. Stimulus Control, Transfer and Maintenance of Upright Walking Posture with a Severely Retarded Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Robert H.

    Upright walking posture was successfully trained, maintained, and transferred to a new setting in a 28-year-old profoundly retarded adult. An apparatus in the S's cap and vest provided reinforcement (radio) when the S's head was up. The first four phases of the study demonstrated stimulus control in the training setting, while the next nine phases…

  15. Yoga for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests yogic practices may benefit adults with type 2 diabetes (DM2). In this systematic review, we evaluate available evidence from prospective controlled trials regarding the effects of yoga-based programs on specific health outcomes pertinent to DM2 management. To identify qualifying studies, we searched nine databases and scanned bibliographies of relevant review papers and all identified articles. Controlled trials that did not target adults with diabetes, included only adults with type 1 diabetes, were under two-week duration, or did not include quantitative outcome data were excluded. Study quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Thirty-three papers reporting findings from 25 controlled trials (13 nonrandomized, 12 randomized) met our inclusion criteria (N = 2170 participants). Collectively, findings suggest that yogic practices may promote significant improvements in several indices of importance in DM2 management, including glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition. More limited data suggest that yoga may also lower oxidative stress and blood pressure; enhance pulmonary and autonomic function, mood, sleep, and quality of life; and reduce medication use in adults with DM2. However, given the methodological limitations of existing studies, additional high-quality investigations are required to confirm and further elucidate the potential benefits of yoga programs in populations with DM2. PMID:26788520

  16. Neuropsychological Outcome in Adolescents/Young Adults with Childhood ADHD: Profiles of Persisters, Remitters and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a longitudinal sample of adolescents/young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls as a function of the persistence of ADHD. We hypothesized that measures of executive processes would parallel adolescent clinical status, with ADHD-persisters, but not…

  17. Commissioning specialist diabetes services for adults with diabetes: summary of a Diabetes UK Task and Finish group report.

    PubMed

    Goenka, N; Turner, B; Vora, J

    2011-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes, the drive to develop community services for diabetes and the Quality and Outcomes Framework for diabetes have led to improvements in the management of diabetes in primary care settings, with services traditionally provided only in specialist care now provided for many patients with diabetes by non-specialists. Consequently, there is a need to redefine roles, responsibilities and components of a specialist diabetes service to provide for the needs of patients in the National Health Service (NHS) today. The delivery of diabetes care is complex and touches on almost every aspect of the health service. It is the responsibility of those working within commissioning and specialist provider roles to work together with people with diabetes to develop, organize and deliver a full range of integrated diabetes care services. The local delivery model agreed within the local diabetes network, comprising specialist teams, primary care teams, commissioners and people with diabetes, should determine how the diabetes specialist services are organizsed. It should identify the roles and responsibilities of provider organizations to ensure that the right person provides the right care, at the right time, and in the right place. We summarize a report entitled 'Commissioning Diabetes Specialist Services for Adults with Diabetes', which has been produced, as a 'Task and Finish' group activity within Diabetes UK, to assist managers, commissioners and healthcare professionals to provide advice on the structure, roles and components of specialist diabetes services for adults.

  18. Depression and experience of vision loss in group of adults in rehabilitation setting: mixed-methods pilot study.

    PubMed

    Senra, Hugo; Vieira, Cristina R; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Leal, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the relationship between the experience of vision loss and depression. Therefore, the current pilot study aimed to explore whether significant differences existed in levels of depression between adults with different vision loss experiences. A group of adults aged between 20 and 65 yr old with irreversible vision loss in a rehabilitation setting was interviewed. Semistructured interviews were conducted in order to explore patients' experience of vision loss. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depressive levels; 39.5% (n = 15) of patients met CES-D criteria for depression. In addition, higher levels of depression (p < 0.05) were identified in patients whose interviews revealed greater self-awareness of impairment, inadequate social support, and longer rehabilitation stay. Current findings draw attention to variables such as self-awareness of impairment and perceived social support and suggest that depression following vision loss may be related to patients' emotional experiences of impairment and adjustment processes.

  19. When and why do old adults outsource control to the environment?

    PubMed

    Mayr, Ulrich; Spieler, Daniel H; Hutcheon, Thomas G

    2015-09-01

    Old adults' tendency to rely on information present in the environment rather than internal representations has been frequently noted, but is not well understood. The fade-out paradigm provides a useful model situation to study this internal-to-external shift across the life span: Subjects need to transition from an initial, cued task-switching phase to a fade-out phase where only 1 task remains relevant. Old adults exhibit large response-time "fade-out costs," mainly because they continue to consult the task cues. Here we show that age differences in fade-out costs remain very large even when we insert between the task-switching and the fade-out phase 20 single-task trials without task cues (during which even old adults' performance becomes highly fluent; Experiment 1), but costs in old adults are eliminated when presenting an on-screen instruction to focus on the 1 remaining task at the transition point between the task-switching and fade-out phase (Experiment 2). Furthermore, old adults, but not young adults, also exhibited "fade-in costs" when they were instructed to perform an initial single-task phase that would be followed by the cued task-switching phase (Experiment 3). Combined, these results show that old adults' tendency to overutilize external support is not a problem of perseverating earlier-relevant control settings. Instead, old adults seem less likely to initiate the necessary reconfiguration process when transitioning from 1 phase to the next because they use underspecified task models that lack the higher-level distinction between those contexts that do and that do not require external support.

  20. Dynamic stability control in younger and older adults during stair descent.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Iris; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Savelberg, Hans Hubert; Meijer, Kenneth; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic stability control in older and younger adults while descending stairs. Thirteen older (aged 64-77 years) and 13 younger (aged 22-29 years) adults descended a staircase at their preferred speed. A motion capture system and three force plates were used to determine locomotion mechanics. Dynamic stability was investigated by using the margin of stability, calculated as the instantaneous difference between anterior boundary of the base of support and extrapolated centre of mass. At the initiation of the single support phase, older adults demonstrated a more negative (p<.05) margin of stability value. The component responsible for the lower margin of stability in the elderly was the higher velocity of the centre of mass (p<.05). Before the initiation of the single support phase, the older adults showed a lower (p<.05) ankle and knee joint angular impulse compared to the younger ones. We found a significant correlation (r=.729, p<.05) between centre of mass velocity and joint angular impulse. These results indicate that older adults are at greater risk of falls while descending stairs potentially due to a reduced ability to generate adequate leg-extensor muscular output to safely control the motion of the body's centre of mass while stepping down.

  1. Using exploratory focus groups to establish a sampling strategy to investigate disability experienced by adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Davis, Aileen M; Young, Nancy L; Strike, Carol

    2009-11-01

    In HIV clinical research, participants are typically sampled based on demographic and/or disease characteristics. As little is known about HIV-specific disability, we did not know whether this purposive type of sampling would be helpful and what characteristics (if any) should guide our sampling strategy. We describe using exploratory focus groups to determine a sampling strategy to investigate disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV. We conducted 4 focus groups with 23 men and women and asked participants to describe their health-related challenges and impact on their overall health. We analyzed data to determine whether health-related challenges differed based on age, gender, ethnocultural background, length of time since HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral use and if these characteristics should be considered when sampling. Participants described seven health-related challenges that appeared not to vary based on demographic or disease characteristics. Variations emerged in the way health-related challenges manifested and the strategies participants used to deal with these challenges. Consequently, we decided upon a broad theoretical sampling strategy for the subsequent interview phase. Exploratory focus groups may be a useful technique to determine a sampling strategy when exploring a new phenomenon in HIV qualitative research.

  2. Cost effectiveness of group follow-up after structured education for type 1 diabetes: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the cost effectiveness of group follow-up after participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) structured education programme for type 1 diabetes. Methods Economic evaluation conducted alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 437 adults with type 1 diabetes in Ireland. Group follow-up involved two group education ‘booster’ sessions post-DAFNE. Individual follow-up involved two standard one-to-one hospital clinic visits. Incremental costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and cost effectiveness were estimated at 18 months. Uncertainty was explored using sensitivity analysis and by estimating cost effectiveness acceptability curves. Results Group follow-up was associated with a mean reduction in QALYs gained of 0.04 per patient (P value, 0.052; 95% CI, −0.08 to 0.01, intra-class correlation (ICC), 0.033) and a mean reduction in total healthcare costs of €772 (P value, 0.020; 95% CI, −1,415 to −128: ICC, 0.016) per patient. At alternative threshold values of €5,000, €15,000, €25,000, €35,000, and €45,000, the probability of group follow-up being cost effective was estimated to be 1.000, 0.762, 0.204, 0.078, and 0.033 respectively. Conclusions The results do not support implementation of group follow-up as the sole means of follow-up post-DAFNE. Given the reported cost savings, future studies should explore the cost effectiveness of alternative models of group care for diabetes. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79759174 (assigned: 9 February 2007). PMID:24927851

  3. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn from a population-based sample aged 65 years or older with diabetes. The sample was stratified by sex and ethnic group (African American, American Indian, and White) from the low (A1C <6%) and high (A1C >8%) extremes of the glycemic control distribution. Case-based text analysis was guided by a model, including six self-management domains and four resource types (self-care, informal support, formal services, and medical care). Results: A “structured” approach to self-management differentiated respondents in good glycemic control from those in poor glycemic control. Those in good glycemic control were more likely to practice specific food behaviors to limit food consumption and practice regular blood glucose monitoring with specific target values. This approach was facilitated by a greater use of home aides to assist with diabetes care. Respondents in poor glycemic control demonstrated less structure, naming general food categories and checking blood glucose in reaction to symptoms. Implications: Results provide evidence that degree of structure differentiates self-management approaches of persons with good and poor glycemic control. Findings should provide a foundation for further research to develop effective self-management programs for older adults with diabetes. PMID:20110333

  4. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in adult dairy cattle: impact on production, diagnosis and control.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Höglund, Johan; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Dorny, Pierre; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2009-09-16

    Due to the intensification of dairy herds and the recognition of subclinical infections with a negative impact on production as disease, control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in adult cows is becoming established in an increasing number of dairy herds. The objectives of this paper are to review the aspects related to the impact on production, diagnosis and control of GI nematodes in adult dairy cattle. During the last decade substantial evidence has been generated that GI nematodes can have a negative impact on the performance of adult animals. The milk-yield response to anthelmintic treatment in recent studies in pastured dairy herds was observed to be around 1kg/cow per day, whereas effects on reproductive performance remain equivocal. GI-nematode infections can be monitored based on Ostertagia ostertagi-specific antibody measurement, which provides information on the level of larval exposure and an indication of the associated production losses. Other diagnostic parameters are considered of limited use in adult cattle. Control relies on anthelmintic treatment and grazing management, which can be used complementary to each other. There are three critical points that need to be considered when developing anthelmintic control recommendations in adult cows: the unpredictability of the treatment response, the timing of treatment and the risk for developing anthelmintic resistance. As a consequence, monitoring of GI-nematode infections is desirable in order to focus anthelmintic treatments on those herds with a high larval challenge and associated production losses. For the future, more studies are needed to evaluate the effects of different control approaches in terms of financial benefits for the farmer and sustainability on the long term.

  5. A prospective randomized wait list control trial of intravenous iron sucrose in older adults with unexplained anemia and serum ferritin 20-200 ng/mL.

    PubMed

    Price, Elizabeth; Artz, Andrew S; Barnhart, Huiman; Sapp, Shelly; Chelune, Gordon; Ershler, William B; Walston, Jeremy D; Gordeuk, Victor R; Berger, Nathan A; Reuben, David; Prchal, Josef; Rao, Sunil V; Roy, Cindy N; Supiano, Mark A; Schrier, Stanley L; Cohen, Harvey Jay

    2014-12-01

    Anemia is common in older persons and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. One third of anemic older adults have unexplained anemia of the elderly (UAE). We carried out a randomized, wait list control trial in outpatients with UAE and serum ferritin levels between 20 and 200 ng/mL. Intravenous iron sucrose was given as a 200-mg weekly dose for 5 weeks either immediately after enrollment (immediate intervention group) or following a 12-week wait list period (wait list control group). The primary outcome measure was changed in 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distances from baseline to 12 weeks between the two groups. Hematologic, physical, cognitive, and quality of life parameters were also assessed. The study was terminated early after 19 subjects enrolled. The distance walked in the 6MWT increased a mean 8.05±55.48 m in the immediate intervention group and decreased a mean 11.45±49.46 m in the wait list control group (p=0.443). The hemoglobin increased a mean 0.39±0.46 g/dL in the immediate intervention group and declined a mean 0.39±0.85 g/dL in the wait list control group (p=0.026). Thus, a subgroup of adults with UAE may respond to intravenous iron. Enrollment of subjects into this type of study remains challenging.

  6. Stimulus generation, ratings, phoneme counts, and group classifications for 696 famous people by British adults over 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv; Valentine, Tim; Sherman, Susan M

    2006-11-01

    Matching stimuli across a range of influencing variables is no less important for studies of face recognition than it is for those of word processing. Whereas a number of corpora exist to allow experimenters to select a carefully controlled set of word stimuli, similar databases for famous faces do not exist. This article, therefore, provides researchers in the area of face recognition with a useful resource on which to base their stimulus selection. In the first phase of the investigation, British adults over 40 years of age were requested to generate the names of famous people (or celebrities) that they thought they would recognize and to write these down. The most frequently named celebrities were then rated by adults from the same age population for familiarity, distinctiveness, and age of acquisition. The result is a database of 696 famous people, with an indication of their relative eminence in the public consciousness and rated for these important variables. Phoneme counts are also provided for each famous person, together with family name frequency counts in the general population, where available. Materials and links may be accessed at www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  7. Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437 PMID:17915035

  8. Effects of 12-week proprioception training program on postural stability, gait, and balance in older adults: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Caballero-Martínez, Isabel; Alvarez, Pablo J; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week-specific proprioceptive training program on postural stability, gait, balance, and fall prevention in adults older than 65 years. The present study was a controlled clinical trial. Forty-four community dwelling elderly subjects (61-90 years; mean age, 78.07 ± 5.7 years) divided into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 24) groups. The participants performed the Berg balance test before and after the training program, and we assessed participants' gait, balance, and the risk of falling, using the Tinetti scale. Medial-lateral plane and anterior-posterior plane displacements of the center of pressure, Sway area, length and speed, and the Romberg quotient about surface, speed, and distance were calculated in static posturography analysis (EPS pressure platform) under 2 conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. After a first clinical evaluation, patients were submitted to 12 weeks proprioception training program, 2 sessions of 50 minutes every week. This program includes 6 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to program proprioceptive training. The training program improved postural balance of older adults in mediolateral plane with eyes open (p < 0.05) and anterior-posterior plane with eyes closed (p < 0.01). Significant improvements were observed in Romberg quotient about surface (p < 0.05) and speed (p < 0.01) but not about distance (p > 0.05). After proprioception training, gait (Tinetti), and balance (Berg) test scores improved 14.66% and 11.47% respectively. These results show that 12 weeks proprioception training program in older adults is effective in postural stability, static, and dynamic balance and could lead to an improvement in gait and balance capacity, and to a decrease in the risk of falling in adults aged 65 years and older.

  9. Statin therapy reduces the likelihood of suboptimal blood pressure control among Ugandan adult diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Lumu, William; Kampiire, Leaticia; Akabwai, George Patrick; Kiggundu, Daniel Ssekikubo; Kibirige, Davis

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the recognized risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult diabetic patients. High prevalence of suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control has been well documented in the majority of studies assessing BP control in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, there is a dearth of similar studies. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of suboptimal BP control in an adult diabetic population in Uganda. Patients and methods This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 425 eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending three urban diabetic outpatient clinics over 11 months. Data about their sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Suboptimal BP control was defined according to the 2015 American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care guideline as BP levels ≥140/90 mmHg. Results The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, with the majority being females (283, 66.9%). Suboptimal BP control was documented in 192 (45.3%) study participants and was independently associated with the study site (private hospitals; odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.18–3.43, P=0.01) and use of statin therapy (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.96, P=0.037). Conclusion Suboptimal BP control was highly prevalent in this study population. Strategies to improve optimal BP control, especially in the private hospitals, and the use of statin therapy should be encouraged in adult diabetic patients. PMID:28260908

  10. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realisation that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles1,2. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and significance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncover its key roles in controlling organ size, its reproductive plasticity and its response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms, which control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognised. PMID:26887495

  11. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aileen WK; Yu, Doris SF; Choi, KC; Lee, Diana TF; Sit, Janet WH; Chan, Helen YL

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Age-related cognitivee decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ) on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two groups. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from two district elderly community centers and randomly assigned to either the TCQ group (n=27) or the control group (n=25). The intervention group received TCQ training consisting of two 60-minute sessions each week for 2 months. The control group was advised to maintain their usual activities. Sleep quality was measured by the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Quality of life was measured by Short-form 12, cognitive functions measured by mini-mental state examination, and subjective memory deficits measured by the memory inventory for Chinese. Results Data were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Significant results were noted at 6 months in the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (P=0.004), sleep duration (P=0.003), habitual sleep efficiency (P=0.002), and the Short-form 12 mental health component (P<0.001). The TCQ participants reported better sleep quality and a better (quality of life) mental health component than the control group. Conclusion TCQ can be considered a useful nonpharmacological approach for improving sleep quality in older adults with cognitive impairment. Clinical trial registration CUHK_CCT00448 (https://www2.ccrb.cuhk.edu.hk/registry/public/287). PMID:27698557

  12. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    PubMed

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn.

  13. A Study of the Predictive Association between Congruency Measures Based on Work-Emotionality Theory and the Achievement and Satisfaction in Adult Instructional Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueder, E. J.

    The rationale, design, and data collection methods of a study of factors that may influence the effectiveness of adult instructional groups that included interaction are discussed. Two aspects to be considered when studying instructional groups are called work and emotionality. The Work-Emotionality Theory is discussed. Six types of…

  14. Where Are the Adults? The Attitudes of Parents, Teachers, Clergy, Coaches, and Youth Workers on Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    In 1997, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy convened nine focus groups of parents of teens and other adults who work with teens such as teachers, clergy, coaches, youth recreation specialists, youth-serving organization staff, and community outreach workers. This report publishes the results of these focus groups, which involved 57…

  15. The effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for loneliness, anxiety and depression in older adults in long-term care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Syed Elias, Sharifah Munirah; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness, anxiety and depression are common problems for older adults in long-term care. Reminiscence therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention that may be of some benefit. In comparison to individual reminiscence therapy, group reminiscence therapy is a preferred option when dealing with the resource constraints of long-term care. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature in order to explore the effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for older adults with loneliness, anxiety and depression in long-term care. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy is an effective treatment for depression in older adults, however to date, there is limited research support for its effectiveness to treat loneliness and anxiety. Further research and an improvement in methodological quality, such as using qualitative and mixed methods approaches, is recommended to help establish an evidence base and provide better understanding of the effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy.

  16. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.

  17. Pilot study to determine interest of adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel in participation in a weight control program.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Asma; Roberts, Susan B; Young, Andrew J; McGraw, Susan; Dallal, Gerard E; Das, Sai Krupa

    2014-03-01

    Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weight control programs. We conducted a survey to determine the level of interest of adult civilian dependents of ADMP in participating in a group weight control program. Subjects were a convenience sample of 191 adult civilian dependents of ADMP (94% women, 6% men) based in Massachusetts and aged 33.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass index 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2). Overall, there was a significant effect of body mass index on interest in program participation (p = 0.004). Eighty five percent of overweight participants and 100% of obese participants reported being Moderately Likely or Very Likely to participate in a provided weight control program. In overweight and obese survey respondents there was no significant effect of ADMP rank on interest in program participation (p = 0.34). These findings suggest that overweight and obese adult civilian dependents of ADMP may be very receptive targets for programs to control overweight and obesity in military families.

  18. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    PubMed

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Space Fortress game training and executive control in older adults: A pilot intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov; Blumen, Helena M.; Rich, Leigh W.; Richards, Alexis; Herzberg, Gray; Gopher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using the Space Fortress (SF) game, a complex video game originally developed to study complex skill acquisition in young adults, to improve executive control processes in cognitively healthy older adults. The study protocol consisted of 36 one-hour game play sessions over 3 months with cognitive evaluations before and after, and a follow-up evaluation at 6 months. Sixty participants were randomized to one of three conditions: Emphasis Change (EC) – elders were instructed to concentrate on playing the entire game but place particular emphasis on a specific aspect of game play in each particular game; Active Control (AC) – game play with standard instructions; Passive Control (PC) – evaluation sessions without game play. Primary outcome measures were obtained from five tasks, presumably tapping executive control processes. A total of 54 older adults completed the study protocol. One measure of executive control, WAIS-III letter–number sequencing, showed improvement in performance from pre- to post-evaluations in the EC condition, but not in the other two conditions. These initial findings are modest but encouraging. Future SF interventions need to carefully consider increasing the duration and or the intensity of the intervention by providing at-home game training, reducing the motor demands of the game, and selecting appropriate outcome measures. PMID:21988726

  20. Relationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, David; Majerus, Steve; Catale, Corinne; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2014-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering-the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated-corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one's attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures.

  1. Self-Regulated Learning in Younger and Older Adults: Does Aging Affect Metacognitive Control?

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether younger and older adults’ self-regulated study (item selection and study time) conformed to the region of proximal learning (RPL) model when studying normatively easy, medium, and difficult vocabulary pairs. Experiment 2 manipulated the value of recalling different pairs and provided learning goals for words recalled and points earned. Younger and older adults in both experiments selected items for study in an easy-to-difficult order, indicating the RPL model applies to older adults’ self-regulated study. Individuals allocated more time to difficult items, but prioritized easier items when given less time or point values favoring difficult items. Older adults studied more items for longer but realized lower recall than did younger adults. Older adults’ lower memory self-efficacy and perceived control correlated with their greater item restudy and avoidance of difficult items with high point values. Results are discussed in terms of RPL and agenda-based regulation models. PMID:19866382

  2. Results from an Online Computer-Tailored Weight Management Intervention for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Boon, Brigitte; Borsboom, Gerard; Visscher, Tommy; Oenema, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevention of weight gain has been suggested as an important strategy in the prevention of obesity and people who are overweight are a specifically important group to target. Currently there is a lack of weight gain prevention interventions that can reach large numbers of people. Therefore, we developed an Internet-delivered, computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults. The focus of the intervention was on making small (100 kcal per day), but sustained changes in dietary intake (DI) or physical activity (PA) behaviors in order to maintain current weight or achieve modest weight loss. Self-regulation theory was used as the basis of the intervention. Objective This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the computer-tailored intervention in weight-related anthropometric measures (Body Mass Index, skin folds and waist circumference) and energy balance-related behaviors (physical activity; intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks) in a randomized controlled trial. Methods The tailored intervention (TI) was compared to a generic information website (GI). Participants were 539 overweight adults (mean age 47.8 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 28.04, 30.9% male, 10.7% low educated) who where recruited among the general population and among employees from large companies by means of advertisements and flyers. Anthropometric measurements were measured by trained research assistants at baseline and 6-months post-intervention. DI and PA behaviors were assessed at baseline, 1-month and 6-month post-intervention, using self-reported questionnaires. Results Repeated measurement analyses showed that BMI remained stable over time and that there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups (BMI: TI=28.09, GI=27.61, P=.09). Similar results were found for waist circumference and skin fold thickness. Amount of physical activity increased and intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks decreased during the course of the

  3. Glycaemic control is harder to achieve than blood pressure or lipid control in Irish adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cotter, T G; Dinneen, S F; Healy, D A; Bell, M J; Cunningham, A; O'Shea, P M; Dunne, F; O'Brien, T; Finucane, F M

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine the attainment of targets for glycaemic control and vascular risk reduction in an Irish cohort of T1DM adults. Of 797 patients (53% male, mean age 40.3 ± 14.8 years, HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.6% (69.6 ± 17.8 mmol mol(-1))), 15%, 68% and 62% achieved targets for HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, respectively.

  4. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (<10 years) and remotely diagnosed (>10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or

  5. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  6. Stepped-care to prevent depression and anxiety in visually impaired older adults – design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subthreshold depression and anxiety are common in the growing population of visually impaired older adults and increase the risk of full-blown depressive or anxiety disorders. Adequate treatment may prevent the development of depression or anxiety in this high risk group. Method/design A stepped-care programme was developed based on other effective interventions and focus groups with professionals and patient representatives of three low vision rehabilitation organisations in the Netherlands and Belgium. The final programme consists of four steps: 1) watchful waiting, 2) guided self-help, 3) problem solving treatment, 4) referral to general practitioner. The (cost-)effectiveness of this programme is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Patients (N = 230) are randomly assigned to either a treatment group (stepped-care) or a control group (usual care). The primary outcome is the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders, measured with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Discussion Preventive interventions for depression and anxiety have received little attention in the field of low vision. A stepped-care programme that focuses on both depression and anxiety has never been investigated in visually impaired older adults before. If the intervention is shown to be effective, this study will result in an evidence based treatment programme to prevent depression or anxiety in patients from low vision rehabilitation organisations. The pragmatic design of the study greatly enhances the generalisability of the results. However, a possible limitation is the difficulty to investigate the contribution of each individual step. Trial registration Identifier: NTR3296 PMID:23937975

  7. Using electric fields for pulse compression and group-velocity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Kinos, Adam; Thuresson, Axel; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a way of controlling the group velocity of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, the slow-light effect, and the linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The group velocity can be changed continuously by a factor of 20 without significant pulse distortion or absorption of the pulse energy. With a similar technique, an optical pulse can also be compressed in time. Theoretical simulations were developed to simulate the group-velocity control and the pulse compression processes. The group velocity as well as the pulse reshaping are solely controlled by external voltages which makes it promising in quantum information and quantum communication processes. It is also proposed that the group velocity can be changed even more in an Er-doped crystal while at the same time having a transmission band matching the telecommunication wavelength.

  8. A randomised controlled pilot study: the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy with adult survivors of the Sichuan earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological reaction after large-scale natural disasters. Given the number of people involved and shortage of resources in any major disaster, brief, pragmatic and easily trainable interventions are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for PTSD using Chinese earthquake survivors. Methods A randomized waiting-list control pilot study was conducted between December 2009 and March 2010, at the site of the Sichuan earthquake in Beichuan County, China. Adult participants with newly diagnosed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were randomly allocated to Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) or a Waiting-List (WL) condition. The latter received NET treatment after a two-week waiting period. To compare the effectiveness of NET in traumatised earthquake survivors, both groups were assessed on PTSD symptoms, general mental health, anxiety and depression, social support, coping style and posttraumatic change before and after treatment and two months post treatment. Results Adult participants (n=22) were randomly allocated to receive NET (n=11) or WL (n=11). Twenty two participants (11 in NET group, 11 in WL) were included in the analysis of primary outcomes. Compared with WL, NET showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression, general mental stress and increased posttraumatic growth. The WL group later showed similar improvements after treatment. These changes remained stable for a two-month follow-up. Measures of social support and coping showed no stable effects. Conclusions NET is effective in treating post-earthquake traumatic symptoms in adult Chinese earthquake survivors. The findings help advance current knowledge in the management of PTSD after natural disasters and inform future research. Larger sample sizes are needed to extend the present findings. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry

  9. [Relationship of food groups intake and C-reactive protein in healthy adults from Mexicali, Baja California, México].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Esparza, Josefina; Robinson-Navarro, Octavio; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Diaz-Molina, Raúl; Carrillo-Cedillo, Eugenia Gabriela; Soria-Rodriguez, Carmen G

    2013-09-01

    The high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important biomarker in inflammatory processes. The objective was to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of hs-CRP in adults from a northern Mexico region with their typical food intake patterns. A sample of 72 university professors underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and their hs-CRP levels were quantified with an immunoenzymometric assay. Additionally, they filled out a food intake frequency questionnaire, from which the servings of different food groups were obtained with the ESHA software. The average age of participants was 49.75 +/- 10.05 years and the average hs-CRP concentration was 1.66 (0.97, 3.52) mg/L. The value of the association between fruit consumption and hs-CRP level was protective, according to the logistic regression analysis, being the Odds Ratio (OR) 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 1.03); while for vegetables the OR was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.12, 3.68). Furthermore, high protein content foods, dairy products, oils and fats were associated with elevated levels of hs-CRP. In conclusion, in our study, the intake of some food groups like fruits and vegetables, and to a lesser extent cereals, were associated with low values of hs-PCR.

  10. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  11. Problem-solving therapy for adults with diabetic retinopathy and diabetes-specific distress: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Gwyneth; O'Hare, Fleur; Saeed, Marian; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Sturrock, Bonnie A; Xie, Jing; Speight, Jane; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2017-01-01

    Objective To provide preliminary evidence for the impact of problem-solving therapy for diabetes (PST-D) in adults with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetes distress. Research design and methods In a pilot randomized controlled trial, 40 participants with DR and diabetes distress were allocated to the PST-D or control groups. Diabetes distress (DDS), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), self-care activities (SDSCA), and HbA1c were assessed at baseline, and 3 and 6-month follow-ups. Results At the 6-month follow-up, the PST-D group showed significant improvements relative to the control group, in ‘regimen-related distress’ (PST-D: −1.3±1.4; control: −0.4±1.1), depressive symptoms (PST-D: −4.3±6.1; control: −0.3±4.6), and HbA1c (PST-D: −1.2%±1.01; control: 0.2%±1.2%) (all p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis, adjusting for baseline values and sociodemographic factors, PST-D was associated with significant improvement in ‘regimen-related distress’, depressive symptoms, and HbA1c at the 6-month follow-up (p<0.05). Conclusions PST-D is a promising intervention for improving psychological outcomes and glycemic control. A fully powered study is required to confirm these findings and examine mechanisms of change in HbA1c. Trial registration number ACTRN12616001010482; results. PMID:28243448

  12. Effects of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Paracetamol Treatment during Vaccination on Hepatitis B Antibody Levels in Adults: Two Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Doedée, Anne M. C. M.; Boland, Greet J.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; de Klerk, Arja; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; de Melker, Hester E.; van Loveren, Henk; Janssen, Riny

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, paracetamol is administered as a remedy for complaints that occur after vaccination. Recently published results indicate that paracetamol inhibits the vaccination response in infants when given prior to vaccination. The goal of this study was to establish whether paracetamol exerts similar effects in young adults. In addition, the effect of timing of paracetamol intake was investigated. In two randomized, controlled, open-label studies 496 healthy young adults were randomly assigned to three groups. The study groups received paracetamol for 24 hours starting at the time of (prophylactic use) - or 6 hours after (therapeutic use) the primary (0 month) and first booster (1 month) hepatitis B vaccination. The control group received no paracetamol. None of the participants used paracetamol around the second booster (6 months) vaccination. Anti-HBs levels were measured prior to and one month after the second booster vaccination on ADVIA Centaur XP. One month after the second booster vaccination, the anti-HBs level in the prophylactic paracetamol group was significantly lower (p = 0.048) than the level in the control group (4257 mIU/mL vs. 5768 mIU/mL). The anti-HBs level in the therapeutic paracetamol group (4958 mIU/mL) was not different (p = 0.34) from the level in the control group. Only prophylactic paracetamol treatment, and not therapeutic treatment, during vaccination has a negative influence on the antibody concentration after hepatitis B vaccination in adults. These findings prompt to consider therapeutic instead of prophylactic treatment to ensure maximal vaccination efficacy and retain the possibility to treat pain and fever after vaccination. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN03576945 PMID:24897504

  13. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  14. Motion Control of Drift-Free, Left-Invariant Systems on Lie Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Motion Control of Drift-Free, Left-Invariant Systems on Lie Groups Naomi Ehrich Leonardy Department of Mechanical ...SI R INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMS RESEARCH Sponsored by the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center Program, the University of Maryland...Harvard University, and Industry TECHNICAL RESEARCH REPORT Motion Control of Drift-Free, Left-Invariant Systems on Lie Groups by N.E. Leonard, P.S

  15. All-optical tunable group-velocity control of femtosecond pulse by quadratic nonlinear cascading interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie; Chen, Yuping; Miu, Lihong; Chen, Xianfeng; Xia, Yuxing; Zeng, Xianglong

    2008-01-07

    Based on cascading nonlinear interactions of second harmonic generation (SHG) and difference frequency generation (DFG), we present a novel scheme to control the group velocity of femtosecond pulse in MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Group velocity of tunable signal pulse can be controlled by another pump beam within a wide bandwidth of 180nm. Fractional advancement of 2.4 and fractional delay of 4 are obtained in our simulations.

  16. Patterns of cardiovascular disease in a group of HIV-infected adults in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Menanga, Alain Patrick; Ngomseu, Christelle Kougang; Jingi, Ahmadou M.; Mfangam, Brigitte Molu; Gweth, Marie Ntep; Blackett, Kathleen Ngu; Kingue, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an increasingly important issue in human immunodeficiency viral (HIV)-infected individuals. There is dearth of information on the patterns of cardiovascular disease especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) patients. This study reports on the clinical, biological, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics of a group of HIV-infected patients presenting with symptoms of heart disease in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Yaoundé Central Hospital and Jamot Hospital. Consenting HIV-infected adults aged ≥18 years with symptoms suggestive of heart disease were consecutively recruited between February and July 2014. All participants underwent a complete clinical examination; biological analyses including CD4 cell counts, fasting blood glucose, and serum lipids, resting electrocardiography and cardiac ultrasound, and a venous ultrasound where necessary. Results Forty four subjects (21 men) were included. Their mean age was 48 (SD 13) years. Thirty patients (68.2%) were in WHO clinical stages 3 and 4 of HIV infection, 27 (61.4%) had a CD4 cell count <200/mm3, and 31 (70.5%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Hypertension (43.2%, n=19) was the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor; and dyslipidemia which was found in 17 subjects (38.6%) was significantly associated with ART (48.4% vs. 15.4%, P=0.04). Only men where smokers (23% vs. 0%, P=0.019). Exertional dyspnea (86.4%, n=38) and cough (59.1%, n=26) were the most frequent symptoms, and the clinical presentation was dominated by heart failure (75%, n=33). The most frequent echocardiographic abnormalities were pericardial effusion (45.5%, n=20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (22.7%, n=10). Dilated cardiomyopathy was significantly associated with CD4 cell counts <200/mm3 (100%, P=0.003). Primary pulmonary hypertension (PH) rate was 11.4% (n=5) and all cases occurred at CD4 cell counts ≥200/mm3 (P=0.005). The most frequent

  17. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Following recent clarification in Europe that a single control group is now acceptable for rodent carcinogenicity studies, the use of dual controls may be reduced or disappear. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether this latter situation has improved the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. In this paper, the results of 13 rat carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2002, with 2 control groups, are presented. Although no major differences in tumor incidences between these dual control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred. In cases where a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. Thus, the continued use of dual control groups has a vital role in the assessment of tumoriogenic risk. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms, and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used rat strain.

  18. A Controlled Evaluation of Reminiscence and Current Topics Discussion Groups in a Nursing Home Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattenbury, Christine; Stones, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological well-being of elderly nursing home residents who participated in reminiscence and current topics group discussions with control group of residents. Rated participants' happiness/depression, activity, mood, and functional levels before and after intervention. Intervention had significant effect only on happiness/depression…

  19. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  20. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  1. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  2. Effect of running therapy on depression (EFFORT-D). Design of a randomised controlled trial in adult patients [ISRCTN 1894

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The societal and personal burden of depressive illness is considerable. Despite the developments in treatment strategies, the effectiveness of both medication and psychotherapy is not ideal. Physical activity, including exercise, is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle intervention which lacks the side-effects of medication and does not require the introspective ability necessary for most psychotherapies. Several cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed to establish the effect of physical activity on prevention and remission of depressive illness. However, recent meta-analysis's of all RCTs in this area showed conflicting results. The objective of the present article is to describe the design of a RCT examining the effect of exercise on depressive patients. Methods/Design The EFFect Of Running Therapy on Depression in adults (EFFORT-D) is a RCT, studying the effectiveness of exercise therapy (running therapy (RT) or Nordic walking (NW)) on depression in adults, in addition to usual care. The study population consists of patients with depressive disorder, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) ≥ 14, recruited from specialised mental health care. The experimental group receives the exercise intervention besides treatment as usual, the control group receives treatment as usual. The intervention program is a group-based, 1 h session, two times a week for 6 months and of increasing intensity. The control group only performs low intensive non-aerobic exercises. Measurements are performed at inclusion and at 3,6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure is reduction in depressive symptoms measured by the HRSD. Cardio-respiratory fitness is measured using a sub maximal cycling test, biometric information is gathered and blood samples are collected for metabolic parameters. Also, co-morbidity with pain, anxiety and personality traits is studied, as well as quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Discussion Exercise in

  3. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments.

  4. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  5. Developmental origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a case control study comparing birth weight in women with PCOS and control group.

    PubMed

    Sadrzadeh, Sheda; Painter, Rebecca C; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from various epidemiological studies and experimental animal studies has linked adverse intrauterine circumstances with health problems in adult life. This field of investigation is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Studies investigating the relation between developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood and birth weight have yielded inconsistent results: PCOS is described more often in women with low birth weight and high birth weight, while other studies have failed to establish any relation. In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated whether women diagnosed with PCOS had lower birth weight compared to women with a regular menstrual cycle (controls). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the data and correct for known confounders. About 65 women with PCOS and 96 controls were recruited for this purpose. The average birth weight of PCOS women (3357 g) did not differ from the average birth weight of controls (3409 g). Mean age at menarche differed significantly between groups, 13.7  years and 12.8  years (p = 0.006), respectively, for PCOS women and controls. In conclusion, we could not confirm the effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, reflected in birth weight, on developing PCOS.

  6. Effects of a Behavioral and Exercise Program on Depression and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Azilyana; Justine, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary behavior and low participation in exercise among older adults can lead to depression and low quality of life (QOL). The current study investigated the effects of behavioral and exercise programs on depression severity and QOL among Malaysian community-dwelling older adults. A controlled, quasi-experimental, pre-posttest design was used. A total of 63 participants were divided into three groups: (a) exercise and behavior group (EBG), (b) exercise only group (EG), and (c) control group (CG). Results showed a significant difference in depression among groups (F(2,58) = 33.49, p < 0.01, η(2) = 0.54; mean, EBG < EG < CG) and in physical (F(2,58) = 5.33, p < 0.01, η(2)= 0.16; mean, EBG > EG > CG) and mental (F(2,58) = 4.08, p < 0.01, η(2) = 0.12; mean, EBG > CG > EG) scores of QOL. A combination of behavioral and exercise programs has superior effects on depression and QOL of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(2), 45-54.].

  7. High-mobility group box 1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and organ function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huebener, Peter; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Pradere, Jean-Philippe; Quinzii, Catarina M; Friedman, Richard; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Trent, Chad M; Mederacke, Ingmar; Zhao, Enpeng; Dapito, Dianne H; Lin, Yuxi; Goldberg, Ira J; Czaja, Mark J; Schwabe, Robert F

    2014-03-04

    In vitro studies have demonstrated a critical role for high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in autophagy and the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, resulting in severe mitochondrial fragmentation and profound disturbances of mitochondrial respiration in HMGB1-deficient cells. Here, we investigated the effects of HMGB1 deficiency on autophagy and mitochondrial function in vivo, using conditional Hmgb1 ablation in the liver and heart. Unexpectedly, deletion of Hmgb1 in hepatocytes or cardiomyocytes, two cell types with abundant mitochondria, did not alter mitochondrial structure or function, organ function, or long-term survival. Moreover, hepatic autophagy and mitophagy occurred normally in the absence of Hmgb1, and absence of Hmgb1 did not significantly affect baseline and glucocorticoid-induced hepatic gene expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that HMGB1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, the regulation of gene expression, and organ function in the adult organism.

  8. A path less traveled: A self-guided action science inquiry among a small group of adult learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkman, Daniel Vance

    This dissertation provides an analysis of the dialogue that occurred among a small group of adult learners who engaged in a self-guided action science inquiry into their own practice. The following pages describe how this group of five practitioners ventured into a critical, self-reflective inquiry into their own values, feelings, and intentions in search of personal and professional growth. It is a deeply revealing story that shows how, through group dialogue, the members gradually unravel the interconnections between their values, feelings, and intention. They uncover surprising and unanticipated patterns in their reasoning-in-action that reflect lessons from present day experiences as well as childhood axioms about what constitutes appropriate behavior. They push their learning further to recognize emotional triggers that are useful in confronting old habits of mind that must be overcome if new Model II strategies are to be learned and internalized. They conclude that becoming Model II requires a centering on basic values, a personal commitment to change, a willingness to persist in the face of resistance, and the wisdom to act with deliberate caution. The transformative power of this insight lies in the realization of what it takes personally and collectively to make the world a truly respectful, productive, democratic, and socially just place in which to live and work. The action science literature holds the assumption that a trained facilitator is needed to guide such an inquiry and the learning of Model II skills. Unfortunately, there are few educator-trainers available to facilitate the learning of Model II proficiencies over the months and years that may be required. The data presented here show that it is possible for a group of highly motivated individuals to initiate and sustain their own action science inquiry without the aid of a highly skilled facilitator. A model of the group dialogue is presented that highlights the salient characteristics of an

  9. Direct and Nondirect Marathon Group Therapy and Internal---External Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Investigates whether direct and nondirect therapist techniques within a 23-hour marathon format would differentially induce client shifts in locus of control. The no-treatment control group experienced a significant shift toward externality, while the marathon subjects did not fluctuate significantly from pretherapy to posttherapy. (Author)

  10. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Lee, H-S; Lee, S-S; Hwang, I-Y; Park, Y-J; Yoon, S-H; Han, K; Son, J-W; Ko, S-H; Park, Y G; Yim, H W; Lee, W-C; Park, Y-M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Korean adults with diagnosed diabetes using nationally representative data. Among subjects aged ≥30 years who participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007 and 2008, a total of 745 subjects (336 men and 409 women) with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was 55.5%. The rates of awareness, treatment and control were 88.0, 94.2, and 30.8%, respectively. Compared with the general population, the prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was higher in all age groups in both genders. Factors independently associated with a high prevalence of hypertension included being male, increasing age, single, <9 years of education, the presence of chronic kidney disease risk, hypercholesterolemia (≥240 mg dl(-1)) and high body mass index (≥25 kg m(-2)). Regular medical screening was positively associated with hypertension control, whereas a high triglyceride level (≥150 mg dl(-1)) was inversely associated. A high prevalence and a low control rate of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control blood pressure in diabetic patients.

  11. Immunoprotective effects of oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 in elderly adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Shoji; Toba, Masamichi; Saito, Takao; Sato, Ikutaro; Tsubouchi, Mina; Taira, Kiyoto; Kakumoto, Keiji; Inamatsu, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Fukaya, Taro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kohda, Noriyuki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-05-28

    Oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 (b240) has been shown to enhance the secretion of salivary secretory IgA in elderly adults. However, its clinical benefits remain to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that b240 exerts a protective effect against the common cold in elderly adults. The design of the present study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) with parallel three-group comparison. For this purpose, 300 eligible elderly adults were randomly allocated to one of three groups, namely a placebo, low-dose or high-dose b240 group. Participants in the low-dose and high-dose b240 groups were given tablets containing 2 × 10(9) or 2 × 10(10) cells, respectively, of heat-killed b240, while those in the placebo group were given tablets without b240. Each group consumed their respective tablets once daily for 20 weeks. The common cold was assessed on the basis of a diary. Change in quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36. Of the total participants, 280 completed the 20-week RCT. The accumulated incidence rate of the common cold was 47·3, 34·8 and 29·0 % for the placebo, low-dose b240 and high-dose b240 groups, respectively (P for trend = 0·012). Lower incidence rates were consistently observed throughout the experimental period in the b240 groups (log-rank test, P= 0·034). General health perception, as determined by the SF-36, dose-dependently increased in the b240 groups (P for trend = 0·016). In conclusion, oral intake of b240 significantly reduced the incidence rate of the common cold in elderly adults, indicating that b240 might be useful in improving resistance against infection through mucosal immunity.

  12. Debra-mediated Ci degradation controls tissue homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouhua; Guo, Yueqin; Han, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lai; Huang, Xudong; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-02-11

    Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, suggesting that increased Hedgehog (Hh) signaling contributes to ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Consistently, Hh signaling activation causes the same defects, whereas depletion of Hh signaling suppresses these defects. Furthermore, the Hh ligand from multiple sources is involved in ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we show that the JNK pathway acts downstream of Hh signaling to regulate ISC proliferation. Together, our results provide insights into the mechanisms of stem cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis control.

  13. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  14. Improving Medication Adherence and Health Outcomes in Older Adults: An Evidence-Based Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Zachary A.; Murray, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor medication adherence is a major public health problem in older adults often resulting in negative health outcomes. Objective The objective of this review was to provide an updated summary of evidence from randomized controlled studies to determine whether interventions aimed at improving medication adherence also improve the health outcomes of older adults residing in community-based settings. Methods Articles that assessed medication adherence interventions and related health outcomes in elderly individuals were identified through searches of MEDLINE (1970–June 2016), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (through to June 2016), and Google Scholar. Across the 12 included studies, interventions were grouped into three main categories: behavioral/educational (n = 3), pharmacist-led (n = 7), and reminder/simplification (n = 2). Results Among the behavioral/educational intervention studies, two showed improvements in both adherence and related health outcomes, whereas one found no changes in adherence or health outcomes. Among the pharmacist-led studies, three showed improvements in both adherence and related health outcomes, while three reported no changes in adherence or health outcomes. One found an improvement in adherence but not health outcomes. Among the reminder/simplification studies, both studies reported improvements in adherence without a significant impact on related health outcomes. Conclusion This evidence-based review of medication adherence interventions in older adults revealed promising strategies in the larger context of a largely mixed body of literature. Future patient-centered and multidisciplinary interventions should be developed and tested using evidence-based principles to improve medication adherence and health outcomes in older adults. PMID:28074410

  15. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    PubMed Central

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  16. Tai chi intervention improves dynamic postural control during gait initiation in older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Roberts, Beverly L; Hass, Chris J

    2014-12-01

    Tai Chi intervention has been shown to be beneficial for balance improvement. The current study examined the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve the dynamic postural control among older adults with mobility disability. Six sedentary older adults with mobility disability participated in a 16-week Tai Chi intervention consisting of one hour sessions three times a week. Dynamic postural control was assessed pre- and post intervention as participants initiated gait in four stepping conditions: forward; 45° medially, with the stepping leg crossing over the other leg; 45° and 90° laterally. The center of pressure (CoP) displacement, velocity, and its maximum separation distance from the center of mass in the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant directions were analyzed. Results showed that in the postural phase, Tai Chi increased the CoP mediolateral excursions in the medial (13%) and forward (28%) conditions, and resultant CoP center of mass distance in the medial (9%) and forward (19%) conditions. In the locomotion phase, the CoP mediolateral displacement and velocity significantly increased after the Tai Chi intervention (both by > 100% in the two lateral conditions). These results suggest that through alteration in CoP movement characteristics, Tai Chi intervention might improve the dynamic postural control during gait initiation among older adults.

  17. Working Memory and the Strategic Control of Attention in Older and Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on the strategic control of attention and the extent to which this relationship is mediated by working memory capacity (WMC). This study also sought to investigate boundary conditions wherein age differences in selectivity may occur. Method. Across 2 studies, the value-directed remembering task used by Castel and colleagues (Castel, A. D., Balota, D. A., & McCabe, D. P. (2009). Memory efficiency and the strategic control of attention at encoding: Impairments of value-directed remembering in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuropsychology, 23, 297–306) was modified to include value-directed forgetting. Study 2 incorporated valence as an additional task demand, and age differences were predicted in both studies due to increased demands of controlled processing. Automated operation span and Stroop span were included as working memory measures, and working memory was predicted to mediate performance. Results. Results confirmed these predictions, as older adults were less efficient in maximizing selectivity scores when high demands were placed on selectivity processes, and working memory was found to mediate performance on this task. Discussion. When list length was increased from previous studies and participants were required to actively forget negative-value words, older adults were not able to selectively encode high-value information to the same degree as younger adults. Furthermore, WMC appears to support the ability to selectively encode information. PMID:22865825

  18. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  19. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations.

  20. Cross-sectional study of glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Amarasekara Appuhamillage Thamara Dilhani; Fongkaew, Warunee; Wimalasekera, Savithri Wasundara; Turale, Sue; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, a global concern, and a serious issue in Sri Lanka, where there is little data regarding the influence of dietary control, exercise, and adherence to medication behaviors among adults diabetes. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we identified current factors influencing glycemic control and glycemic control behavior among adults with diabetes. A total of 230 people attending diabetes clinics in a tertiary hospital and a primary care institute were administered the self-report Diabetes Information Form, assessing their socioeconomic and medical information and glycemic control behaviors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores, and standard deviation. The results indicated that most participants had not achieved the recommended fasting blood glucose level (< 126 mg/dL). Although dietary control was practised by 72%, regular exercise was not practised by 85%, and while 77% reported adhering to regular medication, they still had poor glycemic control. The findings highlight the need for health professionals to adopt new strategies for diabetes education to overcome issues related to misconceptions and barriers in providing diabetes care in Sri Lanka.

  1. Evaluation of the preliminary effectiveness of hand massage therapy on postoperative pain of adults in the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boitor, Mădălina; Martorella, Géraldine; Arbour, Caroline; Michaud, Cécile; Gélinas, Céline

    2015-06-01

    Although many intensive care unit patients experience significant pain, very few studies explored massage to maximize their pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effects of hand massage on pain after cardiac surgery in the adult intensive care unit. A pilot randomized controlled trial was used for this study. The study was conducted in a Canadian medical-surgical intensive care unit. Forty adults who were admitted to the intensive care unit after undergoing elective cardiac surgery in the previous 24 hours participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) or control (n = 19) group. The experimental group received a 15-minute hand massage, and the control group received a 15-minute hand-holding without massage. In both groups the intervention was followed by a 30-minute rest period. The interventions were offered on 2-3 occasions within 24 hours after surgery. Pain, muscle tension, and vital signs were assessed. Pain intensity and behavioral scores were decreased for the experimental group. Although hand massage decreased muscle tension, fluctuations in vital signs were not significant. This study supports potential benefits of hand massage for intensive care unit postoperative pain management. Although larger randomized controlled trials are necessary, this low-cost nonpharmacologic intervention can be safely administered.

  2. Interference control in working memory: comparing groups of children with atypical development.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to test whether working memory deficits in children at risk of Learning Disabilities (LD) and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be attributed to deficits in interference control, thereby implicating prefrontal systems. Two groups of children known for showing poor working memory (i.e., children with poor comprehension and children with ADHD) were compared to a group of children with specific reading decoding problems (i.e., having severe problems in phonological rather than working memory) and to a control group. All children were tested with a verbal working memory task. Interference control of irrelevant items was examined by a lexical decision task presented immediately after the final recall in about half the trials, selected at random. The interference control measure was therefore directly related to working memory performance. Results confirmed deficient working memory performance in poor comprehenders and children at risk of ADHD + LD. More interestingly, this working memory deficit was associated with greater activation of irrelevant information than in the control group. Poor decoders showed more efficient interference control, in contrast to poor comprehenders and ADHD + LD children. These results indicated that interfering items were still highly accessible to working memory in children who fail the working memory task. In turn, these findings strengthen and clarify the role of interference control, one of the most critical prefrontal functions, in working memory.

  3. Nonspecific ST-T changes associated with unsatisfactory blood pressure control among adults with hypertension in China

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huihui; Cai, Huaxiu; Zhao, Yan; Huang, Xiao; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Chunyan; Li, Juxiang; Chen, Jing; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Qinhua; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Li, Yigang; Huo, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nonspecific ST-segment and T-wave (ST-T) changes represent one of the most prevalent electrocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the association between nonspecific ST-T changes and unsatisfactory blood pressure (BP) control in adults with hypertension. The study population comprised 15,038 hypertensive patients, who were selected from 20,702 participants in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The subjects were examined with electrocardiogram test at the initial visit in order to monitor baseline heart activity. According to the results of the electrocardiogram (defined by Minnesota coding), the subjects were divided into 2 groups: ST-T abnormal and ST-T normal. Unsatisfactory BP control was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg following antihypertensive treatment during the 4.5-year follow-up period. Multivariate analysis was used to analyze the association between nonspecific ST-T abnormalities and unsatisfactory BP control. Nonspecific ST-T changes were common in hypertensive adults (approximately 8.5% in the study), and more prevalent in women (10.3%) and diabetic patients (13.9%). The unsatisfactory BP control rate was high in the total population (47.0%), notably in the ST-T abnormal group (55.5%). The nonspecific ST-T abnormal group exhibited a significantly greater rate of unsatisfactory BP control (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 1.36], P = 0.005]), independent of traditional risk factors, as demonstrated by multivariate regression analysis. Notable differences were further observed in male subjects (OR 1.51, 95% CI [1.17, 1.94], P = 0.002) and in patients with comorbid diabetes (OR 1.47, 95% CI [1.04, 2.07], P = 0.029). Greater rates of unsatisfactory BP control in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic nonspecific ST-T abnormalities were observed, notably in the subcategories of the male

  4. Attitudes about internet support groups among adolescents and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 and their parents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Staci; Wolters, Pamela L; Baldwin, Andrea; Roderick, Marie Claire; Toledo-Tamula, Mary Anne; Gillespie, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte

    2014-10-01

    Youth with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have multiple, complex symptoms associated with physical, social-emotional, and cognitive difficulties. In addition, caring for a child with NF1 can be extremely challenging for parents. Since research with other chronic illness populations suggests that social support, including internet support groups (ISGs), can be beneficial, this survey study aimed to determine the attitudes and preferences of adolescents and young adults with NF1 and parents of a child with NF1 regarding ISGs. Thirty patients and 30 caregivers completed a 24-item survey about ISGs. Many patients and parents are not aware of any ISGs for NF1, but are interested in using one in the future for a variety of reasons, including to get answers to their questions about NF1, to find out about research studies, and to discuss problems and concerns about NF1. Specific concerns of interest include physical, social-emotional, and cognitive aspects of NF1. ISGs have potential as a social support intervention within the NF1 community. ISGs for the NF1 population should include patients with NF1 (or parents of children with NF1) as well as a health professional, and both chat rooms and discussion boards likely would be well-received.

  5. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  6. What determines the outcomes for adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on cooperative group protocols? A comparison of Children's Cancer Group and Cancer and Leukemia Group B studies.

    PubMed

    Stock, Wendy; La, Mei; Sanford, Ben; Bloomfield, Clara D; Vardiman, James W; Gaynon, Paul; Larson, Richard A; Nachman, James

    2008-09-01

    We performed a retrospective comparison of presenting features, planned treatment, complete remission (CR) rate, and outcome of 321 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 16 to 20 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who were treated on consecutive trials in either the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) or the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) from 1988 to 2001. CR rates were identical, 90% for both CALGB and CCG AYAs. CCG AYAs had a 63% event-free survival (EFS) and 67% overall survival (OS) at 7 years in contrast to the CALGB AYAs, in which 7-year EFS was only 34% (P < .001; relative hazard rate [RHR] = 2.2) and OS was 46% (P < .001; RHR = 1.9). While CALGB AYAs aged 16 to 17 years achieved similar outcomes to all CCG AYAs with a 7-year EFS of 55%, the EFS for 18- to 20-year-old CALGB patients was only 29%. Comparison of the regimens showed that CCG AYAs received earlier and more intensive central nervous system prophylaxis and higher cumulative doses of nonmyelosuppressive agents. There were no differences in outcomes of those who reached maintenance therapy on time compared with those who were delayed. Based on these observations, a prospective study for AYAs with ALL using the more successful approach of the CCG has been initiated.

  7. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  8. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Matsubayashi, Junko; Hamada, Kasumi; Okuhata, Shiho; Yahata, Noriaki; Igarashi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Shingo; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Nobumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kano, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  9. “Knowing That You're Not the Only One”: Perspectives on Group-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Esbitt, Sabrina A.; Batchelder, Abigail W.; Tanenbaum, Molly L.; Shreck, Erica; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and illness-specific distress are more common among adults with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) than the general population and have been associated with poorer control of blood glucose and increased risk for serious diabetes-related complications. Treatment nonadherence has also been associated with depressive symptoms and diabetes-related distress, and has repeatedly been suggested as an important modifiable behavioral pathway linking depression and diabetes outcomes. The present study reports on the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot intervention using group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to improve treatment adherence among adults with T1DM and elevated levels of diabetes-related distress or depressive symptoms. We describe the components of the intervention and utilize qualitative data along with descriptive outcome data. Our findings suggest that participation in the group was acceptable and associated with reductions in depressive symptoms and diabetes-specific distress. Challenges to feasibility and future directions are discussed. PMID:26279614

  10. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Block, Dena H. S.; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A.; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity. PMID:26016853

  11. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Block, Dena H S; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-05-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity.

  12. The growing gap in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Small, James; Nietert, Paul J; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are lower among uninsured than insured adults. Time trends in differences and underlying modifiable factors are important for informing strategies to improve health equity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 data in adults aged 18 to 64 years were analyzed to explore this opportunity. The proportion of adults with hypertension who were uninsured increased from 12.3% in 1988 to 1994 to 17.4% in 2005 to 2010. In 1988 to 1994, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control to <140/<90 mm Hg (30.1% versus 26.5%; P=0.27) were similar in insured and uninsured adults. By 2005 to 2010, the absolute gap in hypertension control between uninsured and insured adults of 21.9% (52.5% versus 30.6%; P<0.001) was explained approximately equally by lower awareness (65.2% versus 80.7%), fewer aware adults treated (75.2% versus 88.5%), and fewer treated adults controlled (63.1% versus 73.5%; all P<0.001). Publicly insured and uninsured adults had similar income. Yet, hypertension control was similar across time periods in publicly and privately insured adults, despite lower income and education in the former. In multivariable analysis, hypertension control in 2005 to 2010 was associated with visit frequency (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.8]), statin therapy (1.8 [1.4-2.3]), and healthcare insurance (1.6 [1.2-2.2]) but not poverty index (1.04 [0.96-1.12]). Public or private insurance linked to more frequent healthcare, greater awareness and effective treatment of hypertension, and appropriate statin use could reverse a long-term trend of growing inequity in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults.

  13. Hope matters to the glycemic control of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fábio R M; Sigulem, Daniel; Areco, Kelsy C N; Gabbay, Monica A L; Dib, Sergio A; Bernardo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the association of hope and its factors with depression and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A total of 113 patients were invited to participate. Significant negative correlations were found between hope and HbA1c and also between hope and depression. Hope showed a significant association with HbA1c and depression in the stepwise regression model. Among the hope factors, "inner positive expectancy" was significantly associated with HbA1c and depression. This study supports that hope matters to glycemic control and depression. Intervention strategies focusing on hope should be further explored.