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Sample records for adult cotton rats

  1. The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

    2003-09-01

    In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (≤ 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

  2. Trophoblast Deportation to the Lungs of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    PubMed Central

    Perle, Krista M D La; Green, M Gia; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) have been used to study a variety of infectious agents, particularly human respiratory viral pathogens. During the course of comprehensive pathologic evaluations of aging breeders from our breeding colony, 6 of 22 (27%) female cotton rats had histologic evidence, limited to the lungs, of embolized cells that were confirmed to be trophoblastic in origin by HSD3B1 immunoreactivity. When pulmonary trophoblast emboli were numerous, they usually were associated with additional histologic findings in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, endothelial hypertrophy, fibrinoid vascular necrosis, and abundant alveolar macrophages containing fresh fibrin and hemolyzing erythrocytes. Of the 6 cotton rats with pulmonary trophoblast emboli, 5 (83%) were at 8 to 18 d of the 27-d gestation period, with the greatest number of emboli per lung present between days 10 through 14. The remaining cotton rat had a focal pulmonary trophoblast embolus and was not pregnant but had delivered a litter 3 mo previously. Three other cotton rats in either the early or late stages of gestation showed no histologic evidence of pulmonary trophoblast deportation. This report is the first to document pulmonary trophoblast emboli in cotton rats. This finding suggests that cotton rats may be an alternative animal model for the study of normal and aberrant trophoblast deportation in routine pregnancies and gestational pathologic conditions in women. PMID:25527025

  3. Impact of food supplementation and methionine on high densities of cotton rats: Support of the amino-acid-quality hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research supports the tenet that quantity and quality of food limit vertebrate populations. We evaluated predictions that increased availabilities of food and the essential amino acid methionine were related to population limitation of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Effects of supplemental food and methionine on density, survival, and reproductive parameters of wild cotton rats were assessed in north-central Oklahoma in 1998-1999. Twelve enclosed groups of 16 adult cotton rats each (8 male, 8 female) were randomly assigned to either no supplementation (control), supplementation with a mixed ration that had methionine at slightly below maintenance levels (0.20%), or a methionine-enhanced mixed ration (1.20%). In general, densities of cotton rats were twice as high and were sustained longer with dietary supplementation, and methionine-supplemented populations maintained the highest densities. Treatment effects on survival depended on time of year, with higher survival in supplemented enclosures in October and November. Per capita recruitment was highest with methionine-enhanced food. Treatment effects on proportions of overall and female cotton rats in reproductive condition depended on sampling date, but males were most reproductively active with methionine supplementation. Methionine supplementation resulted in an earlier and longer reproductive season. Density-dependent and density-independent factors no doubt interplay to determine population dynamics of cotton rats, but our results suggest that methionine plays a role in the population dynamics of wild cotton rats, apparently by enhancing overall density, recruitment, and reproductive activity of males.

  4. Cotton Rats Alter Foraging in Response to an Invasive Ant

    PubMed Central

    Darracq, Andrea K.; Conner, L. Mike; Brown, Joel S.; McCleery, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effects of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta; hereafter fire ant) on the foraging of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). We used a manipulative experiment, placing resource patches with a known amount of millet seed within areas with reduced (RIFA [–]) or ambient (RIFA [+]) numbers of fire ants. We measured giving up densities (the amount of food left within each patch) within the resource patches for 4 days to quantify the effects of fire ants on cotton rat foraging. We assessed the effects of fire ant treatment (RIFA), Day, and their interaction on cotton rat giving up densities. Giving up densities on RIFA [+] grids were nearly 2.2 times greater across all foraging days and ranged from 1.6 to 2.3 times greater from day 1 to day 4 than the RIFA [–] grids. From day 1 to day 4, mean giving up densities decreased significantly faster for the RIFA [–] than RIFA [+] treatments, 58% and 13%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that cotton rats perceive a risk of injury from fire ants, which is likely caused by interference competition, rather than direct predation. Envenomation from ants likely decrease the foraging efficiency of cotton rats resulting in more time spent foraging. Increased time spent foraging is likely stressful in terms of the opportunity for direct injury and encounters with other predators. These indirect effects may reduce an individual cotton rat’s fitness and translate into lowered population abundances. PMID:27655320

  5. The microbial community structure of the cotton rat nose.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Plumeier, Iris; Kahl, Silke; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Oxley, Andrew P A; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-12-01

    The cotton rat nose is commonly used as a model for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, as it is both physiologically and anatomically comparable to the human nares and can be easily colonized by this organism. However, while the colonization of the human anterior nares has been extensively studied, the microbial community structure of cotton rat noses has not been reported so far. We describe here the microbial community structure of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) nose through next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons covering the V1-V2 region and the analysis of nearly full length 16S rRNA genes of the major phylotypes. Roughly half of the microbial community was composed of two undescribed species of the genus Campylobacter, with phylotypes belonging to the genera Catonella, Acholeplasma, Streptobacillus and Capnocytophaga constituting the predominant community members. Thus, the nasal community of the cotton rat is uniquely composed of several novel bacterial species and may not reflect the complex interactions that occur in human anterior nares. Mammalian airway microbiota may, however, be a rich source of hitherto unknown microbes.

  6. Agnonistic behavior in organized and disorganized cotton rat populations.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J L; Summerlin, C T

    1968-04-05

    Agonistic interaction rate is significantly lower in groups of caged cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from naturally occurring organized populations than in groups composed of strangers. Some type of social structure is apparently present between animals sharing a common area under natural conditions. After a 24-hour period, there is no significant difference in the behavior of the two groups, an indication that a social structure is rapidly formed in the disorganized groups.

  7. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  8. Physical barriers for suppression of movement of adult stink bugs into cotton.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2014-01-01

    Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the southeastern USA. Because adult stink bugs exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strategic placement of physical barriers at these interfaces could manage these pests. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a physical barrier, either synthetic or plant-based, at the peanut-to-cotton interface for suppressing stink bugs that would move to cotton. In 2012 and 2013, sorghum sudangrass (2.4 and 2.1 m high, respectively) was significantly taller than cotton (1.4 and 1.3 m high, respectively) which was taller than peanut (0.4 and 0.5 m high, respectively). Buckwheat (0.6 m high), planted only in 2012, was significantly taller than peanut, but shorter than cotton. For both years of the study, sorghum sudangrass and a 1.8-m-high polypropylene barrier wall effectively deterred dispersal of stink bugs into cotton. Because each of these barriers was taller than cotton, their success in protecting cotton likely was due to disruption of the flight of stink bugs from low-growing peanut into cotton. The shortest barrier wall (0.6-m-high) did not suppress stink bug dispersal into cotton probably because it was approximately the same height as peanut. In 2012, flowering buckwheat increased the efficacy of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) attacking N. viridula in cotton although it did not deter dispersal of stink bugs. In conclusion, a barrier at least as tall as cotton can effectively retard the entry of stink bug adults into cotton.

  9. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a significant agricultural commodity throughout the world that is used primarily for its fibers to manufacture textiles, but with notable secondary value for its seeds. As cotton oil mills began to operate and products other than whole cottonseed became available, the value of cottonseed ...

  10. Physical barriers for suppression of movement of adult stink bugs into cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in farmscapes in the southeastern USA. Because adult stink bugs exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strategic placement o...

  11. Sweepnet captures of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera:Miridae) adult genders and age-classes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton usually relies on population estimates obtained using the sweepnet. Recent studies indicated adult L. hesperus gender and physiological age influence feeding behavior, within-plant distribution, and injury to cotton. W...

  12. Adult vial bioassays of insecticidal toxicity against cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glass vials coated with several technical insecticides were used to determine the contact toxicity of insecticides on adult laboratory-reared and field-collected cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter). For the 17 insecticides evaluated for laboratory-reared cotton fleahoppers, bifent...

  13. The Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on the Behavior of the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus):Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, G.W.; Drelin, E.A.; Mabry, K.E.

    2001-07-01

    The authors studied the movements of cotton rats and cotton mice in experimental landscapes at the SRS in order to determine the effects of fragmentation and connectivity between habitat patches on dispersal movements and population dynamics. Densities between connected and isolated patches were not different. Small patches tended to support higher densities. Cotton rats were more common in corridors than expected and cotton mice were more likely to leave by a corridor.

  14. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Population dynamics of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) across a nitrogen-amended landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.E.; Hellgren, E.C.; Jorgensen, E.E.; Tunnell, S.J.; Engle, David M.; Leslie, David M.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a mark-recapture experiment to examine the population dynamics of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to low-level nitrogen amendments (16.4 kg nitrogen/ha per year) and exclosure fencing in an old-field grassland. The experimental design consisted of sixteen 0.16-ha plots with 4 replicates of each treatment combination. We predicted that densities, reproductive success, movement probabilities, and survival rates of cotton rats would be greater on nitrogen-amended plots because of greater aboveground biomass and canopy cover. Population densities of cotton rats tended to be highest on fenced nitrogen plots, but densities on unfenced nitrogen plots were similar to those on control and fenced plots. We observed no distinct patterns in survival rates, reproductive success, or movement probabilities with regard to nitrogen treatments. However, survival rates and reproductive success tended to be higher for cotton rats on fenced plots than for those on unfenced plots and this was likely attributable to decreased predation on fenced plots. As low-level nitrogen amendments continue to be applied, we predict that survival, reproduction, and population-growth rates of cotton rats on control plots, especially fenced plots with no nitrogen amendment, will eventually exceed those on nitrogen-amended plots as a result of higher plant-species diversity, greater food availability, and better quality cover.

  16. Receptor characterization and susceptibility of cotton rats to avian and 2009 pandemic influenza virus strains.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge C G; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Wan, Hongquan; Araya, Yonas; Angel, Matthew; Oue, Raymonde O; Sutton, Troy C; Perez, Daniel R

    2013-02-01

    Animal influenza viruses (AIVs) are a major threat to human health and the source of pandemic influenza. A reliable small-mammal model to study the pathogenesis of infection and for testing vaccines and therapeutics against multiple strains of influenza virus is highly desirable. We show that cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are susceptible to avian and swine influenza viruses. Cotton rats express α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) and α2,6-linked SA residues in the trachea and α2,6-linked SA residues in the lung parenchyma. Prototypic avian influenza viruses (H3N2, H9N2, and H5N1) and swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses replicated in the nose and in the respiratory tract of cotton rats without prior adaptation and produced strong lung pathology that was characterized by early lung neutrophilia, followed by subsequent pneumonia. Consistent with other natural and animal models of influenza, only the H5N1 virus was lethal for cotton rats. More importantly, we show that the different avian and pandemic H1N1 strains tested are strong activators of the type I interferon (IFN)-inducible MX-1 gene both locally and systemically. Our data indicate that the cotton rat is a suitable small-mammal model to study the infection of animal influenza viruses and for validation of vaccines and therapeutics against these viruses.

  17. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  18. Maternal transfer of RSV immunity in cotton rats vaccinated during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jorge C G; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Oue, Raymonde O; Patel, Mira C; Boukhvalova, Marina S

    2015-10-05

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is currently no RSV vaccine. Although maternal serum antibodies against RSV are efficiently transferred through placenta protecting human infants from RSV-induced disease, this protection is short-lived and the methods for extending and augmenting protection are not known. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of maternal RSV vaccination using the Sigmodon hispidus cotton rat. Naïve or RSV-primed female cotton rats were inoculated with live RSV and set in breeding pairs. Antibody transfer to the litters was quantified and the offspring were challenged with RSV at different ages for analysis of protection against viral replication and lung inflammation. There was a strong correlation between RSV-neutralizing antibody (NA) titers in cotton rat mothers and their pups, which also correlated with protection of litters against virus challenge. Passive protection was short-lived and strongly reduced in animals at 4 weeks after birth. Protection of litters was significantly enhanced by inoculating mothers parenterally with live RSV and inversely correlated with the expression of lung cytokines and pathology. Importantly, vaccination and boosting of naïve mothers with the live RSV produced the highest levels of NAs. We conclude that maternal vaccination against RSV in the cotton rat can be used to define vaccine preparations that could improve preexistent immunity and induce subsequent transfer of efficient immunity to infants.

  19. Maternal Transfer of RSV Immunity in Cotton Rats Vaccinated During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Jorge C. G.; Pletneva, Lioubov M.; Oue, Raymonde O.; Patel, Mira C.; Boukhvalova, Marina S.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is currently no RSV vaccine. Although maternal serum antibodies against RSV are efficiently transferred through placenta protecting human infants from RSV-induced disease, this protection is short-lived and the methods for extending and augmenting protection are not known. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of maternal RSV vaccination using the Sigmodon hispidus cotton rat. Naïve or RSV-primed female cotton rats were inoculated with live RSV and set in breeding pairs. Antibody transfer to the litters was quantified and the offspring were challenged with RSV at different ages for analysis of protection against viral replication and lung inflammation. There was a strong correlation between RSV-neutralizing antibody (NA) titers in cotton rat mothers and their pups, which also correlated with protection of litters against virus challenge. Passive protection was short-lived and strongly reduced in animals at 4 weeks after birth. Protection of litters was significantly enhanced by inoculating mothers parenterally with live RSV and inversely correlated with the expression of lung cytokines and pathology. Importantly, vaccination and boosting of naïve mothers with the live RSV produced the highest levels of NAs. We conclude that maternal vaccination against RSV in the cotton rat can be used to define vaccine preparations that could improve preexistent immunity and induce subsequent transfer of efficient immunity to infants. PMID:26335771

  20. CATASTROPHIC DECLINE OF A HIGH-DENSITY POPULATION OF COTTON RATS (SIGMODIN HISPIDUS) IN CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Along the northern periphery of their range, populations of the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, are vulnerable to major reductions in density and occasional local extinctions as a result of severe winter weather. Between our sampling periods on 3 December 2000 and 14 Januar...

  1. Spontaneous ECL cell carcinomas in cotton rats: natural course and prevention by a gastrin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Tom C; Kawase, Shiro; Håkanson, Rolf; Torp, Sverre H; Fossmark, Reidar; Qvigstad, Gunnar; Sandvik, Arne K; Waldum, Helge L

    2003-12-01

    In our inbred strain of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) 50% of the females develop spontaneous ECL cell-derived tumors in the acid-producing part of the stomach due to hypergastrinemia secondary to gastric hypoacidity. Although the mechanism behind the hypoacidity is unknown, the female cotton rat is an excellent model for studying ECL cell-related tumorigenesis. In this study we wanted to explore the malignancy potential of these tumors and the ability of a gastrin receptor antagonist (YF476) to prevent their development. First, nine hypergastrinemic female cotton rats (10 months of age) were diagnosed by laparotomy as having gastric tumors. They were killed 6 months later. Second, 18 female cotton rats (2 months of age) were dosed monthly for 6 months with YF476 (500 micro mol/kg body wt) by s.c. injection, while 21 age-matched animals received vehicle. Samples from each stomach were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry and northern blot analysis. The gastric tumors harbored cells with immunohistochemical features of ECL cells. The tumors were found at times to invade and penetrate the stomach wall and to metastasize to perigastric sites. ECL-derived tumor cells were discovered in peritoneal fluid. At death only 1 out of 18 animals given YF476 displayed carcinomas (invasive growth), compared with 7 out of 21 in the vehicle dosed control group (P = 0.048). The spontaneous gastric tumors in cotton rats derived from ECL cells. The tumors were able to penetrate the stomach wall and to metastasize by intracavital seeding. Gastrin receptor blockade lowered the incidence of such tumors. We propose that the tumors are ECL cell carcinomas and that gastrin is the driving force behind the transformation from normal to malignant ECL cells.

  2. Notes on the distribution of eastern woodrats and hispid cotton rats in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wills, H.D.; Geluso, Keith; Smits, E.J.; Springer, J.T.; Newton, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana) and hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) reach distributional limits in southern Nebraska (Jones 1964, Farney 1975). In the last half century, both species have expanded their distributional ranges in the region (Kugler and Geluso 2009, Wright et al. 2010). Herein, we report new localities of occurrence for both species that extend known distributional boundaries in south-central Nebraska beyond those reported by Kugler and Geluso (2009) and Wright et al. (2010).

  3. Antibody Contributes to Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-29

    significant portion of recorded history. The most notable pandemic in recent history was the 1918 “ Spanish Flu” influenza A pandemic, which caused an...1918-1920 " Spanish " influenza pandemic. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 76: 105- 115. Kilbourne, E. 2006. Influenza Immunity: New Insights from...contributes to heterosubtypic protection against influenza A-induced tachypnea in cotton rats" Name of Candidate: r. Timothy M. Straight Doctor of

  4. Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Wildner, Oliver; Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C.; Ramanan, Vijay; Prince, Gregory A.; Morris, John C.

    2007-12-05

    Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

  5. The cotton rat provides a useful small-animal model for the study of influenza virus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ottolini, Martin G; Blanco, Jorge C G; Eichelberger, Maryna C; Porter, David D; Pletneva, Lioubov; Richardson, Joann Y; Prince, Gregory A

    2005-10-01

    Influenza A virus continues to cause annual epidemics. The emergence of avian viruses in the human population poses a pandemic threat, and has highlighted the need for more effective influenza vaccines and antivirals. Development of such therapeutics would be enhanced by the use of a small-animal model that is permissive for replication of human influenza virus, and for which reagents are available to dissect the host response. A model is presented of nasal and pulmonary infection in adult inbred cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) that does not require viral 'adaptation'. It was previously demonstrated that animals infected intranasally with 10(7) TCID50 of a recent H3N2 influenza, A/Wuhan/359/95, have increased breathing rates. In this report it is shown that this is accompanied by weight loss and decreased temperature. Virus replication peaked within 24 h in the lung, with peak titres proportional to the infecting dose, clearing by day 3. Replication was more permissive in nasal tissues, and persisted for 6 days. Pulmonary pathology included early bronchiolar epithelial cell damage, followed by extensive alveolar and interstitial pneumonia, which persisted for nearly 3 weeks. Interleukin 1 alpha (IL1alpha), alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IL6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), GROalpha and MIP-1beta mRNA were elevated soon after infection, and expression coincided with virus replication. A biphasic response was observed for RANTES, IFN-gamma, IL4, IL10 and IL12-p40, with increased mRNA levels early during virus replication followed by a later increase that coincided with pulmonary inflammation. These results indicate that cotton rats will be useful for further studies of influenza pathogenesis and immunity.

  6. Induction of aneurysms in the rat by a stenosing cotton ligature around the inter-renal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne-Pellegrin, M. J.; Coutard, M.; Poitevin, P.; Michel, J. B.; Levy, B. I.

    1994-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms have been induced in the rat by combining the chemotactic property of cotton for inflammatory cells and the resulting granuloma formation with the mechanical and haemodynamic stress of aortic coarctation. A stenosing cotton ligature was placed around the aorta, between the renal arteries, in male Wistar rats under standardized conditions. Three months later, 7 out of 12 rats (58%) had developed saccular aneurysms of the inter-renal aorta. The aneurysmal wall consisted of a collagenous shell with a few newly formed elastic fibrils on its luminal side. Detailed histological studies of the inter-renal aorta at different times after placing stenosing or non-stenosing cotton or nylon ligatures between the renal arteries, together with studies using anti-hypertensive therapy (cilazapril) and immunohistochemical studies using an anti-macrophage antibody (ED1) were performed to try to establish cellular events involved in this aneurysmal remodelling. We conclude that in this model aneurysm formation requires (i) deep mechanical injury to the aortic wall, (ii) the presence of hypertension upstream to the stenosis and (iii) an inflammatory response to the cotton ligature. The early inflammatory reaction was less in the case of nylon and although macrophages were present in both cases the most striking difference was the greater incidence of PMNs in the case of cotton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8086315

  7. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  8. Acute and Chronic Airway Disease After Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Grieves, Jessica L; Yin, Zhiwei; Durbin, Russell K; Durbin, Joan E

    2015-08-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) generally presents as a mild, upper airway disease in human patients but may cause severe lower airway disease in the very young and very old. Progress toward understanding the mechanisms of RSV pathogenesis has been hampered by a lack of relevant rodent models. Mice, the species most commonly used in RSV research, are resistant to upper respiratory infection and do not recapitulate the pattern of virus spread in the human host. To address the need for better rodent models of RSV infection, we have characterized the acute and chronic pathology of RSV infection of a relatively permissive host, cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). We demonstrate that virus delivered to the upper airway results in widespread RSV replication in the ciliated respiratory epithelial cells of the nasal cavity and, to a lesser extent, of the lung. Although acute inflammation is relatively mild and rapidly eliminated after viral clearance, chronic, eosinophilic lung pathology persists. These data support the use of cotton rats as a robust rodent model of human RSV disease, including the association between RSV pneumonia and subsequent development of allergic asthma.

  9. Acute and Chronic Airway Disease After Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, Jessica L; Yin, Zhiwei; Durbin, Russell K; Durbin, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) generally presents as a mild, upper airway disease in human patients but may cause severe lower airway disease in the very young and very old. Progress toward understanding the mechanisms of RSV pathogenesis has been hampered by a lack of relevant rodent models. Mice, the species most commonly used in RSV research, are resistant to upper respiratory infection and do not recapitulate the pattern of virus spread in the human host. To address the need for better rodent models of RSV infection, we have characterized the acute and chronic pathology of RSV infection of a relatively permissive host, cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). We demonstrate that virus delivered to the upper airway results in widespread RSV replication in the ciliated respiratory epithelial cells of the nasal cavity and, to a lesser extent, of the lung. Although acute inflammation is relatively mild and rapidly eliminated after viral clearance, chronic, eosinophilic lung pathology persists. These data support the use of cotton rats as a robust rodent model of human RSV disease, including the association between RSV pneumonia and subsequent development of allergic asthma. PMID:26310461

  10. Intranasal nanoemulsion-based inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccines protect against viral challenge in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    O'Konek, Jessica J; Makidon, Paul E; Landers, Jeffrey J; Cao, Zhengyi; Malinczak, Carrie-Anne; Pannu, Jessie; Sun, Jennifer; Bitko, Vira; Ciotti, Susan; Hamouda, Tarek; Wojcinski, Zbigniew W; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Fattom, Ali; Baker, James R

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants, the elderly and individuals with compromised immune systems. Despite decades of research, there is currently no available vaccine for RSV. Our group has previously demonstrated that intranasal immunization of mice with RSV inactivated by and adjuvanted with W805EC nanoemulsion elicits robust humoral and cellular immune responses, resulting in protection against RSV infection. This protection was achieved without the induction of airway hyper-reactivity or a Th2-skewed immune response. The cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus has been used for years as an excellent small animal model of RSV disease. Thus, we extended these rodent studies to the more permissive cotton rat model. Intranasal immunization of the nanoemulsion-adjuvanted RSV vaccines induced high antibody titers and a robust Th1-skewed cellular response. Importantly, vaccination provided sterilizing cross-protective immunity against a heterologous RSV challenge and did not induce marked or severe histological effects or eosinophilia in the lung after viral challenge. Overall, these data demonstrate that nanoemulsion-formulated whole RSV vaccines are both safe and effective for immunization in multiple animal models.

  11. Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide inhalation on oxidative stress in rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    HAN, ZHI-HAI; JIANG, YI; DUAN, YUN-YOU; WANG, XIAO-YANG; HUANG, YAN; FANG, TING-ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhalation protects against oxidative stress in rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated randomly into four groups, which included the control, H2S, smoke and smoke + H2S groups. A rat model of cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury was established following inhalation of 30% oxygen for 6 h. In addition, H2S (80 ppm) was inhaled by the rats in the H2S and smoke + H2S groups for 6 h following smoke or sham-smoke inhalation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to measure various indices in the rat lung homogenate, while the levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κBp65 in the lung tissue of the rats were determined and semiquantitatively analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the rat lung tissue. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), inducible iNOS and NF-κBp65, as well as the sum-integrated optical density of NF-κBp65 and the relative mRNA expression of iNOS, in the rat lung tissue from the smoke + H2S group were significantly lower when compared with the smoke group. The concentrations of MDA, NO, iNOS and NF-κBp65 in the H2S group were comparable to that of the control group. Therefore, inhalation of 80 ppm H2S may reduce iNOS mRNA transcription and the production of iNOS and NO in rats by inhibiting NF-κBp65 activation, subsequently decreasing oxidative stress and cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury. PMID:26170929

  12. Evaluation of antiviral efficacy against human respiratory syncytial virus using cotton rat and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, Joke; Kwanten, Leen; Roymans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Infection with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in infants, young children, and elderly persons. No vaccine is available today and hRSV treatment options are limited. As a consequence, the treatment of hRSV infection remains largely supportive and new therapeutic options are needed to treat severe lower respiratory tract hRSV disease. Several animal models have been developed to study hRSV disease and evaluate novel therapies or preventive measures such as vaccines. However, each of these models reproduces different aspects of hRSV disease, and therefore, an appropriate model should be selected on the basis of the scientific question under investigation. In this chapter, we describe how cotton rats and Balb/c mice are used in our laboratory to test the in vivo efficacy of small-molecule inhibitors against hRSV.

  13. Simulation of cotton rat population dynamics and response to rodenticide applications in Florida sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montague, Clay L.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1990-01-01

    Alternative deterministic simulation models were compared to test the management consequences of present uncertainty about the degree of density dependence involved in cotton rat population cycles in southern Florida sugarcane fields. Efficacy of rodenticide applied in different months was explored under six different scenarios of density dependence and independence in two population parameters: fecundity and juvenile survival. Output from the six models differed considerably in the number of rats produced, but was remarkably consistent in the most effective months to apply rodenticide. Since models without density-dependent fecundity were inherently unstable and an inverse relationship between fecundity and population size is apparent in field data, such a population-growth mechanism seems possible in Florida sugarcane fields. The model in which fecundity was density-dependent at all times produced rat densities closest to field data. Output from this model was most sensitive to changes in the amount litter size declines as population size increases. Field tests are necessary to validate the general agreement among the models about the most effective months to apply rodenticide.

  14. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-07-15

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of drop cloth sampling efficiency for lygus adults in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, is a key pest of cotton in western production regions. Although the sweep net is the predominant sampling method used for lygus in California cotton, the drop cloth is used in other regions and may be more effective than the sweep net for sampl...

  16. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Elangbam, C.S.; Qualls, C.W.,Jr.; Bauduy, M. )

    1989-05-01

    Wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are ubiquitous throughout the Southeast quadrant of the United States, easy to capture, have a generation interval of less than one year and a limited range of movement (less than one hectare). This species may prove to be an excellent model for monitoring environmental contamination. Traditionally, cytochrome P-450 inducing agents are grouped into two classes. One, represented by phenobarbital, induces P-450b and P-450e; the other, represented by 3-methylcholanthrene, induces P-450c and P-450d isoenzymes. The types and amounts of cytochrome P-450 vary among species, organs, health status, sex, and stress of the animal. If the levels of cytochrome P-450 of wild cotton rats are to be used in monitoring environmental pollution, it is necessary to characterize the inducibility and concentration of cytochrome P-450 in this species. This study was designed to determine the concentration and inducibility of cytochrome P-450 in the livers of cotton rats after intraperitoneal (ip) administration of phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene.

  17. Ecotoxicological risks associated with land treatment of petrochemical wastes. I. Residual soil contamination and bioaccumulation by cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Schroder, Jackie; Basta, Nicholas; Payton, Mark; Wilson, James; Carlson, Ruth; Janz, David; Lochmiller, Robert

    2003-02-28

    Petrochemical waste contains both organic and inorganic contaminants that can pollute soil and may pose significant ecological risks to wildlife. Petrochemical waste typically is disposed of in land treatment units, which are widespread throughout Oklahoma and the United States. Few studies have been conducted evaluating possible toxicity risks to terrestrial organisms residing on these units. In this study, the extent of soil contamination with fluoride (F), metals, and organic hydrocarbons, the bioaccumulation of F and metals in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), the relationship between contaminants in soil and in tissues of cotton rats, and the level of potentially toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil were determined on land treatment units. Over a 2-yr period, cotton rats and soils were collected and analyzed from 5 land treatment and matched reference units. The number of land treatment units with soil metal contamination (in parentheses) included: Cr, Cu, Pb (5). Al, As, Ni, Sr, Zn (4). Ba (3). and Cd, V (2). The number of land treatment units with soil PAH contamination (in parentheses) were naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene (3). acenaphthene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (2). and acenaphthylene, fluorene, fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene (1). Total PAH and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were elevated at all five land treatment units. Mean sums of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalents (BaPequiv ) were not affected on

  18. Enterovirus D-68 Infection, Prophylaxis, and Vaccination in a Novel Permissive Animal Model, the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mira C.; Wang, Wei; Pletneva, Lioubov M.; Rajagopala, Seesandra V.; Tan, Yi; Hartert, Tina V.; Boukhvalova, Marina S.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in detection of Enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) among patients with severe respiratory infections worldwide. EV-D68 is now recognized as a re-emerging pathogen; however, due to lack of a permissive animal model for EV-D68, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and immune response against EV-D68 has been hampered. Recently, it was shown that EV-D68 has a strong affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acids (SAs) and we have shown previously that α2,6-linked SAs are abundantly present in the respiratory tract of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Thus, we hypothesized that cotton rats could be a potential model for EV-D68 infection. Here, we evaluated the ability of two recently isolated EV-D68 strains (VANBT/1 and MO/14/49), along with the historical prototype Fermon strain (ATCC), to infect cotton rats. We found that cotton rats are permissive to EV-D68 infection without virus adaptation. The different strains of EV-D68 showed variable infection profiles and the ability to produce neutralizing antibody (NA) upon intranasal infection or intramuscular immunization. Infection with the VANBT/1 resulted in significant induction of pulmonary cytokine gene expression and lung pathology. Intramuscular immunization with live VANBT/1 or MO/14/49 induced strong homologous antibody responses, but a moderate heterologous NA response. We showed that passive prophylactic administration of serum with high content of NA against VANBT/1 resulted in an efficient antiviral therapy. VANBT/1-immunized animals showed complete protection from VANBT/1 challenge, but induced strong pulmonary Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses and enhanced lung pathology, indicating the generation of exacerbated immune response by immunization. In conclusion, our data illustrate that the cotton rat is a powerful animal model that provides an experimental platform to investigate pathogenesis, immune response, anti-viral therapies and vaccines against EV-D68

  19. Chronic exposure of rats to cotton-mill-room noise changes the cell composition of the tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Pereira, António S; Guimarães, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Grande, Nuno R; Aguas, Artur P

    2002-12-01

    The work environment of cotton mill rooms of modern textile plants is characterized by noise pollution. We have taped and reproduced this noisy environment to study its effects on experimentally exposed rats. Because we have previously documented that chronic noise causes alterations in the respiratory epithelium, we have focused our investigation on the morphology of the tracheal lining. Wistar rats were exposed to the textile-type noise from 1 up to 7 months, with an average 40 hours weekly exposure of the animals. The rats were sacrificed monthly and the tracheas were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to quantify the areas of the airway lining that were covered by ciliated, serous or other cells of the epithelium. We found that noise exposure of the rats caused a significant loss of tracheal ciliated cells; an increased density of serous cells on the epithelium balanced this change. This modification of the rat trachea was already established after 1 month of noise treatment of the animals; it did not change significantly throughout the 7-month course of the herein investigation. Loss of ciliated cells was more intense in areas of the tracheal epithelium located between the regions of cartilage rings. We conclude that the ciliated cell is an elective target for damage caused on the respiratory epithelium by the workplace noise occurring in cotton mill rooms. This modification of the respiratory epithelium is likely to impair clearance of the airways since this function depends on the activity of ciliated cells.

  20. A live RSV vaccine with engineered thermostability is immunogenic in cotton rats despite high attenuation.

    PubMed

    Stobart, Christopher C; Rostad, Christina A; Ke, Zunlong; Dillard, Rebecca S; Hampton, Cheri M; Strauss, Joshua D; Yi, Hong; Hotard, Anne L; Meng, Jia; Pickles, Raymond J; Sakamoto, Kaori; Lee, Sujin; Currier, Michael G; Moin, Syed M; Graham, Barney S; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Gilbert, Brian E; Blanco, Jorge C G; Piedra, Pedro A; Wright, Elizabeth R; Moore, Martin L

    2016-12-21

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant hospitalization and there remains no pediatric vaccine. RSV live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have a history of safe testing in infants; however, achieving an effective balance of attenuation and immunogenicity has proven challenging. Here we seek to engineer an RSV LAV with enhanced immunogenicity. Genetic mapping identifies strain line 19 fusion (F) protein residues that correlate with pre-fusion antigen maintenance by ELISA and thermal stability of infectivity in live RSV. We generate a LAV candidate named OE4 which expresses line 19F and is attenuated by codon-deoptimization of non-structural (NS1 and NS2) genes, deletion of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene, codon-deoptimization of the attachment (G) gene and ablation of the secreted form of G. OE4 (RSV-A2-dNS1-dNS2-ΔSH-dGm-Gsnull-line19F) exhibits elevated pre-fusion antigen levels, thermal stability, immunogenicity, and efficacy despite heavy attenuation in the upper and lower airways of cotton rats.

  1. A live RSV vaccine with engineered thermostability is immunogenic in cotton rats despite high attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Christopher C.; Rostad, Christina A.; Ke, Zunlong; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Strauss, Joshua D.; Yi, Hong; Hotard, Anne L.; Meng, Jia; Pickles, Raymond J.; Sakamoto, Kaori; Lee, Sujin; Currier, Michael G.; Moin, Syed M.; Graham, Barney S.; Boukhvalova, Marina S.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Blanco, Jorge C. G.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Moore, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant hospitalization and there remains no pediatric vaccine. RSV live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have a history of safe testing in infants; however, achieving an effective balance of attenuation and immunogenicity has proven challenging. Here we seek to engineer an RSV LAV with enhanced immunogenicity. Genetic mapping identifies strain line 19 fusion (F) protein residues that correlate with pre-fusion antigen maintenance by ELISA and thermal stability of infectivity in live RSV. We generate a LAV candidate named OE4 which expresses line 19F and is attenuated by codon-deoptimization of non-structural (NS1 and NS2) genes, deletion of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene, codon-deoptimization of the attachment (G) gene and ablation of the secreted form of G. OE4 (RSV-A2-dNS1-dNS2-ΔSH-dGm-Gsnull-line19F) exhibits elevated pre-fusion antigen levels, thermal stability, immunogenicity, and efficacy despite heavy attenuation in the upper and lower airways of cotton rats. PMID:28000669

  2. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Huckstepp, Robert TR; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14203.001 PMID:27300271

  3. A review of Gongylonema spp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in North American rodents with description of a new species from the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus (Mammalia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Kinsella, John M; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Preisser, Whitney C

    2016-05-02

    Gongylonema archboldi n. sp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) is described from tunnels in the gastric mucosa of the stomach of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) from Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A. Measurements are also given for specimens from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus), oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), Florida mice (Podomys floridanus), and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) from the same locality. Additional specimens were collected from the cotton rat and the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) from Berry Island, San Patricio County, Texas. The new species is differentiated from congeners by a combination of the following characters: length of the left spicule, length and shape of the gubernaculum, distribution of cuticular bosses, length of esophagus, and distance of the vulva from the posterior end. The status of the genus Gongylonema in North American rodents is reviewed.

  4. Relative longevity of adult Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in cotton, peanut and soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in the Southeastern US face significant crop losses from the stink bugs, Nezara viridula, Euschistus servus, and Chinavia hilaris. Cotton, peanut, and soybean are major agronomic crops and host plants of stink bugs in the region. N. viridula colonize and feed in peanut. Stink bugs prefer t...

  5. Injury to cotton by adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). However, no clear relationship between Lygus population level and plant injury has been established. Age-dependent feedi...

  6. Feeding injury to cotton caused by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) nymphs and prereproductive adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite numerous studies examining injury to cotton (Gossypium spp.) caused by different stages of Lygus hesperus Knight, no consistent trends are apparent. One explanation for inconsistencies among previous results is failure to account for important sources of biological variation. Because it wa...

  7. Function and expression of CD1d and invariant natural killer T-cell receptor in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Alina Suzann; Paletta, Daniel; Starick, Lisa; Schumann, Richard F; Niewiesk, Stefan; Herrmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) belongs to the rodent family of Cricetidae and provides a powerful model to study the pathogenesis of human respiratory viruses and measles virus. Recent studies in other rodent models have suggested a role for invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in antiviral immunity and vaccination against respiratory virus infections. Using new experimental tools, we provide the first evidence for a functional CD1d cell molecule (crCD1d) and iNKT T-cell receptor in cotton rats. The crCD1d cDNA sequence was identified and crCD1d transductants showed that monoclonal antibody WTH-2 stains crCD1d as efficiently as mouse or rat CD1d. The expression of crCD1d was clearly weaker for thymocytes and B cells, and higher for T cells, which is different to what is found in murine species. The antigen-presenting capacity of crCD1d was demonstrated with crCD1d-immunoglobulin dimers loaded with the glycolipid PBS57, which bound iNKT T-cell receptors. Evidence for functional cotton rat iNKT cells was provided by detection of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in cultures of splenocytes stimulated with PBS57 and α-galactosylceramide and by specific staining of about 0·2% of splenocytes with PBS57-loaded crCD1d dimers. Canonical AV14/AJ18 rearrangements were identified and found to contain multiple members of the AV14 (AV11) family. One of them was expressed and found to bind CD1d dimers. In summary, these data provide the first evidence for functional CD1d molecules and iNKT T-cell receptors in cotton rats and provide the tools to analyse them both in the cotton rat model of infectious diseases.

  8. Morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices and contaminant burdens of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) at three hazardous waste sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were studied at three industrial waste sites near Houston, Texas, to determine whether various morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices provided evidence of contaminant exposure and toxic insult. Only modest changes were detected in cotton rats residing at waste sites compared with reference sites. No single parameter was consistently altered, except hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentration which was lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at two waste sites, and tended to be lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at a third waste site. Elevated petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in rats at one waste site, but contaminant burdens of rats from the other sites were unremarkable. Unlike rats captured in summer, those trapped in winter exhibited hepatocellular hypertrophy and up to a 65% increase in liver: body weight ratio, cytochrome P-450 concentration, and activities of aniline hydroxylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase. Although genotoxicity has been previously documented in cotton rats residing at two of the waste sites, biomarkers in the present study provided little evidence of exposure and damage

  9. Cotton Rats and House Sparrows as Hosts for North and South American Strains of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nicole C.; Adams, A. Paige; Watts, Douglas M.; Newman, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans in North America and in equids throughout the Americas. The enzootic transmission cycle of EEEV in North America involves passerine birds and the ornithophilic mosquito vector, Culiseta melanura, in freshwater swamp habitats. However, the ecology of EEEV in South America is not well understood. Culex (Melanoconion) spp. mosquitoes are considered the principal vectors in Central and South America; however, a primary vertebrate host for EEEV in South America has not yet been identified. Therefore, to further assess the reservoir host potential of wild rodents and wild birds, we compared the infection dynamics of North American and South American EEEV in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Our findings suggested that each species has the potential to serve as amplification hosts for North and South America EEEVs. PMID:20735920

  10. Cotton rats and house sparrows as hosts for North and South American strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Nicole C; Adams, A Paige; Watts, Douglas M; Newman, Patrick C; Weaver, Scott C

    2010-09-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans in North America and in equids throughout the Americas. The enzootic transmission cycle of EEEV in North America involves passerine birds and the ornithophilic mosquito vector, Culiseta melanura, in freshwater swamp habitats. However, the ecology of EEEV in South America is not well understood. Culex (Melanoconion) spp. mosquitoes are considered the principal vectors in Central and South America; however, a primary vertebrate host for EEEV in South America has not yet been identified. Therefore, to further assess the reservoir host potential of wild rodents and wild birds, we compared the infection dynamics of North American and South American EEEV in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Our findings suggested that each species has the potential to serve as amplification hosts for North and South America EEEVs.

  11. Recombinant measles viruses expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins induced virus-specific CTL responses in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-07-31

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of serious lower respiratory tract illnesses in infants. Natural infections with RSV provide limited protection against reinfection because of inefficient immunological responses that do not induce long-term memory. RSV natural infection has been shown to induce unbalanced immune response. The effective clearance of RSV is known to require the induction of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response, which involves the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In our previous study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/F and MVAIK/RSV/G were developed, which expressed the RSV fusion (F) protein or glycoprotein (G). These recombinant viruses elicited antibody responses against RSV in cotton rats, and no infectious virus was recovered, but small amounts of infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the lungs following RSV challenge. In the present study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/M2-1 and MVAIK/RSV/NP were developed, expressing RSV M2-1 or Nucleoprotein (NP), respectively. These viruses exhibited temperature-sensitivity (ts), which was derived from AIK-C, and expressed respective RSV antigens. The intramuscular inoculation of cotton rats with the recombinant measles virus led to the induction of CD8(+) IFN-γ(+) cells. No infectious virus was recovered from a lung homogenate following the challenge. A Histological examination of the lungs revealed a significant reduction in inflammatory reactions without alveolar damage. These results support the recombinant measles viruses being effective vaccine candidates against RSV that induce RSV-specific CTL responses with or without the development of an antibody response.

  12. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Pereira, António S; Ferreira, Paula G; Guimarães, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Grande, Nuno R; Aguas, Artur P

    2005-03-01

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P<0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection.

  13. A Transgenic Rat for Specifically Inhibiting Adult Neurogenesis123

    PubMed Central

    Grigereit, Laura; Pickel, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The growth of research on adult neurogenesis and the development of new models and tools have greatly advanced our understanding of the function of newborn neurons in recent years. However, there are still significant limitations in the ability to identify the functions of adult neurogenesis in available models. Here we report a transgenic rat (TK rat) that expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in GFAP+ cells. Upon treating TK rats with the antiviral drug valganciclovir, granule cell neurogenesis can be completely inhibited in adulthood, in both the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Interestingly, neurogenesis in the glomerular and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb was only partially inhibited, suggesting that some adult-born neurons in these regions derive from a distinct precursor population that does not express GFAP. Within the hippocampus, blockade of neurogenesis was rapid and nearly complete within 1 week of starting treatment. Preliminary behavioral analyses indicate that general anxiety levels and patterns of exploration are generally unaffected in neurogenesis-deficient rats. However, neurogenesis-deficient TK rats showed reduced sucrose preference, suggesting deficits in reward-related behaviors. We expect that TK rats will facilitate structural, physiological, and behavioral studies that complement those possible in existing models, broadly enhancing understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis. PMID:27257630

  14. Characterization of an EPG waveform library for pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus feeding on cotton squares

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus, are among the most important pests affecting production of cotton in the mid-southern and western United States, respectively. Previous studies have focused on feeding damage to cotton reproductive structures from destructive enzymatic saliva. ...

  15. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  16. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  17. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    during aggression in rats and some other myomorph species (e.g., Acomys cahirinus, Apcdemus sylvati- cus). Other species (e.g., MusM muau_...which occur when the young are handled. The author reports that, unlike rats, other rodent species (e.g., lab mice, Acomys cahirinus, Clethrionomys gajj... Acomys was removed from the mother’s cage, and during exploratory behavior in Apodemus gyiL vaticus. i1 Sewell, G.D. Ultrasonic signals from rodents

  18. Infection-enhancing lipopeptides do not improve intranasal immunization of cotton rats with a delta-G candidate live-attenuated human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tien Nguyen, D; Boes, Jolande; van Amerongen, Geert; van Remmerden, Yvonne; Yüksel, Selma; Guichelaar, Teun; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; de Swart, Rik L

    2013-12-01

    Development of live-attenuated human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) vaccines has proven to be difficult. Several vaccine candidates were found to be over-attenuated and displayed limited immunogenicity. Recently, we identified three synthetic cationic lipopeptides that enhanced paramyxovirus infections in vitro. The infection enhancement proved to be mediated by enhanced virus binding to target cells. We hypothesized that these lipopeptides can be used as adjuvants to promote immune responses induced by live-attenuated paramyxovirus vaccines. This hypothesis was tested in a vaccination and challenge model in cotton rats, using a previously described recombinant live-attenuated candidate HRSV vaccine lacking the gene encoding the G glycoprotein (rHRSVΔG). Surprisingly, intranasal vaccination of cotton rats with rHRSVΔG formulated in infection-enhancing lipopeptides resulted in reduced virus loads in nasopharyngeal lavages, reduced seroconversion levels and reduced protection from wild-type HRSV challenge. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate the feasibility of lipopeptides as adjuvants for a candidate live-attenuated HRSV vaccine in the cotton rat model.

  19. Virus-like particle vaccines containing F or F and G proteins confer protection against respiratory syncytial virus without pulmonary inflammation in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Youri; Lee, Young-Tae; Ko, Eun-Ju; Park, SooJin; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kwon, Young-Man; Moore, Martin L; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-01-27

    Vaccine-enhanced disease has been a major obstacle in developing a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study demonstrates the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines containing RSV F (F VLP), G (G VLP), or F and G proteins (FG VLP) in cotton rats. RSV specific antibodies were effectively induced by vaccination of cotton rats with F VLP or FG VLP vaccines. After challenge, lung RSV clearance was observed with RSV F, G, FG VLP, and formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccines. Upon RSV infection, cotton rats with RSV VLP vaccines were protected against airway hyper-responsiveness and weight loss, which are different from FI-RSV vaccination exhibiting vaccine-enhanced disease of airway obstruction, weight loss, and severe histopathology with eosinophilia and mucus production. FG VLP and F VLP vaccines did not cause pulmonary inflammation whereas G VLP induced moderate lung inflammation with eosinophilia and mucus production. In particular, F VLP and FG VLP vaccines were found to be effective in inducing antibody secreting cell responses in bone marrow and lymphoid organs as well as avoiding the induction of T helper type 2 cytokines. These results provide further evidence to develop a safe RSV vaccine based on VLP platforms.

  20. Potassium currents in adult rat intracardiac neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Xi-Moy, S X; Dun, N J

    1995-01-01

    1. Properties of K+ currents were studied in isolated adult rat parasympathetic intracardiac neurones with the use of single-electrode voltage-clamp techniques. 2. A hyperpolarization-activated inward rectifier current was revealed when the membrane was clamped close to the resting level (-60 mV). The slowly developing inward relaxation had a mean amplitude of 450 pA at -150 mV, an activation threshold of -60 to -70 mV and a relaxation time constant of 41 ms at -120 mV. The current was reversibly blocked by Cs+ (1 mM) and became smaller with reduced [K+]o and [Na+]o, indicating that this inward rectifier current probably is a time- and voltage-dependent Na(+)-K+ current. 3. Step depolarizations from the holding potential of -80 mV evoked a transient (< 100 ms at -40 mV) outward K+ current (IA) which was blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mM). The time constants for IA inactivation were 20 ms at -50 mV and 16 ms at -20 mV. The steady-state activation and (removal of) inactivation curve showed a small overlap between -70 and -40 mV; the reversal potential of IA was close to EK. 4. Step hyperpolarizations from the depolarized potentials, i.e. -30 mV, revealed a slow inward relaxation associated with the deactivation of a time- and voltage-dependent current. The inward relaxation became faster at more hyperpolarized potentials and reversed at -85 and -53 mV in 4.7 and 15 mM [K+]o. This current was blocked by muscarine (20 microM) and Ba2+ (1 mM) but not affected by Cs+ (1 mM); this current may correspond to the M-current (IM). 5. Depolarization-activated outward K+ currents were evoked by holding the membrane close to the resting potential in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 3 microM), 4-AP (1 mM) and Ba2+ (1 mM). The amplitude of the outward relaxation and the tail current became smaller as the [K+]o was elevated. The outward tail current was reduced in a Ca(2+)-free solution and the residual current was eliminated by the addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10 m

  1. Relative longevity of adult Nezara viridula in field cages of cotton, peanut, and soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence shows that southern green stink bugs use peanut as a reproductive host and adults colonize and feed in peanut, sometimes extensively. Stink bugs prefer the seeds/fruit of host plants and the fruiting structures in peanut are underground and unavailable. Therefore, it is not clear th...

  2. A Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate Attenuated by a Low-Fusion F Protein Is Immunogenic and Protective against Challenge in Cotton Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Christina A.; Stobart, Christopher C.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Pickles, Ray J.; Hotard, Anne L.; Meng, Jia; Blanco, Jorge C. G.; Moin, Syed M.; Graham, Barney S.; Piedra, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, a safe and effective vaccine is not yet available. Live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) are the most advanced vaccine candidates in RSV-naive infants. However, designing an LAV with appropriate attenuation yet sufficient immunogenicity has proven challenging. In this study, we implemented reverse genetics to address these obstacles with a multifaceted LAV design that combined the codon deoptimization of genes for nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 (dNS), deletion of the small hydrophobic protein (ΔSH) gene, and replacement of the wild-type fusion (F) protein gene with a low-fusion RSV subgroup B F consensus sequence of the Buenos Aires clade (BAF). This vaccine candidate, RSV-A2-dNS-ΔSH-BAF (DB1), was attenuated in two models of primary human airway epithelial cells and in the upper and lower airways of cotton rats. DB1 was also highly immunogenic in cotton rats and elicited broadly neutralizing antibodies against a diverse panel of recombinant RSV strains. When vaccinated cotton rats were challenged with wild-type RSV A, DB1 reduced viral titers in the upper and lower airways by 3.8 log10 total PFU and 2.7 log10 PFU/g of tissue, respectively, compared to those in unvaccinated animals (P < 0.0001). DB1 was thus attenuated, highly immunogenic, and protective against RSV challenge in cotton rats. DB1 is the first RSV LAV to incorporate a low-fusion F protein as a strategy to attenuate viral replication and preserve immunogenicity. IMPORTANCE RSV is a leading cause of infant hospitalizations and deaths. The development of an effective vaccine for this high-risk population is therefore a public health priority. Although live-attenuated vaccines have been safely administered to RSV-naive infants, strategies to balance vaccine attenuation with immunogenicity have been elusive. In this study, we introduced a novel strategy to attenuate a recombinant RSV

  3. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  4. Ontogenetic noradrenergic lesion alters histaminergic activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Jochem, Jerzy; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Josko, Jadwiga; Noras, Lukasz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether noradrenergic nerves might have a modulatory role on the sensitivity or reactivity of histaminergic receptor systems in brain, behavioral effects of the respective histamine H1, H2 and H3 antagonists S(+)chlorpheniramine, cimetidine and thioperimide in control adult rats were compared to the effects in adult rats that had been lesioned as neonates with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4. On the 1st and 3rd days after birth rat pups were treated with either saline or DSP-4 (50 mg/kg sc), then returned to their home cages with the dam. At 8 weeks when rats were tested, S(+)chlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg ip) was found to increase locomotor activity in intact and DSP-4 lesioned rats, while cimetidine (5 mg/kg, ip) and thioperimide (5 mg/kg, ip) increased activity several-fold solely in the DSP-4 group. Exploratory activity, nociceptive activity, and irritability were little altered by the histamine antagonists, although oral activity was increased by thioperimide in intact and lesioned rats, and by cimetidine or S(+)chlorpheniramine in DSP-4 rats. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine that DSP-4 produced a 90% reduction in frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, with a 90% elevation of NE in cerebellum--reflecting reactive sprouting of noradrenergic fibers consequent to lesion of noradrenergic tracts projecting to proximal brain regions. These findings indicate that perinatal noradrenergic fiber lesioning in rat brain is associated with an altered behavioral spectrum by histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, thereby implicating histaminergic systems as modulators of noradrenergic systems in brain.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of bacterially produced RSV-G protein vaccine: Strong protection against RSV challenge in cotton rat model

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sandra; Klenow, Laura; Golding, Hana; Khurana, Surender

    2017-01-01

    In current study, we evaluated the safety and protective efficacy of recombinant unglycosylated RSV G protein ectodomain produced in E. coli (in presence and absence of oil-in-water adjuvant) in a preclinical RSV susceptible cotton rat challenge model compared to formaldehyde inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) and live RSV experimental infection. The adjuvanted G protein vaccine induced robust neutralization antibody responses comparable to those generated by live RSV infection. Importantly, adjuvanted G protein significantly reduced viral loads in both the lungs and nose at early time points following viral challenge. Antibody kinetics determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance showed that adjuvanted G generated 10-fold higher G-binding antibodies compared to non-adjvuanted G vaccine and live RSV infection, which correlated strongly with both neutralization titers and viral load titers in the nose and lungs post-viral challenge. Antibody diversity analysis revealed immunodominant antigenic sites in the N- and C-termini of the RSV-G protein, that were boosted >10-fold by adjuvant and inversely correlated with viral load titers. Enhanced lung pathology was observed only in animals vaccinated with FI-RSV, but not in animals vaccinated with unadjuvanted or adjuvanted RSV-G vaccine after viral challenge. The bacterially produced unglycosylated G protein could be developed as a protective vaccine against RSV disease. PMID:28186208

  6. [In vitro organotypic cultivation of adult newt and rat retinas].

    PubMed

    Novikova, Iu P; Aleĭnikova, K S; Krasnov, M S; Poplinskaia, V A; Grigorian, E N

    2010-01-01

    Adult rat and newt retinas were studied during long organotypic 3D cultivation. A high proliferation level was discovered in the region of growth by applying DNA synthesis markers and in vitro mitosis registration in newt retina. Aggregates were formed in the retina spheroid cavity because dedifferentiated cells migrated into this region. Small cell populations in nuclear layers also had dividing and migration capacity. Rosette formation has been shown in newt retina. It is a characteristic of fetal retinal development under pathological conditions. The antiG FAP antibody dye demonstrated an increase in the parent M@uller cell population and generation of a small cell pool with short GFAP-extensions de novo. Recoverin expression studies detected its translocation from photoreceptor extensions to the cell bodies. Moreover, protein was presented in some cells inside the spheroid. It has been shown for the first time that cell proliferation occurred in the developing adult rat retinal spheroid in vitro; BrdU-positive cells and multiple mitoses were revealed in this zone. However, the source of proliferation was not in the peripheral retina, and stable macrophages and glial cells located among neurons of the inner nuclear layer had the ability to divide. The antiGFAP antibody showed an increase in GFAP fibers in the rat retina as well as in the newt retina. Recoverin translocated into photoreceptor perikaryons and the outer plexiform layer in cultivated rat retina. Interestingly, some cells with probably de novo expression of recoverin were discovered in rat and newt retinas.

  7. Endotoxemia in newborn rats attenuates acute pancreatitis at adult age.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, J; Konturek, S J; Macko, M; Kot, M; Szklarczyk, J; Leja-Szpak, A; Nawrot-Porabka, K; Stachura, J; Tomaszewska, R; Siwicki, A; Pawlik, W W

    2007-03-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), at high concentration is responsible for sepsis, and neonatal mortality, however low concentration of LPS protected the pancreas against acute damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposition of suckling rats to LPS on the course of acute pancreatitis at adult age. Suckling rat (30-40g) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline (control) or LPS from Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhi (5, 10 or 15 mg/kg-day) during 5 consecutive days. Two months later these rats have been subjected to i.p. cearulein infusion (25 microg/kg) to produce caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP). The following parameters were tested: pancreatic weight and morphology, plasma amylase and lipase activities, interleukin 1beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) plasma concentrations. Pancreatic concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation products; malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) have been also measured. Caerulein infusion produced CIP in all animals tested, that was confirmed by histological examination. In the rats, which have been subjected in the neonatal period of life to LPS at doses 10 or 15 mg/kg-day x 5 days, all manifestations of CIP have been reduced. In these animals acute inflammatory infiltration of pancreatic tissue and pancreatic cell vacuolization have been significantly diminished. Also pancreatic weight, plasma lipase and alpha-amylase activities, as well as plasma concentrations of IL-1beta and IL-6 have been markedly decreased, whereas plasma anti-inflammatory IL-10 concentration was significantly increased in these animals as compared to the control rats, subjected in the infancy to saline injection instead of LPS. Caerulein-induced fall in pancreatic SOD concentration was reversed and accompanied by significant reduction of MDA + 4 HNE in the pancreatic tissue. The effects of LPS derived from E. coli or S. typhi were similar

  8. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  9. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on adult rat brain biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Brian F; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K W; Ottens, Andrew K

    2010-05-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked to deleterious health effects, particularly pulmonary and cardiac disease; yet, the general public considers ETS benign to brain function in adults. In contrast, epidemiological data have suggested that ETS impacts the brain and potentially modulates neurodegenerative disease. The present study begins to examine yet unknown biochemical effects of ETS on the adult mammalian brain. In the developed animal model, adult male rats were exposed to ETS 3 h a day for 3 weeks. Biochemical data showed altered glial fibrillary acid protein levels as a main treatment effect of ETS, suggestive of reactive astrogliosis. Yet, markers of oxidative and cell stress were unaffected by ETS exposure in the brain regions examined. Increased proteolytic degradation of alphaII-spectrin by caspase-3 and the dephosphorylation of serine(116) on PEA-15 indicated greater apoptotic cell death modulated by the extrinsic pathway in the brains of ETS-exposed animals. Further, beta-synuclein was upregulated by ETS, a neuroprotective protein previously reported to exhibit anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrillogenic properties. These findings demonstrate that ETS exposure alters the neuroproteome of the adult rat brain, and suggest modulation of inflammatory and cell death processes.

  10. Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Esmorís-Arranz, Francisco J.; Méndez, Cástor; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adults, weak for infants, but about as strong for adolescents as when pairings of CS and US occurred in the context. Nonreinforced presentations of either the CS or context markedly reduced contextual fear conditioning in infants, but, in adolescents, CS extinction had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, although context extinction significantly reduced it. Neither CS extinction nor context extinction affected responding to the CS-context compound in infants, suggesting striking discrimination between the compound and its components. Female adolescents showed the same lack of effect of component extinction on response to the compound as infants, but CS extinction reduced responding to the compound in adolescent males, a sex difference seen also in adults. Theoretical implications are discussed for the development of perceptual-cognitive processing and hippocampus role. PMID:18343048

  11. Plexin a4 expression in adult rat cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gross, Robert E

    2014-11-01

    PlexinsA1-A4 participate in class 3 semaphorin signaling as co-receptors to neuropilin 1 and 2. PlexinA4 is the latest member of the PlexinA subfamily to be identified. In previous studies, we described the expression of PlexinA4 in the brain and spinal cord of the adult rat. Here, antibodies to PlexinA4 were used to reveal immunolabeling in most of the cranial nerve surveyed. Labeling was found in the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves. This is the first detailed description of the cellular and subcellular distribution of PlexinA4 in the adult cranial nerves. The findings will set the basis for future studies on the potential role of PlexinA4 in regeneration and repair of the adult central and peripheral nervous system.

  12. Encoding of sound envelope transients in the auditory cortex of juvenile rats and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Jiang, Cuiping; Zhang, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    Accurate neural processing of time-varying sound amplitude and spectral information is vital for species-specific communication. During postnatal development, cortical processing of sound frequency undergoes progressive refinement; however, it is not clear whether cortical processing of sound envelope transients also undergoes age-related changes. We determined the dependence of neural response strength and first-spike latency on sound rise-fall time across sound levels in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of juvenile (P20-P30) rats and adult (8-10 weeks) rats. A1 neurons were categorized as "all-pass", "short-pass", or "mixed" ("all-pass" at high sound levels to "short-pass" at lower sound levels) based on the normalized response strength vs. rise-fall time functions across sound levels. The proportions of A1 neurons within each of the three categories in juvenile rats were similar to that in adult rats. In general, with increasing rise-fall time, the average response strength decreased and the average first-spike latency increased in A1 neurons of both groups. At a given sound level and rise-fall time, the average normalized neural response strength did not differ significantly between the two age groups. However, the A1 neurons in juvenile rats showed greater absolute response strength, longer first-spike latency compared to those in adult rats. In addition, at a constant sound level, the average first-spike latency of juvenile A1 neurons was more sensitive to changes in rise-fall time. Our results demonstrate the dependence of the responses of rat A1 neurons on sound rise-fall time, and suggest that the response latency exhibit some age-related changes in cortical representation of sound envelope rise time.

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases brain cholesterol content in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

  14. Hydrocephalus induced via intraventricular kaolin injection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shaolin, Z; Zhanxiang, W; Hao, X; Feifei, Z; Caiquan, H; Donghan, C; Jianfeng, B; Feng, L; Shanghang, S

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disease in humans, but a uniform and particularly effective hydrocephalic animal model amenable to proper appraisal and deep study has not yet been established. In this study, we attempted to construct a high-efficiency model of hydrocephalus via intraventricular kaolin injection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 30). Kaolin was injected into the lateral ventricle of experimental animals. Control rats underwent the same procedure but received sterile saline injection instead of kaolin. All animals with kaolin injection into the lateral ventricle developed hydrocephalus according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results (success rate up to 100%). Also, the Morris water maze (MWM) test demonstrated disturbed spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, there were significant differences between groups with respect to the histological changes in the periventricular tissue. Our results indicate that experimental hydrocephalus induced by lateral ventricle injection of kaolin in adult rats is feasible and may be widely used.

  15. Wnt Expression in the Adult Rat Subventricular Zone After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel C.; Zhang, Zheng Geng; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Rui Lan; Greg, Sara; Liu, Xian Shuang; Chopp, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In the adult brain, neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. During development, the Wnt pathways contribute to stem cell maintenance and promote neurogenesis. We hypothesized that the Wnt family genes are expressed in neural progenitor cells of the non-ischemic and ischemic SVZ of the adult rodent brain after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Methods: Non-ischemic and ischemic cultured SVZ cells and a single population of non-ischemic and ischemic SVZ cells isolated by laser capture microdisection (LCM) were analyzed for Wnt pathway expression using real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining. Results: The number of neurospheres increased significantly (p<0.05) in SVZ cells derived from ischemic (32 ±4.7/rat) compared with the number in non-ischemic SVZ cells (18 ± 3/rat). Wnt family gene mRNA levels were detected in SVZ cells isolated from both cultured and LCM SVZ cells, however there was no upregulation between non-ischemic and ischemic SVZ cells. Immunostaining on brain sections also demonstrated no upregulation of Wnt pathway protein between ischemic and non-ischemic SVZ cells. Conclusions: Expression of the Wnt family genes in SVZ cells suggests that the Wnt pathway may be involved in neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, ischemia does not upregulate Wnt family gene expression. PMID:17400378

  16. Ih without Kir in Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sherwin C.; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Antisera directed against hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation (“Ih”) and K+ (“Kir”) channels bind to some somata in the ganglion cell layer of rat and rabbit retina. Additionally, the termination of hyperpolarizing current injections can trigger spikes in some cat retinal ganglion cells, suggesting a rebound depolarization due to activation of Ih. However, patch-clamp studies have reported that rat ganglion cells lack inward rectification, or present an inwardly rectifying K+ current. We therefore tested whether hyperpolarization activates Ih in dissociated, adult rat retinal ganglion cell somata. We report here that while we found no inward rectification in some cells, and a Kir-like current in a few cells, hyperpolarization activated Ih in roughly 75% of the cells we recorded from in voltage clamp. We show that this current is blocked by Cs+ or ZD7288 and only slightly reduced by Ba2+, that the current amplitude and reversal potential are sensitive to extracellular Na+ and K+, and that we found no evidence of Kir in cells presenting Ih. In current clamp, injecting hyperpolarizing current induced a slowly relaxing membrane hyperpolarization that rebounded to a few action potentials when the hyperpolarizing current was stopped; both the membrane potential relaxation and rebound spikes were blocked by ZD7288. These results provide the first measurement of Ih in mammalian retinal ganglion cells, and indicate that the ion channels of rat retinal ganglion cells may vary in ways not expected from previous voltage and current recordings. PMID:17488978

  17. Experimental induction of corpora amylacea in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Schipper, H M

    1998-10-01

    Corpora amylacea (CA) are glycoproteinaceous inclusions that accumulate in astroglia and other brain cells as a function of advancing age and, to an even greater extent, in several human neurodegenerative conditions. The mechanisms responsible for their biogenesis and their subcellular origin(s) remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that the sulfhydryl agent, cysteamine (CSH), promotes the accumulation of CA-like inclusions in cultured rat astroglia. In the present study, we show that subcutaneous administration of CSH to adult rats (150 mg/kg for 6 weeks followed by a 5-week drug-washout period) elicits the accumulation of CA in many cortical and subcortical brain regions. As in the aging human brain and in CSH-treated rat astrocyte cultures, the inclusions are periodic acid-Schiff -positive and are consistently immunostained with antibodies directed against mitochondrial epitopes and ubiquitin. Our findings support our contention that mitochondria are important structural precursors of CA, and that CSH accelerates aging-like processes in rat astroglia both in vitro and in the intact brain.

  18. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Klefenz, H F; Rockstein, M

    1976-07-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.11) was purified from the livers of young (69-86 days) and adult (370-386 days) Fisher rats. The enzyme preparations were examined for increasing amounts of missynthesized proteins by means of heat-inactivation as well as for differences in regulatory properties. No significant difference with respect to the fraction of rapidly heat-inactivated enzyme or Km- and Ki-values was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that error accumulation resulting in an error catastrophe is a general phenomenon underlying senescence and death.

  19. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  20. Alcohol exposure in utero perturbs retinoid homeostasis in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Zuccaro, Michael V.; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol exposure and adult alcohol intake have been shown to perturb the metabolism of various micro- and macro-nutrients, including vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the well-known detrimental consequences of alcohol consumption may be due to deregulations of the metabolism of such nutrients rather than to a direct effect of alcohol. Alcohol exposure in utero also has long-term harmful consequences on the health of the offspring with mechanisms that have not been fully clarified. Disruption of tissue retinoid homeostasis has been linked not only to abnormal embryonic development, but also to various adult pathological conditions, including cancer, metabolic disorders and abnormal lung function. We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure may permanently perturb tissue retinoid metabolism, predisposing the offspring to adult chronic diseases. Methods Serum and tissues (liver, lung and prostate from males; liver and lung from females) were collected from 60-75 day-old sprague dawley rats born from dams that were: (I) fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 and 21; or (II) pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet during the same gestational window; or (III) fed ad libitum with regular rat chow diet throughout pregnancy. Serum and tissue retinoid levels were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by western blot analysis, and liver, lung and prostate mRNA levels of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) were measured by qPCR. Results Retinyl ester levels were significantly reduced in the lung of both males and females, as well as in the liver and ventral prostate of males born from alcohol-fed dams. Tissue LRAT mRNA levels remained unchanged upon maternal alcohol treatment. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol exposure in rats affects retinoid metabolism in adult life, in a tissue- and sex

  1. Myogenic regulatory factors during regeneration of skeletal muscle in young, adult, and old rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Myogenic factor mRNA expression was examined during muscle regeneration after bupivacaine injection in Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats aged 3, 18, and 31 mo of age (young, adult, and old, respectively). Mass of the tibialis anterior muscle in the young rats had recovered to control values by 21 days postbupivacaine injection but in adult and old rats remained 40% less than that of contralateral controls at 21 and 28 days of recovery. During muscle regeneration, myogenin mRNA was significantly increased in muscles of young, adult, and old rats 5 days after bupivacaine injection. Subsequently, myogenin mRNA levels in young rat muscle decreased to postinjection control values by day 21 but did not return to control values in 28-day regenerating muscles of adult and old rats. The expression of MyoD mRNA was also increased in muscles at day 5 of regeneration in young, adult, and old rats, decreased to control levels by day 14 in young and adult rats, and remained elevated in the old rats for 28 days. In summary, either a diminished ability to downregulate myogenin and MyoD mRNAs in regenerating muscle occurs in old rat muscles, or the continuing myogenic effort includes elevated expression of these mRNAs.

  2. Homocysteine Induces Glial Reactivity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    PubMed

    Longoni, Aline; Bellaver, Bruna; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Santos, Camila Leite; Nonose, Yasmine; Kolling, Janaina; Dos Santos, Tiago M; de Assis, Adriano M; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-03-02

    Astrocytes are dynamic glial cells associated to neurotransmitter systems, metabolic functions, antioxidant defense, and inflammatory response, maintaining the brain homeostasis. Elevated concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) are involved in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. In line with this, our hypothesis was that Hcy could promote glial reactivity in a model of cortical primary astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. Thus, cortical astrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of Hcy (10, 30, and 100 μM) during 24 h. After the treatment, we analyzed cell viability, morphological parameters, antioxidant defenses, and inflammatory response. Hcy did not induce any alteration in cell viability; however, it was able to induce cytoskeleton rearrangement. The treatment with Hcy also promoted a significant decrease in the activities of Na(+), K(+) ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as in the glutathione (GSH) content. Additionally, Hcy induced an increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In an attempt to elucidate the putative mechanisms involved in the Hcy-induced glial reactivity, we measured the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) transcriptional activity and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, which were activated and inhibited by Hcy, respectively. In summary, our findings provide important evidences that Hcy modulates critical astrocyte parameters from adult rats, which might be associated to the aging process.

  3. Amodiaquine-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan-Ru; Wei, Bing; Chen, Bi; Xu, Li-Hua; Jing, Xia; Peng, Cai-Ling; Ma, Tian-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Amodiaquine (AQ) is routinely prescribed as an anti-malarial drug. Here, we evaluated AQ-induced toxicity in the male reproductive system. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups that received distilled water (control) or daily doses of 5 mg/kg body weight, 10 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg AQ for 2 weeks. Testes morphology was analyzed using hematoxylin-and-eosin staining, terminal dUTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL), and immunostaining whereas protein expression was determined by Western blotting. AQ dose-dependently led to abnormal spermatogenesis. Disruption of the blood-testis barrier and increased germ cell apoptosis were observed in all three AQ-treated groups. Interestingly, AQ-induced damage of spermatogenesis recovered over time, based on the survival of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF)-positive, undifferentiated spermatogonia. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone, as well as testicular testosterone levels, were not significantly altered in AQ-treated groups compared with controls. Collectively, our study suggests that AQ exerts substantial acute side effects on the reproductive systems of adult male rats by inducing the apoptosis of differentiating spermatogenic cells and disruption of blood-testis barrier function.

  4. Performance on a strategy set shifting task in rats following adult or adolescent cocaine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Kathleen M.; Barlow, Nicole; Tassin, David H.; Brisotti, Madeline F.; Jordan, Chloe J

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neuropsychological testing is widespread in adult cocaine abusers, but lacking in teens. Animal models may provide insight into age-related neuropsychological consequences of cocaine exposure. Objectives Determine whether developmental plasticity protects or hinders behavioral flexibility after cocaine exposure in adolescent vs. adult rats. Methods Using a yoked-triad design, one rat controlled cocaine delivery and the other two passively received cocaine or saline. Rats controlling cocaine delivery (1.0 mg/kg) self-administered for 18 sessions (starting P37 or P77), followed by 18 drug-free days. Rats next were tested in a strategy set shifting task, lasting 11–13 sessions. Results Cocaine self-administration did not differ between age groups. During initial set formation, adolescent-onset groups required more trials to reach criterion and made more errors than adult-onset groups. During the set shift phase, rats with adult-onset cocaine self-administration experience had higher proportions of correct trials and fewer perseverative + regressive errors than age-matched yoked-controls or rats with adolescent-onset cocaine self-administration experience. During reversal learning, rats with adult-onset cocaine experience (self-administered or passive) required fewer trials to reach criterion and the self-administering rats made fewer perseverative + regressive errors than yoked-saline rats. Rats receiving adolescent-onset yoked-cocaine had more trial omissions and longer lever press reaction times than age-matched rats self-administering cocaine or receiving yoked-saline. Conclusions Prior cocaine self-administration may impair memory to reduce proactive interference during set shifting and reversal learning in adult-onset but not adolescent-onset rats (developmental plasticity protective). Passive cocaine may disrupt aspects of executive function in adolescent-onset but not adult-onset rats (developmental plasticity hinders). PMID:24800898

  5. Contractile force measured in unskinned isolated adult rat heart fibres.

    PubMed

    Brady, A J; Tan, S T; Ricchiuti, N V

    1979-12-13

    A number of investigators have succeeded in preparing isolated cardiac cells by enzymatic digestion which tolerate external [Ca2+] in the millimolar range. However, a persistent problem with these preparations is that, unlike in situ adult ventricular fibres, the isolated fibres usually beat spontaneously. This spontaneity suggests persistent ionic leakage not present in situ. A preferable preparation for mechanical and electrical studies would be one which is quiescent but excitable in response to electrical stimulation and which does not undergo contracture with repeated stimulation. We report here a modified method of cardiac fibre isolation and perfusion which leaves the fibre membrane electrically excitable and moderately resistant to mechanical stress so that the attachment of suction micropipettes to the fibre is possible for force measurement and length control. Force generation in single isolated adult rat heart fibres is consistent with in situ contractile force. The negative staircase effect (treppe) characteristic of adult not heart tissue is present with increased frequency of stimulation. Isometric developed tension increases with fibre length as in in situ ventricular tissue.

  6. Acute toxicity of pesticides in adult and weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Gaines, T B; Linder, R E

    1986-08-01

    LD50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Thirty-six of the chemicals were also tested by the oral route in one sex of weanlings. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and four tested by the dermal route (bufencarb, chlordimeform, dichlofenthion, leptophos) were more toxic to females than to males whereas famphur and 2,4,5-T (oral route) were less toxic to females. Eighteen of the test chemicals were more toxic to the adult than to the weanling and four compounds (leptophos, methidathion, pyrazon, and sulfoxide) were more toxic to the weanling. In additional studies the variability of the LD50 value over a 1-year period was examined for two typical insecticides. Six consecutive bimonthly oral LD50 determinations for parathion and DDT in adults of both sexes indicated that the LD50 values were little affected by the time of year that the tests were done.

  7. Birth insult alters ethanol preference in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Boksa, P

    1998-05-08

    While genetic factors clearly play a role in regulating ethanol intake, the present study considered the possibility that early environmental factors which influence central nervous system development and long-term function might also alter ethanol intake. The specific aim of the study was to test whether alterations in birth condition, namely Caesarean section (C-section) birth and C-section birth with an added period of global anoxia, can affect subsequent ethanol preference in the adult rat. At 5 months of age, groups of experimental and vaginally born control rats were offered free choice between drinking water or various concentrations of ethanol (1-10% v/v) in water across 36 days of testing. Rats that had been born by C-section with 10 or 15 min of added global anoxia showed significant reductions in ethanol preference scores, in comparison to vaginally born controls. For the 10-min anoxia group, ethanol intake was decreased, water intake was increased and total fluid intake remained unchanged relative to values for vaginally born controls, across the entire test period. Although total fluid intake by the 15-min anoxia group also did not differ from that of vaginally born controls, the decreased ethanol preference scores in the 15-min anoxia group were mainly due to increased water intake during some test periods and a combination of reduced ethanol intake and increased water intake during others. Animals born by rapid C-section alone, with no added period of global anoxia, showed reduced ethanol preference only during a few early periods of testing, a much less pronounced effect than that observed for animals with added global anoxia. When animals were given the choice between drinking water vs. solutions of sucrose or NaCl, no group differences due to birth condition were found on measures of sucrose or NaCl preference. Together with reduced ethanol preference, the 10-min anoxia group showed a transient depression of locomotor activity in response to a low

  8. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  9. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  10. Resistance to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection Induced by Immunization of Cotton Rats with a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing the RSV G Glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Narayanasamy; Prince, Gregory A.; Murphy, Brian R.; Venkatesan, Sundararajan; Chanock, Robert M.; Moss, Bernard

    1986-03-01

    A cDNA copy of the G glycoprotein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was placed under control of a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the thymidine kinase locus of the vaccinia virus genome. The recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and expressed a 93-kDa protein that migrated with the authentic RSV G glycoprotein upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycosylation of the expressed protein and transport to the cell surface were demonstrated in the absence of other RSV proteins. Cotton rats that were inoculated intradermally with the infectious recombinant virus produced serum antibody to the G glycoprotein that neutralized RSV in vitro. Furthermore, the vaccinated animals were resistant to lower respiratory tract infection upon intranasal inoculation with RSV and had reduced titers of RSV in the nose.

  11. FACS purification of immunolabeled cell types from adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Guez-Barber, Danielle; Fanous, Sanya; Harvey, Brandon K; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Becker, Kevin G; Picciotto, Marina R; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-01-15

    Molecular analysis of brain tissue is greatly complicated by having many different classes of neurons and glia interspersed throughout the brain. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been used to purify selected cell types from brain tissue. However, its use has been limited to brain tissue from embryos or transgenic mice with promoter-driven reporter genes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a FACS procedure for dissociating intact cell bodies from adult wild-type rat brains and sorting them using commercially available antibodies against intracellular and extracellular proteins. As an example, we isolated neurons using a NeuN antibody and confirmed their identity using microarray and real time PCR of mRNA from the sorted cells. Our FACS procedure allows rapid, high-throughput, quantitative assays of molecular alterations in identified cell types with widespread applications in neuroscience.

  12. Chordin and noggin expression in the adult rat trigeminal nuclei.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yutaro; Mikawa, Sumiko; Masumoto, Kazuma; Katou, Fuminori; Sato, Kohji

    2016-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) exert its biological functions by interacting with membrane bound receptors. However, functions of BMPs are also regulated in the extracellular space by secreted antagonistic regulators, such as chordin and noggin. Although the deep involvement of BMP signaling in the development and functions of the trigeminal nuclei has been postulated, little information is available for its expression in the trigeminal nuclei. We, thus, investigated chordin and noggin expression in the adult rat trigeminal nuclei using immunohistochemistry. Chordin and noggin were intensely expressed throughout the trigeminal nuclei. In addition, interesting differences are observed between chordin expression and noggin expression. For example, chordin prefers dendritic expression than noggin, suggesting that chordin is involved in the regulation of dendritic morphology and synaptic homeostasis. Furthermore, chordin and noggin were differentially expressed in the neuropil of the trigeminal nuclei. Since BMP signaling is known to play a pivotal role to make precise neural network, theses differences might be important to keep precise interneuronal connections by regulating local BMP signaling intensity in each region. Interestingly, we also detected chordin and noggin expression in axons of the trigeminal nerves. These data indicate that chordin and noggin play pivotal roles also in the adult trigeminal system.

  13. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  14. An insect cell derived respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F nanoparticle vaccine induces antigenic site II antibodies and protects against RSV challenge in cotton rats by active and passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Raghunandan, Rama; Lu, Hanxin; Zhou, Bin; Xabier, Mimi Guebre; Massare, Michael J; Flyer, David C; Fries, Louis F; Smith, Gale E; Glenn, Gregory M

    2014-11-12

    Post-infectious immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection results in limited protection as evidenced by the high rate of infant hospitalization in the face of high titer, maternally derived RSV-specific antibodies. By contrast, RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein antigenic site II humanized monoclonal antibodies, palivizumab and motavizumab, have been shown to reduce RSV-related hospitalization in infants. Immunogenicity and efficacy studies were conducted in cotton rats comparing a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine with palivizumab and controlled with live RSV virus intranasal immunization and, formalin inactivated RSV vaccine. Active immunization with RSV F nanoparticle vaccine containing an alum adjuvant induced serum levels of palivizumab competing antibody (PCA) greater than passive administration of 15 mg/kg palivizumab (human prophylactic dose) in cotton rats and neutralized RSV-A and RSV-B viruses. Immunization prevented detectable RSV replication in the lungs and, unlike passive administration of palivizumab, in the nasal passage of challenged cotton rats. Histology of lung tissues following RSV challenge showed no enhanced disease in the vaccinated groups in contrast to formalin inactivated 'Lot 100' vaccine. Passive intramuscular administration of RSV F vaccine-induced immune sera one day prior to challenge of cotton rats reduced viral titers by 2 or more log10 virus per gram of lung and nasal tissue and at doses less than palivizumab. A recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine protected lower and upper respiratory tract against both RSV A and B strain infection and induced polyclonal palivizumab competing antibodies similar to but potentially more broadly protective against RSV than palivizumab.

  15. Transformation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Banyasz, Tamas; Lozinskiy, Ilya; Payne, Charles E; Edelmann, Stephanie; Norton, Byron; Chen, Biyi; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T; Balke, C William

    2008-03-01

    We characterized the morphological, electrical and mechanical alterations of cardiomyocytes in long-term cell culture. Morphometric parameters, sarcomere length, T-tubule density, cell capacitance, L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)), inward rectifier potassium current (I(K1)), cytosolic calcium transients, action potential and contractile parameters of adult rat ventricular myocytes were determined on each day of 5 days in culture. We also analysed the health of the myocytes using an apoptotic/necrotic viability assay. The data show that myocytes undergo profound morphological and functional changes during culture. We observed a progressive reduction in the cell area (from 2502 +/- 70 microm(2) on day 0 to 1432 +/- 50 microm(2) on day 5), T-tubule density, systolic shortening (from 0.11 +/- 0.02 to 0.05 +/- 0.01 microm) and amplitude of calcium transients (from 1.54 +/- 0.19 to 0.67 +/- 0.19) over 5 days of culture. The negative force-frequency relationship, characteristic of rat myocardium, was maintained during the first 2 days but diminished thereafter. Cell capacitance (from 156 +/- 8 to 105 +/- 11 pF) and membrane currents were also reduced (I(Ca,L), from 3.98 +/- 0.39 to 2.12 +/- 0.37 pA pF; and I(K1), from 34.34p +/- 2.31 to 18.00 +/- 5.97 pA pF(-1)). We observed progressive depolarization of the resting membrane potential during culture (from 77.3 +/- 2.5 to 34.2 +/- 5.9 mV) and, consequently, action potential morphology was profoundly altered as well. The results of the viability assays indicate that these alterations could not be attributed to either apoptosis or necrosis but are rather an adaptation to the culture conditions over time.

  16. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in cerebral cortical neurons of embryos and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Salinas, Eva; González, Rodolfo

    2007-01-03

    Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was initially isolated from hypothalamus and its receptor from anterior pituitary, although extrapituitary GnRH receptors have been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GnRH receptor and its mRNA are expressed in cerebral cortical neurons of rat embryos and adult rats using immunohistochemical and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. The immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis showed expression of GnRH receptor and presence of its mRNA, in both cerebral cortical neurons of rat embryos and cerebral cortical tissues of adult rats. Additional experiments showed a decrease in the receptor mRNA expression when cultured neurons of rat embryos were treated with GnRH. It is possible that the presence of GnRH receptors in cortical neurons of rat may be involved in other physiological roles such as neurohormone or neuromodulator.

  17. Enduring and sex-specific effects of adolescent social isolation in rats on adult stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Ari; Singaravelu, Janani; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2010-07-09

    In adolescence, gender differences in rates of affective disorders emerge. For both adolescent boys and girls, peer relationships are the primary source of life stressors though adolescent girls are more sensitive to such stressors. Social stressors are also powerful stressors for non-human social species like rodents. In a rat model, we examined how social isolation during adolescence impacts stress reactivity and specific neural substrates in adult male and female rats. Rats were isolated during adolescence by single housing from day 30 to 50 of age and control rats were group housed. On day 50, isolated rats and control rats were re-housed in same-treatment same-sex groups. Adult female rats isolated as adolescents exhibited increased adrenal responses to acute and to repeated stress and exhibited increased hypothalamic vasopressin mRNA and BDNF mRNA in the CA3 hippocampal subfield. In contrast, adult male rats isolated as adolescents exhibited a lower corticosterone response to acute stress, exhibited a reduced state of anxiety as assessed in the elevated plus maze and reduced Orexin mRNA compared to adult males group-housed as adolescents. These data point to a markedly different impact of isolation experienced in adolescence on endocrine and behavioral endpoints in males compared to females and identify specific neural substrates that may mediate the long-lasting effects of stress in adolescence.

  18. Juvenile but not adult methamphetamine exposure improves performance in the Morris Water Maze in male rats.

    PubMed

    Moenk, Michael D; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    Early exposure to psychostimulants has been found to lead to long-lasting effects on cognitive processes. Our lab has previously reported that juvenile male rats administered methamphetamine showed improved performance in a spatial navigation task when tested in adulthood (McFadden and Matuszewich, 2007). What is not known, however, is if these effects are specific to the developing rat, or if a similar methamphetamine protocol given to adult rats would lead to an equally beneficial long-term change in spatial cognition. In the current study, male rats were given 1 daily injection of 2mg/kg methamphetamine or saline for 15 days during either preadolescence (PD20-34) or adulthood (PD70-84). Approximately 45 days after treatment, all rats then underwent 5 days of place training in the Morris water maze at a time when juvenile rats reached adulthood. Similar to previous findings, juvenile rats exposed to repeated methamphetamine displayed shorter latencies and distances to reach the platform throughout training compared to saline-treated rats. The juvenile rats treated with methamphetamine also swam shorter distances and had faster latencies to the hidden platform compared to adult methamphetamine-treated rats. There were no significant differences in rats treated in adulthood with methamphetamine compared to saline-treated rats. Likewise, there were no effects of prior methamphetamine treatment or age on matching-to-place trials or visible platform trials. Overall, the results show that repeated methamphetamine exposure can selectively improve spatial learning in adult male rats when administered during preadolescence, but does not significantly affect spatial learning when administered in adulthood. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate the unique susceptibility of the developing brain to drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity, as well as the long-term behavioral impact of exposure at critical ages.

  19. Global and local processing in adult humans (Homo sapiens), 5-year-old children (Homo sapiens), and adult cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Neiworth, Julie J; Gleichman, Amy J; Olinick, Anne S; Lamp, Kristen E

    2006-11-01

    This study compared adults (Homo sapiens), young children (Homo sapiens), and adult tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) while they discriminated global and local properties of stimuli. Subjects were trained to discriminate a circle made of circle elements from a square made of square elements and were tested with circles made of squares and squares made of circles. Adult humans showed a global bias in testing that was unaffected by the density of the elements in the stimuli. Children showed a global bias with dense displays but discriminated by both local and global properties with sparse displays. Adult tamarins' biases matched those of the children. The striking similarity between the perceptual processing of adult monkeys and humans diagnosed with autism and the difference between this and normatively developing human perception is discussed.

  20. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  1. Long-term consequences of neonatal fluoxetine exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Meng-Ching; Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Li, Yang; Lee, Li-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays important roles during neural development. Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-type medication during gestation may influence the maturation of the fetal brain and subsequent brain functions. To mimic the condition of late-gestation SSRI exposure, we administered fluoxetine (FLX) in neonatal rats during the first postnatal week, which roughly corresponds to the third trimester period of human gestation. FLX-exposed adult male rats exhibited reduced locomotor activity and depression-like behaviors. Furthermore, sensorimotor gating capacity was also impaired. Interestingly, increased social interaction was noticed in FLX-exposed rats. When the levels of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase were examined, no significant changes were found in FLX rats compared to control (CON) rats. The behavioral phenotypes of FLX rats suggested malfunction of the limbic system. Dendritic architectures of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) were examined. Layer II/III mPFC pyramidal neurons in FLX rats had exuberant dendritic branches with elongated terminal segments compared to those in CON rats. In BLA pyramidal neurons, the dendritic profiles were comparable between the two groups. However, in FLX rats, the density of dendritic spines was reduced in both mPFC and BLA. Together, our results demonstrated the long-lasting effects of early FLX treatment on emotional and social behaviors in adult rats in which impaired neuronal structure in the limbic system was also noticed. The risk of taking SSRI-type antidepressants during pregnancy should be considered.

  2. Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin alters oxytocin levels in the pituitary of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Young, E; Carter, C S; Cushing, B S; Caldwell, J D

    2005-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) and its OT antagonists (OTA) in infant rats affect their behavior as adults. In this study we attempted to determine whether treating rats on the day of birth (postnatal day 1) with OT or OTA would affect brain OT levels of these rats as adults. Rat pups were injected with OT (3 microg), OTA (0.3 microg) or saline vehicle ip on postnatal day 1. As 60-day-old adults, treated rats were killed, and the OT content in their medial preoptic areas (MPOAs), medial hypothalami (MH) and pituitaries were assayed. In females, treatment with OTA on postnatal day 1 significantly decreased pituitary OT levels as adults. In males, by contrast, treatment with OTA on postnatal day 1 resulted in increased pituitary OT levels when they become adults compared to male rats treated with OT on postnatal day 1. There were no significant effects of neonatal treatment on OT levels in either the MH or MPOA. Day 1 postnatal treatment with OT or OTA had a long-term sexually dimorphic effect on OT levels in the pituitary.

  3. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Wang, Ning-li; Wang, Si-ying; Lu, Qing-jun; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-fai

    2015-01-01

    Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg) for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype. PMID:26889185

  4. [Transplantation of embryonic medulla oblongata into cerebella of adult rats].

    PubMed

    Nanami, T

    1989-01-01

    Pieces of medulla oblongata anlagen were dissected free from embryonic 13-20 day (E 13 to E 20) rat brain, and these were transplanted into the cerebellar vermis of adult rats (Fischer 344). After grafting, host animals survived for 4-9 months. Cytoarchitectonic organization of the graft and the relationship between host and graft were analyzed light microscopically in 34 animals using the Nissl and silver impregnation methods. Fine structures of the graft were analyzed in 4 animals using electron microscope. Grafts from E 13-14 donor tissue showed the highest survival rate (90%), which decreased as the donor embryonic age increased (i.e., E 15-16: 33%, E 17-20: 15%). In the surviving grafts, small (5-10 microns diameter), medium-sized (10-20 microns) and large (20-30 microns) neurons, whose cytoplasmic organelles appeared normal, were observed. Bundles of myelinated fibers traversed in every direction and neurons were often clustered, indicating characteristic features of the medulla oblongata. Electron microscopically, various types of synaptic formations were also observed. Degenerative profiles of nerve-fiber endings, containing dense bodies and lysosomal figures, were also seen. The degeneration seemed to be caused by the failure of their establishing connections with their proper targets in the host. In both the host tissue and the graft-host interface, neuronal processes apparently derived from the graft were frequently observed. Some axonal processes contained large-cored vesicles, and some dendritic processes were enlarged at their stalks and tips. Aberrant axon terminals of unmyelinated fibers in the host medullary layer were considered to be the graft origin. These fibers were always accompanied by prominent glial proliferation. There was no indication of forming myelinated fiber bundles that entered the host cerebellum from the donor tissue, although the former was the target of the latter. Cell bodies of host granule cells and oligodendroglia in the

  5. Differential effects of delta9-THC on learning in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, Young May; White, Aaron M; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Wilson, Wilkie A; Swartzwelder, H S

    2006-03-01

    Marijuana use remains strikingly high among young users in the U.S., and yet few studies have assessed the effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescents compared to adults. This study measured the effects of THC on male adolescent and adult rats in the Morris water maze. In Experiment 1, adolescent (PD=30-32) and adult (PD=65-70) rats were treated acutely with 5.0 mg/kg THC or vehicle while trained on the spatial version of the water maze on five consecutive days. In Experiment 2, adolescent and adult rats were treated acutely with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg THC or vehicle while trained on either the spatial and non-spatial versions of the water maze. In Experiment 3, adolescent and adult rats were treated with 5.0 mg/kg THC or vehicle daily for 21 days, and were trained on the spatial and then the non-spatial versions of the water maze task four weeks later in the absence of THC. THC impaired both spatial and nonspatial learning more in adolescents than in adults at all doses tested. However, there were no long-lasting significant effects on either spatial or non-spatial learning in rats that had been previously exposed to THC for 21 days. This developmental sensitivity is analogous to the effects of ethanol, another commonly used recreational drug.

  6. Safety of Intracerebroventricular Copper Histidine in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lem, Kristen E.; Brinster, Lauren R.; Tjurmina, Olga; Lizak, Martin; Lal, Simina; Centeno, Jose A.; Liu, Po-Ching; Godwin, Sarah C.; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2007-01-01

    Classical Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in a P-type ATPase (ATP7A) that normally delivers copper to the developing central nervous system. Infants with large deletions, or other mutations in ATP7A that incapacitate copper transport to the brain, show poor clinical outcomes and subnormal brain copper despite early subcutaneous copper histidine (CuHis) injections. These findings suggest a need for direct central nervous system approaches in such patients. To begin to evaluate an aggressive but potentially useful new strategy for metabolic improvement of this disorder, we studied the acute and chronic effects of CuHis administered by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in healthy adult rats. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after ICV CuHis showed diffuse T1-signal enhancement, indicating wide brain distribution of copper after ICV administration, and implying the utility of this paramagnetic metal as a MRI contrast agent. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CuHis, defined as the highest dose that did not induce overt toxicity, growth retardation, or reduce lifespan, was 0.5 mcg. Animals receiving multiple infusions of this MTD showed increased brain copper concentrations, but no significant differences in activity, behavior, and somatic growth, or brain histology compared to saline-injected controls. Based on estimates of the brain copper deficit in Menkes disease patients, CuHis doses 10-fold lower than the MTD found in this study may restore proper brain copper concentration. Our results suggest that ICV CuHis administration have potential as a novel treatment approach in Menkes disease infants with severe mutations. Future trials of direct CNS copper administration in mouse models of Menkes disease will be informative. PMID:17336116

  7. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on overwintering characteristics and survival of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang; Liu, Zhudong; Yin, Jin; Su, Jianwei; Wang, Chenzhu; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the overwintering generation of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are unknown. We hypothesized that a Bt cotton diet may adversely affect fitness of this generation and examined fresh weight, lipids, glycogens, low-molecular-weight sugars and SCPs (supercooling points) of pupae, as well as survival of larvae, diapausing pupae and adult emergence in comparison with controls. Field and laboratory experiments showed that larvae fed on Bt cotton had a decreased pupation rate, and fewer entered diapause and emerged as adults compared with larvae fed non-Bt cotton. Furthermore, larvae fed Bt cotton had reduced pupal weight, glycogen content and trehalose levels both in diapausing and in non-diapausing pupae, and only diapausing pupae had an increased SCP compared to controls. The SCPs of diapausing pupae reared on Bt cotton were significantly higher than those reared on non-Bt cotton. The trehalose levels of diapausing pupae reared on Bt cotton were significantly lower than those of larvae reared on non-Bt cotton. Thus, these results suggest that a Bt cotton diet weakens the preparedness of cotton bollworm for overwintering and reduces survival of the overwintering generation, which will in turn reduce the density of the first generation in the following year. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the overwintering generation of cotton bollworm appear to have significantly contributed to the suppression of cotton bollworm observed throughout northern China in the past decade.

  8. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  9. Nicotine produces long-term increases in cocaine reinforcement in adolescent but not adult rats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Izenwasser, Sari

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that many smokers begin using nicotine during adolescence, yet the influence of early nicotine use on the response to other drugs of abuse in adulthood is not fully understood. In the current study, nicotine was administered to adolescent and adult rats for seven days. Thirty days later, cocaine-induced locomotor activity and cocaine self-administration were examined when the rats pretreated as adolescents were adults. Rats exposed to nicotine during early adolescence were sensitized thirty days later to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and self-administered a greater number of cocaine infusions than adolescent rats pretreated with vehicle. As a result of this increased intake, the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve was shifted upward indicating an increase in cocaine reinforcement. Rats pretreated with nicotine as adults, however, did not show a difference in locomotor activity or cocaine self-administration thirty days later compared to adult rats pretreated with vehicle. These findings suggest that early exposure to nicotine has long-term consequences on cocaine use. These data further suggest that nicotine use may carry a greater risk during adolescence than adulthood and adolescents who smoke may be particularly vulnerable to stimulant use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity.

  10. Induction of maternal behavior in adult female rats following chronic morphine exposure during puberty.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Elizabeth M; Rigero, Beth A; Bridges, Robert S

    2003-12-01

    The peripubertal period in the female rat is the time when the stimulatory effects of opioids on prolactin (PRL) secretion develop. In the adult rat, the administration of chronic high-dose morphine has been shown to attenuate the ability of opiates to stimulate PRL secretion. One function of PRL in adult virgin rats is the induction of maternal behavior. The present study examined whether chronic high-dose morphine exposure during the peripubertal period alters PRL-mediated induction of maternal behavior in adult female rats. Two groups of juvenile female rats were administered increasing doses of morphine or vehicle (s.c.) from age 30 to 50 days. As adults, these females either remained intact, or were ovariectomized and treated with a PRL-dependent, steroid hormone regimen that stimulates a rapid onset of maternal behavior. All females were then exposed daily to rat foster pups to determine whether peripubertal morphine exposure affected their latencies to induce maternal behavior. Morphine treatment resulted in a delay in vaginal opening and a temporary reduction in the rate of weight gain; however, the rate of onset of maternal behavior was unaffected by peripubertal morphine treatment. Thus, chronic morphine exposure in the pubertal female did not impact the expression of pup-induced maternal care.

  11. Acute and adaptive motor responses to caffeine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Dennis E; Huggler, April L; Rhoads, Lucas J

    2011-07-01

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant with intake through foods or beverages tending to increase from childhood through adolescence. The goals of the present study were to examine the effects of caffeine on young adolescent Long-Evans rats and to compare the motor-behavioral responses of adolescent and adult rats to acute and chronic caffeine. Adolescent rats had a biphasic dose-response to caffeine comparable to that reported for adult rats. The magnitude of the motor response to a challenge dose of caffeine (30mg/kg, ip) was similar between adolescent and adult rats. Administration of caffeine in the drinking water (1mg/ml) for a period of 2 weeks led to overall consumption of caffeine which was not significantly different between adolescents and adults when normalized to body mass. There were no impacts of caffeinated drinking water on volume of fluid consumed nor weight gain in either age group compared to age matched controls drinking non-caffeinated tap water. Following this period of caffeine consumption, return to regular drinking water (caffeine withdrawal) led to a significant decrease in baseline movement compared to caffeine-naïve rats. This effect inversion was observed for adolescents but not adults. In addition, the response of the adolescents to the challenge dose of caffeine (30mg/kg, ip) was reduced significantly after chronic caffeine consumption and withdrawal. This apparent tolerance to the caffeine challenge dose was not seen with the adults. Thus, the developing brain of these adolescents may show similar sensitivity to adults in acute caffeine exposure but greater responsiveness to adaptive changes associated with chronic caffeine consumption.

  12. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID

  13. Effects of Neonatal Overfeeding on Juvenile and Adult Feeding and Energy Expenditure in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Stefanidis, Aneta; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanim(s) underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL) compared with those from control litters (CL). There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active) phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males) had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages. PMID:23251693

  14. Individual and combined effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin on reproductive system of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alaa-Eldin, Eman Ahmad; El-Shafei, Dalia Abdallah; Abouhashem, Nehal S

    2017-01-01

    Commercial mixtures of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin pesticides are widely used to enhance the toxic effects of cypermethrin on target insects. So, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP) on reproductive system of adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into main four groups: group I (control group) included 16 rats, subdivided into negative and positive control; group II (eight rats) received chlorpyrifos 6.75 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); group III (eight rats) (received cypermethrin 12.5 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); and group IV (eight rats) (received chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 12 weeks. We found that single CPF and CYP exposures significantly have adverse effects on reproductive function of adult male albino rats manifested by reduced testicular weight, decreased sperm count, motility and viability, significantly increased percent of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, and significant increments in sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) with respect to control group. Furthermore, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly compared to control group. This was accompanied with histopathological changes in the testis of rats such as necrosis, degeneration, decreasing number of spermatogenic cells in some seminiferous tubules, edema, congested blood vessels, and exudate in interstitial tissue of the testis. Notably, all these changes were exaggerated in rats treated concomitantly with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin rendering the mixture more toxic than the additive effects of each compound and causing greater damage on the reproductive system of male albino rats than the individual pesticides.

  15. Characterization of membrane currents in dissociated adult rat pineal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, L G; Weight, F F

    1988-01-01

    1. Membrane currents, particularly the outward components, were studied in pineal cells acutely dissociated from adult rats using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. 2. In current clamp, outward constant current elicited a transient graded depolarizing response. A sustained membrane rectification developed within 20 ms; this phenomenon was reduced in cells internally dialysed with 120 mM-CsCl. 3. Study of the membrane current revealed the existence of a transient and a delayed outward current. These currents were virtually eliminated when the cell was internally dialysed with CsCl. 4. The delayed outward current, isolated from a holding potential of -50 mV, activated at potentials near -20 mV, reached a steady-state current amplitude within 60 ms and had little or no decay during steps up to 400 ms in duration. This component was reduced by 80% or more with the addition of 5 mM-TEA. 5. From -100 mV, the transient outward current reached a peak within 15 ms and decayed with a single-exponential time course. The mean decay time constant was 66 +/- 10 ms (at -33 mV) and it showed little voltage sensitivity. This current, which activated at potentials positive to -60 mV and displayed half-inactivation at -76 +/- 8 mV, was reduced by 50% with the addition of 5 mM-4-AP (4-amino-pyridine). 6. In the presence of external Ca2+, the current-voltage relationship for the delayed current did not display a region of negative-slope conductance (N-shape). Increasing the intracellular ionized Ca2+ concentration by varying the Ca-EGTA buffer ratio did not alter the dependence of the current on the membrane potential. 7. Block of outward currents with internal Cs+ revealed a small (less than 90 pA) inward Ca2+ current when the external Ca2+ concentration was increased to 10 mM. From a holding potential of -50 mV, it had a threshold at -30 mV and peaked at +5 mV. Evidence for an inward Na+ current was not obtained. 8. We conclude that acutely dissociated pineal cells

  16. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  17. Ethanol facilitation of short-term memory in adult rats with a disturbed circadian cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, P; Okulicz-Kozaryn, I; Nowaczyk, M; Kaminska, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3-month ethanol treatment on olfactory social memory test performance using two inter-exposure intervals [30 min: short-term recognition (STR); or 120 min: long-term recognition (LTR)] in adult rats with a disturbed circadian cycle (DCC). Ethanol treatment both in ethanol-preferring and -non-preferring groups improved the STR task compared to control rats. However, LTR procedure triggered the opposite tendency. Moreover, no differences between control rats with DCC and those with normal diurnal rhythm in STR and LTR paradigms were observed. Our results suggest that, under some conditions, alcohol facilitates short-term memory in adult rats.

  18. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  19. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5μg/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors α and β showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol.

  20. Stress in the Adult Rat Exacerbates Muscle Pain Induced by Early-Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early-life stress and exposure to stressful stimuli play a major role in the development of chronic widespread pain in adults. However, how they interact in chronic pain syndromes remains unclear. Methods Dams and neonatal litters were submitted to a restriction of nesting material (neonatal limited bedding, NLB) for one week. As adults, these rats were exposed to a painless sound stress protocol. The involvement of sympathoadrenal catecholamines, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) in nociception, was evaluated through of behavioral and ELISA assays, surgical interventions and intrathecal antisense treatments. Results Adult NLB rats exhibited mild muscle hyperalgesia, which was markedly aggravated by sound stress (peaking 15 days after exposure). Adrenal medullectomy did not modify hyperalgesia in NLB rats but prevented its aggravation by sound stress. Sustained administration of epinephrine to NLB rats mimicked sound stress effect. Intrathecal treatment with antisense directed to IL-6-receptor subunit gp130, but not to TNFα type 1 receptor (TNFR1), inhibited hyperalgesia in NLB rats. However, antisense against either gp130 or TNFR1 inhibited sound stress-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia. Compared to control rats, NLB rats exhibit increased plasma levels of IL-6 but decreased levels of TNFα, whereas sound stress increases IL-6 plasma levels in control but not in NLB rats. Conclusions Early-life stress induces a persistent elevation of IL-6, hyperalgesia and susceptibility to chronic muscle pain, which is unveiled by exposure to stress in adults. This probably depends on an interaction between adrenal catecholamines and pro-inflammatory cytokines acting at muscle nociceptor level. PMID:23706525

  1. Intermittent access to beer promotes binge-like drinking in adolescent but not adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Monds, Lauren; Gunasekaran, Nathan; Dawson, Bronwyn; McGregor, Iain S

    2009-06-01

    Teenagers are more likely than adults to engage in binge drinking and could be more vulnerable to long-term brain changes following alcohol abuse. We investigated the possibility of excessive adolescent drinking in a rodent model in which beer (4.44% ethanol vol/vol) is presented to adult and adolescent male Wistar rats. Experiment 1 tracked ad libitum beer and water consumption in group-housed rats from postnatal day (PND) 28-96. Rats consumed an average of 7.8 g/kg/day of ethanol during adolescence (PND 34-55) and this gradually declined to a lower level of intake in adulthood (PND 56-93) of 3.9 g/kg/day. In Experiment 2, beer was made available to both adolescent (PND 29+) and adult (PND 57+) rats for 2h each day in a custom-built "lickometer" apparatus over 75 days. Access to beer was provided either 1 day out of every 3 ("intermittent" groups) or every day ("daily" groups). Relative to body weight, adolescent rats consumed more beer than adult rats in these limited access sessions. Adolescents with intermittent access consumed more than adolescents with daily access, a "binge"-like effect that was not observed in adult groups and that disappeared in adulthood. After 3 months of daily or intermittent alcohol consumption, the preference for beer versus sucrose was assessed. Rats previously kept under an intermittent schedule displayed a higher preference for beer relative to 3% sucrose, but only when testing occurred after 2 days of abstinence. In Experiment 3, adolescent (PND 30-37) and adult (PND 58-65) rats were given 20-min access to beer and their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were assessed. Adolescent groups consumed more alcohol than adults and showed higher BACS that were typical of human "binge" drinking (>80 mg/dL). Despite this, the correlation between BAC and beer intake was similar in both age groups. Together these results show that the intermittent presentation of alcohol itself appears to have subtle long-lasting effects on the motivation

  2. Increased rat neonatal activity influences adult cytokine levels and relative muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Bryce; Yu, Tiffany; Nance, Dwight M.; Zaldivar, Frank P.; Cooper, Dan M.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of physical activity in early life on subsequent growth and regulation of inflammation. We previously reported that exposure of muscles in growing rats to IL-6 results in decreased muscle growth apparently due to a state of resistance to growth factors such IGF-I and that running exercise could ameliorate this growth defect. Herein we hypothesized that increased activity, for a brief period during neonatal life, would pattern the adult rat towards a less inflammatory phenotype. Neonatal rats were induced to move about their cage for brief periods from day 5 to day 15 postpartum. Additional groups were undisturbed controls (CON) and handled (HAND). Sub-groups of rats were sampled at 30 and 65 days of age. Relative to CON and HAND, neonatal exercise (EX) results in decreased circulating levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β in adulthood, primarily in male rats. In addition, adult male EX rats had lower body mass and increased skeletal muscle mass suggesting a leaner phenotype. The results of this study suggest that moderate increases in activity early in life can influence the adult toward a more healthy phenotype with regard to inflammatory mediators and relative muscle mass. PMID:20657345

  3. Early life permethrin insecticide treatment leads to heart damage in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Vadhana, M S Dhivya; Carloni, Manuel; Nasuti, Cinzia; Fedeli, Donatella; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2011-09-01

    Early life environmental exposure to xenobiotics could represent a critical period for the onset of permanent alterations in the structure and function of different organs. Cardiovascular diseases can be related to various factors including environmental toxicants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of early life permethrin treatment (1/50 LD(50), from 6th to 21st day of life) on heart of adult rats. Increased DNA damage, decreased heart cell membrane fluidity, increased cholesterol content, protein and lipid oxidation were measured in heart cells from adult rats treated with permethrin during the neonatal period with respect to control rats. Moreover, the same group showed higher levels of cholesterol, IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, rat-Rantes and IL-10 cytokines and decreased albumin content in plasma. Lower cholesterol levels and perturbation in the phospholipid lateral diffusion together with decreased GSH levels and increased GPx activity were measured in heart mitochondria of the treated group. Our findings support the evidence that the neonatal period has a critical role in the development of heart disease in adulthood. We hypothesize that the alterations observed in adult rats could depend on epigenetic changes that occurred during this period which influence gene expression throughout the rat's life, leading to alterations of certain parameters related to cardiac function.

  4. Morphine treatment during juvenile isolation increases social activity and opioid peptides release in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, C L; Kitchen, I; Gerrits, M A; Spruijt, B M; Van Ree, J M

    1999-05-29

    The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on general activity, social activity and endogenous opioid release during a social interaction test were investigated in the adult rat. Rats were either isolated or socially housed during weeks 4 and 5 of age and treated daily during this isolation period subcutaneously with either saline or morphine. Directly after a social interaction test at 10 weeks of age, rats were injected with [3H]-diprenorphine and subsequently prepared for in vivo autoradiography. The autoradiographic technique was used to visualise neuroanatomical changes in opioid receptor occupancy, probably reflecting changes in opioid peptide release, as a result of social activity. Juvenile isolation increased general activity during the social interaction test, an effect which was accompanied by a reduction of opioid receptor occupancy in many brain areas, suggesting an increased opioid peptide release as a consequence of socially-induced general activity. Morphine treatment in isolated rats caused an increase in adult social activity and enhanced opioid peptide release in some cortical regions and the ventral tegmental area as compared to saline treated rats. Both social activity and opioid receptor occupancy were unaffected by morphine treatment in non-isolated rats. The present study underscores the role of opioid systems in adult social behaviors as a consequence of juvenile isolation. The results suggest a relationship between social activity and opioid peptide release during social contact. Increased social activity seems to be accompanied by elevated opioid peptide release in distinct brain areas after morphine treatment during juvenile isolation.

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in spinal cord neurons of embryos and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Salinas, Eva; González, Rodolfo

    2009-09-11

    Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor have been found in the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. However, they can be localized in other extra-pituitary tissues as well including the central nervous system. The present study reports the expression of GnRH receptor and its mRNA in spinal cord neurons of rat embryos and adult rats, using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry showed that the spinal cord neurons of rat embryos and adult rats expressed the GnRH receptor. The study of GnRH receptor mRNAs revealed that both cultured spinal cord neurons of rat embryos and adult rats expressed the GnRH receptor mRNA. Additional in vitro experiments showed that the expression of GnRH receptor mRNA was less in the spinal cord neurons exposed to GnRH compared to unexposed ones. These results raise the possibility that GnRH may play other roles independently from its participation in reproductive function.

  6. Effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats.

  7. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia Cs; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane As; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba Aa; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo Cf

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer.

  8. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  9. Maternal exposure to isobutyl-paraben impairs social recognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Maiko; Morohoshi, Kaori; Imai, Hideki; Morita, Masatoshi; Kato, Nobumasa; Himi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Isobutyl-paraben (IBP), a widely used preservative, exhibits estrogenic activity. We analyzed the effects of exposure to IBP during gestation and lactation via dam on social recognition behavior in ovariectomized offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats. Offspring were ovariectomized at 7 weeks of age, and were used in a social recognition test at 16 weeks of age. Each offspring was exposed to a novel ovariectomized rat four times and to a second novel rat in a fifth exposure. We counted the investigations by offspring of intruder rats. The IBP-exposed rats showed impaired social behavior compared with controls. These data imply that early exposure to IBP may have an effect on adult social behavior, which is reported to be an autism spectrum disorders in humans.

  10. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  11. Neonatal sensory deprivation promotes development of absence seizures in adult rats with genetic predisposition to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Evgenia

    2011-03-04

    Absence epilepsy has age-related onset. In a WAG/Rij rat genetic model, absence seizures appear after puberty and they are increased with age. It is known that (1) epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats is initiated at the perioral area in the somatosensory cortex; (2) sensory deprivation, i.e., whisker trimming during the critical period of development, could enhance excitatory activity in the somatosensory cortex. It is hypothesized that the cortex may become more excitable after neonatal vibrissae removal, and this may precipitate absence seizures in adult rats. We found that whisker trimming during the first postnatal weeks caused more rapid development of EEG seizure activity in adult WAG/Rij rats. Epileptic discharges in the trimmed rats were more numerous (vs control), showed longer duration and often appeared in desynchronized and drowsy EEG. The number of absence-like spindle-shaped EEG events (spike-wave spindles) in the whisker-trimmed rats was higher than in control, especially during the intermediate sleep state. An age-dependent increase of intermediate sleep state was found in the trimmed rats, but not in the intact animals. We discuss epigenetic factors that can modulate absence epilepsy in genetically prone subjects.

  12. The Effects of Inflammatory Tooth Pain on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili Mahani, Saeed; Ramazani, Mohsen; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. Methods: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test. Results: Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P<0.001). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) significantly increased the anxiety levels in rats by decrease in the duration of time spent in open arm and increase in the duration of time spent in closed arm. Rats that received capsaicin made fewer open arm entries compared to the control animals (P<0.05). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) treated rats showed more stretch attend postures compared to the control and sham operated animals. In diazepampretreated rats, capsaicin induced algesic effect was prevented (P<0.001). Conclusion: Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects. PMID:27563419

  13. Trap cropping systems and a physical barrier for suppression of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in peanut-cotton farmscapes in the southeastern USA. Because stink bug adults exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strateg...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 {mu}g/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 {mu}g/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  15. Different adaptation of the motor activity rhythm to chronic phase shifts between adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nerea; da Silva, Crhistiane; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2013-09-01

    Chronic phase shifts is a common feature in modern societies, which may induce sleep alterations and other health problems. The effects of phase shift on the circadian rhythms have been described to be more pronounced in old than in young animals. However, few works address the effects of chronic phase shifts during adolescence. Here we tested the development of the motor activity circadian rhythm of young rats under chronic phase shifts, which consisted on 6-h advances (A), 6h delays (D) or 6h advances and delays alternated every 5 days (AD) during the first 60 days after weaning. Moreover, the rhythmic pattern was compared to that of adult rats under the same lighting conditions. Results indicate that adolescent rats, independently on the lighting environment, developed a clear circadian rhythm, whose amplitude increased the first 50 days after weaning and showed a more stable circadian rhythm than adults under the same lighting conditions. In the case of A and AD groups, circadian disruption was observed only in adult rats. In all groups, the offset of activity correlated with light pattern better than the onset, and this correlation was always higher in the case of the rhythm of the pubertal rats. When AD groups were transferred to constant darkness, the group submitted to this condition during adolescence showed shorter period than that submitted in their adulthood. In conclusion, differently from adult rats, adolescent rats submitted to chronic phase shifts did not show circadian disruption and developed a single circadian rhythm, suggesting permanent changes in the circadian system.

  16. Ventilatory phenotypes among four strains of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Matthew R; Forster, Hubert V; Papanek, Paula E; Dwinell, Melinda R; Hogan, Genevieve E

    2002-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to identify different ventilatory phenotypes among four different strains of rats. We examined 114 rats from three in-house, inbred strains and one outbred strain: Brown Norway (BN; n = 26), Dahl salt-sensitive (n = 24), Fawn-hooded Hypertensive (FHH: n = 27), and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats (SD; n = 37). We measured eupneic (room air) breathing and the ventilatory responses to hypoxia (12% O(2)-88% N(2)), hypercapnia (7% CO(2)), and two levels of submaximal exercise. Primary strain differences were between BN and the other strains. BN rats had a relatively attenuated ventilatory response to CO(2) (P < 0.001), an accentuated ventilatory response to exercise (P < 0.05), and an accentuated ventilatory roll-off during hypoxia (P < 0.05). Ventilation during hypoxia was lower than other strains, but hyperventilation during hypoxia was equal to the other strains (P > 0.05), indicating that the metabolic rate during hypoxia decreased more in BN rats than in other strains. Another strain difference was in the frequency and timing components of augmented breaths, where FHH rats frequently differed from the other strains, and the BN rats had the longest expiratory time of the augmented breaths (probably secondary to the blunted CO(2) sensitivity). These strain differences not only provide insight into physiological mechanisms but also indicate traits (such as CO(2) sensitivity) that are genetically regulated. Finally, the data establish a foundation for physiological genomic studies aimed at elucidating the genetics of these ventilatory control mechanisms.

  17. Similar withdrawal severity in adolescents and adults in a rat model of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Morris, S A; Kelso, M L; Liput, D J; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent's unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however, age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study investigated alcohol intoxication behavior and withdrawal severity using a modified Majchrowicz model of alcohol dependence that has been shown to result in similar blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) despite age differences. Adolescent (postnatal day, PND, 35) and adult rats (PND 70+) received ethanol according to this 4-day binge paradigm and were observed for withdrawal behavior for 17h. As expected, adolescents showed decreased sensitivity to alcohol-induced CNS depression as evidenced by significantly lower intoxication scores. Thus, adolescents received significantly more ethanol each day (12.3+/-0.1g/kg/day) than adults (9.2+/-0.2g/kg/day). Despite greater ethanol dosing in adolescent rats, both adolescent and adult groups had comparable peak BECs (344.5+/-10.2 and 338.5+/-7.8mg/dL, respectively). Strikingly, withdrawal severity was similar quantitatively and qualitatively between adolescent and adult rats. Further, this is the first time that withdrawal behavior has been reported for adolescent rats using this model of alcohol dependence. A second experiment confirmed the similarity in BECs at various time points across the binge. These results demonstrate that after consideration of ethanol pharmacokinetics between adults and adolescents by using a model that produces similar BECs, withdrawal severity is nearly identical. This study, in combination with previous reports on ethanol withdrawal in adolescents and adults, suggests only a BEC-dependent effect of ethanol on

  18. Supplemental dietary choline during development exerts antidepressant-like effects in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Melissa J; Adams, Raven S; McClurg, Lauren

    2012-03-14

    Perinatal choline supplementation in rats is neuroprotective against insults such as fetal alcohol exposure, seizures, and advanced age. In the present study we explored whether dietary choline supplementation may also confer protection from psychological challenges, like stress, and act as a natural buffer against stress-linked psychological disorders, like depression. We previously found that choline supplementation increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a function compromised by stress, lowered in depression, and boosted by antidepressants; and increased levels of growth factors linked to depression, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Together, these were compelling reasons to study the role of choline in depressed mood. To do this, we treated rats with a choline supplemented diet (5 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A) prenatally on embryonic days 10-22, on postnatal days (PD) 25-50, or as adults from PD75 onward. Outside of these treatment periods rats were fed a standard diet (1.1 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A); control rats consumed only this diet throughout the study. Starting on PD100 rats' anxiety-like responses to an open field, learning in a water maze, and reactivity to forced swimming were assessed. Rats given choline supplementation during pre- or post-natal development, but not adult-treated rats, were less anxious in the open field and less immobile in the forced swim test than control rats. These effects were not mediated by a learning deficit as all groups performed comparably and well in the water maze. Thus, we offer compelling support for the hypothesis that supplemental dietary choline, at least when given during development, may inoculate an individual against stress and major psychological disorders, like depression.

  19. Regulatory Mechanism of Muscle Disuse Atrophy in Adult Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During the last phase of NAG 2-386 we completed three studies. The effects of 14 days of weightlessness; the vastus medialis (VM) from flight rats in COSMOS 2044 was compared with the VM from tail suspended rats and other controls. The type I and II fibers in the mixed fiber portion of the VM were significantly reduced in flight rats and capillary densities paralleled the fiber density changes. The results of this project compared favorably with those in the extensor digitorum longus following seven days of flight in SL 3. The cardiovascular projects focused on the blood pressure changes in head down tilted rats (HDT) and non-head down tilted (N-HDT) rats. Blood pressures (MAP, SP and DP) were significantly elevated through seven days of HDT and rapidly returned to control levels within one day after removal from the HDT position. The N-HDT showed some slight rise in blood pressure but these were not as great and they were not as rapid. The HDT rats were characterized as exhibiting transient hypertension. These results led to some of the microvascular and vascular graduate student projects of Dr. Bernhard Stepke. Also our results refute or, at least, do not agree with previous reports from other laboratories. Each animal, in our blood pressure projects, served as its own control thereby providing more accurate results. Also, our experiments focused on recovery studies which can, in and of themselves, provide guidelines for flight experiments concerned with blood pressure changes. Another experiment was conducted to examine the role of testicular atrophy in whole body suspended (WBS) and tail suspended (TS) rats. We worked in conjunction with Dr. D.R. Deaver's laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and Dr. R. P. Amann at Colorado State University. In the TS rats the testes are retracted into the abdominal cavity, unless a ligature is placed to maintain them in the external scrotal sac. The cryptorchid condition in TS rats results in atrophy of the testes and

  20. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  1. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions. PMID:25407529

  2. Postnatal ethanol exposure disrupts signal detection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Woolfrey, Kevin M; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2005-01-01

    Human prenatal ethanol exposure that occurs during a period of increased synaptogenesis known as the "brain growth spurt" has been associated with significant impairments in attention, learning, and memory. The present experiment assessed whether administration of ethanol during the brain growth spurt in the rat, which occurs shortly after birth, disrupts attentional performance. Rats were administered 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol via intragastric intubation from postnatal days (PD) 4-9, sham-intubation, or no intubation (naïve). Beginning at PD 90, animals were trained to asymptotic performance in a two-lever attention task that required discrimination of brief visual signals from trials with no signal presentation. Finally, manipulations of background noise and inter-trial interval duration were conducted. Early postnatal ethanol administration did not differentially affect acquisition of the attention task. However, after rats were trained to asymptotic performance levels, those previously exposed to ethanol demonstrated a deficit in detection of signals but not of non-signals compared to sham-intubated and naïve rats. The signal detection deficit persisted whenever these animals were re-trained in the standard task, but further task manipulations failed to interact with ethanol pretreatment. The present data support the hypothesis that early postnatal ethanol administration disrupts aspects of attentional processing in the rat.

  3. Ethanol induces second-order aversive conditioning in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence is considered a developmental disorder with etiological onset during late childhood and adolescence, and understanding age-related differences in ethanol sensitivity is important. Low to moderate ethanol doses (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg, i.g.) induce single-trial, appetitive second-order place conditioning (SOC) in adolescent, but not adult, rats. Recent studies have demonstrated that adolescents may be less sensitive than adults to the aversive properties of ethanol, reflected by conditioned taste aversion. The present study assessed the aversive motivational effects of high-dose ethanol (3.0 and 3.25 g/kg, i.g., for adolescent and adults, respectively) using SOC. These doses were derived from Experiment 1, which found similar blood and brain ethanol levels in adolescent and adult rats given 3.0 and 3.25 g/kg ethanol, respectively. In Experiment 2, animals received ethanol or vehicle paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (conditioned stimulus 1 [CS1]). After one, two, or three conditioning trials, rats were presented with the CS1 while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). When tested for CS2 preference, ethanol-treated animals exhibited reduced preference for the CS2 compared with controls. This result, indicative of ethanol-mediated aversive place conditioning, was similar for adolescents and adults, for females and males, and after one, two, or three training trials. One finding, however, suggested that adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol’s aversive effects at the intermediate level of training. In conjunction with previous results, the present study showed that in adolescent rats subjected to SOC, ethanol’s hedonic effects vary from appetitive to aversive as the ethanol dose increases. Adolescent and adult animals appear to perceive the post-ingestive effects of high-dose ethanol as similarly aversive when assessed by SOC. PMID:21187242

  4. Muscle mechanical properties of adult and older rats submitted to exercise after immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Fábio Yoshikazu; Camargo, Regina Celi Trindade; Job, Aldo Eloizo; Ozaki, Guilherme Akio Tamura; Koike, Tatiana Emy; Camargo Filho, José Carlos Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the effects of immobilization, free remobilization and remobilization by physical exercise about mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of rats of two age groups. Methods 56 Wistar rats divided into two groups according to age, an adult group (five months) and an older group (15 months). These groups were subdivided in: control, immobilized, free remobilized and remobilized by physical exercise. The pelvic limb of rats was immobilized for seven days. The exercise protocol consisted of five swimming sessions, once per day and 25 minutes per session. The gastrocnemius muscle was subjected to tensile tests, and evaluated the properties: load at the maximum limit, stretching at the maximum limit and stiffness. Results The immobilization reduced the values of load at the maximum limit and the remobilization protocols were not sufficient to restore control levels in adult group and older rats. The stretching at the maximum limit differs only in the older group. Conclusions The immobilization reduces the muscle's ability to bear loads and exercise protocol tends to restore the default at control values in adult and older rats. The age factor only interfered in the stretching at the maximum limit, inducing a reduction of this property in the post-immobilization. Level of Evidence II, Investigating the Results of Treatment. PMID:24453606

  5. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability.

  6. Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional phase marked by a heightened vulnerability to substances of abuse. It has been hypothesized that both increased sensitivity to reward and decreased sensitivity to aversive events may drive drug-use liability during this phase. To investigate possible age-related differences in sensitivity to the aversive consequences of drug use, adolescent and adult rats were compared on self-administration of cocaine before, during, and after a 10-day period in which an aversive agent, histamine, was added to the cocaine solution. Adult and adolescent female rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) over 10 sessions (2 h/session; 2 sessions/day). Histamine (4 mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution for the next 10 sessions. Finally, the cocaine/histamine solution was replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and rats continued to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) for 20 sessions. Compared with adolescent rats, adult rats showed a greater decrease in cocaine self-administration when it was punished with intravenous histamine compared with their baseline cocaine self-administration rates. These results suggest that differences in the sensitivity to negative consequences of drug use may partially explain developmental differences in drug use vulnerability. PMID:25769092

  7. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  8. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS. M.N. Logan1, J.R. Thibodeaux2, R.G. Hanson2, C. Lau2. 1North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, 2Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Perfluor...

  9. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  10. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  11. The effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on recognition memory in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Markéta; Šírová, Jana; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Šlamberová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) among pregnant women is an increasing world-wide health problem. Prenatal MA exposure may cause changes in foetus but the exact effects have remained unclear. The aim of this study is to present the effect of prenatal MA exposure on recognition memory in adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected daily with D-methamphetamine HCl (MA; 5 mg/kg, s.c.) during the entire gestation period. Control females were treated with saline in the same regime. Adult male offspring was administrated acutely by MA (1 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 30 minutes before beginning of an experiment. For testing recognition memory two tasks were chosen: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Object Location Test (OLT). Our results demonstrate that prenatally MA-exposed animals were worse in NORT independently on an acute administration of MA in adulthood. Prenatally MA-exposed rats did not deteriorate in OLT, but after acute administration of MA in adulthood, there was significant worsening compared to appropriate control. Prenatally saline-exposed offspring did not deteriorate in any test even after acute administration of MA. Our data suggest that prenatal MA exposure in rats cause impairment in recognition memory in adult offspring, but not in spatial memory. In addition, acute administration of MA to controls did not deteriorate either recognition or spatial memory.

  12. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species.

  13. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  14. Seed cotton unloading systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this article was to review the literature and describe the current technology used by U.S. cotton gins for seed cotton unloading. Unloading systems supply the gin with raw material. Their essential functions are 1) to remove non-cotton materials such as protective covers used duri...

  15. Electrophysiological properties of newborn and adult rat spinal cord glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Morales, A; Nguyen, Q T; Miledi, R

    1994-01-01

    The properties of glycine receptors (GlyRs) from newborn and adult rat spinal cord were studied in Xenopus oocytes injected with whole mRNA or the heavy (H) or light (L) mRNA fractions encoding their respective GlyRs. Mean open times and conductances of channels gated by H- or L-GlyRs were determined by noise analysis or voltage jumps. We found that adult H- and L-GlyRs opened channels that differed in their mean open time but had the same channel conductance. Both H- and L-GlyRs gated Cl- currents that displayed a similarly strong outward rectification. Nevertheless, single channels of adult H- and L-GlyRs did not rectify and their mean open times were only slightly altered by voltage. It follows that the outward rectification of adult GlyRs is due mainly to a reduction in the number of open channels. In contrast to H-GlyRs, whose characteristics seem to remain essentially unchanged with age, L-GlyRs from newborn and adult rats have different properties. Channels of newborn L-GlyRs have a higher conductance, longer open time, and greater voltage dependency than those from the adult. Interestingly, properties of newborn GlyRs expressed by whole mRNA were markedly different from those encoded by newborn or adult L or H mRNA. These results demonstrate that the functional heterogeneity of GlyRs is developmentally regulated. PMID:8159710

  16. Autonomic activation associated with ethanol self-administration in adult female P rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Toalston, Jamie E; McKinzie, David L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai; McBride, William J; Murphy, James M

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined changes in heart rate (HR) prior to and during limited access ethanol drinking in adult female P rats. P rats were implanted with radio-telemetric transmitters to measure HR. Daily testing involved a 90-min pre-test period (water only available) and a subsequent 90-min test period [either water (W) or ethanol available]. After a week of habituation, one ethanol group had access to ethanol for 7 weeks (CE), and another ethanol group had access for 4 weeks, was deprived for 2 weeks and then had access for a final week (DEP). Analyses of HR revealed that CE and DEP rats had significantly higher HR than W rats during test periods that ethanol was present and that DEP rats displayed higher HR during the early test period of the ethanol deprivation interval, as well. These data indicate that ethanol drinking induces HR activation in adult female P rats, and that this activation can be conditioned to the test cage environment, paralleling reports on contextual conditioning and cue-reactivity in alcoholics exposed to alcohol-associated stimuli. Therefore, this behavioral test may prove advantageous in screening pharmacotherapies for reducing craving and relapse, which are associated with cue-reactivity in abstinent alcoholics.

  17. Bupropion attenuates methamphetamine self-administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Carmela M; Murray, Jennifer E; Grant, Kathleen M; Bevins, Rick A

    2009-02-01

    Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule. A separate group of rats was trained to press a lever for sucrose. Once responding stabilized, rats were pretreated with bupropion (0, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg i.p.) 5 min before chamber placement in a unique testing order. Following acute testing, rats were then repeatedly pretreated with 30 and 60 mg/kg bupropion. Acute treatments of bupropion dose dependently reduced drug intake for 0.025-0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine; sucrose deliveries were only reduced with the high bupropion dose. Repeated exposure to 60 mg/kg bupropion before the session resulted in a consistent decrease in methamphetamine intake (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and sucrose deliveries. Considered together, this pattern of findings demonstrates that bupropion decreases responding for methamphetamine, but the effects are only somewhat specific.

  18. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  19. Supplemental dietary choline during development exerts antidepressant-like effects in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Melissa J.; Adams, Raven S.; McClurg, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal choline supplementation in rats is neuroprotective against insults such as fetal alcohol exposure, seizures, and advanced age. In the present study we explored whether dietary choline supplementation may also confer protection from psychological challenges, like stress, and act as a natural buffer against stress-linked psychological disorders, like depression. We previously found that choline supplementation increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a function compromised by stress, lowered in depression, and boosted by antidepressants; and increased levels of growth factors linked to depression, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Together, these were compelling reasons to study the role of choline in depressed mood. To do this, we treated rats with a choline supplemented diet (5 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A) prenatally on embryonic days 10–22, on postnatal days (PD) 25–50, or as adults from PD75 onward. Outside of these treatment periods rats were fed a standard diet (1.1 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A); control rats consumed only this diet throughout the study. Starting on PD100 rats’ anxiety-like responses to an open field, learning in a water maze, and reactivity to forced swimming were assessed. Rats given choline supplementation during pre- or post-natal development, but not adult-treated rats, were less anxious in the open field and less immobile in the forced swim test than control rats. These effects were not mediated by a learning deficit as all groups performed comparably and well in the water maze. Thus, we offer compelling support for the hypothesis that supplemental dietary choline, at least when given during development, may inoculate an individual against stress and major psychological disorders, like depression. PMID:22305146

  20. Rapid neurobehavioral analysis of Pfiesteria piscicida effects in juvenile and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Levin, E D; Rezvani, A H; Christopher, N C; Glasgow, H B; Deamer-Melia, N J; Burkholder, J M; Moser, V C; Jensen, K

    2000-01-01

    The estuarine dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida is known to kill fish and has been associated with neurocognitive deficits in humans. We have developed a rat model to demonstrate that exposure to Pfiesteria causes significant learning impairments. This has been repeatedly seen as a choice accuracy impairment during radial-arm maze learning. Pfiesteria-induced effects were also seen in a locomotor activity test in the figure-8 apparatus. The current studies used the short-term radial-arm maze acquisition, the figure-8 activity test, and the functional observational battery (FOB) to assess Pfiesteria-induced neurobehavioral effects in adult and juvenile rats. In study 1, the neurobehavioral potency of three different Pfiesteria cultures (Pf 113, Pf 728, and Pf Vandermere) was assessed. Ninety-six (12 per group) adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with a single dose of Pfiesteria taken from aquarium-cultured Pfiesteria (35,600 or 106,800 Pfiesteria cells per kilogram of rat body weight). One control group (N = 12) was injected with saline and one (N = 12) with aquarium water not containing Pfiesteria. All three of the Pfiesteria samples (p < 0.05) impaired choice accuracy over the first six sessions of training. At the time of the radial-arm maze choice accuracy impairment, no overt Pfiesteria-related effects were seen using an FOB, indicating that the Pfiesteria-induced choice accuracy deficit was not due to generalized debilitation. In the figure-8 apparatus, Pfiesteria treatment caused a significant decrease in mean locomotor activity. In study 2, the neurobehavioral effects of the Pf 728 sample type were assessed in juvenile rats. Twenty-four day-old male and female rats were injected with 35,600 or 106,800 Pf-728 Pfiesteria cells per kilogram of rat body weight. As with adult females, the juvenile rats showed a significant impairment in radial-arm maze choice accuracy. No changes in locomotor activity or the FOB were detected in the

  1. Adolescent and adult male rats habituate to repeated isolation, but only adolescents sensitize to partner unfamiliarity.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether adolescent male rats show less habituation of corticosterone release than adult male rats to acute vs repeated (16) daily one hour episodes of isolation stress, as well as the role of partner familiarity during recovery on social behavior, plasma corticosterone, and Zif268 expression in brain regions. Adolescents spent more time in social contact than did adults during the initial days of the repeated stress procedures, but both adolescents and adults that returned to an unfamiliar peer after isolation had higher social activity than rats returned to a familiar peer (p=0.002) or undisturbed control rats (p<0.001). Both ages showed evidence of habituation, with reduced corticosterone response to repeated than acute isolation (p=0.01). Adolescents, however, showed sensitized corticosterone release to repeated compared with an acute pairing with an unfamiliar peer during recovery (p=0.03), a difference not found in adults. Consistent with habituation of corticosterone release, the repeated isolation groups had lower Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus (p<0.001) and in the arcuate nucleus (p=0.002) than did the acute groups, and adolescents had higher Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus than did adults during the recovery period (p<0.001), irrespective of stress history and partner familiarity. Partner familiarity had only modest effects on Zif268 immunoreactivity, and experimental effects on plasma testosterone concentrations were only in adults. The results highlight social and endocrine factors that may underlie the greater vulnerability of the adolescent period of development.

  2. Ethanol induces second-order aversive conditioning in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E

    2011-02-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are considered public health problems, with an etiological onset often occurring during late childhood and adolescence, and understanding age-related differences in ethanol sensitivity is important. Low to moderate ethanol doses (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg, intragastrically [i.g.]) induce single-trial, appetitive second-order place conditioning (SOC) in adolescent, but not adult, rats. Recent studies have demonstrated that adolescents may be less sensitive than adults to the aversive properties of ethanol, reflected by conditioned taste aversion. The present study assessed the aversive motivational effects of high-dose ethanol (3.0 and 3.25 g/kg, i.g., for adolescents and adults, respectively) using SOC. Experiment 1 revealed similar blood and brain ethanol levels in adolescent and adult rats given 3.0 and 3.25 g/kg ethanol, respectively. In Experiment 2, animals received ethanol or vehicle paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (conditioned stimulus 1 [CS1]). After one, two, or three conditioning trials, the rats were presented with the CS1 while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). When tested for CS2 preference, ethanol-treated animals exhibited reduced preference for the CS2 compared with controls. This result, indicative of ethanol-mediated aversive place conditioning, was similar for adolescents and adults; for females and males; and after one, two, or three training trials. In conjunction with previous results, the present study showed that, in adolescent rats subjected to SOC, ethanol's hedonic effects vary from appetitive to aversive as the ethanol dose increases. Adolescent and adult animals appear to perceive the postingestive effects of high-dose ethanol as similarly aversive when assessed by SOC.

  3. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  4. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  5. Mechanism of Forelimb Motor Function Restoration after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: A Comparison of Juveniles and Adults.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahito; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Ohne, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Takumi; Sato, Shunsuke; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate forelimb motor function after cervical spinal cord injury in juvenile and adult rats. Both rats received a left segmental hemisection of the spinal cord after C3-C4 laminectomy. Behavioral evaluation of motor function was monitored and assessed using the New Rating Scale (NRS) and Forelimb Locomotor Scale (FLS) and by measuring the range of motion (ROM) of both the elbow and wrist. Complete left forelimb motor paralysis was observed in both rats. The NRS showed motor function recovery restored to 50.2 ± 24.7% in juvenile rats and 34.0 ± 19.8% in adult rats. FLS was 60.4 ± 26.8% in juvenile rats and 46.5 ± 26.9% in adult rats. ROM of the elbow and wrist were 88.9 ± 20.6% and 44.4 ± 24.1% in juvenile rats and 70.0 ± 29.2% and 40.0 ± 21.1% in adult rats. Thus, the NRS and ROM of the elbow showed a significant difference between age groups. These results indicate that left hemisection of the cervical spinal cord was not related to right-sided motor functions. Moreover, while motor paralysis of the left forelimb gradually recovered in both groups, the improvement was greater in juvenile rats.

  6. Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained

    PubMed Central

    Lensu, Sanna; Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Johansson, Petra P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Key points Aerobic exercise, such as running, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in rodents.Little is known about the effects of high‐intensity interval training (HIT) or of purely anaerobic resistance training on AHN.Here, compared with a sedentary lifestyle, we report a very modest effect of HIT and no effect of resistance training on AHN in adult male rats.We found the most AHN in rats that were selectively bred for an innately high response to aerobic exercise that also run voluntarily and increase maximal running capacity.Our results confirm that sustained aerobic exercise is key in improving AHN. Abstract Aerobic exercise, such as running, has positive effects on brain structure and function, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and learning. Whether high‐intensity interval training (HIT), referring to alternating short bouts of very intense anaerobic exercise with recovery periods, or anaerobic resistance training (RT) has similar effects on AHN is unclear. In addition, individual genetic variation in the overall response to physical exercise is likely to play a part in the effects of exercise on AHN but is less well studied. Recently, we developed polygenic rat models that gain differentially for running capacity in response to aerobic treadmill training. Here, we subjected these low‐response trainer (LRT) and high‐response trainer (HRT) adult male rats to various forms of physical exercise for 6–8 weeks and examined the effects on AHN. Compared with sedentary animals, the highest number of doublecortin‐positive hippocampal cells was observed in HRT rats that ran voluntarily on a running wheel, whereas HIT on the treadmill had a smaller, statistically non‐significant effect on AHN. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was elevated in both LRT and HRT rats that underwent endurance training on a treadmill compared with those that performed RT by climbing a vertical ladder with weights, despite their significant gain in strength

  7. Adult emotionality and neural plasticity as a function of adolescent nutrient supplementation in male rats

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Nora; Mahadevia, Darshini; Corriveau, Jennifer A.; Glenn, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the effects of supplementing male rats with either choline, omega-3 fatty acids, or phytoestrogens, from weaning into early adulthood, on emotionality and hippocampal plasticity. Because of the neuroprotective properties of these nutrients, we hypothesized that they would positively affect both behavior and hippocampal function when compared to non-supplemented control rats. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of four nutrient conditions after weaning: 1) control (normal rat chow); 2) choline (supplemented in drinking water); 3) omega 3 fatty acids (daily oral supplements); or 4) phytoestrogens (supplemented in chow). After 4 weeks on their respective diets, a subset of rats began 3 weeks of behavioral testing, while the remaining behaviorally naïve rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks on the diets to assess numbers of adult-born hippocampal neurons using the immature neuron marker, doublecortin. The results revealed that choline supplementation affected emotional functioning; compared to rats in other diet conditions, rats in this group were less anxious in an open field and after exposure to predator odor and showed less behavioral despair after forced swimming. Similar behavioral findings were evident following supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and phytoestrogens supplementation, though not on all tests and not to the same magnitude. Histological findings followed a pattern consistent with the behavioral findings: choline supplementation, followed by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, but not phytoestrogen supplementation, significantly increased the numbers of new-born hippocampal neurons. Choline and omega −3 fatty acids have similar biological functions—affecting cell membranes, growth factor levels, and epigenetically altering gene transcription. Thus, the present findings suggest that targeting nutrients with these effects may be a viable strategy to combat adult psychopathologies

  8. Raloxifene prevents skeletal fragility in adult female Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Gallant, Maxime A; Brown, Drew M; Sato, Amy Y; Williams, Justin N; Burr, David B

    2014-01-01

    Fracture risk in type 2 diabetes is increased despite normal or high bone mineral density, implicating poor bone quality as a risk factor. Raloxifene improves bone material and mechanical properties independent of bone mineral density. This study aimed to determine if raloxifene prevents the negative effects of diabetes on skeletal fragility in diabetes-prone rats. Adult Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD) female rats (20-week-old, n = 24) were fed a diabetogenic high-fat diet and were randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections of raloxifene or vehicle for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured weekly and glycated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and 12 weeks. At sacrifice, femora and lumbar vertebrae were harvested for imaging and mechanical testing. Raloxifene-treated rats had a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with vehicle-treated rats. In addition, raloxifene-treated rats had blood glucose levels significantly lower than both diabetic vehicle-treated rats as well as vehicle-treated rats that did not become diabetic. Femoral toughness was greater in raloxifene-treated rats compared with both diabetic and non-diabetic vehicle-treated ZDSD rats, due to greater energy absorption in the post-yield region of the stress-strain curve. Similar differences between groups were observed for the structural (extrinsic) mechanical properties of energy-to-failure, post-yield energy-to-failure, and post-yield displacement. These results show that raloxifene is beneficial in preventing the onset of diabetes and improving bone material properties in the diabetes-prone ZDSD rat. This presents unique therapeutic potential for raloxifene in preserving bone quality in diabetes as well as in diabetes prevention, if these results can be supported by future experimental and clinical studies.

  9. The role of testicular hormones and luteinizing hormone in spatial memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Sarah E A; Alla, Juliet; Wheat, Elizabeth; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce; Thornton, Janice E

    2012-04-01

    Attempts to determine the influence of testicular hormones on learning and memory in males have yielded contradictory results. The present studies examined whether testicular hormones are important for maximal levels of spatial memory in young adult male rats. To minimize any effect of stress, we used the Object Location Task which is a spatial working memory task that does not involve food or water deprivation or aversive stimuli for motivation. In Experiment 1 sham gonadectomized male rats demonstrated robust spatial memory, but gonadectomized males showed diminished spatial memory. In Experiment 2 subcutaneous testosterone (T) capsules restored spatial memory performance in gonadectomized male rats, while rats with blank capsules demonstrated compromised spatial memory. In Experiment 3, gonadectomized male rats implanted with blank capsules again showed compromised spatial memory, while those with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or estradiol (E) capsules demonstrated robust spatial memory, indicating that T's effects may be mediated by its conversion to E or to DHT. Gonadectomized male rats injected with Antide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist which lowers luteinizing hormone levels, also demonstrated spatial memory, comparable to that shown by T-, E-, or DHT-treated males. These data indicate that testicular androgens are important for maximal levels of spatial working memory in male rats, that testosterone may be converted to E and/or DHT to exert its effects, and that some of the effects of these steroid hormones may occur via negative feedback effects on LH.

  10. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  11. Effect of acute ethanol and acute allopregnanolone on spatial memory in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chin, Vivien S; Van Skike, Candice E; Berry, Raymond B; Kirk, Roger E; Diaz-Granados, Jamie; Matthews, Douglas B

    2011-08-01

    The effects of ethanol differ in adolescent and adult rats on a number of measures. The evidence of the effects of ethanol on spatial memory in adolescents and adults is equivocal. Whether adolescents are more or less sensitive to ethanol-induced impairment of spatial memory acquisition remains unclear; with regard to the effects of acute ethanol on spatial memory retrieval there is almost no research looking into any age difference. Thus, we examined the effects of acute ethanol on spatial memory in the Morris Watermaze in adolescents and adults. Allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a modulator of the GABA(A) receptor and has similar behavioral effects as ethanol. We sought to also determine the effects of allopreganolone on spatial memory in adolescent and adults. Male adolescent (post natal [PN]28-30) and adult (PN70-72) rats were trained in the Morris Watermaze for 6 days and acute doses of ethanol (saline, 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg) or ALLO (vehicle, 9 and 18 mg/kg) were administered on Day 7. A probe trial followed on Day 8. As expected, there were dose effects; higher doses of both ethanol and ALLO impaired spatial memory. However, in both the ethanol and ALLO conditions adolescents and adults had similar spatial memory impairments. The current results suggest that ethanol and ALLO both impair hippocampal-dependent spatial memory regardless of age in that once learning has occurred, ethanol or ALLO does not differentially impair the retrieval of spatial memory in adolescents and adults. Given the mixed results on the effect of ethanol on cognition in adolescent rats, additional research is needed to ascertain the factors critical for the reported differential results.

  12. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  13. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  14. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Matthew K. Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

  15. Cross-sensitization between testosterone and cocaine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fabio C; Crestani, Carlos C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2015-11-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are substances commonly co-abused. The use of anabolic steroids and cocaine has increased among adolescents. However, few studies investigated the consequences of the interaction between anabolic-androgenic steroids in animals' model of adolescence. We examined the effects of acute and repeated testosterone administration on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received ten once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle. Three days after the last testosterone or vehicle injections rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge injection of either saline or cocaine (10mg/kg). A different subset of rats was treated with a single injection of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle and three days later was challenged with cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Immediately after cocaine or saline injections the locomotor activity was recorded during forty minutes. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent but not adult rats.

  16. Behavioral changes in preweaning and adult rats exposed prenatally to low ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.

    1986-04-01

    Seven behavioral tests were used to evaluate the postnatal behavior of rats after exposure on gestational Day 15 to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 125 r, whole body irradiation of the pregnant rat. Three tests were administered in the first 2 postnatal weeks (righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and reflex suspension); three tests were administered on postnatal Day 21 (modified open field, spatial maze, and continuous corridor). As adults, the rats were retested with the same tests as at 21 days and also in the running wheel. Dose-response decreases in body weight were greater in the younger rats. Some behavioral tests were not altered by irradiation, while others showed clear dose-response relationships, starting as low as 25 r. The early changes were characterized by light body weight, delays in behavioral development and hypoactivity, followed by recovery of some parameters with maturation. Eventually hyperactivity developed in adult rats after gestational irradiation. However, it cannot be concluded that either morphological or behavioral tests are more sensitive than neonatal body weight change for detection of damage from gestational irradiation.

  17. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  18. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  19. Effect of amphetamine on adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, Romana; Macúchová, Eva; Nohejlová, Kateryna; Štofková, Andrea; Jurčovičová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP) treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras), active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP), spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), and levels of corticosterone (CORT) were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled) regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing) only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  20. Prenatal hypoxia impairs circadian synchronisation and response of the biological clock to light in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vincent; Mamet, Julie; Lee, Fuchun; Dalmaz, Yvette; Van Reeth, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal hypoxia in rats might lead to consistent changes in the entrainment of the circadian clock by light. Pregnant female rats were placed in a chamber provided with hypoxic gas (10 % O2-90 % N2) at gestational day 5 and returned to normoxia before delivery. Once adult, rats born to hypoxic mothers had significant alterations in their circadian rhythm of locomotor activity (recorded in freely accessible running wheels). Under a regular 12/12 light/dark (LD) cycle, they showed a phase advance of their rhythm of activity (mean phase advance of 87 min) and were less active than control rats. After an abrupt 6 h phase delay in the LD cycle, rats from the prenatal hypoxic group (PNH) took significantly more time to resynchronise to the new LD cycle compared to controls (+53 %; 6.0 ± 1.5 vs. 9.2 ± 0.5 days respectively). Under constant darkness, PNH and control rats had a similar period of activity (24.27 ± 0.20 vs. 24.40 ± 0.13) but the response of PNH rats to a light pulse in the early subjective night was less marked than that of control rats (101 ± 9 vs. 158 ± 13 min). When submitted to acute restraint stress, PNH rats had a prolonged secretion of corticosterone compared to controls. These results indicate that prenatal hypoxia is a factor that has long lasting consequences for the functional output of the biological clock and the hormonal response to stress. PMID:12181309

  1. Propolis attenuates cobalt induced-nephrotoxicity in adult rats and their progeny.

    PubMed

    Garoui, El Mouldi; Troudi, Afef; Fetoui, Hamadi; Soudani, Nejla; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical changes in cobalt-exposed rats and to investigate the potential role of Tunisian propolis against the cobalt-induced renal damages. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups and were treated as follows: group 1 (control) received distilled water; group 2 received 350 ppm of CoCl(2) in drinking water; group 3 received 350 ppm CoCl(2) in drinking water and a propolis-supplemented diet (1 g/100 g of diet); group 4 received a propolis-supplemented diet (1 g/100 g of diet) without cobalt. In the cobalt group, a significant decrease in body, absolute and relative weights was noted when compared to controls. The administration of cobalt to pregnant rats from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery resulted in an increased level of renal malondialdehyde, a decreased renal content of glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in lactating rats and their pups. A statistically significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine serum levels was seen in treated female rats and their pups. Histopathologically, the cobalt-administration induced degenerative changes in the kidney of lactating rats and their pups. When compared with cobalt-treated rats, those receiving the propolis supplementation (along with cobalt-treatment) had lower malondialdehyde levels, higher antioxidant activities and the cobalt-related histopathological changes in the kidneys were at lower severity. Our results suggested that the propolis might be a potential candidate agent against cobalt-induced nephrotoxicity in adult and juvenile rats when administered to female rats during the late pregnancy and the early postnatal period.

  2. Noise exposure during early development influences the acoustic startle reflex in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rybalko, Natalia; Bureš, Zbyněk; Burianová, Jana; Popelář, Jiří; Grécová, Jolana; Syka, Josef

    2011-03-28

    Noise exposure during the critical period of postnatal development in rats results in anomalous processing of acoustic stimuli in the adult auditory system. In the present study, the behavioral consequences of an acute acoustic trauma in the critical period are assessed in adult rats using the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR. Rat pups (strain Long-Evans) were exposed to broad-band noise of 125 dB SPL for 8 min on postnatal day 14; at the age of 3-5 months, ASR and PPI of ASR were examined and compared with those obtained in age-matched controls. In addition, hearing thresholds were measured in all animals by means of auditory brainstem responses. The results show that although the hearing thresholds in both groups of animals were not different, a reduced strength of the startle reflex was observed in exposed rats compared with controls. The efficacy of PPI in exposed and control rats was also markedly different. In contrast to control rats, in which an increase in prepulse intensity was accompanied by a consistent increase in the efficacy of PPI, the PPI function in the exposed animals was characterized by a steep increase in inhibitory efficacy at low prepulse intensities of 20-30 dB SPL. A further increase of prepulse intensity up to 60-70 dB SPL caused only a small and insignificant change of PPI. Our findings demonstrate that brief noise exposure in rat pups results in altered behavioral responses to sounds in adulthood, indicating anomalies in intensity coding and loudness perception.

  3. PROLONGED PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH REPETITION LOW FORCE TASK INDUCES BONE ADAPTATION IN YOUNG ADULT RATS, BUT LOSS IN MATURE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14–18 mo of age) and 14 young adult (2.5–6.5 mo of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  4. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Talita Biude; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; de Oliveira Neves, Flávia Macedo; Simas, Joana Noguères; da Costa Vaz, André; Cabral, Regina Elisabeth L; Vendramini, Vanessa; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of resveratrol against the reproductive damage caused by left-sided experimental varicocele. There was a reduction of testicular major axis in the varicocele group when compared with the other groups; the testicular volume was reduced in varicocele group in comparison to the sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of morphologically abnormal sperm was higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups than in sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of sperm with 100% of mitochondrial activity and normal acrosome integrity were lower in varicocele group than in varicocele treated with resveratrol, sham-control and resveratrol groups. Sperm motility was also reduced in varicocele group than in other groups. The sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in varicocele group than in other groups. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde were higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups. The varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups had a significantly higher frequency of TUNEL-positive cells than sham-control and resveratrol groups; however, immunolabeling of the testes from varicocele treated with resveratrol group showed a lower number of apoptotic germ cells in comparison with the left testis of rats of the varicocele group. Reproductive alterations produced by varicocele from peripuberty were reduced by resveratrol in adulthood. Resveratrol should be better investigated as an adjuvant in the treatment of varicocele. Daily administration of resveratrol to rats with varicocele from peripuberty improves sperm quality in the adulthood.

  5. Social and non-social anxiety in adolescent and adult rats after repeated restraint.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2009-06-22

    Adolescence is associated with potentially stressful challenges, and adolescents may differ from adults in their stress responsivity. To investigate possible age-related differences in stress responsiveness, the consequences of repeated restraint stress (90 min/day for 5 days) on anxiety, as indexed using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and modified social interaction (SI) tests, were assessed in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Control groups at each age included non-stressed and socially deprived animals, with plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels also measured in another group of rats on days 1 and 5 of stress (sampled 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following restraint onset). While repeatedly restrained animals exhibited similar anxiety levels compared to non-stressed controls in the EPM, restraint stress increased anxiety at both ages in the SI test (as indexed by reduced social investigation and social preference). Daily weight gain measurements, however, revealed more marked stress-related suppression of body weight in adolescents versus adults. Analysis of stress-induced increases in CORT likewise showed that adolescents demonstrated less habituation than adults, embedded within typical sex differences in CORT magnitude (females greater than males) and age differences in CORT recovery (adolescents slower than adults). Despite no observable age-related differences in the behavioral response to restraint, adolescents were more sensitive to the repeated stressor in terms of physiological indices of attenuated weight gain and habituation of stress-induced CORT.

  6. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gorban', E.N.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

  7. Effects of cyclophosphamide on the kaolin consumption (pica behavior) in five strains of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Shu-ichi; Ikeda, Masashi; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.

  8. Perfluorooctane sulfonate effects on the reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Pereiro, N; Moyano, R; Lafuente, A

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a neurotoxic agent and it can disrupt the endocrine system activity. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in adult male rats, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in the endocrine tissues of this axis. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic noradrenaline concentration increased in the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence, not changing in the mediobasal hypothalamus. PFOS treated rats presented a decrease of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression, increasing the mRNA levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats treated with all doses administered except with the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. PFOS also induced a raise of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the animals exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic GnRH concentration was modified, LH and testosterone release was inhibited and FSH secretion was stimulated. Moreover, PFOS induced several histopathological alterations in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testis. The results obtained in the present study suggest in general terms that PFOS can inhibit the physiological activity of the reproductive axis in adult male rats, which could be explained, at least in part, by the structural alterations showed in the animals exposed to this chemical: very dense chromatin, condensed ribosomes and a loss of the morphology in the hypothalamus; a degeneration of the gonadotrophic cells, as well as a loss and degeneration of the spermatozoids and a very marked edema in the testis.

  9. Airborne particles of the california central valley alter the lungs of healthy adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R; Kim, Seongheon; Recendez, Julian J; Teague, Stephen V; Ménache, Margaret G; Grubbs, David E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that airborne particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10) is associated with an increase in respiratory-related disease. However, there is a growing consensus that particles < 2.5 microm (PM2.5), including many in the ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) size range, may elicit greater adverse effects. PM is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, those components or properties responsible for biologic effects on the respiratory system have yet to be determined. During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in six separate experiments to filtered air or combined fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine portions of ambient PM in Fresno, California, enhanced approximately 20-fold above outdoor levels. The intent of these studies was to determine if concentrated fine/ultrafine fractions of PM are cytotoxic and/or proinflammatory in the lungs of healthy adult rats. Exposures were for 4 hr/day for 3 consecutive days. The mean mass concentration of particles ranged from 190 to 847 microg/m3. PM was enriched primarily with ammonium nitrate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals. Viability of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from rats exposed to concentrated PM was significantly decreased during 4 of 6 weeks, compared with rats exposed to filtered air (p< 0.05). Total numbers of BAL cells were increased during 1 week, and neutrophil numbers were increased during 2 weeks. These observations strongly suggest exposure to enhanced concentrations of ambient fine/ultrafine particles in Fresno is associated with mild, but significant, cellular effects in the lungs of healthy adult rats. PMID:12782490

  10. Different forms of oestrogen rapidly upregulate cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Barha, C K; Lieblich, S E; Galea, L A M

    2009-03-01

    Oestrogens are known to exert significant structural and functional effects in the hippocampus of adult rodents. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus retains the ability to produce neurones throughout adulthood and 17beta-oestradiol has been shown to influence hippocampal neurogenesis in adult female rats. The effects of other oestrogens, such as oestrone and 17alpha-oestradiol, on neurogenesis have not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 17beta-oestradiol, oestradiol benzoate, oestrone, and 17alpha-oestradiol on cell proliferation in ovariectomised adult female rats at two different time points. Young ovariectomised female rats were injected with one of the oestrogens at one of three doses. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to the hormone for 4 h and, in Experiment 2, rats were exposed to the hormone for 30 min prior to 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injection to label proliferating cells and their progeny. We found that young ovariectomised females responded with increased cell proliferation to most oestrogens, except oestradiol benzoate, after 30 min of exposure. However, administration of oestrogens for a longer time interval was ineffective at increasing cell proliferation. After 30 min, 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone increased cell proliferation at low (0.3 microg) and high (10 microg) doses, whereas 17alpha-oestradiol increased cell proliferation at medium (1 microg) and high doses. The results of the present study indicate that different oestrogens rapidly increase cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, possibly through a nonclassical, nongenomic mechanism. Future experiments should focus on further elucidating the specific pathways utilised by each oestrogen. These results have important therapeutic implications because it may be possible to use 17alpha-oestradiol and lower doses of oestrogens in hormone replacement therapies.

  11. Neuroanatomical distribution of galectin-3 in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong-Il; Kim, Eu-Gene; Lee, Eun-Jin; Hong, Sung-Young; Yoon, Chi-Sun; Hong, Min-Ju; Park, Sang-Jin; Woo, Ran-Sook; Baik, Tai-Kyoung; Song, Dae-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Galectin-3 is a member of the lectin subfamily that enables the specific binding of β-galactosides. It is expressed in a broad spectrum of species and organs, and is known to have various functions related to cell adhesion, signal transduction, and proinflammatory responses. Although, expression of galectin-3 in some activated neuroglia under neuroinflammation has been well documented in the central nervous system, little is known about the neuronal expression and distribution of galectin-3 in normal brain. To describe the cellular and neuroanatomical expression map of galectin-3, we performed galectin-3 immunohistochemistry on the entire normal rat brain and subsequently analyzed the neuronal distribution. Galectin-3 expression was observed not only in some neuroglia but also in neurons. Neuronal expression of galectin-3 was observed in many functional parts of the cerebral cortex and various other subcortical nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed that robust galectin-3 immuno-signals were present in many hypothalamic nuclei related to a variety of physiological functions responsible for mediating anxiety responses, energy balance, and neuroendocrine regulation. In addition, the regions highly connected with these hypothalamic nuclei also showed intense galectin-3 expression. Moreover, multiple key regions involved in regulating autonomic functions exhibited high levels of galectin-3 expression. In contrast, the subcortical nuclei responsible for the control of voluntary motor functions and limbic system exhibited no galectin-3 immunoreactivity. These observations suggest that galectin-3 expression in the rat brain seems to be regulated by developmental cascades, and that functionally and neuroanatomically related brain nuclei constitutively express galectin-3 in adulthood.

  12. Neurones in the adult rat anterior medullary velum.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M; Menoud, P A; Celio, M R

    2000-03-27

    The presence of neurones in the rat anterior medullary velum (AMV) has been investigated by using antibodies to the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and calbindin-D28k (CB). Disparate populations of mainly GABAergic neurones were located in the rostral and caudal regions of the AMV. The rostral region of the AMV was characterised by GABAergic CR-labelled or PV-labelled neurones. CR-labelled neurones were bipolar or multipolar with round to ovoid somata (diameters between 8 and 12 microm), and rostrocaudally running dendrites forming a network. PV-labelled neurones had round somata (diameters between 6 and 10 microm) and were bi-tufted, with beaded dendrites. Both CR-labelled and PV-labelled dendrites formed punctate pericellular associations with unlabelled somatic profiles. In the caudal region of the AMV, PV-labelled neurones were GABAergic, multipolar cells, having round somata (diameters between 9 and 12 microm), with either beaded or nonbeaded dendrites forming a network of interconnecting dendrites. PV-labelled pericellular associations were made around both PV-labelled and unlabelled somatic profiles. CR labelled unipolar brush cells (UBCs) were not GABAergic. UBCs were characterised by a round to oval somata (10-15 microm in diameter) from which a single primary dendrite emerged to form a distal expansion having small terminal dendrites. From the distal expansion, there also appeared to be CR-labelled processes emanating and extending for up to 250 microm. CB occasionally labelled "Purkinje-like cells" (PLCs). The rat AMV is a more complex structure than first envisaged with the presence of predominantly inhibitory neurones expressing different calcium-binding proteins. Functional and anatomic aspects of this circuitry are further discussed.

  13. CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sutapa; Guha, Debjani

    2008-03-01

    Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in Holtzman strain adult male albino rats. SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla. Result suggests that SO exerts its CNS depressive effect in PTZ induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.

  14. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  15. Axonal Elongation into Peripheral Nervous System ``Bridges'' after Central Nervous System Injury in Adult Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Samuel; Aguayo, Albert J.

    1981-11-01

    The origin, termination, and length of axonal growth after focal central nervous system injury was examined in adult rats by means of a new experimental model. When peripheral nerve segments were used as ``bridges'' between the medulla and spinal cord, axons from neurons at both these levels grew approximately 30 millimeters. The regenerative potential of these central neurons seems to be expressed when the central nervous system glial environment is changed to that of the peripheral nervous system.

  16. Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Guasti, Leonardo; Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed; King, Peter

    2011-04-10

    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development. The organization of the rat adrenal differs from that of the mouse, with the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata separated by an undifferentiated zone in the rat, but not in the mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the mRNA expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog and the hedgehog signaling pathway components Patched-1 and Gli1 in the developing and adult rat adrenal. Sonic hedgehog expression was detected at the periphery of the cortex in cells lacking CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, while signal-receiving cells were localized in the overlying capsule mesenchyme. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that the cells expressing Sonic hedgehog lie between the CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 layers, and thus Sonic hedgehog expression defines one cell population of the undifferentiated zone.

  17. Biochemical effect of a ketogenic diet on the brains of obese adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hoda E; El-Swefy, Sahar E; Rashed, Leila A; Abd El-Latif, Sally K

    2010-07-01

    Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity, can cause or exacerbate cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Obesity is also a proven risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) in weight reduction and in modifying the disease activity of neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. Therefore, in this study we examined the metabolic and neurodegenerative changes associated with obesity and the possible neuroprotective effects of a KD in obese adult rats. Compared with obese rats fed a control diet, obese rats fed a KD showed significant weight loss, improvement in lipid profiles and insulin resistance, and upregulation of adiponectin mRNA expression in adipose tissue. In addition, the KD triggered significant downregulation of brain amyloid protein precursor, apolipoprotein E and caspase-3 mRNA expression, and improvement of brain oxidative stress responses. These findings suggest that a KD has anti-obesity and neuroprotective effects.

  18. On Again, Off Again Effects of Gonadectomy on the Acoustic Startle Reflex in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Turvin, J.C.; Messer, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown sex and/or estrous cycle differences in the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and its prepulse inhibition (PPI) in humans and animals. However, few have examined the effects of hormone manipulations on these behaviors. This study paired gonadectomy (GDX) in adult male rats with testing for ASR and PPI at 2, 4, 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37 days after surgery. Initial studies of control, GDX and GDX rats given testosterone propionate revealed no group differences in PPI, but did reveal phasic facilitation of the ASR in GDX rats that was greatest on the first and final testing sessions and that was attenuated by testosterone. A second study addressing roles for estrogen and androgen signaling tested new control and GDX rats along with GDX rats given estradiol or the non-aromatizable androgen, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone and revealed no group differences in PPI, and increases in ASR in GDX rats that were largest during the first and final testing sessions and that were attenuated by both hormone replacements. However, while responses in GDX rats given testosterone were similar to those of controls, ASR in estradiol- and to a lesser extent in dihydrotestosterone-treated GDX rats were typically lower than in controls. This may suggest that hormone modulation of the ASR requires synergistic estrogen and androgen actions. In the male brain where this can be achieved by local steroid metabolism, the enzymes responsible, e.g., aromatase, could help identify loci in the startle circuitry that may be especially relevant for the hormone modulation observed. PMID:17169383

  19. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  20. Leptin Attenuates the Contractile Function of Adult Rat Cardiomyocytes Involved in Oxidative Stress and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liu-Jin; Liu, Ying-Ping; Yuan, Xun; Zhang, Gui-Ping; Hou, Ning; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Luo, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Gen-Shui

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. Methods Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour. The calcium transients and the contraction of adult rat cardiomyocytes were recorded with SoftEdge MyoCam system. Apocynin, tempol and rapamycin were added respectively, and Western blotting was employed to evaluate the expression of LC3B and Beclin-1. Results The peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (± dL/dtmax) of cell shortening were significantly decreased, and the time to 50% relengthening was prolonged with leptin perfusion. Leptin also significantly reduced the baseline, peak and time to 50% baseline of calcium transient. Leptin attenuated autophagy as indicated by decreased LC3-II and Beclin-1. All of the abnormalities were significantly attenuated by apocynin, tempol or rapamycin. Conclusions Our results indicated that leptin depressed the intracellular free calcium and myocardial systolic function via increasing oxidative stress and inhibiting autophagy. PMID:27899860

  1. Morphological alterations of central nervous system (CNS) myelin in vanadium (V)-exposed adult rats.

    PubMed

    García, Graciela B; Quiroga, Ariel D; Stürtz, Nelson; Martinez, Alejandra I; Biancardi, María E

    2004-08-01

    In the present work we show morphological data of the in vivo susceptibility of CNS myelin to sodium metavanadate [V(+5)] in adult rats. The possible role of vanadium in behavioral alterations and in brain lipid peroxidation was also investigated. Animals were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 3 mg/kg body weight (bw) of sodium metavanadate [1.25 V/kg bw/day] for 5 consecutive days. Open field and rotarod tests were performed the day after the last dose had been administered and then animals were sacrificed by different methods for histological and lipid peroxidation studies. The present results show that intraperitoneal administration of V(+5) to adult rats resulted in changes in locomotor activity, specific myelin stainings and lipid peroxidation in some brain areas. They support the notion that CNS myelin could be a preferential target of V(+5)-mediated lipid peroxidation in adult rats. The mechanisms underlying this action could affect the myelin sheath leading to behavioral perturbations.

  2. A new protocol for cultivation of predegenerated adult rat Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrucha-Dutczakv, Marita; Marcol, Wiesław; Francuz, Tomasz; Gołka, Dariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the methodology of cultivation of predegenerated Schwann cells (SCs). SCs were isolated from 7-day-predegenerated sciatic nerves of adult rats. We applied commercially available culture medium for cultivation of endothelial cells endothelial cell culture medium (EBM-2) instead of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium commonly used to culture adult Schwann cells. Additionally, cell culture medium was supplemented with factors specifically supporting SCs growth as: bovine pituitary extract (5 μg/ml), heregulin (40 ng/ml) and insulin (2.5 ng/ml). Similarly to the reports of others authors, we did not observe any beneficial effects of Forskolin application, so we didn't supplement our medium with it. Cell culture purity was determined by counting the ratio of GFAP, N-Cadherin and NGFR p75-positive cells to total number of cells. About 94-97 % of cells were confirmed as Schwann cells. As a result, we obtained sufficient number and purity of Schwann cells to be applied in different experimental models in rats. EBM-2 medium coated with fibronectin was the best for cultivation of adult rat Schwann cells.

  3. Antipsychotic-induced suppression of locomotion in juvenile, adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L

    2008-01-14

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder that is most frequently treated with the administration of antipsychotics. Although onset of schizophrenia typically occurs in late adolescence, the majority of preclinical research on the behavioral effects of antipsychotics and their mechanism(s) of action has been conducted on adult male animals. In this study, the acute effects of haloperidol (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) and clozapine (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) on locomotor activity were examined in juvenile [postnatal day 22 (PN22)], adolescent (PN40), and adult (>PN70) rats of both sexes. Subsequently, in order to determine whether tolerance to the activity suppressive effects of these drugs would occur in adolescents, PN40 rats were dosed and assessed for an additional nine days. While all groups exhibited some degree of suppression following acute administration of both drugs, juvenile rats were considerably more sensitive to this effect. With sub-chronic administration during late adolescent development (PN40-PN49), tolerance failed to develop. These results emphasize the importance of age in pharmacological characterization of antipsychotics and suggest that pre-adolescents may have enhanced sensitivity to the motor effects of these drugs. Further, they suggest that, similar to adults, older adolescents may not develop tolerance to the activity suppression induced by these two antipsychotics.

  4. Effects of Estradiol and Methoxychlor on Leydig Cell Regeneration in the Adult Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bingbing; Chen, Dongxin; Jiang, Zheli; Li, Jingyang; Liu, Shiwen; Dong, Yaoyao; Yao, Wenwen; Akingbemi, Benson; Ge, Renshan; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC) exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2). Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control), 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7–15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms. PMID:24806340

  5. Perinatal thiamine restriction affects central GABA and glutamate concentrations and motor behavior of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita Hélen; de Freitas-Silva, Danielle Marra; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Pereira, Sílvia Rejane Castanheira; Ribeiro, Ângela Maria

    2016-03-23

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of perinatal thiamine deficiency, from the 11th day of gestation until the 5th day of lactation, on motor behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult rat offspring, using 3-month-old, adult, male Wistar rats. All rats were submitted to motor tests, using the rotarod and paw print tasks. After behavioral tests, their thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord were dissected for glutamate and GABA quantifications by high performance liquid chromatography. The thiamine-restricted mothers (RM) group showed a significant reduction of time spent on the rotarod at 25 rpm and an increase in hind-base width. A significant decrease of glutamate concentration in the cerebellum and an increase of GABA concentrations in the thalamus were also observed. For the offspring from control mothers (CM) group there were significant correlations between thalamic GABA concentrations and both rotarod performance and average hind-base width. In addition, for rats from the RM group a significant correlation between stride length and cerebellar GABA concentration was found. These results show that the deficiency of thiamine during an early developmental period affects certain motor behavior parameters and GABA and glutamate levels in specific brain areas. Hence, a thiamine deficiency episode during an early developmental period can induce motor impairments and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes that are persistent and detectable in later periods of life.

  6. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  7. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  8. Distribution of constitutively expressed MEF-2A in adult rat and human nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Ruffle, Rebecca A; Mapley, Andrew C; Malik, Manmeet K; Labruzzo, Salvatore V; Chabla, Janet M; Jose, Riya; Hallas, Brian H; Yu, Han-Gang; Horowitz, Judith M; Torres, German

    2006-06-15

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF-2A) is a calcium-regulated transcription factor that promotes cell survival during nervous system development. To define and further characterize the distribution pattern of MEF-2A in the adult mammalian brain, we used a specific polyclonal antiserum against human MEF-2A to identify nuclear-localized MEF-2A protein in hippocampal and frontal cortical regions. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that MEF-2A was expressed not only in laminar structures but also in blood vessels of rat and human brains. MEF-2A was colocalized with doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein expressed by migrating neuroblasts, in CA1 and CA2 boundaries of the hippocampus. MEF-2A was expressed heterogeneously in additional structures of the rat brain, including the striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. Furthermore, we found a strong nuclear and diffuse MEF-2A labeling pattern in spinal cord cells of rat and human material. Finally, the neurovasculature of adult rats and humans not only showed a strong expression of MEF-2A but also labeled positive for hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN) channels. This study further characterizes the distribution pattern of MEF-2A in the mammalian nervous system, demonstrates that MEF-2A colocalizes with DCX in selected neurons, and finds MEF-2A and HCN1 proteins in the neurovasculature network.

  9. Repeated-dose liver micronucleus test of 4,4'-methylenedianiline using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Hisakazu; Koyama, Naomi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-03-01

    Liver micronucleus (MN) tests using partial hepatectomized rats or juvenile rats have been shown to be useful for the detection of hepatic carcinogens. Moreover, Narumi et al. established the repeated-dose liver MN test using young adult rats for integration into general toxicity. In the present study, in order to examine the usefulness of the repeated-dose liver MN test, we investigated MN induction with a 14 or 28 day treatment protocol using young adult rats treated with 4,4′-methylenedianiline (MDA), a known hepatic carcinogen. MDA dose-dependently induced micronuclei in hepatocytes in 14- and 28-day repeated-dose tests. However, although statistically significant increases in micronuclei were observed in bone marrow cells at two dose levels in the 14-day study, there was no dose response and no increases in micronuclei in the 28-day study. These results indicate that the evaluation of genotoxic effects using hepatocytes is effective in cases where chromosomal aberrations are not clearly detectable in bone marrow cells. Moreover, the repeated-dose liver MN test allows evaluation at a dose below the maximum tolerable dose, which is required for the conventional MN test because micronucleated hepatocytes accumulate. The repeated-dose liver MN test employed in the present study can be integrated into the spectrum of general toxicity tests without further procedural modifications.

  10. Juvenile exposure to methamphetamine attenuates behavioral and neurochemical responses to methamphetamine in adult rats.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Carter, Samantha; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has shown that children living in clandestine methamphetamine (MA) labs are passively exposed to the drug [1]. The long-term effects of this early exposure on the dopaminergic systems are unknown, but may be important for adult behaviors mediated by dopamine, such as drug addiction. The current study sought to determine if juvenile exposure to low doses of MA would lead to altered responsiveness to the stimulant in adulthood. Young male and female rats (PD20-34) were injected daily with 0 or 2 mg/kg MA or left undisturbed and then tested at PD90. In the open field, adult rats exposed to MA during preadolescence had reduced locomotor activity compared to control non-exposed rats following an acute injection of MA (2 mg/kg). Likewise, methamphetamine-induced dopamine increases in the dorsal striatum were attenuated in male and female rats that had been exposed to MA as juveniles, although there were no changes in basal in vivo or ex vivo dopamine levels. These findings suggest that exposure of juveniles to MA leads to persistent changes in the behavioral and neurochemical responses to stimulants in adulthood.

  11. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on thyrotropin secretion in adult and old female rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, R M; Borges, P P; Lisboa, P C; Curty, F H; Moura, E G; Pazos-Moura, C C

    2000-09-01

    Steroid hormones have been implicated in the modulation of TSH secretion; however, there are few and controversial data regarding the effect of progesterone (Pg) on TSH secretion. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a synthetic alpha-hydroxyprogesterone analog that has been extensively employed in therapeutics for its Pg-like actions, but that also has some glucocorticoid and androgen activity. Both hormones have been shown to interfere with TSH secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MPA or Pg administration to ovariectomized (OVX) rats on in vivo and in vitro TSH release and pituitary TSH content. The treatment of adult OVX rats with MPA (0. 25 mg/100 g body weight, sc, daily for 9 days) induced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the pituitary TSH content, which was not observed when the same treatment was used with a 10 times higher MPA dose or with Pg doses similar to those of MPA. Serum TSH was similar for all groups. MPA administered to OVX rats at the lower dose also had a stimulatory effect on the in vitro basal and TRH-induced TSH release. The in vitro basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release was not significantly affected by Pg treatment. Conversely, MPA had no effect on old OVX rats. However, in these old rats, ovariectomy alone significantly reduced (P<0.05) basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release in vitro, as well as pituitary TSH content. The results suggest that in adult, but not in old OVX rats, MPA but not Pg has a stimulatory effect on TSH stores and on the response to TRH in vitro.

  12. Imipramine reverses alterations in cytokines and BDNF levels induced by maternal deprivation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Ribeiro, Karine F; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Vuolo, Francieli; Colpo, Gabriela D; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flávio; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing toward an association between immune molecules, as well brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the depression. The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of the antidepressant imipramine in maternally deprived adult rats. To this aim, maternally deprived and non-deprived (control group) male rats were treated with imipramine (30mg/kg) once a day for 14 days during their adult phase. Their behavior was then assessed using the forced swimming test. In addition to this, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were assessed in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition, BDNF protein levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In deprived rats treated with saline was observed an increase on immobility time, compared with non-deprived rats treated with imipramine (p<0.05). Deprived rats treated with saline presented a decrease on BDNF levels in the amygdala (p<0.05), compared with all other groups. The IL-10 levels were decreased in the serum (p<0.05). TNF-α and IL-1β levels were increased in the serum and CSF of deprived rats treated with saline (p<0.05). Interestingly, imipramine treatment reversed the effects of maternal deprivation on BDNF and cytokines levels (p<0.05). Finally, these findings further support a relationship between immune activation, neurotrophins and the depression, and considering the action of imipramine, it is suggested that classic antidepressants could exert their effects by modulating the immune system.

  13. Histological effects of oral administration of nutmeg on the kidneys of adult Wister rats

    PubMed Central

    Eweka, Andrew Osayame; Eweka, Abieyuwa

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The effects of oral administration of nutmeg commonly used as spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 220g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A & B) of (n=16) and Control (c) (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment groups (A & B) received 0.1g (500mg/kg body weight) and 0.2g (1000mg/kg body weight) of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds respectively on a daily basis for forty-two days. The control group (c) received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for forty-two days. The growers’ mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the forty-third day of the experiment. The kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological study after hematoxylin and eosin method. Result: The histological findings in the treated sections of the kidneys showed distortion of the renal cortical structures, vacuolations appearing in the stroma and some degree of cellular necrosis, with degenerative and atrophic changes when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that oral administration of nutmeg may have some deleterious effects on the kidneys of adult Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may affect its excretory and other metabolic functions. It is recommended that caution should therefore be advocated in the intake of this product and further studies be carried out to examine these findings. PMID:22624138

  14. A spaceflight study of synaptic plasticity in adult rat vestibular maculas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Behavioral signs of vestibular perturbation in altered gravity have not been well correlated with structural modifications in neurovestibular centers. This ultrastructural research investigated synaptic plasticity in hair cells of adult rat utricular maculas exposed to microgravity for nine days on a space shuttle. The hypothesis was that synaptic plasticity would be more evident in type II hair cells because they are part of a distributed modifying macular circuitry. All rats were shared with other investigators and were subjected to treatments unrelated to this experiment. Maculas were obtained from flight and control rats after shuttle return (R + 0) and nine days post-flight (R + 9). R + 9 rats had chromodacryorrhea, a sign of acute stress. Tissues were prepared for ultrastructural study by conventional methods. Ribbon synapses were counted in fifty serial sections from medial utricular macular regions of three rats of each flight and control group. Counts in fifty additional consecutive sections from one sample in each group established method reliability. All synapses were photographed and located to specific cells on mosaics of entire sections. Pooled data were analyzed statistically. Flown rats showed abnormal posture and movement at R + 0. They had statistically significant increases in total ribbon synapses and in sphere-like ribbons in both kinds of hair cells; in type II cells, pairs of synapses nearly doubled and clusters of 3 to 6 synapses increased twelve-fold. At R + 9, behavioral signs were normal. However, synapse counts remained high in both kinds of hair cells of flight maculas and were elevated in control type II cells. Only counts in type I cells showed statistically significant differences at R + 9. High synaptic counts at R + 9 may have resulted from stress due to experimental treatments. The results nevertheless demonstrate that adult maculas retain the potential for synaptic plasticity. Type II cells exhibited more synaptic plasticity, but

  15. Chronic intermittent hypoxia promotes expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in adult rat medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqiang; Nie, Lihong; Hu, Yajie; Yan, Xiang; Xue, Lian; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Zheng, Yu

    2013-12-01

    The present experiments were carried out to investigate the expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) in medulla oblongata of rats and effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on its expression. Sprague Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into two groups, including control (Con) group and CIH group. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in medulla oblongata tissue homogenates was measured using the methylene blue assay method, 3MST mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and the expression of 3MST in the neurons of respiratory-related nuclei in medulla oblongata of rats was investigated with immunohistochemical technique. CIH elevated the endogenous H2S production in rat medulla oblongata (P<0.01). The RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that 3MST mRNA and protein were expressed in the medulla oblongata of rats and CIH promoted their expression (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3MST existed in the neurons of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), hypoglossal nucleus (12N), ambiguous nucleus (Amb), facial nucleus (FN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the animals and the mean optical densities of 3MST-positive neurons in the pre-BötC, 12N and Amb, but not in FN and NTS, were significantly increased in CIH group (P<0.05). In conclusion, 3MST exists in the neurons of medullary respiratory nuclei and its expression can be up-regulated by CIH in adult rat, suggesting that 3MST-H2S pathway may be involved in regulation of respiration and protection on medullary respiratory centers from injury induced by CIH.

  16. IGF-I redirects doublecortin-positive cell migration in the normal adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Maucksch, C; McGregor, A L; Yang, M; Gordon, R J; Yang, M; Connor, B

    2013-06-25

    The migration of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural precursor cells through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb is tightly regulated by local micro-environmental cues. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) can stimulate the migration of several neuronal cell types and acts as a 'departure' factor in the avian SVZ. To establish whether IGF-I can also act as a migratory factor for adult neuronal precursor cells in vivo, in addition to its well established role in precursor cell proliferation and differentiation, we used AAV2-mediated gene transfer to produce ectopic expression of IGF-I in the normal adult rat striatum. We then assessed whether the expression of IGF-I would recruit SVZ-derived neuronal precursor cells from the RMS into the striatum. Ectopic expression of IGF-I in the normal adult rat brain significantly increased the number of doublecortin (Dcx)-positive cells and the extent of their migration into the striatum 4 and 8 weeks after AAV2-IGF-I injection but did not promote neuronal differentiation. In vitro migration assays confirmed that IGF-I is an inducer of migration and directs SVZ-derived adult neuronal precursor cell migration by both chemotaxis and chemokinesis. These results demonstrate that overexpression of IGF-I in the normal adult rat brain can override the normal cues directing precursor cell migration along the RMS and can redirect precursor cell migration into a non-neurogenic region. Enhanced expression of IGF-I following brain injury may therefore act as a diffusible factor mediating precursor cell migration to areas of neuronal cell damage.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in pre-pubertal and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Marassi, Michelle P; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; da Silva, Alba C Matos; Pereira, Valmara S; Carvalho, Denise P; Rosenthal, Doris; da Costa, Vânia M Corrêa

    2007-01-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinase activities are regulated by sex steroids; however, the mechanisms underlying the reported sexual dimorphism are poorly defined. In the present report, we aimed to investigate whether type 1 deiodinase (D1) sexual dimorphism exists early in sexual development by studying pre-pubertal male (Pm) and female (Pf) rats, as well as adult controls (C) and gonadectomized male and females rats. Adult male Wistar rats were studied 21 days after orchiectomy (Tex), and adult females were studied 21 days after ovariectomy (Ovx), and after estradiol benzoate (Eb) replacement. Serum total triiodothyronine (T3) was higher in pre-pubertal (P) rats than in the matching adults, with no difference between genders, although in adult males T3 was significantly lower than in females. There were no sex or age differences in serum total T4. Serum TSH in pre-pubertal (P) rats was within the adult female range, and both were significantly lower than in adult males. D1 activity in liver was greater in Pm than in Pf. In adult females, liver D1 activity was lower, while in adult males it was higher than in P rats. The same pattern of D1 activity was found in kidney. In thyroid and pituitary, D1 activity was similar in Pm, Pf, and adult females, which were all significantly lower than in the adult male. There were no differences in serum T3 and T4 between C and Tex males, but serum TSH was significantly decreased in Tex rats. Hepatic and renal D1 activities were lower in Tex than in C, but no changes were detected in thyroid and pituitary. In Ovx females, T3 was significantly lower than in the C group. Serum T4 was significantly decreased by estradiol replacement therapy in Ovx rats, in both doses used, whereas TSH was unchanged. Eb replacement increased liver and thyroid D1 activity, but in the kidney, only the highest estradiol dose promoted a significant D1 increase. In conclusion, in males, hepatic and renal D1 activity appears to be significantly influenced by

  18. Excitation and inhibition jointly regulate cortical reorganization in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Benali, Alia; Weiler, Elke; Benali, Youssef; Dinse, Hubert R; Eysel, Ulf T

    2008-11-19

    The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) retains its capability for cortical reorganization after injury or differential use into adulthood. The plastic response of SI cells to peripheral stimulation is characterized by extension of cortical representations accompanied by changes of the receptive field size of neurons. We used intracortical microstimulation that is known to enforce local, intracortical synchronous activity, to induce cortical reorganization and applied immunohistochemical methods in the same individual animals to investigate how plasticity in the cortical topographic maps is linked to changes in the spatial layout of the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems. The results reveal a differential spatiotemporal pattern of upregulation and downregulation of specific factors for an excitatory (glutamatergic) and an inhibitory (GABAergic) system, associated with changes of receptive field size and reorganization of the somatotopic map in the rat SI. Predominantly local mechanisms are the specific reduction of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in inhibitory neurons and the low expression of the activity marker c-Fos. Reorganization in the hindpaw representation and in the adjacent SI cortical areas (motor cortex and parietal cortex) is accompanied by a major increase of the excitatory transmitter glutamate and c-Fos. The spatial extent of the reorganization appears to be limited by an increase of glutamic acid decarboxylase and the inhibitory transmitter GABA. The local and medium-range net effects are excitatory and can facilitate receptive field enlargements and cortical map expansion. The longer-range increase of inhibition appears suited to limit these effects and to prevent neurons from pathological hyperexcitability.

  19. Perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens affects pain in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Ilaria; Fiorenzani, Paolo; Della Seta, Daniele; Massafra, Cosimo; Cinci, Giuliano; Bocci, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2009-01-01

    Estrogens have a variety of effects in addition to their action on reproductive structures, including permanent effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS). Therefore environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity (xenoestrogens) can potentially affect a number of CNS functions. In the present experiment, female rats receiving ethynylestradiol (EE) or methoxychlor (MXC) via the mothers during pregnancy (pre) or lactation (post) were tested in comparison with females born from mothers treated with OIL. The Object Recognition, Plantar and Formalin tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of these compounds on integrated functions such as memory and pain. Testosterone and estradiol plasma levels were determined by RIA. The results of the Object Recognition and Plantar tests did not differ among groups. However the groups differed in the Formalin test since flexing duration was higher in the EE- and MXC-pre groups than in the EE- and MXC-post and OIL groups. Estradiol plasma levels were higher in EE-pre than in the other groups. These results confirm the possibility that estrogen-like compounds (EE and MXC) can affect complex neural processes like pain when taken during critical stages of CNS development.

  20. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults.

  1. Age and sex differences in reward behavior in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Gulley, Joshua M

    2014-05-01

    Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed.

  2. Ginkgo biloba extract facilitates recovery from penetrating brain injury in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Attella, M J; Hoffman, S W; Stasio, M J; Stein, D G

    1989-07-01

    Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received 100 mg/kg Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) intraperitoneally for 30 days. GBE reduced overall activity and decreased sensitivity to light in the open field maze. The rats were also less responsive to noxious stimuli after 13 days of treatment with GBE. After the last injection, all subjects were trained on a delayed-spatial alternation task. Subsequent to acquisition of the spatial task, the rats received either sham operations and saline or bilateral frontal cortex lesions treated with either saline or GBE. Thirty additional days of treatment began on the day of injury, and open field behavior, analgesia, and metabolic activity measurements were again measured. The rats with lesions treated with saline were more active than their GBE-treated counterparts and sham controls but there were no differences in response to illumination or noxious stimuli. Retention of the delayed-spatial alternation indicated that rats with lesions treated with GBE were less impaired than brain-injured subjects receiving saline treatment. Histological examination showed that GBE reduced the extent of brain swelling in response to the injury.

  3. Effect of restraint and copper deficiency on blood pressure and mortality of adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klevay, L.M.; Halas, E.S. )

    1989-02-01

    The etiology of most hypertension is unknown; stress is thought to elevate blood pressure. Male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet plus a drinking solution containing 10{mu}g Zn and 2{mu}g Cu/ml (acetate sulfate, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was measured without anesthesia. After being matched by mean weight (280g) and blood pressure into 4 groups of 15, groups 1 and 2 received a drinking solution without copper. After 24 days rats in groups 2 and 4 were restrained for 45 min. daily (A.M.) for 23 days in a small plastic cage (19{times}6{times}6 cm). Final pressures were affected both by stress and dietary Cu: group 1, 119; group 2, 131; group 3, 114; group 4, 123 mm Hg. One rat in each of groups 1, 3, 4 and 10 rats in group 2, died. Among these latter hemorrhage was prominent, blood being found in bladder (2), gut (2), peritoneum (2) and scrotum (1). Copper deficiency decreased cooper in both adrenal gland and liver by 58% and in heart by 29% restraint was without effect. Cardiac sodium was increased 6% only by deficiency. Results confirm the hypertensive effect of copper deficiency in adult rats and reveal that the stress of restraint increases blood pressure. Copper deficiency plus stress is harmful.

  4. Adolescent and adult rat cortical protein kinase A display divergent responses to acute ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Eduardo D.; Santerre, Jessica L.; Carter, Jenna M.; Werner, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent rats display reduced sensitivity to many dysphoria-related effects of alcohol (ethanol) including motor ataxia and sedative hypnosis, but the underlying neurobiological factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, particularly the type II regulatory subunit (RII), has been implicated in ethanol-induced molecular and behavioral responses in adults. Therefore, the current study examined cerebral cortical PKA in adolescent and adult ethanol responses. With the exception of early adolescence, PKA RIIα and RIIβ subunit levels largely did not differ from adult levels in either whole cell lysate or P2 synaptosomal expression. However, following acute ethanol exposure, PKA RIIβ P2 synaptosomal expression and activity were increased in adults, but not in adolescents. Behaviorally, intracerebroventricular administration of the PKA activator Sp-cAMP and inhibitor Rp-cAMP prior to ethanol administration increased adolescent sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol compared to controls. Sp-cAMP was ineffective in adults whereas Rp-cAMP suggestively reduced loss of righting reflex (LORR) with paralleled increases in blood ethanol concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that PKA activity modulates the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and may potentially play a wider role in the differential ethanol responses observed between adolescents and adults. PMID:24874150

  5. Adolescent and adult rat cortical protein kinase A display divergent responses to acute ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Eduardo D; Santerre, Jessica L; Carter, Jenna M; Werner, David F

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent rats display reduced sensitivity to many dysphoria-related effects of alcohol (ethanol) including motor ataxia and sedative hypnosis, but the underlying neurobiological factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, particularly the type II regulatory subunit (RII), has been implicated in ethanol-induced molecular and behavioral responses in adults. Therefore, the current study examined cerebral cortical PKA in adolescent and adult ethanol responses. With the exception of early adolescence, PKA RIIα and RIIβ subunit levels largely did not differ from adult levels in either whole cell lysate or P2 synaptosomal expression. However, following acute ethanol exposure, PKA RIIβ P2 synaptosomal expression and activity were increased in adults, but not in adolescents. Behaviorally, intracerebroventricular administration of the PKA activator Sp-cAMP and inhibitor Rp-cAMP prior to ethanol administration increased adolescent sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol compared to controls. Sp-cAMP was ineffective in adults whereas Rp-cAMP suggestively reduced loss of righting reflex (LORR) with paralleled increases in blood ethanol concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that PKA activity modulates the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and may potentially play a wider role in the differential ethanol responses observed between adolescents and adults.

  6. Circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Diana C; Hartwick, Andrew T E; Twa, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    Ocular hypertension is a risk factor for developing glaucoma, which consists of a group of optic neuropathies characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and subsequent irreversible vision loss. Our understanding of how intraocular pressure damages the optic nerve is based on clinical measures of intraocular pressure that only gives a partial view of the dynamic pressure load inside the eye. Intraocular pressure varies over the course of the day and the oscillator regulating these daily changes has not yet been conclusively identified. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the circadian rhythms of intraocular pressure and body temperature in Brown Norway rats when these animals are housed in standard light-dark and continuous dim light (40-90 lux) conditions. The results from this study show that the temperature rhythm measured in continuous dim light drifted forward relative to external time, indicating that the rhythm was free running and being regulated by an internal biological clock. Also, the results show that there is a persistent, but dampened, circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in continuous dim light and that the circadian rhythms of temperature and intraocular pressure are not synchronized by the same central oscillator. We conclude that once- or twice-daily clinical measures of intraocular pressure are insufficient to describe intraocular pressure dynamics. Similarly, our results indicate that, in experimental animal models of glaucoma, the common practice of housing animals in constant light does not necessarily eliminate the potential influence of intraocular pressure rhythms on the progression of nerve damage. Future studies should aim to determine whether an oscillator within the eye regulates the rhythm of intraocular pressure and to better characterize the impact of glaucoma on this rhythm.

  7. Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen

  8. Efficacy of Retigabine on Acute Limbic Seizures in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, LK; Slomko, AM; Wongvravit, JP; Naseer, Z; Hu, S; Wan, WY; Ali, SS

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The efficacy of retigabine (RGB), a positive allosteric modulator of K+ channels indicated for adjunct treatment of partial seizures, was studied in two adult models of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus to determine it’s toleratbility. Methods: Retigabine was administered systemiclly at high (5 mg/kg) and low (1–2 mg/kg) doses either 30 min prior to or 2 hr after KA-induced status epilepticus. High (1 µg/µL) and low (0.25 µg/µL) concentrations of RGB were also delivered by intrahippocampal microinjection in the presence of KA. Results: Dose-dependent effects of RGB were observed with both models. Lower doses increased seizure behavior latency and reduced the number of single spikes and synchronized burst events in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Higher doses worsened seizure behavior, produced severe ataxia, and increased spiking activity. Animals treated with RGB that were resistant to seizures did not exhibit significant injury or loss in GluR1 expression; however if stage 5–6 seizures were reached, typical hippocampal injury and depletion of GluR1 subunit protein in vulernable pyramidal fields occurred. Conclusions: RGB was neuroprotective only if seizures were significantly attenuated. GluR1 was simultaneously suppressed in the resistant granule cell layer in presence of RGB which may weaken excitatory transmission. Biphasic effects observed herein suggest that the human dosage must be carefully scrutinized to produce the optimal clinical response. PMID:26819936

  9. Noise exposure during early development impairs the processing of sound intensity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bures, Zbynek; Grécová, Jolana; Popelár, Jirí; Syka, Josef

    2010-07-01

    During the early postnatal development of rats, the structural and functional maturation of the central auditory nuclei strongly relies on the natural character of the incoming neural activity. Even a temporary deprivation in the critical period results in a deterioration of neuronal responsiveness in adult animals. We demonstrate that besides the poorer frequency selectivity of neurons in the impaired animals reported previously [Grecova et al. (2009)Eur. J. Neurosci. 29, 1921-1930], the neuronal representation of sound intensity is significantly affected. Rate-intensity functions of inferior colliculus neurons were recorded in anaesthetized adult rats that were exposed to intense noise at postnatal day 14, and compared with those obtained in age-matched controls. Although the response thresholds were similar in the exposed and control rats, the neurons in the exposed animals had a longer first-spike latency, a narrower dynamic range, lower maximum response magnitudes and a steeper slope of the rate-intensity functions. The percentage of monotonic neurons was significantly lower in the exposed animals. The observed anomalies were confined to the mid- and high-frequency regions, whereas no significant changes were found in the low-frequency neurons. The altered parameters of the individual rate-intensity functions led also to differences in the cumulative responses. We conclude that a brief noise exposure during the critical period leads to a frequency-dependent alteration of the sound intensity representation in the inferior colliculus of adult rats. The results suggest that such impairments may appear in individuals with normal hearing thresholds, but with a history of noise exposure very early in childhood.

  10. Neonatal hyperleptinaemia programmes adrenal medullary function in adult rats: effects on cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Trevenzoli, I H; Valle, M M R; Machado, F B; Garcia, R M G; Passos, M C F; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2007-04-15

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between stressful events (nutritional, hormonal or environmental) in early life and development of adult diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular failure. It is known that gestation and lactation are crucial periods for healthy growth in mammals and that the sympathoadrenal system is markedly influenced by environmental conditions during these periods. We previously demonstrated that neonatal hyperleptinaemia in rats programmes higher body weight, higher food intake and hypothalamic leptin resistance in adulthood. Using this model of programming, we investigated adrenal medullary function and effects on cardiovascular parameters in male rats in adulthood. Leptin treatment during the first 10 days of lactation (8 microg 100 g(-1) day(-1), s.c.) resulted in lower body weight (6.5%, P < 0.05), hyperleptinaemia (10-fold, P < 0.05) and higher catecholamine content in adrenal glands (18.5%, P < 0.05) on the last day of treatment. In adulthood (150 days), the rats presented higher body weight (5%, P < 0.05), adrenal catecholamine content (3-fold, P < 0.05), tyrosine hydroxylase expression (35%, P < 0.05) and basal and caffeine-stimulated catecholamine release (53% and 100%, respectively, P < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were also higher in adult rats (7% and 6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Our results show that hyperleptinaemia in early life increases adrenal medullary function in adulthood and that this may alter cardiovascular parameters. Thus, we suggest that imprinting factors which increase leptin and catecholamine levels during the neonatal period could be involved in development of adult chronic diseases.

  11. Impact of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral content in young and adult rats: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mahmoud M; Selima, Eman A; Salama, Mona A

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral homeostasis in rapidly growing young rats in comparison to effects in adult male rats. Two doses of nicotine (3 and 4.5mg/kg/day, as nicotine hydrogen tartrate) were used and rat treatment was continued for 6 months. In this study, all nicotine-treated rats weighed less than control rats and the effect was dose-dependent. Also, rats treated with nicotine had lower femoral wet weight and showed a significant reduction in femoral mid-shaft cortical width and femoral and lumbar vertebral ash weights. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of ash calcium and phosphorus contents of the femora and lumbar vertebrae. The bone mineral-lowering effects of nicotine were more severe in the lumbar vertebral spongy bone than in the femoral compact bone and these changes were more marked in adult rats than in young rats. An additional interesting observation was that the femora of young rats treated with nicotine were significantly shorter than those of control young rats. Also, the values of the femoral ash weight per unit length were significantly decreased in nicotine-treated adult rats but not in nicotine-treated young rats. Thus, these results show that nicotine-induced changes in bone vary with age. The clinical relevance of this study is that it may provide justification to insist that all people in general and the risky young group in particular should be warned against the hazards of the negative effects of nicotine on bone.

  12. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    PubMed

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  13. SEXUAL INTERACTIONS WITH UNFAMILIAR FEMALES REDUCE HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AMONG ADULT MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Curtis, Molly G.; DeLoach, Julia P.; Maher, Jack; Shulman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of BrdU (200 mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30 min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohisotchemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. There were no differences in the amount of sexual behavior (mounts, intromissions, ejaculations, or contact time) that the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in, indicating that the differences in neurogenesis were not due to the relative amounts of sexual activity. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect

  14. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  15. Histological correlates of N40 auditory evoked potentials in adult rats after neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion: animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pimentel, A L; Vázquez-Roque, R A; Camacho-Abrego, I; Hoffman, K L; Linares, P; Flores, G; Manjarrez, E

    2014-11-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) is an established neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. Rats with NVHL exhibit several behavioral, molecular and physiological abnormalities that are similar to those found in schizophrenics. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by profound disturbances of mental functions including neurophysiological deficits in brain information processing. These deficits can be assessed by auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), where schizophrenics exhibit abnormalities in amplitude, duration and latency of such AEPs. The aim of the present study was to compare the density of cells in the temporal cerebral cortex and the N40-AEP of adult NVHL rats versus adult sham rats. We found that rats with NVHL exhibit significant lower amplitude of the N40-AEP and a significant lower number of cells in bilateral regions of the temporal cerebral cortex compared to sham rats. Because the AEP recordings were obtained from anesthetized rats, we suggest that NVHL leads to inappropriate innervation in thalamic-cortical pathways in the adult rat, leading to altered function of cortical networks involved in processing of primary auditory information.

  16. Cotton Fleahopper and Associated Microorganisms as Components in the Production of Stress Ethylene by Cotton 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, William R.; Morgan, Page W.; Sterling, Winfield L.; Kenerley, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    Excised cotton terminal buds incubated with adults or nymphs of the cotton fleahopper (CFH), Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), produced ethylene at theoretical abscission-inducing rates by 24 h after introduction of the insect. Inoculation of cotton shoot tips with three microorganisms commonly associated with CFH and cotton in all cases promoted ethylene production to theoretical abscission-inducing rates by 24 h after inoculation. CFH alone or injection of microorganisms consistently caused cotton shoot tips to darken and become soft. These changes paralleled the rise in ethylene production and did not occur in control shoot tips. Of the three microorganisms, Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (Smith) Dye (XCM) produced little ethylene when grown in culture, while the two fungi, Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll and P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling, produced higher levels. The parallel between plant response to CFH, XCM, and CFH + XCM suggests a similar mechanism of ethylene induction by these two stress agents. Since a portion of the CFH were devoid of microorganisms, yet their impact on ethylene production by cotton tissue was uniform, we propose that the primary mechanism of ethylene induction involves the insect's salivary fluids which contain cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:16666119

  17. $1+ Cotton? New Thresholds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a major crop in Arizona and is affected by multiple insect pests. A highly effective and economically efficient integrated pest management program has been developed for the major pests of cotton. The program utilizes sampling to determine the abundance of pest insects in the field and eco...

  18. Keeping Cotton Green

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a major crop in Arizona and is affected by multiple insect pests. A highly effective and economically efficient integrated pest management program has been developed for the major pests of cotton. The program utilizes sampling to determine the abundance of pest insects in the field and eco...

  19. Chronic nicotine alters cannabinoid-mediated locomotor activity and receptor density in periadolescent but not adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Linda L.; Reed, Stephanie Collins; Wade, Dean; Izenwasser, Sari

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of youths use cigarettes, and more than half of the youths who smoke daily also use illicit drugs. The focus of these studies is on how exposure to nicotine affects subsequent responses to both nicotine and cannabinoids in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that chronic treatment with nicotine produces sensitization to its locomotor-activating effects in female and adult rats but not male adolescent rats. To better understand the effects of nicotine on adolescent and adult rats, rats were injected with nicotine or saline for 7 days and, on day 8, either challenged with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 and tested for locomotor activity, or the brains were removed for quantitative autoradiography studies of the cannabinoid1 receptor. A separate group of rats was treated with nicotine plus the cannabinoid antagonist AM 251 and then challenged with CP 55,940. In adolescent male rats, nicotine administration led to sensitization to the locomotor-decreasing effects of both Δ9-THC and CP 55,940, but in adult male rats, the response to either drug was unchanged compared to controls. The effect of nicotine on CP 55,940-mediated locomotor activity was blocked by co-administration of AM 251 with the nicotine. Further, cannabinoid receptor density was increased in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and select regions of the hippocampus in adolescent male rats pretreated with nicotine compared to vehicle-treated controls. There were no significant changes in cannabinoid receptor binding, however, in any of the brain regions examined in adult males pretreated with nicotine. The prelimbic prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus have been shown previously to be involved in stimulant reinforcement; thus it is possible that these changes contribute to the unique behavioral effects of chronic nicotine and subsequent drug administration in adolescents compared with adults. PMID

  20. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kheradmand, Arash; Dezfoulian, Omid; Alirezaei, Masoud; Rasoulian, Bahram

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  1. Gender differences in the effect of adult amphetamine on cognitive functions of rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Nohejlová, K; Slamberová, R

    2014-08-15

    Psychostimulants have been shown to affect brain regions involved in the process of learning and memory consolidation. It has been shown that females are more sensitive to the effects of drugs than males. The aim of our study was to investigate how prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of amphetamine (AMP) in adulthood would affect spatial learning of adult female and male rats. Mothers of the tested offspring were exposed to injections of MA (5mg/kg) or saline (SA) throughout the entire gestation period. Cognitive functions of adult rats were evaluated in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Adult offspring were injected daily with AMP (5mg/kg) or SA through the period of MWM testing. Our data from the MWM tests demonstrates the following. Prenatal MA exposure did not change the learning ability of adult male and female rats. However, AMP administration to adult animals affected cognitive function in terms of exacerbation of spatial learning (increasing the latency to reach the hidden platform, the distance traveled and the search error) only in female subjects. There were sex differences in the speed of swimming. Prenatal MA exposure and adult AMP treatment increased the speed of swimming in female groups greater than in males. Overall, the male subjects showed a better learning ability than females. Thus, our results indicate that the adult AMP treatment affects the cognitive function and behavior of rats in a sex-specific manner, regardless of prenatal exposure.

  2. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  3. Evidence of lactoferrin transportation into blood circulation from intestine via lymphatic pathway in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Etsumori

    2004-05-01

    Using adult rats, the characteristic transporting system for lactoferrin (LF) from intestinal lumen into the blood circulation was investigated. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a non-collected thoracic lymph (NC) group and a collected thoracic lymph (LC) group. Peripheral blood and thoracic lymph were collected from a jugular vein and a thoracic lymph duct, respectively, under anaesthesia. Bovine LF (bLF) was infused into the duodenal lumen by needle over a 1-min period at a dose of 1 g kg(-1). The transported bLF in the plasma and lymph was assayed quantitatively by double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Morphological investigation was also carried out in the intestine, lymph node, and liver. Following intraduodenal administration of bLF, the transported bLF in the NC group was detected in the plasma, and reached a peak value at 2 h. Furthermore, the bLF concentration in the thoracic duct lymph fluid in the LC group increased significantly, and peaked 2 h after the administration. In addition, bLF was not detected in the plasma of the LC group. Immunohistochemical analysis clearly showed anti-bLF positive particles in the epithelial cells of the apical villi. The striated border and baso-lateral membrane were also bLF positive. These results suggest that intraduodenally infused bLF is transported into the blood circulation via the lymphatic pathway, not via portal circulation in adult rats.

  4. Lead Exposure Induces Weight Gain in Adult Rats, Accompanied by DNA Hypermethylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Li, Qin; Cang, Zhen; Chen, Chi; Lu, Meng; Cheng, Jing; Zhai, Hualing; Xia, Fangzhen; Ye, Lin; Lu, Yingli

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have revealed the association of lead (Pb) exposure with obesity. DNA methylation alteration has been suggested to be one of the regulatory mechanisms of obesity. We aimed to explore whether Pb exposure is related with weight gain and DNA methylation alteration. Methods Male adult 8 week Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: the normal chow diet (NCD); the NCD+0.05%Pb; the NCD+0.15%Pb; the NCD+0.45%Pb and the high fat diet. Rats were exposed to different dosages of Pb through drinking water for 21 weeks. Body weight, fasted blood glucose level, fasted insulin level, homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and lipid profile were detected. Intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was constructed to evaluate the glucose tolerance. Lipid accumulation of liver was detected and liver DNA underwent whole genome bisulfite sequencing. Results The NCD+0.05%Pb group had significantly greater weight, HOMA-IR and triglycerides, and lower glucose intolerance than the NCD group (P <0.05). This group also showed hepatic lipid accumulation. These metabolic changes were not observed in the other two Pb dosage groups. Furthermore, DNA hypermethylation extended along pathways related to glucose and lipid metabolism in NCD+0.05%Pb group. Conclusion Pb exposure resulted in dose-specific weight gain in adult Wistar rats, accompanied by alteration of DNA methylation. PMID:28107465

  5. Variability in the distribution of callosal projection neurons in the adult rat parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ivy, G O; Gould, H J; Killackey, H P

    1984-07-23

    Previous reports have shown that the barrel field area of the parietal cortex of the adult rat contains relatively few callosal projection neurons, even though callosal projection neurons are abundant in this cortical region in the neonatal rat. Furthermore, it has been shown that many of the callosal neurons which seem to disappear as the animal matures do not die, but project to ipsilateral cortical areas. These findings rely on the ability of retrograde transport techniques which utilize injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or of fluorescent dyes into one hemisphere. We now show that several technical modifications of the HRP technique yield a wider distribution of HRP-containing neurons in the contralateral barrel field area of the adult rat than previously reported. These include implants of HRP pellets into transected axons of the corpus callosum, the addition of DMSO and nonidet P40 to Sigma VI HRP, wheat germ agglutinin HRP and the use of tetramethyl benzidine as the chromogen in the reaction procedure. Our findings have implications for transport studies in general and for the development of the cortical barrel field in particular.

  6. Effects of moderate zinc deficiency on cognitive performance in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Massaro, T F; Mohs, M; Fosmire, G

    1982-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to establish a dietary zinc level which approximates a moderate deficiency in the young adult rat and to determine if a concurrent zinc deficiency affects cognitive performance. Male rats were fed varying levels of zinc in diet throughout a 17-day period. The lowest dietary level that depressed serum and bone zinc without influencing food consumption or body weight gains was observed to be 5.8 microgram Zn/g diet. Young adult rats maintained on either a zinc adequate (24.4 microgram Zn/g) or low-zinc (5.3 microgram Zn/g) diet were tested in a modified Skinner Box involving tests of visual, auditory, association, and discrimination learning. No differences were observed in the visual discrimination performance of the zinc deficient animals when compared with control counterparts. Deficits in the ability to transfer a learned association between visual and auditory stimuli were observed, however, in the deficient group during the transfer test phase. The latter performed better during the final auditory discrimination task in transferring a learned food-relevant cue.

  7. Prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for a central hypothyroidism in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Isabela Teixeira; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Alves, Simone Bezerra; Reis, Adelina Martha; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2008-08-01

    Malnutrition during lactation is associated with hypoprolactinemia and failure in milk production. Adult rats whose mothers were malnourished presented higher body weight and serum tri-iodothyronine (T(3)). Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation caused higher body weight in adult life, suggesting an association between maternal prolactin (PRL) level and programming of the offspring's adult body weight. Here, we studied the consequences of the maternal PRL inhibition at the end of lactation by bromocriptine (BRO) injection, a dopaminergic agonist, upon serum TSH and thyroid hormones, thyroid iodide uptake, liver mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), liver and pituitary de-iodinase activities (D1 and/or D2), and in vitro post-TRH TSH release in the adult offspring. Wistar lactating rats were divided into BRO - injected with 1 mg/twice a day, daily for the last 3 days of lactation, and C - control, saline-injected with the same frequency. At 180 days of age, the offspring were injected with (125)I i.p. and after 2 h, they were killed. Adult animals whose mothers were treated with BRO at the end of lactation presented lower serum TSH (-51%), T(3) (-23%), and thyroxine (-21%), lower thyroid (125)I uptake (-41%), liver mGPD (-55%), and pituitary D2 (-51%) activities, without changes in the in vitro post-TRH TSH release. We show that maternal PRL suppression at the end of lactation programs a hypometabolic state in adulthood, in part due to a thyroid hypofunction, caused by a central hypothyroidism, probably due to decreased TRH secretion. We suggest that PRL during lactation can regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and programs its function.

  8. Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Christina M.; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

  9. Functional plasticity of regenerated and intact taste receptors in adult rats unmasked by dietary sodium restriction.

    PubMed

    Hill, D L; Phillips, L M

    1994-05-01

    Unilateral chorda tympani nerve sectioning was combined with institution of a sodium-restricted diet in adult rats to determine the role that environment has on the functional properties of regenerating taste receptor cells. Rats receiving chorda tympani sectioning but no dietary manipulation (cut controls) and rats receiving only the dietary manipulation (diet controls) had normal responses to a concentration series of NaCl, sodium acetate (NaAc), and NH4Cl. However, responses from the regenerated nerve in NaCl-restricted rats (40-120 d postsectioning) to NaCl and NaAc were reduced by as much as 30% compared to controls, indicating that regenerating taste receptors are influenced by environmental (dietary) factors. Responses to NH4Cl were normal; therefore, the effect appears specific to sodium salts. Surprisingly, in the same rats, NaCl responses from the contralateral, intact chorda tympani were up to 40% greater than controls. Thus, in the same rat, there was over a twofold difference in sodium responses between the right and left chorda tympani nerves. A study of the time course of the functional alterations in the intact nerve revealed that responses to NaCl were extremely low immediately following sectioning (about 20% of the normal response), and then increased monotonically during the following 50 d until relative response magnitudes became supersensitive. This function occurred even when the cut chorda tympani was prevented from reinnervating lingual epithelia, demonstrating that events related to regeneration do not play a role in the functional properties of the contralateral side of the tongue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood.

  11. Behavioural and biochemical effects in the adult rat after prolonged postnatal administration of clozapine.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, V; Cagiano, R; Mocchetti, I; Coen, E; Cattabeni, F; Racagni, G

    1983-01-01

    Rats were administered 10 mg/kg SC of clozapine (C) or vehicle solution (S) daily from day 1 after birth until 20 days of age. At 60 days of age (40 days after the postnatal treatment with C or S was interrupted) the stereotyped behaviour and the effects on locomotor activity elicited by apomorphine in S- and C-pretreated rats were investigated. The intensity of stereotyped behaviour as well as the decrement in locomotion induced by apomorphine (0.5--1 mg/kg SC) were not influenced by chronic C administration during development. Finally, at 80 days of age (60 days after the postnatal treatment with C or S was interrupted) rats were subjected to a differential reinforcement of low rates schedule (DRL15s). The results indicate that the acquisition of the DRL task performance criterion (Rs/Rf less than or equal to 2.5) was significantly more rapid in S-pretreated rats than in C-pretreated ones. In parallel biochemical experiments, homovanillic acid (HVA) content was measured in striatum in rats at 60 days of age (40 days after the postnatal treatment with C or S was interrupted). The results indicate that even if an acute challenge dose of 10 mg/kg C shows a certain degree of tolerance a single dose of 20 mg/kg C is still able to increase striatal HVA concentration in chronic C-pretreated animals. These data indicate that early postnatal administration of a non-cataleptogenic neuroleptic, like C, induces, in the adult rat, behavioural and biochemical changes which significantly differ from those elicited by a cataleptogenic neuroleptic, like haloperidol.

  12. Anti-Nogo-A Immunotherapy Does Not Alter Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Stroke in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel J.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; O'Brien, Timothy E.; Farrer, Robert G.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of adult disability, including cognitive impairment. Our laboratory has previously shown that treatment with function-blocking antibodies against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A promotes functional recovery after stroke in adult and aged rats, including enhancing spatial memory performance, for which the hippocampus is critically important. Since spatial memory has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether anti-Nogo-A treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke. Adult rats were subject to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion followed 1 week later by 2 weeks of antibody treatment. Cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus was quantified at the end of treatment, and the number of newborn neurons was determined at 8 weeks post-stroke. Treatment with both anti-Nogo-A and control antibodies stimulated the accumulation of new microglia/macrophages in the dentate granule cell layer, but neither treatment increased cellular proliferation or the number of newborn neurons above stroke-only levels. These results suggest that anti-Nogo-A immunotherapy does not increase post-stroke hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27803646

  13. GABAergic transmission and enhanced modulation by opioids and endocannabinoids in adult rat rostral ventromedial medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hua; Suchland, Katherine L; Ingram, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) play critical and complex roles in pain modulation. Recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the RVM produces pain facilitation in young animals (postnatal (PN) day < 21) but predominantly inhibits pain behaviours in adults. The cellular mechanisms underlying these changes in RVM modulation of pain behaviours are not known. This is in part because whole-cell patch-clamp studies in RVM to date have been in young (PN day < 18) animals because the organization and abundance of myelinated fibres in this region make the RVM a challenging area for whole-cell patch-clamp recording in adults. Several neurotransmitter systems, including GABAergic neurotransmission, undergo developmental changes that mature by PN day 21. Thus, we focused on optimizing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for RVM neurons in animals older than PN day 30 and compared the results to animals at PN day 10–21. Our results demonstrate that the probability of GABA release is lower and that opioid and endocannabinoid effects are more evident in adult rats (mature) compared to early postnatal (immature) rats. Differences in these properties of RVM neurons may contribute to the developmental changes in descending control of pain from the RVM to the spinal cord. PMID:25556797

  14. Amphetamine-induced incentive sensitization of sign-tracking behavior in adolescent and adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Age-specific behavioral and neural characteristics may predispose adolescents to initiate and escalate use of alcohol and drugs. Adolescents may avidly seek novel experiences, including drugs of abuse, because of enhanced incentive motivation for drugs and natural rewards, perhaps especially when that incentive motivation is sensitized by prior drug exposure. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure, sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) behavior was examined in amphetamine-sensitized and control adolescent and adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with expression of elevated ST behavior used to index enhanced incentive motivation for reward-associated cues. Rats were first exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine injections (3.0 mg/kg/ml d-amphetamine per day) or given saline (0.9% wt/vol) once daily for 4 days. Expression of ST and GT was then examined over 8 days of PCA training consisting of 25 pairings of an 8-s presentation of an illuminated lever immediately followed by response-independent delivery of a banana-flavored food pellet. Results showed that adults clearly displayed more ST behavior than adolescents, reflected via both more contacts with, and shorter latencies to approach, the lever. Prior amphetamine sensitization increased ST (but not GT) behaviors regardless of age. Thus, when indexed via ST, incentive motivation was found to be greater in adults than adolescents, with a prior history of amphetamine exposure generally sensitizing incentive motivation for cues predicting a food reward regardless of age.

  15. Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure alters anxiety and passive avoidance test performance in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Maiko; Irie, Kaoru; Morohoshi, Kaori; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Masatoshi; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Imai, Hideki; Himi, Toshiyuki

    2009-10-01

    Isobutyl-paraben (IBP), one of the most widely used preservatives, exhibits estrogenic activity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of maternal IBP treatment on the emotional behavior and learning performance in mature offspring. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with IBP via a subcutaneous Silastic capsule. Consequently, the offspring were exposed to IBP during gestation through the placentae, and before weaning through the milk. Male and female offspring were tested for emotional behavior in an open field and in an elevated plus maze at five and six weeks old, respectively. IBP-exposed male (but not female) rats spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. At 11 weeks old, all females were gonadectomized and treated chronically with 17beta-estradiol or cholesterol by Silastic capsules; all males were kept intact. They were tested for learning performance in a passive avoidance test and a Morris water maze. IBP exposure impaired the performance of males in the passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that male rats are more affected by early exposure to IBP than female rats. IBP affects their adult behavior including anxiety and learning abilities.

  16. Spermatogenetic disorders in adult rats exposed to tributyltin chloride during puberty.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wook Joon; Lee, Beom Jun; Nam, Sang Yoon; Kim, Young Chul; Lee, Yong Soon; Yun, Young Won

    2003-12-01

    Adverse effects of tributyltin (TBT) chloride were investigated on the reproductive system in male adult rats as exposed during puberty. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of 35 days were assigned to five different groups: negative control receiving vehicle, methyltestosterone (10 mg/kg B.W.), and TBT chloride treatments (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg B.W.). Animals were treated by oral gavage for ten consecutive days and sacrificed at 5 weeks after final treatment. The treatment of TBT chloride at the high dose of 20 mg/kg B.W. significantly decreased homogenization-resistant testicular sperm counts (p<0.05). The TBT chloride treatment at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg B.W. also significantly decreased caudal epididymal sperm counts (p<0.01). Some of motion kinematic parameters (motility, mean angular displacement, lateral head displacement, and dance) of sperms retrieved from vasa deference were significantly decreased in rats treated with the TBT chloride at the dose of 20 mg/kg B.W. (p<0.05). These results provide a further evidence that an exposure to TBT chloride during pubertal period in male rats produces spermatogenic disorders characterized by decreasing testicular and epididymal sperm counts and some motion parameters of sperms in the vasa deference.

  17. Neonatal DSP-4 treatment modifies GABAergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Aleksandra; Nowak, Przemyslaw; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) is a noradrenergic neurotoxin which selectively damages noradrenergic projections originating from the locus coeruleus (LC). DSP-4 treatment of rats on the first and third days after birth produces a long-lasting lesion of noradrenergic neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In DSP-4-lesioned rats, studied as adults, we observed a decrease in norepinephrine content, with no significant change in the levels of dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). There is now a well established interaction between noradrenergic and GABAergic systems, whereby the noradrenergic system is involved in the regulation of basal GABA release, while GABAergic neurons simultaneously exert tonic inhibitory regulation of LC norepinephrine neurons. We examined GABAergic neurotransmission in the norepinephrine-denervated PFC for a better appreciation of the interaction between these two systems. Treatment with the GABA transaminase inhibitor vigabatrine (VGB) increased the GABA level of PFC (tissue content) in both intact and lesioned groups. Additionally, VGB increased extracellular GABA concentration in the PFC in both control and DSP-4-lesioned animals, but the elevation of GABA was 2-fold higher in DSP-4 lesioned rats. These findings indicate that neonatal DSP-4 treatment increases GABAergic neurotransmission in the PFC of rats in adulthood, perhaps by decreasing reactivity of central GABA(A) receptors.

  18. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on vertebral collagen, glycosaminoglycans and phosphatases in ovariectomized adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gopala Krishnan, V; Arunakaran, J; Govindarajulu, P; Srinivasan, N

    2003-03-01

    Vertebral collagen, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in ovariectomized (ovx) adult Wistar rats treated with estradiol (E 2 ) (10 micro g/kg BW for 35 days on alternate days, and progesterone (P 4 ) (140 micro g/kg BW for 35 days on alternate days) in E 2 + P 4 treated rats. P 4 given alone or in combination with E 2 significantly increased the levels of collagen in the vertebral bone. Neither ovx nor E 2 treatment altered the concentration of collagen in these rats. Administration of E 2 or P 4 significantly decreased the concentration of hyaluronic acid (HA), but remaining unaffected when a combination of these steroids was given. In contrast to their effect on HA, E 2 and P 4 each significantly increased the levels of chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the vertebral bone. The specific activity of ALP was decreased after ovx. E 2 and P 4 alone or in combination also registered a significant decrease in the activities of ALP and TRAP. The results suggest that E 2 and P 4 each exert definite effects on vertebral bone turnover in ovariectomized rats.

  19. Tianeptine facilitates spreading depression in well-nourished and early-malnourished adult rats.

    PubMed

    Amancio-Dos-Santos, Angela; Maia, Luciana Maria Silva de Seixas; Germano, Paula Catirina Pereira da Silva; Negrão, Yleana Danielle Dos Santos; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2013-04-15

    Nutritional status during development can modify the brain's electrophysiological properties and its response to drugs that reduce the serotonin availability in the synaptic cleft. Here we used cortical spreading depression (CSD) in the rat as a neurophysiological parameter to investigate the interaction between nutritional status and treatment with tianeptine, a serotonin uptake enhancer. From postnatal day 2 to 24, well-nourished and early-malnourished rat pups were s.c. injected with tianeptine (5 or 10mg/kg; 10 ml/kg) or equivalent volume of saline solution (control group). When the animals were 25-30 days old, CSD was recorded on the brain cortical surface. In the well-nourished rats, but not in the malnourished group, systemic tianeptine dose-dependently increased the CSD propagation velocity, with 10mg/kg producing a significant (P<0.05) effect. An experiment in adult rats showed that cortical topical application of tianeptine solutions (5mg/ml, 10mg/ml, and 20mg/ml) increased the CSD propagation in both the well-nourished and early-malnourished conditions. In well-nourished animals, 0.5mg/ml topical tianeptine did not affect CSD propagation, and 2mg/ml produced a small, but significant CSD acceleration. Our results indicate a facilitating action of tianeptine on CSD propagation, probably via tianeptine's pharmacological action on the serotonin system. These findings support previous data suggesting an antagonistic role of the serotoninergic system on CSD.

  20. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  1. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus: a transcriptome study

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Lindsay, Helen; Stratzielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-Francois; Liddelow, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and adult with additional data obtained at intermediate ages from microarray analysis. The largest represented functional group in the embryo was amino acid transporters (twelve) with expression levels 2–98 times greater than in the adult. In contrast, in the adult only six amino acid transporters were up-regulated compared to the embryo and at more modest enrichment levels (<5-fold enrichment above E15). In E15 plexus five glucose transporters, in particular Glut-1, and only one monocarboxylate transporter were enriched compared to the adult, whereas only two glucose transporters but six monocarboxylate transporters in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing brain with higher amino acid transport activity reported previously. Data for divalent metal transporters are also considered. Immunohistochemistry of several transporters (e.g., Slc16a10, a thyroid hormone transporter) gene products was carried out to confirm translational activity and to define cellular distribution of the proteins. Overall the results show that there is substantial expression of numerous influx transporters in the embryonic choroid plexus, many at higher levels than in the adult. This, together with immunohistochemical evidence and data from published physiological transport studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients. PMID:25972776

  2. Constituent ratio of motor fibers from the C5-C7 spinal nerves in the radial nerve is greater in pup rats than in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Nie, Mingbo; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong

    2012-06-01

    Clinically, injuries of C5-C7 of the brachial plexus cause falling of the wrist and fingers in infants but not in adults unless 4 consecutive spinal nerves are injured. The purpose of this study was to compare the constituent difference of spinal nerves in the radial nerve between pup and adult rats.A group of 16 pup rats and a group of 16 adult rats were each divided into 2 groups of 8 (P1 and A1 groups, C5-C6 were divided; P2 and A2 groups, C5-C7 were divided]). A nerve conduction study and histological examination were performed to evaluate radial nerve innervation to the extensor digitorum communis muscle after dividing the spinal nerves. Retrograde tracing with 5% cholera toxin B for anterior horn motoneurons of the spinal cord innervating the radial nerve was performed in 8 pup rats and 8 adult rats. Results showed that the division of C5-C7 caused more significant damage to radial nerve innervation to the extensor digitorum communis in pups than in adults, although the division of C5-C6 did not. In pups, the percentages (median with interquartile) of anterior horn motoneurons of the spinal cord innervating the radial nerve were 36.4 (28.3-38.5) in C5-C6, 28.1 (24.5-32.5) in C7, and 37.5 (36.5-39.3) in C8-T1. In adults, they were 24.2 (23.6-27.8) in C5-C6, 21.8 (19.5-26.3) in C7, and 50.7 (48.7-55.5) C8-T1.This study implies that C7 innervation in the radial nerve in humans may be more critical to the function of this nerve in infants than in adults.

  3. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-12-14

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring.

  4. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs.

  5. Intestinal mast cells and eosinophils in relation to Strongyloides ratti adult expulsion from the small and large intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Kadosaka, T; Kimura, E; Takagi, H; Kondo, S; Itoh, M

    2013-04-01

    Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of 'ordinary' adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by 'immune-resistant' adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5-7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.

  6. Long-term effects of repeated maternal separation and ethanol intake on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2017-02-15

    It has been shown that early life manipulations produce behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. The long term consequences of repeated maternal separation (RMS) plus cold stress and ethanol intake were evaluated during adolescence and adult rats on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male adult Wistar rats. RMS+ cold stress was applied from postnatal day (PD) 2 in which the pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4°C) 1h per day for 20days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7days: PD22-29 and PD59-66. Half of the animals were sacrificed, while the others were exposed to acute stress (AS) for 2h and then they were killed. RMS+ cold stress: a) increased voluntary ethanol intake in adolescent and adult rats; b) reduced protein expression (Western measurements) in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus (Hyp) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in hippocampus (Hic) while increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in Hic; c) decreased plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and increased corticosterone (COR) levels in HPA axis, d) adult rats exposure a new AS incremented ACTH and COR levels. However, this modification did not alter the HPA axis capacity to respond to a new type of stressor. These results demonstrate the consequences of early life stress on the vulnerability of ethanol consumption and HPA axis responsiveness to a stressor in adult rats.

  7. Stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male rats is altered by prenatal ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    SLIWOWSKA, J. H.; BARKER, J. M.; BARHA, C. K.; LAN, N.; WEINBERG, J.; GALEA, L. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    In adulthood, both alcohol (ethanol) and stress are known to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats. Similarly, most studies report that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces cell proliferation and/or cell survival in the hippocampus of adult males. Furthermore, PAE is known to have marked effects on behavioral and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to stressors. However, no studies have examined the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by stress in PAE animals. We hypothesized that, in accordance with previous data, PAE would suppress basal levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and further that stress acting on a sensitized HPA axis would have greater adverse effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in PAE than in control rats. Adult male offspring from PAE, pair-fed (PF) control, and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to restraint stress (9 days, 1 h/day) or left undisturbed. Rats were then injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on day 10, perfused 24 h (proliferation) or 3 weeks (survival) later, and brains processed for BrdU immunohistochemistry. We found that (1) under non-stressed conditions, PAE rats had a small but statistically significant suppressive effect on levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and (2) unexpectedly, repeated restraint stress significantly reduced neurogenesis in C and PF, but not PAE rats. We speculate that the failure of PAE males to mount an appropriate (i.e. suppressive) neurogenic response to stressors, implies reduced plasticity and adaptability or resilience, which could impact negatively on hippocampal structure and function. PMID:20536332

  8. The longitudinal study of rat hippocampus influenced by stress: early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengkui; Li, Lei; Shi, Mei; Li, Zhenzi; Zhou, Jinghua; Chen, Li

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that early adverse experience is related to learning disabilities in adults, but the neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. We used longitudinal animal experiments to test the hypothesis that early life stress enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats. The expression of Synaptophysin (SYN) and apoptosis (Apo) in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were examined to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the hippocampus. The working memory errors via radial 8-arm maze were studied to evaluate the long-term effect of early stress on rats' spatial learning ability. Our results indicated that chronic restraint stress in early life and forced cold water swimming stress in adulthood reduced SYN expression and increased Apo levels in rat hippocampus, but the hippocampal damage tended to recover when rats returned to a non-stress environment. In addition, when the rats were exposed to forced cold water swimming stress during adulthood, SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and Apo levels (CA3 region) in rat hippocampus showed statistical difference between early restraint stress group and non-early restraint stress group (rats exposed to stress in adulthood only). One month after the two groups of rats returned to non-stress environment, this difference of SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and working memory deficit between the two groups was still statistically significant. Our study findings suggested that early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats, and reduces structural plasticity of hippocampus.

  9. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) improves recognition memory in adult rats that have sustained bilateral ventral hippocampal lesions as neonates or young adults.

    PubMed

    Hori, S E; Powell, K J; Robertson, G S

    2007-01-05

    Recognition memory was assessed in adult rats that received bilateral injections of saline (sham lesions) or ibotenic acid (lesioned) in the ventral hippocampus as neonates (postnatal day 7, PD7) or young adult (42 days of age, PD42) using the Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT). Normal or sham-lesioned rats were able to distinguish novel from familiar objects over a 0.5 and 2 h delay between the sample and choice phases. Adult rats (PD70) lesioned as neonates performed progressively worse than sham-lesioned animals at delays of 0.5 and 2 h. A single injection of darbepoetin alfa (500 or 5000 U/kg, i.p.), given 1 h before the sample phase restored performance 0.5 or 2 h later in the choice phase to same levels as sham-lesioned rats. Adults lesioned on PD42 displayed deficits in NORT performance with a 2 h delay between the choice and sample phases that were completely reversed by administration of darbepoetin alfa (5000 U/kg, i.p.) 1 h before the sample phase. These results suggest that darbepoetin alfa may have utility in treating memory deficits associated with brain dysfunction related to developmental disorders such as schizophrenia.

  10. Sox9 modulates cell survival and adipogenic differentiation of multipotent adult rat mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Sabine; Bauer, Richard J; Bosserhoff, Anja K; Göttl, Claudia; Grifka, Joachim; Grässel, Susanne

    2013-07-01

    Sox9 is a key transcription factor in early chondrogenesis with distinct roles in differentiation processes and during embryonic development. Here, we report that Sox9 modulates cell survival and contributes to the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation lineages. We found that the Sox9 activity level affects the expression of the key transcription factor in adipogenic differentiation, C/EBPβ, and that cyclin D1 mediates the expression of the osteogenic marker osteocalcin in undifferentiated adult bone-marrow-derived rat MSC. Introducing a stable Sox9 knockdown into undifferentiated rat MSC resulted in a marked decrease in proliferation rate and an increase in apoptotic activity. This was linked to a profound upregulation of p21 and cyclin D1 gene and protein expression accompanied by an induction of caspase 3/7 activity and an inhibition of Bcl-2. We observed that Sox9 silencing provoked a delayed S-phase progression and an increased nuclear localization of p21. The protein stability of cyclin D1 was induced in the absence of Sox9 presumably as a function of altered p38 signalling. In addition, the major transcription factor for adipogenic differentiation, C/EBPβ, was repressed after silencing Sox9. The nearly complete absence of C/EBPβ protein as a result of increased destabilization of the C/EBPβ mRNA and the impact on osteocalcin gene expression and protein synthesis, suggests that a delicate balance of Sox9 level is not only imperative for proper chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells, but also affects the adipogenic and probably osteogenic differentiation pathways of MSC. Our results identified Sox9 as an important link between differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis in undifferentiated adult rat mesenchymal stem cells, emphasizing the importance of the delicate balance of a precisely regulated Sox9 activity in MSC not only for proper skeletal development during embryogenesis but probably also

  11. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  12. Effect of agomelatine on adult hippocampus apoptosis and neurogenesis using the stress model of rats.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Atakan; Yucel, Nermin; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Polat, Elif; Kara, Adem; Ozcan, Halil; Gulec, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Agomelatine (AG) is an agonist of melatonin receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2C-receptor subtype. The chronobiotic properties of AG are of significant interest due to the disorganization of internal rhythms, which might play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study was designed to assess the effects of the antidepressant-like activity of AG, a new antidepressant drug, on adult neurogenesis and apoptosis using stress-exposed rat brains. Over the period of 1 week, the rats were exposed to light stress twice a day for 1h. After a period of 1 week, the rats were given AG treatment at a dose of either 10mg/kg or 40mg/kg for 15 days. The animals were then scarified, and the obtained tissue sections were stained with immuno-histochemical anti-BrdU, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2 antibodies. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations were measured biochemically using a BDNF Elisa kit. Biochemical BDNF analysis revealed a high concentration of BDNF in the serum of the stress-exposed group, but the concentrations of BDNF were much lower those of the AG-treated groups. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed that AG treatment decreased the BrdU-positive and Bcl-2-positive cell densities and increased the Caspase-3-positive cell density in the hippocampus of stress-induced rats as compared to those of the stress group. The results of the study demonstrated that AG treatment ameliorated the hippocampal apoptotic cells and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These results also strengthen the possible relationship between depression and adult neurogenesis, which must be studied further.

  13. Site- and compartment-specific changes in bone with hindlimb unloading in mature adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, S. A.; Allen, M. R.; Hogan, H. A.; Delp, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine site- and compartment-specific changes in bone induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) in the mature adult male rat (6 months old). Tibiae, femora, and humeri were removed after 14, 21, and 28 days of HU for determination of bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), mechanical properties, and bone formation rate (BFR), and compared with baseline (0 day) and aging (28 day) controls. HU resulted in 20%-21% declines in cancellous BMD at the proximal tibia and femoral neck after 28 day HU vs. 0 day controls (CON). Cortical shell BMD at these sites was greater (by 4%-6%) in both 28 day HU and 28 day CON vs. 0 day CON animals, and nearly identical to that gain seen in the weight-bearing humerus. Mechanical properties at the proximal tibia exhibited a nonsignificant decline after HU vs. those of 0 day CON rats. At the femoral neck, a 10% decrement was noted in ultimate load in 28 day HU rats vs. 28 day CON animals. Middiaphyseal tibial bone increased slightly in density and area during HU; no differences in structural and material properties between 28 day HU and 28 day CON rats were noted. BFR at the tibial midshaft was significantly lower (by 90%) after 21 day HU vs. 0 day CON; this decline was maintained throughout 28 day HU. These results suggest there are compartment-specific differences in the mature adult skeletal response to hindlimb unloading, and that the major impact over 28 days of unloading is on cancellous bone sites. Given the sharp decline in BFR for midshaft cortical bone, it appears likely that deficits in BMD, area, or mechanical properties would develop with longer duration unloading.

  14. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking.

  15. Fatal cowpox virus infection in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Donata; Bock, Wulf-Iwo; Hühn, Franziska; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from a fatal outbreak among cotton-top tamarins. Samples from healthy common marmosets in contact were also CPXV genome positive. The CPXV isolated from the cotton-top tamarins exhibited a unique hemagglutinin sequence. Pathogenicity investigations using a Wistar rat model characterized the isolate as low pathogenic.

  16. Auto-catalytic Ceria Nanoparticles Offer Neuroprotection to Adult Rat Spinal Cord Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mainak; Patil, Swanand; Bhargava, Neelima; Kang, Jung-Fong; Riedel, Lisa M.; Seal, Sudipta; Hickman, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of the auto-catalytic anti-oxidant behavior and biocompatibility of Cerium oxide nanoparticles for applications in spinal cord repair and other diseases of the CNS. The application of a single dose of nano-Ceria at a nano-molar concentration is biocompatible, regenerative and provides a significant neuroprotective effect on adult rat spinal cord neurons. Retention of neuronal function is demonstrated from electrophysiological recordings and the possibility of its application to prevent ischemic insult is suggested from an oxidative injury assay. A mechanism is proposed to explain the auto-catalytic properties of these nanoparticles. PMID:17222903

  17. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection.

  18. Ablating adult neurogenesis in the rat has no effect on spatial processing: evidence from a novel pharmacogenetic model.

    PubMed

    Groves, James O; Leslie, Isla; Huang, Guo-Jen; McHugh, Stephen B; Taylor, Amy; Mott, Richard; Munafò, Marcus; Bannerman, David M; Flint, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The function of adult neurogenesis in the rodent brain remains unclear. Ablation of adult born neurons has yielded conflicting results about emotional and cognitive impairments. One hypothesis is that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus enables spatial pattern separation, allowing animals to distinguish between similar stimuli. We investigated whether spatial pattern separation and other putative hippocampal functions of adult neurogenesis were altered in a novel genetic model of neurogenesis ablation in the rat. In rats engineered to express thymidine kinase (TK) from a promoter of the rat glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ganciclovir treatment reduced new neurons by 98%. GFAP-TK rats showed no significant difference from controls in spatial pattern separation on the radial maze, spatial learning in the water maze, contextual or cued fear conditioning. Meta-analysis of all published studies found no significant effects for ablation of adult neurogenesis on spatial memory, cue conditioning or ethological measures of anxiety. An effect on contextual freezing was significant at a threshold of 5% (P = 0.04), but not at a threshold corrected for multiple testing. The meta-analysis revealed remarkably high levels of heterogeneity among studies of hippocampal function. The source of this heterogeneity remains unclear and poses a challenge for studies of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  19. Chronic social instability in adult female rats alters social behavior, maternal aggression and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder. CSI females were quicker to attack prey and did not differ from control females in their saccharin consumption indicating, respectively, no stress-induced sensory-motor or reward system impairments. Offspring of CSI females exhibited slower growth and expressed more anxiety in social encounters. This study demonstrates continued adult vulnerability to social challenges with an impact specific to social situations for mothers and offspring.

  20. Binge ethanol intoxication heightens subsequent ethanol intake in adolescent, but not adult, rats.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-04-01

    A question still to be answered is whether ethanol initiation has a greater effect on ethanol consumption if it occurs during adolescence than in adulthood. This study assessed the effect of ethanol initiation during adolescence or adulthood on voluntary ethanol consumption when animals were still within the same age range. Adolescent or adult rats were given 5, 2, or 0 ethanol exposures. The animals were tested for ethanol consumption through two-bottle choice tests, before undergoing a 1-week deprivation. A two-bottle assessment was conducted after the deprivation. Adolescents, but not adults, given two ethanol administrations during initiation exhibited significantly higher ethanol intake during the pre-deprivation period. These adolescents also exhibited a threefold increase in ethanol intake after 7 days of drug withdrawal, when compared with controls. These findings suggest that very brief experience with binge ethanol intoxication in adolescence, but not in adulthood, impacts later predisposition to drink.

  1. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy.

    PubMed

    Mowery, Todd M; Elliott, Kevin S; Garraghty, Preston E

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reductions in cytochrome oxidase staining intensity in the deprived barrels. While there were no differences in the magnitude of this effect between males and females, this effect was substantially more pronounced in the gonadectomized subjects. That is, gonadal hormones appeared to play a significant neuroprotective role in the metabolic response of the barrel cortex to deprivation. Thus, either males and females have a common neuroprotective hormonal pathway, or each has a sex-specific hormone pathway that serves an equivalent neuroprotective function.

  2. Natural variation in maternal care shapes adult social behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Starr-Phillips, Emily J; Beery, Annaliese K

    2014-07-01

    Features of the early postnatal environment profoundly shape later physical and behavioral phenotypes. The amount of licking/grooming that rat dams direct towards their offspring has durable consequences, including behavioral and physiological dimensions of stress reactivity, cognition, and reproductive behavior. We examined how natural variation in maternal care alters social behavior in adult offspring and how this relates to anxiety behavior and oxytocin receptor density. Male and female offspring of mothers who received high levels of licking spent significantly more time in social contact with unfamiliar individuals than did offspring whose dams provided less grooming. Reduced anxiety behavior was associated with greater social interaction. No differences in oxytocin receptor binding assessed by (125) I-OVTA autoradiography were detected between groups. The present investigation characterizes a novel impact of maternal care on adult social interaction behavior, replicates anxiety behavior differences, and illustrates connections between social behavior and anxiety in adulthood across maternal treatment groups.

  3. Eszopiclone and fluoxetine enhance the survival of newborn neurons in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei W; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Banasr, Mounira; Duman, Ronald S

    2009-11-01

    Clinical research has shown that co-administration of eszopiclone, a sedative-hypnotic sleeping agent, and fluoxetine, a serotonin uptake inhibitor, exerts an additive antidepressant action in treating patients with both depression and insomnia. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the behavioural actions of antidepressants are linked to neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. To test the hypothesis that the additive effects of eszopiclone and fluoxetine could act via such a mechanism, the influence of combined administration of these agents on the proliferation and survival of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled newborn cells in the hippocampus of adult rats was determined. Chronic eszopiclone+fluoxetine co-administration significantly increased the survival, but not proliferation, of newborn neurons in dorsal hippocampus by approximately 50%, an effect greater than either drug alone. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that eszopiclone enhances the antidepressant action of fluoxetine, in part via a novel mechanism that increases the survival of newborn neurons.

  4. Prenatal exposure to SKF-38393 alters the response to light of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, S A; Kennaway, D J

    2000-05-15

    The current study examined the consequences of prenatal SKF-38393 exposure on the cellular response in the adult suprachiasmatic nuclei to light. Pregnant rats were injected with the dopamine agonist SKF-38393 or vehicle daily from gestational day 15 to 21. Adult offspring received a light pulse (1 min/2 lux) 4 or 8 h after lights off (ZT16 or ZT20 where ZT=zeitgeber time). Brains were processed for c-FOS-like immunoreactivity in the SCN. At ZT20 the number of cells expressing c-FOS protein after a light pulse was the same in both groups. At ZT16 the number of cells in the SCN of SKF-38393-exposed animals was 58% lower than the vehicle-treated group. The data suggest that prenatal SKF-38393 treatment may have long-term consequences for SCN function.

  5. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    PubMed

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  6. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  7. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor-Mediated Axonal Injury in Adult Rat Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Jianuo; Fox, Howard S.; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    Damage to white matter such as corpus callosum (CC) is a pathological characteristic in many brain disorders. Glutamate (Glut) excitotoxicity through AMPA receptors on oligodendrocyte (OL) was previously considered as a mechanism for white matter damage. Recent studies have shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed on myelin sheath of neonatal rat OL processes and that activation of these receptors mediated demyelization. Whether NMDARs are expressed in the adult CC and are involved in excitotoxic axonal injury remains to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of NMDARs in the adult rat CC and their distributions in myelinated nerve fibers and OL somata by means of immunocytochemical staining and Western blot. Incubation of the CC slices with Glut or NMDA induced axonal injury as revealed by analyzing amplitude of CC fiber compound action potentials (CAPs) and input–output response. Both Glut and NMDA decreased the CAP amplitude and input–output responses, suggesting an involvement of NMDARs in Glut- and NMDA-induced axonal injury. The involvement of NMDAR in Glut-induced axonal injury was further assayed by detection of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) in the CC axonal fibers. Treatment of the CC slices with Glut resulted in β-APP accumulation in the CC fibers as detected by Western blot, reflecting an impairment of axonal transport function. This injurious effect of Glut on CC axonal transport was significantly blocked by MK801. Taken together, these results show that NMDARs are expressed in the adult CC and are involved in excitotoxic activity in adult CC slices in vitro. PMID:23161705

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  9. Structural changes in the adult rat auditory system induced by brief postnatal noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Burianová, Jana; Balogová, Zuzana; Lu, Hui Pin; Syka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies (Grécová et al., Eur J Neurosci 29:1921-1930, 2009; Bures et al., Eur J Neurosci 32:155-164, 2010), we demonstrated that after an early postnatal short noise exposure (8 min 125 dB, day 14) changes in the frequency tuning curves as well as changes in the coding of sound intensity are present in the inferior colliculus (IC) of adult rats. In this study, we analyze on the basis of the Golgi-Cox method the morphology of neurons in the IC, the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC) of 3-month-old Long-Evans rats exposed to identical noise at postnatal day 14 and compare the results to littermate controls. In rats exposed to noise as pups, the mean total length of the neuronal tree was found to be larger in the external cortex and the central nucleus of the IC and in the ventral division of the MGB. In addition, the numerical density of dendritic spines was decreased on the branches of neurons in the ventral division of the MGB in noise-exposed animals. In the AC, the mean total length of the apical dendritic segments of pyramidal neurons was significantly shorter in noise-exposed rats, however, only slight differences with respect to controls were observed in the length of basal dendrites of pyramidal cells as well as in the neuronal trees of AC non-pyramidal neurons. The numerical density of dendritic spines on the branches of pyramidal AC neurons was lower in exposed rats than in controls. These findings demonstrate that early postnatal short noise exposure can induce permanent changes in the development of neurons in the central auditory system, which apparently represent morphological correlates of functional plasticity.

  10. Neonatal stress alters LTP in freely moving male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Bronzino, J D

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that neonatal isolation stress significantly changes measures of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in male and female juvenile rats, i.e., at 30 days of age. The changes in dentate granule population measures, i.e., excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and population spike amplitude (PSA), evoked by tetanization of the medial perforant pathway, indicated that juvenile rats exposed to neonatal isolation exhibit different enhancement profiles with respect to both the magnitude and duration of LTP in a sex-specific manner. Isolated males showed a significantly greater enhancement of LTP, while female "isolates" showed significantly longer LTP duration when compared to all other groups. The present study was designed to determine whether the effects of the neonatal isolation stress paradigm endures into adulthood. Rats isolated from their mothers for 1 h per day during postnatal days 2-9 were surgically prepared at 70-90 days of age, with stimulating and recording electrodes placed in the medial perforant pathway and the hippocampal dentate gyrus, respectively. Prior to tetanization, no significant effect of sex or treatment was obtained for baseline measures of EPSP slope or PSA. In order to rule out baseline differences in hippocampal cell excitability in female adult rats, we measured the response of dentate granule cells for one estrus cycle and found no pretetanization enhancement in the evoked response in either controls or previously stressed rats. Following tetanization, there was a significant treatment and sex effect. During the induction of LTP, PSA values were significantly enhanced in both isolated males and females and had significantly longer LTP duration when compared to the unhandled control group. Additionally, we observed that females took longer to reach baseline levels than males. Taken together, these results indicate that repeated infant isolation stress enhances LTP induction and duration in both males and

  11. Sustained increase in adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus after transient brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congmin; Zhang, Mingguang; Sun, Chifei; Cai, Yuqun; You, Yan; Huang, Liping; Liu, Fang

    2011-01-13

    It is known that the number of newly generated neurons is increased in the young and adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) after transient brain ischemia. However, it remains unclear whether increase in neurogenesis in the adult DG induced by ischemic stroke is transient or sustained. We here reported that from 2 weeks to 6 months after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), there were more doublecortin positive (DCX+) cells in the ipsilateral compared to the sham-control and contralateral DG of the adult rat. After the S-phase marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 2 days after MCAO to label newly generated cells, a large number of BrdU-labeled neuroblasts differentiated into mature granular neurons. These BrdU-labeled neurons survived for at least 6 months. When BrdU was injected 6 weeks after injury, there were still more newly generated neuroblasts differentiated into mature neurons in the ipsilateral DG. Altogether, our data indicate that transient brain ischemia initiates a prolonged increase in neurogenesis and promotes the normal development of the newly generated neurons in the adult DG.

  12. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel; Saez, Daniel; Hirsch, Sandra; Zepeda, Ramiro; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2011-03-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-{kappa}B expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  13. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  14. DOPAMINE RECEPTOR INACTIVATION IN THE CAUDATE-PUTAMEN DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF PREWEANLING AND ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    DER-GHAZARIAN, T.; GUTIERREZ, A.; VARELA, F. A.; HERBERT, M. S.; AMODEO, L. R.; CHARNTIKOV, S.; CRAWFORD, C. A.; MCDOUGALL, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    The irreversible receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) has been used to study the ontogeny of dopamine (DA) receptor functioning in the young and adult rat. Most notably, systemic administration of EEDQ blocks the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while leaving the behavior of preweanling rats unaffected. The purpose of the present study was to: (a) determine whether the age-dependent actions of EEDQ involve receptors located in the dorsal caudate-putamen (CPu) and (b) confirm that EEDQ's behavioral effects result from the inactivation of DA receptors rather than some other receptor type. In Experiment 1, EEDQ or DMSO were bilaterally infused into the CPu on PD 17 or PD 84. After 24 h, rats were given bilateral microinjections of the full DA agonist R(–)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) or vehicle into the dorsal CPu and behavior was assessed for 40 min. In Experiment 2, preweanling rats were treated as just described, except that DA receptors were protected from EEDQ-induced alkylation by administering systemic injections of D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (sulpiride) receptor antagonists. As predicted, microinjecting EEDQ into the dorsal CPu attenuated the NPA-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy of adult rats. In contrast, rats given bilateral EEDQ infusions on PD 17 exhibited a potentiated locomotor response when treated with NPA. Experiment 2 showed that DA receptor inactivation was responsible for NPA's actions. A likely explanation for these results is that EEDQ inactivates a sizable percentage of DA receptors on PD 17, but leaves the remaining receptors in a supersensitive state. This receptor supersensitivity, which probably involves alterations in G protein coupling, could account for NPA-induced locomotor potentiation. Either adult rats do not show a similar EEDQ-induced change in receptor dynamics or DA receptor inactivation was more complete in older animals and effectively eliminated the expression of DA agonist

  15. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs temporal ordering behaviours in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Patten, Anna R; Sawchuk, Scott; Wortman, Ryan C; Brocardo, Patricia S; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-02-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes significant deficits in functional (i.e., synaptic) plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA) hippocampal sub-regions of young adult male rats. Previous research has shown that in the DG, these deficits are not apparent in age-matched PNEE females. This study aimed to expand these findings and determine if PNEE induces deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviours in both male and female young adult rats (PND 60). The metric change behavioural test examines DG-dependent deficits by determining whether an animal can detect a metric change between two identical objects. The temporal order behavioural test is thought to rely in part on the CA sub-region of the hippocampus and determines whether an animal will spend more time exploring an object that it has not seen for a larger temporal window as compared to an object that it has seen more recently. Using the liquid diet model of FASD (where 6.6% (v/v) ethanol is provided through a liquid diet consumed ad libitum throughout the entire gestation), we found that PNEE causes a significant impairment in the temporal order task, while no deficits in the DG-dependent metric change task were observed. There were no significant differences between males and females for either task. These results indicate that behaviours relying partially on the CA-region may be more affected by PNEE than those that rely on the DG.

  17. Characterization of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in acutely isolated adult rat basolateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    McCool, B A; Botting, S K

    2000-03-24

    Large concentrations of the beta-amino acid, taurine, can be found in many forebrain areas such as the basolateral amygdala, a portion of the limbic forebrain intimately associated with the regulation of fear/anxiety-like behaviors. In addition to its cytoprotective and osmoregulatory roles, taurine may also serve as an agonist at GABA(A)- and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. In this latter context, the present study demonstrates that application of taurine to acutely isolated neurons from the basolateral amygdala of adult rats causes significant alterations in resting membrane current, as measured by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Using standard pharmacological approaches, we find that currents gated by concentrations of taurine adult rats.

  18. Exposure to constant light during testis development increases daily sperm production in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, D C; Debeljuk, L; França, L R

    1999-06-01

    Testis histometry and daily sperm production (DSP) were evaluated in adult (160-day-old) Wistar rats exposed to constant light for the first 25 days after birth, and compared with control animals which were exposed to a 12 h-light-12 h-dark light regimen. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) numbers of Sertoli cell nucleoli and round spermatids per cross-section of seminiferous tubule were found in animals exposed to constant light. In addition, epididymis weight, DSP per testis and per gram of testis, as well as Leydig cell compartment volume, were significantly increased in treated animals. Although there was a clear trend toward an increased Sertoli cell population per testis in animals exposed to constant light, this difference was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). The number of round spermatids as expressed per Sertoli cell was the same in both groups. Surprisingly, the diameter and volume of round spermatid nucleus at stages I and VII of the cycle of seminiferous epithelium were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in treated animals. In conclusion, constant illumination during neonatal testis development increased sperm production and Leydig cell compartment volume in adult rats probably through a mechanism involving elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the prepubertal period. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that altering the light regimen can affect sperm production in non-seasonal breeders.

  19. Cortical neurogenesis in adult rats after ischemic brain injury: most new neurons fail to mature.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Quan; Qiao, Guan-Qun; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hong-Wei; Li, Ying-Bin

    2015-02-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that endogenous neural progenitor cells isolated from the neocortex of ischemic brain can differentiate into neurons or glial cells and contribute to neural regeneration. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion to establish a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the cortex 1, 3, 7, 14 or 28 days after injury revealed that neural progenitor cells double-positive for nestin and sox-2 appeared in the injured cortex 1 and 3 days post-injury, and were also positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. New neurons were labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and different stages of maturity were identified using doublecortin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neuronal nuclei antigen immunohistochemistry. Immature new neurons coexpressing doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the cortex at 3 and 7 days post-injury, and semi-mature and mature new neurons double-positive for microtubule-associated protein 2 and bromodeoxyuridine were found at 14 days post-injury. A few mature new neurons coexpressing neuronal nuclei antigen and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the injured cortex 28 days post-injury. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/bromodeoxyuridine double-positive astrocytes were also found in the injured cortex. Our findings suggest that neural progenitor cells are present in the damaged cortex of adult rats with cerebral ischemic brain injury, and that they differentiate into astrocytes and immature neurons, but most neurons fail to reach the mature stage.

  20. Diazepam affects the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor density and their expression levels in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Caterina; Bolaris, Stamatis; Valcana, Theony; Margarity, Marigoula

    2005-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the occurrence of anxiety and affective disorders; however, the effects following an anxiolytic benzodiazepine treatment, such as diazepam administration, on the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones has not yet been investigated. The effect of diazepam on the in vitro nuclear T3 binding, on the relative expression of the TH receptors (TRs) and on the synaptosomal TH availability were examined in adult rat cerebral hemispheres 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose (5 mg/kg BW) of this tranquillizer. Although, diazepam did not affect the availability of TH either in blood circulation or in the synaptosomal fraction, it decreased (33%) the nuclear T3 maximal binding density (B(max)). No differences were observed in the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The TRalpha2 variant (non-T3-binding) mRNA levels were increased by 33%, whereas no changes in the relative expression of the T3-binding isoforms of TRs (TRalpha1, TRbeta1) were observed. This study shows that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam affects within 24 h, the density of the nuclear TRs and their expression pattern. The latest effect occurs in an isoform-specific manner involving specifically the TRalpha2 mRNA levels in adult rat brain.

  1. Altered adult hippocampal neuronal maturation in a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Kainer, Leah; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2011-04-12

    Exposure to ethanol during pregnancy can be devastating to the developing nervous system, leading to significant central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus, one of the two brain regions where neurogenesis persists into adulthood, is particularly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present study, we tested a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with ethanol administered via gavage throughout all three trimester equivalents. Subsequently, we assessed cell proliferation, as well as neuronal survival, and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adolescent (35 days old), young adult (60 days old) and adult (90 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats. Using both extrinsic (bromodeoxyuridine) and intrinsic (Ki-67) markers, we observed no significant alterations in cell proliferation and survival in ethanol-exposed animals when compared with their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, we detected a significant increase in the number of new immature neurons in animals that were exposed to ethanol throughout all three trimester equivalents. This result might reflect a compensatory mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of prenatal ethanol exposure or an ethanol-induced arrest of the neurogenic process at the early neuronal maturation stages. Taken together these results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of brain development causes a long-lasting dysregulation of the neurogenic process, a mechanism that might contribute, at least in part, to the hippocampal deficits that have been reported in rodent models of FAS.

  2. Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates neuropathological response to status epilepticus in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Mellott, Tiffany J; Glenn, Melissa J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

    2008-05-01

    Prenatal choline supplementation (SUP) protects adult rats against spatial memory deficits observed after excitotoxin-induced status epilepticus (SE). To examine the mechanism underlying this neuroprotection, we determined the effects of SUP on a variety of hippocampal markers known to change in response to SE and thought to underlie ensuing cognitive deficits. Adult offspring from rat dams that received either a control or SUP diet on embryonic days 12-17 were administered saline or kainic acid (i.p.) to induce SE and were euthanized 16 days later. SUP markedly attenuated seizure-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration, dentate cell proliferation, and hippocampal GFAP mRNA expression levels, prevented the loss of hippocampal GAD65 protein and mRNA expression, and altered growth factor expression patterns. SUP also enhanced pre-seizure hippocampal levels of BDNF, NGF, and IGF-1, which may confer a neuroprotective hippocampal microenvironment that dampens the neuropathological response to and/or helps facilitate recovery from SE to protect cognitive function.

  3. Effects of chronic treatment with methylphenidate on oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-04-21

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a central stimulant, prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The long-term behavioral consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. In this study, the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by various doses of MPH were investigated. Forty adult male rats were divided into 5 groups; and treated with different doses of MPH for 21 days. Twenty four hours after drug treatment, Open Field Test (OFT) was performed in all animals. At the end of the study, blood cortisol level (BCL) was measured and hippocampus was isolated and oxidative stress and inflammation parameters and histological changes were analyzed. Chronic MPH at all doses decreased central square entries, number of rearing, ambulation distance and time spent in central square in OFT. BCL increased in doses 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH. Furthermore, MPH in all doses markedly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level, Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampus. MPH (10 and 20mg/kg) treated groups had decreased mitochondrial reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) activities. 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH change cell density and morphology of cells in Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of hippocampus. Chronic treatment with high doses of MPH can cause oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in hippocampus of adult rats.

  4. Effects of antipsychotic drugs on neurogenesis in the forebrain of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Dong; Dunnavant, Floyd D; Jarman, Tabitha; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2004-07-01

    The generation of new cells in the adult mammalian brain may significantly modify pathophysiological processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We examined the ability of chronic treatment with the antipsychotic drugs (APDs) olanzapine and haloperidol to increase the number and survival of newly generated cells in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatal complex of adult male rats. Animals were treated with olanzapine or haloperidol for 3 weeks and then injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells. Half of the animals continued on the same APD for two more weeks after BrdU challenge, with the other half receiving vehicle during this period. Olanzapine but not haloperidol significantly increased both the total number and density of BrdU-labeled cells in the PFC and dorsal striatum; no effect was observed in the nucleus accumbens. Continued olanzapine treatment after the BrdU challenge did not increase the survival of newly generated cells. The newly generated cells in the PFC did not express the neuronal marker NeuN. Despite the significant increase in newly generated cells in the PFC of olanzapine-treated rats, the total number of these cells is low, suggesting that the therapeutic effects of atypical APD treatment may not be due to the presence of newly generated cells that have migrated to the cortex.

  5. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging.

  6. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  7. Hindlimb Stretching Alters Locomotor Function Post-Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Krista L.; Atkinson, Darryn A.; Brown, Edward H.; Donaldson, Katie; Seibt, Erik; Chea, Tim; Smith, Erin; Chung, Karianne; Shum-Siu, Alice; Cron, Courtney C.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stretching is a widely accepted standard-of-care therapy following spinal cord injury that has not been systematically studied in animal models. Objective To investigate the influence of a daily stretch-based physical therapy program on locomotor recovery in adult rats with moderate T9 contusive SCI. Methods A randomized treatment and control study of stretching in an animal model of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Moderate spinal cord injuries were delivered with the NYU Impactor. Daily stretching (30 min./day, 5 days/wk for 8 wks) was provided by a team of animal handlers. Hindlimb function was assessed using the BBB Open Field Locomotor Scale and kinematically. Passive range-of-motion for each joint was determined weekly using a goniometer. Results Declines in hindlimb function during overground stepping were observed for the first 4 weeks. BBB scores improved weeks 5–10 but remained below the control group. Stretched animals had significant deficits in knee passive ROM starting at week 4 and for the duration of the study. Kinematic assessment showed decreased joint excursion during stepping that partially recovered beginning at week 5. Conclusion Stretch-based therapy significantly impaired functional recovery in adult rats with a moderate contusive SCI at T10. The negative impact on function was greatest acutely, but persisted even after the stretching ceased at 8 weeks post-injury. PMID:25106555

  8. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

    PubMed

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches.

  9. Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD.

  10. Sex mediates dopamine and adrenergic receptor expression in adult rats exposed prenatally to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Silvers, Janelle M.; Hasselrot, Ulla; Strupp, Barbara J.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2010-01-01

    The extent of catecholaminergic receptor and respective behavioral alterations associated with prenatal cocaine exposure varies according to exogenous factors such as the amount, frequency, and route of maternal exposure, as well as endogenous factors such as specific brain regions under consideration and sex of the species. The goal of the current study was to use autoradiography to delineate possible moderators of dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor expression in adult rat offspring exposed to cocaine in utero. The current study demonstrated sex-dependent D1 receptor, α2, and noradrenergic transporter binding alterations in prelimbic, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate regions of adult rat brains exposed to cocaine during gestational days 8–21. Of further interest was the lack of alterations in the nucleus accumbens for nearly all receptors/transporters investigated, as well as the lack of alterations in D3 receptor binding in nearly all of the regions investigated (nucleus accumbens, prelimbic region, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus). Thus, the current investigation demonstrated persistent receptor and transporter alterations that extend well into adulthood as a result of cocaine exposure in utero. Furthermore, the demonstration that sex played a mediating role in prenatal cocaine-induced, aberrant receptor/transporter expression is of primary importance for future studies that seek to control for sex in either design or analysis. PMID:17933484

  11. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil.Electrophysiological measures of 'memory' in form of plasticity model known as long term potentiation (LTP)Molecular changes induced by LTPThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Gilbert , M., K. Sanchez-Huerta, and C. Wood. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Make Rats. ENDOCRINOLOGY. Endocrine Society, 157(2): 774-87, (2016).

  12. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Vascular Permeability of Circumventricular Organs in the Adult Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Bañuelos-Pineda, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Feria-Velasco, A.

    2008-08-01

    The present work deals with the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on blood vessels permeability to non liposoluble substances of the circumventricular organs (CVO) of adult rats. Male Wistar adult rats were exposed to ELF-EMF and vascular permeability to colloidal carbon was investigated with the use of histological techniques. Results were compared to corresponding data from sham-exposed and control groups of animals. Exposure to ELF-EMF increased the CVO vascular permeability to colloidal carbon intravascularly injected, particularly in the subfornical organ, the median eminence, the pineal gland and the area postrema.

  13. Increased adult hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and normal levels of neurogenesis in maternal separation rats.

    PubMed

    Greisen, Mia H; Altar, C Anthony; Bolwig, Tom G; Whitehead, Richard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2005-03-15

    Repeated maternal separation of rat pups during the early postnatal period may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurons in brain areas that are compromised by chronic stress. In the present study, a highly significant increase in hippocampal BDNF protein concentration was found in adult rats that as neonates had been subjected to 180 min of daily separation compared with handled rats separated for 15 min daily. BDNF protein was unchanged in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus/paraventricular nucleus. Expression of BDNF mRNA in the CA1, CA3, or dentate gyrus of the hippocampus or in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was not affected by maternal separation. All animals displayed similar behavioral patterns in a forced-swim paradigm, which did not affect BDNF protein concentration in the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Repeated administration of bromodeoxyuridine revealed equal numbers of surviving, newly generated granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats from the 15 min or 180 min groups. The age-dependent decline in neurogenesis from 3 months to 7 months of age did not differ between the groups. Insofar as BDNF can stimulate neurogenesis and repair, we propose that the elevated hippocampal protein concentration found in maternally deprived rats might be a compensatory reaction to separation during the neonatal period, maintaining adult neurogenesis at levels equal to those of the handled rats.

  14. IL-1 receptor antagonist attenuates neonatal lipopolysaccharide-induced long-lasting learning impairment and hippocampal injury in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yi; Bhatt, Abhay J.; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against the neonatal LPS exposure-induced inflammatory responses, hippocampal injury, and long-lasting learning deficits in adult rats. LPS (1 mg/kg) or LPS plus IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intracerebrally to Sprague-Dawley male rat pups at postnatal day 5 (P5). Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on P21, P49, and P70, while neuropathological studies were conducted on P71. Our results showed that neonatal LPS exposure resulted in learning deficits in rats at both developmental and adult ages, as demonstrated by a significantly impaired performance in the passive avoidance task (P21, P49, and P70), reduced hippocampal volume, and reduced number of Nissl+ cells in the CA1 region of the middle dorsal hippocampus of P71 rat brain. Those neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations by LPS exposure were associated with a sustained inflammatory response in the P71 rat hippocampus, indicated by increased number of activated microglia as well as elevated levels of IL-1β. Neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced long-lasting learning deficits, hippocampal injury, and sustained inflammatory responses in P71 rats. Our study demonstrates that neonatal LPS exposure leads to a persistent injury to the hippocampus, resulting in long-lasting learning disabilities related to chronic inflammation in rats, and these effects can be attenuated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist. PMID:25665855

  15. IL-1 receptor antagonist attenuates neonatal lipopolysaccharide-induced long-lasting learning impairment and hippocampal injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lan, Kuo-Mao; Tien, Lu-Tai; Pang, Yi; Bhatt, Abhay J; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2015-04-02

    We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against the neonatal LPS exposure-induced inflammatory responses, hippocampal injury, and long-lasting learning deficits in adult rats. LPS (1 mg/kg) or LPS plus IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intracerebrally to Sprague-Dawley male rat pups at postnatal day 5 (P5). Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on P21, P49, and P70, while neuropathological studies were conducted on P71. Our results showed that neonatal LPS exposure resulted in learning deficits in rats at both developmental and adult ages, as demonstrated by a significantly impaired performance in the passive avoidance task (P21, P49, and P70), reduced hippocampal volume, and reduced number of Nissl+ cells in the CA1 region of the middle dorsal hippocampus of P71 rat brain. Those neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations by LPS exposure were associated with a sustained inflammatory response in the P71 rat hippocampus, indicated by increased number of activated microglia as well as elevated levels of IL-1β. Neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced long-lasting learning deficits, hippocampal injury, and sustained inflammatory responses in P71 rats. Our study demonstrates that neonatal LPS exposure leads to a persistent injury to the hippocampus, resulting in long-lasting learning disabilities related to chronic inflammation in rats, and these effects can be attenuated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  1. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  2. Effects of morphine on thermal sensitivity in adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Drake; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D; Koerper, Lorraine M; Carter, Christy S

    2012-06-01

    There are contradictory data regarding older individuals' sensitivity to pain stimulation and opioid administration. Adult (12-16 months; n = 10) and aged (27-31 months; n = 7) male F344xBN rats were tested in a thermal sensitivity procedure where the animal chooses to remain in one of two compartments with floors maintained at various temperatures ranging from hot (45°C) through neutral (30°C) to cold (15°C). Effects of morphine were determined for three temperature comparisons (ie, hot/neutral, cold/neutral, and hot/cold). Aged rats were more sensitive to cold stimulation during baseline. Morphine produced antinociception during hot thermal stimulation, but had no effect on cold stimulation. The antinociceptive (and locomotor-altering) effects of morphine were attenuated in aged rats. These data demonstrate age-related differences in baseline thermal sensitivity and responsiveness to opioids. Based on behavioral and physiological requirements of this procedure, it is suggested that thermal sensitivity may provide a relevant animal model for the assessment of pain and antinociception.

  3. Learning under stress in the adult rat is differentially affected by 'juvenile' or 'adolescent' stress.

    PubMed

    Tsoory, Michael; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that childhood trauma is associated with a predisposition to develop both mood and anxiety disorders, while trauma during adolescence is associated mainly with anxiety disorders. We studied in the rat the long-term consequences of 'juvenile' stress, namely stress experienced in a period in which substantial remodelling occurs across species in stress-sensitive brain areas involved in emotional and learning processing. In adulthood, 'juvenile' stressed rats exhibited reduced exploration in a novel setting, and poor avoidance learning, with 41% learning mainly to escape while 28% exhibited learned helplessness-like behaviours. In adult rats that underwent 'adolescent' stress, learned helplessness-like behaviours were not evident, although decreased exploration and poor avoidance learning were observed. This suggests that in the prepubertal phase juvenility may constitute a stress-sensitive period. The results suggest that juvenile stress induces lasting impairments in stress-coping responses. The 'juvenile' stress model presented here may be of relevance to individuals' reported predisposition to anxiety and depression following childhood trauma, and their increased susceptibility only to anxiety disorders following adolescent stress.

  4. Superoxide production after acute and chronic treatment with methylphenidate in young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karin M; Inácio, Cecília G; Valvassori, Samira S; Réus, Gislaine Z; Boeck, Carina R; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2009-11-06

    The prescription of methylphenidate (MPH) has dramatically increased in this decade for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. The action mechanism of MPH is not completely understood and studies have been demonstrated that MPH can lead to neurochemical adaptations. Superoxide radical anion is not very reactive per se. However, severe species derived from superoxide radical anion mediate most of its toxicity. In this study, the superoxide level in submitochondrial particles was evaluated in response to treatment with MPH in the age-dependent manner in rats. MPH was administrated acutely or chronically at doses of 1, 2 or 10 mg/kg i.p. The results showed that the acute administration of MPH in all doses in young rats increased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum and only in the high dose (10mg/kg) in the hippocampus, while chronic treatment had no effect. However, acute treatment in adult rats had no effect on production of superoxide, but chronic treatment decreased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum at the lower doses. Our data suggest that the MPH treatment can influence on production of superoxide in some brain areas, but this effect depends on age of animals and treatment regime with MPH.

  5. Choline dietary supplementation improves LiCl-induced context aversion retention in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Hayarelis C; Gil, Marta; Carias, Diamela; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2012-06-25

    Previous studies have demonstrated that choline is an essential nutrient during prenatal and early postnatal developmental periods. Thus, the availability of choline during these periods produces some beneficial effects on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in rats. However, research on the effect of adult choline supplementation on learning and memory abilities is scarce. In the present study, 3-4 month-old male Wistar rats receiving a 7-week choline-supplemented diet (4.5 fold that of a standard diet) and control rats receiving a standard diet were trained in a LiCl-induced contextual aversion task. Short and long-term context aversion retention was assessed by recording the consumption of a flavoured solution in the aversive and safe contexts over two subsequent tests. Statistical analysis showed that the supplemented group exhibited greater intake suppression in the aversive context than in the safe context when two retention tests were applied 3 and 15 days after conditioning. These results suggest that increasing dietary choline availability during adulthood may favour the retention of a context aversion.

  6. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment.

  7. Feeding neonatal rats with IgG antibodies leads to humoral hyporesponsiveness in the adult.

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, J V

    1992-01-01

    Feeding monoclonal IgG2a or IgG1 anti-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) antibodies to 12-16-day-old neonatal rats caused a profound suppression of the humoral anti-HRP response in these rats as adults. The hyporesponsiveness to HRP was specific and long-lasting (up to 5 months). It was shown to be dose dependent, requiring relatively large doses of IgG (100-600 micrograms) for maximum effect. Secondary IgG (IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b) responses were most depressed. The effect could be reproduced by i.p. injection of antibody. Hyporesponsiveness was not attributable to circulating antiidiotype antibodies directed against the monoclonal IgG, nor to the continued presence of the monoclonal anti-HRP since rats receiving antibody at or some weeks after the time of weaning and gut 'closure' responded well to subsequent HRP challenge. The effect was thus dependent on IgG administered over the identical period during which the neonatal circulation is rich in maternal IgG supplied via the milk. A direct function for maternal IgG in moulding the immune repertoire of the offspring, as well as providing passive protection, is suggested by these results. PMID:1385314

  8. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lonce, S.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.

  9. Cadmium chloride exposure modifies amino acid daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Caride, A; Fernández-Pérez, B; Cabaleiro, T; Bernárdez, G; Lafuente, A

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of cadmium exposure on the daily pattern of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult male rats. For this purpose, animals were treated with cadmium at two different exposure doses (25 and 50 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control age-matched rats received CdCl(2)-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. CdCl(2) exposure modified the amino acid daily pattern, as it decreased aspartate, glutamate, GABA and taurine levels at 12:00 h with both exposure doses employed. In addition, the treatment with 25 mg l(-1) of CdCl(2) induced the appearance of minimal values at 16:00 h and maximal values between 04:00 and 08:00 h for glutamate, and a peak of glutamine content at 20:00 h. The heavy metal also decreased GABA medium levels around the clock in the mediobasal hypothalamus. However, CdCl(2) did not alter the metabolic correlation between glutamate, aspartate, glutamine and GABA observed in control animals. These results suggest that CdCl(2) induced several alterations in aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, GABA and taurine daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus and those changes may be related to alterations in hypothalamic function.

  10. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  11. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  12. Circadian variations in expression of the trkB receptor in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Claudia; Montaruli, Angela; Roveda, Eliana; Barajon, Isabella; Vizzotto, Laura; Grassi Zucconi, Gigliola; Carandente, Franca

    2003-12-19

    The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central nervous system (CNS) and the expression of its high-affinity trkB receptor on neuron surfaces are known to depend on neuron activity. The expression of BDNF (mRNA and protein) and trkB mRNA shows circadian oscillations in rat hippocampal homogenates. We investigated circadian variations in trkB expression in specific areas of the adult rat hippocampal formation by immunohistochemistry. In sets of two experiments performed in the spring, 39 2-month-old male Wistar rats were accustomed to a 12-h light-12-h dark cycle for 2 weeks. Three animals were then sacrificed every 4 h. Forty-micrometer-thick coronal sections of hippocampal formation were obtained and processed for trkB immunohistochemistry. Cell staining intensity was assessed by image analysis of different hippocampal areas on five sections per animal. Circadian rhythmicity was evaluated by the cosinor method. Statistically significant circadian variations in trkB expression were found in dentate gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and the CA3 and hilar regions of the hippocampus, with highest expression during the first half of the dark (activity) period. These findings suggest a relationship between trkB expression and the physiological neuronal activation of wakefulness. TrkB receptor expression in the hippocampal regions studied was continuous and changes were gradual over the 24-h cycle, suggesting that more complex regulatory mechanisms also intervened.

  13. Protective effects of Peganum harmala extracts on thiourea-induced diseases in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Khaled; Masmoudi, Hatem; Ellouz, Feriel; ElFeki, Adelfatteh; Carreau, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Cancers and hepatoprotective prevention using traditional medicines have attracted increasing interest. The aim of our study was to characterize the putative protective effects of ethanol and chloroform extracts of Peganum harmala on thiourea-induced diseases in adult male rat. We seek to determine the effects of these plant extracts on body weight, thyroid and endocrine cancer parameters. In addition the putative hepatoprotective effect was checked by the determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the bilirubin level in the blood. Our data show that ethanol and chloroform extracts of Peganum harmala protected the animal against the carcinogenic effects induced by thiourea since neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and thyroglobulin (TG) levels were back to the normal range. In addition, the observed-hepatocytotoxicity after thiourea treatment was greatly reduced (AST and ALT activities were respectively 270 IU/l and 60 IU/l and in the same order of magnitude as in the untreated rats) as well as the bilirubin levels (6 micromol/l) especially for animals receiving the choroform preparation. Therefore we may suggest that extracts of Peganum harmala are efficient to reduce the toxicity induced by thiourea in male rat as far as the above parameters are concerned.

  14. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Brown, Ronald P.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 {mu}g/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 {mu}g/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  15. Ultrastructural changes and nestin expression accompanying compensatory renal growth after unilateral nephrectomy in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Eladl, Mohamed Ahmed; M Elsaed, Wael; Atef, Hoda; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background Several renal disorders affect the glomerular podocytes. Compensatory structural and functional changes have been observed in animals that have undergone unilateral renal ablation. These changes occur as a pliant response to quench the increased functional demand to maintain homeostasis of fluid and solutes. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein present in the glomerular podocytes of the adult kidney and is linked with the maintenance of its foot process structure. Structural changes in the podocytes ultimately restructure the filtration barrier. Very few studies related to the ultrastructural and histopathologic changes of the podocytes are documented. The present study aimed to assess the histopathologic changes at the ultrastructural level in the adapted kidney at different time intervals following unilateral renal ablation in adult rats and its relation with nestin. Methods Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups (n=12 in each group). The animals of Group A were control naïve rats, while the group B, group C and group D animals underwent left unilateral nephrectomy and the remaining right kidney was removed on days 10, 20 and 30, respectively. Each group included four sham-operated rats, which were sacrificed at the same time as the naïve rats. Each nephrectomized sample was weighed and its sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin examination, transmission electron microscopic study as well as immunostaining using the intermediate filament protein nestin. Results No difference was found between the kidney sections from the control group and the sham-operated groups. A significant increase in the weight of the right kidneys was noted in groups B, C and D (P<0.001). The ultrastructural adaptive changes seen in the glomeruli of group B were subsequently reduced in groups C and D. This finding corresponded to a similar pattern of nestin expression in the podocytes, which showed significant increase in group B followed by reduced

  16. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, carotid body function and erythropoietin production in adult rats perinatally exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Ramirez, Maria; Olea, Elena; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Cogolludo, Angel; Castañeda, Javier; Yubero, Sara; Agapito, Teresa; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Rocher, Asuncion; Rigual, Ricardo; Obeso, Ana; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; González, Constancio

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalians possess three cell systems that are activated by acute bodily hypoxia: pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), carotid body chemoreceptor cells (CBCC) and erythropoietin (EPO)-producing cells. In rats, chronic perinatal hyperoxia causes permanent carotid body (CB) atrophy and functional alterations of surviving CBCC. There are no studies on PASMC or EPO-producing cells. Our aim is to define possible long-lasting functional changes in PASMC or EPO-producing cells (measured as EPO plasma levels) and, further, to analyse CBCC functional alterations. We used 3- to 4-month-old rats born and reared in a normal atmosphere or exposed to perinatal hyperoxia (55–60% O2 for the last 5–6 days of pregnancy and 4 weeks after birth). Perinatal hyperoxia causes an almost complete loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which was correlated with lung oxidative status in early postnatal life and prevented by antioxidant supplementation in the diet. O2-sensitivity of K+ currents in the PASMC of hyperoxic animals is normal, indicating that their inhibition is not sufficient to trigger HPV. Perinatal hyperoxia also abrogated responses elicited by hypoxia on catecholamine and cAMP metabolism in the CB. An increase in EPO plasma levels elicited by hypoxia was identical in hyperoxic and control animals, implying a normal functioning of EPO-producing cells. The loss of HPV observed in adult rats and caused by perinatal hyperoxia, comparable to oxygen therapy in premature infants, might represent a previously unrecognized complication of such a medical intervention capable of aggravating medical conditions such as regional pneumonias, atelectases or general anaesthesia in adult life. Key points Adult animals that have been perinatally exposed to oxygen-rich atmospheres (hyperoxia), recalling those used for oxygen therapy in infants, exhibit a loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas vasoconstriction elicited by depolarizing agents is

  17. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Novikova, Svetlana I; He, Fang; Dubner, Ronald; Lidow, Michael S

    2005-09-22

    Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR) injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors) to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH) of adult (P60) male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3) and outside (at postnatal 12; P12) of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline) and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems) were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems) in the LDH ipsilateral to the neonatally-injured paw. The

  18. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  19. Signaling by TGF-betas in tubule cultures of adult rat testis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai-Hui; Galuska, Sebastian P; Kudipudi, Pradeep Kumar; Riaz, Mohammad Assad; Loveland, Kate L; Konrad, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Although signal transduction of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) is well characterized in individual cell types, data about TGF-β signaling in a cellular context is still scarce. In this study, we used ex vivo tubule cultures from adult rat testis to investigate TGF-β signaling. We show for the first time in testicular tubules, that TGF-βs also signal via the BMP type I receptors, with ALK2 used by TGF-β1 and ALK3 and ALK6 by TGF-β2. This signal transduction is mediated via Smad3 as well as via Smad1. In contrast, BMPs (BMP2 and BMP7) do not signal via the high-affinity type I and type II TGFβ receptors, TBR1 or TBR2. Furthermore, treatment of tubule cultures with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 had profound significant stimulatory effects on secretion of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) through utilization of TGF-β and BMP receptors. Specific inhibitors for either TBR1 or BMP receptors yielded nearly complete inhibition of TGF-β signaling. The TBR1-TBR2 signalosome was detected with Duolink upon stimulation with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2, predominantly in spermatogenic cells of the adult rat testis, particularly in elongated spermatids. In summary, this examination of intact rat testicular tubules demonstrated for the first time that TGF-βs signal mainly through TBR1 and TBR2 but also use BMP receptors, including for secretion of PAI-1. Whereas ALK2 participates in the TGF-β1-induced TBR1-TBR2 signalosome, ALK3 and ALK6 are involved in signaling of TGF-β2. Detection of the TBR1-TBR2 signalosome in late spermiogenic cells indicates a post-meiotic activity. PMID:28386343

  20. Immune responses in sprague-dawley rats exposed to dibutyltin dichloride in drinking water as adults.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Copeland, Carey B; Luebke, Robert W

    2005-07-01

    Organotins are used commercially as agricultural pesticides, antifouling agents, and stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. Mono- and di-substituted methyl and butyltins, used in PVC pipe production, are of concern as they leach from supply pipes into drinking water and have been reported to cause multisystem toxicity, including immunotoxicity. As part of an ongoing study to evaluate immunotoxic effects of organotins, we assessed immune function in adult Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats after exposure to dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). Individually-housed adult male and female CD rats were given drinking water containing 0, 10, or 25 mg DBTC/L (final concentration) in 0.5% Alkamuls for 28 days. Water bottles were changed and water consumption was monitored twice weekly and body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), primary and secondary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, and natural killer (NK) cell activity were evaluated in separate groups of treated and control animals on day 29 of exposure. Water consumption was significantly decreased in both sexes at 25 mg DBTC/L. BW, immune organ weights, the DTH response, and NK cell activity did not vary by dose. Different results for antibody responses in male rats were obtained in two experimental replicates. In the first replicate, IgG was elevated at the highest dose whereas in the second replicate, IgM was suppressed. However, as these effects occurred at the high dose of 25 mg DBTC/L, which is a concentration a million times higher than levels of DBTC reported in drinking water, our data suggest that DBTC is unlikely to cause immunotoxicity at concentrations found in drinking water supplies.

  1. Identification of interneurons activated at different inclines during treadmill locomotion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Duru, Paul; Fujino, Hidemi; Zhong, Hui; Xiao, Mei Si; Edgerton, V Reggie; Roy, Roland R

    2014-12-01

    By using c-fos as an activity-dependent marker, we identified the cholinergic interneurons around the central canal and lumbar interneurons throughout the gray matter that were activated after a 30-min bout of quadrupedal treadmill stepping at a 0° or 25° incline in adult rats. Increased loading (elevated treadmill incline) imposed during treadmill stepping activated more cholinergic interneurons in the proximity of the central canal, i.e., central canal cluster cells and partition neurons. Since cholinergic central canal cells are thought to modulate motoneuron excitability, these data suggest that increased load during stepping may increase motoneuronal activity through activating more cholinergic central canal cells. We identified the muscle-specific motoneurons and afferent terminals in the spinal cord by injecting cholera toxin subunit B in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The number of interneurons in lumbar segments L4 (tibialis anterior) and L5 (soleus) was higher in both groups that stepped on the treadmill compared with control and was highest in rats that stepped at a 25° incline. In a majority of laminae, the distribution of total and muscle-specific activated interneurons was highest in the 25° incline group and lowest in the control group for both muscles. These data could reflect increased peripheral (proprioceptive) input as well as supraspinal drive associated with stepping and demonstrate the differences in 1) the activation of cholinergic interneurons near the central canal and 2) the laminar and segmental location of interneurons throughout the gray matter that play a role in generating stepping under different loading conditions in adult rats.

  2. Adolescent cannabis exposure alters opiate intake and opioid limbic neuronal populations in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ellgren, Maria; Spano, Sabrina M; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2007-03-01

    Cannabis use is a hypothesized gateway to subsequent abuse of other drugs such as heroin. We currently assessed whether Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure during adolescence modulates opiate reinforcement and opioid neural systems in adulthood. Long-Evan male rats received THC (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or vehicle every third day during postnatal days (PNDs) 28-49. Heroin self-administration behavior (fixed ratio-1; 3-h sessions) was studied from young adulthood (PND 57) into full adults (PND 102). THC-pretreated rats showed an upward shift throughout the heroin self-administration acquisition (30 microg/kg/infusion) phase, whereas control animals maintained the same pattern once stable intake was obtained. Heightened opiate sensitivity in THC animals was also evidenced by higher heroin consumption during the maintenance phase (30 and 60 microg/kg/infusion) and greater responding for moderate-low heroin doses (dose-response curve: 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 microg/kg/injection). Specific disturbance of the endogenous opioid system was also apparent in the brain of adults with adolescent THC exposure. Striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression was exclusively increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell; the relative elevation of preproenkephalin mRNA in the THC rats was maintained even after heroin self-administration. Moreover, mu opioid receptor (muOR) GTP-coupling was potentiated in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal brainstem regions in THC-pretreated animals. muOR function in the NAc shell was specifically correlated to heroin intake. The current findings support the gateway hypothesis demonstrating that adolescence cannabis exposure has an enduring impact on hedonic processing resulting in enhanced opiate intake, possibly as a consequence of alterations in limbic opioid neuronal populations.

  3. Developmental effects of wheel running on hippocampal glutamate receptor expression in young and mature adult rats.

    PubMed

    Staples, M C; Somkuwar, S S; Mandyam, C D

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the behavioral benefits associated with voluntary wheel running in rodents may be due to modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in learning and memory. However, the expression of the glutamatergic ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (GluN) in the hippocampus in response to chronic sustained voluntary wheel running has not yet been investigated. Further, the developmental effects during young and mature adulthood on wheel running output and GluN expression in hippocampal subregions has not been determined, and therefore is the main focus of this investigation. Eight-week-old and 16-week-old male Wistar rats were housed in home cages with free access to running wheels and running output was monitored for 4weeks. Wheel access was terminated and tissues from the dorsal and ventral hippocampi were processed for Western blot analysis of GluN subunit expression. Young adult runners demonstrated an escalation in running output but this behavior was not evident in mature adult runners. In parallel, young adult runners demonstrated a significant increase in total GluN (1 and 2A) subunit expression in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), and an opposing effect in the ventral hippocampus (VH) compared to age-matched sedentary controls; these changes in total protein expression were not associated with significant alterations in the phosphorylation of the GluN subunits. In contrast, mature adult runners demonstrated a reduction in total GluN2A expression in the DH, without producing alterations in the VH compared to age-matched sedentary controls. In conclusion, differential running activity-mediated modulation of GluN subunit expression in the hippocampal subregions was revealed to be associated with developmental effects on running activity, which may contribute to altered hippocampal synaptic activity and behavioral outcomes in young and mature adult subjects.

  4. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  5. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  6. Differential Behavioral and Neurobiological Effects of Chronic Corticosterone Treatment in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jitao; Xie, Xiaomeng; Li, Youhong; Liu, Xiao; Liao, Xuemei; Su, Yun-Ai; Si, Tianmei

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period with ongoing maturational processes in stress-sensitive systems. While adolescent individuals show heightened stress-induced hormonal responses compared to adults, it is unclear whether and how the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of chronic stress would differ between the two age groups. Here we address this issue by examining the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), in both adolescent and adult animals. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 29–49) or adulthood (PND 71–91) and then subjected to behavioral testing or sacrifice for western blot analyses. Despite of similar physical and neuroendocrine effects in both age groups, chronic CORT treatment produced a series of behavioral and neurobiological effects with striking age differences. While CORT-treated adult animals exhibited decreased sucrose preference, increased anxiety levels and cognitive impairment, CORT-treated adolescent animals demonstrated increased sucrose preference, decreased anxiety levels, and increased sensorimotor gating functions. These differential behavioral alterations were accompanied by opposite changes in the two age groups in the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the phosphorylation of the obligatory subunit of the NMDA receptor, GluN1, and PSD-95 in rat hippocampus. These results suggest that prolonged glucocorticoid exposure during adolescence produces different behavioral and neurobiological effects from those in adulthood, which may be due to the complex interaction between glucocorticoids and the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes during this period. PMID:28210212

  7. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementation mitigated the development of hypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  8. The Impact of Adult Vitamin D Deficiency on Behaviour and Brain Function in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Karly M.; Eyles, Darryl W.; McGrath, John J.; Burne, Thomas H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT) and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS) task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. Results AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM) and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8–10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI) than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA) responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. Conclusions AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour. PMID:23951200

  9. Teaching Adult Rats Spinalized as Neonates to Walk Using Trunk Robotic Rehabilitation: Elements of Success, Failure, and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Udoekwere, Ubong I.; Oza, Chintan S.

    2016-01-01

    Robot therapy promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal and clinical studies. Trunk actions are important in adult rats spinalized as neonates (NTX rats) that walk autonomously. Quadrupedal robot rehabilitation was tested using an implanted orthosis at the pelvis. Trunk cortical reorganization follows such rehabilitation. Here, we test the functional outcomes of such training. Robot impedance control at the pelvis allowed hindlimb, trunk, and forelimb mechanical interactions. Rats gradually increased weight support. Rats showed significant improvement in hindlimb stepping ability, quadrupedal weight support, and all measures examined. Function in NTX rats both before and after training showed bimodal distributions, with “poor” and “high weight support” groupings. A total of 35% of rats initially classified as “poor” were able to increase their weight-supported step measures to a level considered “high weight support” after robot training, thus moving between weight support groups. Recovered function in these rats persisted on treadmill with the robot both actuated and nonactuated, but returned to pretraining levels if they were completely disconnected from the robot. Locomotor recovery in robot rehabilitation of NTX rats thus likely included context dependence and/or incorporation of models of robot mechanics that became essential parts of their learned strategy. Such learned dependence is likely a hurdle to autonomy to be overcome for many robot locomotor therapies. Notwithstanding these limitations, trunk-based quadrupedal robot rehabilitation helped the rats to visit mechanical states they would never have achieved alone, to learn novel coordinations, and to achieve major improvements in locomotor function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neonatal spinal transected rats without any weight support can be taught weight support as adults by using robot rehabilitation at trunk. No adult control rats with neonatal spinal

  10. Sirolimus and tacrolimus rather than cyclosporine A cause bone loss in healthy adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Mercedes; Montero, Mercedes; Guede, David; Caeiro, Jose-Ramón; Martín-Fernández, Marta; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel; de la Piedra, Concepción

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (FK-506), and rapamycin (RAPA) on bone mass, femoral microstructure, femoral biomechanical properties, and bone remodeling in healthy adult male rats. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Wistar rats were used. CsA (2 mg/kg/day), FK-506 (3 mg/kg/day), RAPA (1.25 mg/kg/day), or water (0.5 ml/rat/day, control group) were administered orally for 3 months. After sacrifice, mean values of immunosuppressants in blood were: CsA (670.4 ng/ml), FK-506 (19.2 ng/ml), and RAPA (4.8 ng/ml). Levels of biochemical parameters were normal in all groups. Femoral BMD was decreased in FK-506 and RAPA groups and lumbar BMD in FK-506 group. Trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased only in FK-506 group. RAPA and CsA affected femoral cortical structure, but FK-506 did not. FK-506 produced an increase in bone remodeling, and CsA a decrease. FK-506 group showed a decrease in biomechanical parameters relative to all groups. RAPA group showed a decrease in ultimate stress vs control group, and CsA group presented an increase in biomechanical parameters versus control group. We found that administration of both RAPA and FK-506 as monotherapy for healthy rats produced osteopenia. CsA treatment only produces slight damages in the cortical zone of the femur.

  11. Calcium supplementation prevents obesity, hyperleptinaemia and hyperglycaemia in adult rats programmed by early weaning.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Jessica Lopes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Lima, Natália da Silva; Franco, Juliana Gastão; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; de Oliveira, Elaine

    2012-04-01

    It is known that Ca therapy may have anti-obesity effects. Since early weaning leads to obesity, hyperleptinaemia and insulin resistance, we studied the effect of dietary Ca supplementation in a rat model. Lactating rats were separated into two groups: early weaning (EW) - dams were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt lactation in the last 3 d of lactation and control (C) - dams whose pups had free access to milk during the entire lactation period (21 d). At 120 d, EW and C offspring were subdivided into four groups: (1) C, received standard diet; (2) CCa, received Ca supplementation (10 g of calcium carbonate/kg of rat chow); (3) EW, received standard diet; (4) EWCa, received Ca supplementation similar to CCa. The rats were killed at 180 d. The significance level was at P < 0·05. Adult EW offspring displayed hyperphagia (28 %), higher body weight (9 %) and adiposity (77 %), hyperleptinaemia (twofold increase), hypertriacylglycerolaemia (64 %), hyperglycaemia (16 %), higher insulin resistance index (38 %) and higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (fourfold increase), but lower adiponectinaemia:adipose tissue ratio (44 %). In addition, they showed Janus tyrosine kinase 2 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 underexpression in hypothalamus (36 and 34 %, respectively), suggesting leptin resistance. Supplementation of Ca for 2 months normalised these disorders. The EW group had no change in serum insulin, thyroxine or triiodothyronine, and Ca treatment did not alter these hormones. In conclusion, we reinforced that early weaning leads to late development of some components of the metabolic syndrome and leptin resistance. Dietary Ca supplementation seems to protect against the development of endocrine and metabolic disorders in EW offspring, maybe through vitamin D inhibition.

  12. The effects of biological sex and gonadal hormones on learning strategy in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Barratt, Harriet E; Conrad, Taylor S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-02-28

    When learning to navigate toward a goal in a spatial environment, rodents employ distinct learning strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. In the early stages of learning, adult male rats prefer a hippocampus-dependent place strategy over a striatum-dependent response strategy. Alternatively, female rats exhibit a preference for a place strategy only when circulating levels of estradiol are elevated. Notably, male rodents typically perform better than females on a variety of spatial learning tasks, which are mediated by the hippocampus. However, limited research has been done to determine if the previously reported male spatial advantage corresponds with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and, if the male preference for a place strategy is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. A dual-solution water T-maze task, which can be solved by adopting either a place or a response strategy, was employed to determine the effects of biological sex and hormonal status on learning strategy. In the first experiment, male rats made more correct arm choices than female rats during training and exhibited a bias for a place strategy on a probe trial. The results of the second experiment indicated that testicular hormones modulated arm choice accuracy during training, but not the preference for a place strategy. Together, these findings suggest that the previously reported male spatial advantage is associated with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and that only performance during the training phase of a dual-solution learning task is impacted by removal of testicular hormones.

  13. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  14. Baseline susceptibility of Creontiades signatus to cotton insecticides, with emphasis on malathion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report, for the first time, the susceptibility of a green plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, a pest of cotton and other crops in south Texas, to malathion and other cotton insecticides using the adult vial test (AVT), and an oral “floral foam” assay for systemic insecticides, as active boll...

  15. Boll wall thickness in four cotton species and susceptibility to stink bug feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), adults can introduce pathogens into cotton bolls while feeding. Stylet penetration estimates of southern green stink bugs are known, and knowledge of boll wall thickness in cotton species may aid in determining susceptibility...

  16. Influence of maize and pigweed on tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations infesting cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of maize, lea mays L., and pigweed, Amaranthus spp., on populations of tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), adults infesting cotton, Gossypium hirsucum L., in the Mississippi Delta was studied using stable isotope analyses. Cotton fields adjacent to maize and th...

  17. Relationship between population estimates of cotton fleahoppers (Hemiptera: Miridae) obtained by terminal and whole plant examinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The standard sampling technique used to quantify cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), abundance in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., involves direct counts of adults and nymphs on plants. This method, however, becomes increasingly laborious and time consuming as plants increase in si...

  18. Within-plant distribution patterns of the cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The standard method for estimating cotton fleahopper abundance involves whole-plant examinations and direct counts of fleahoppers on plants. This procedure, however, becomes increasingly arduous and time-consuming as plants increase in size. We examined the distribution of cotton fleahopper adults...

  19. The effects of perinatal tebuconazole exposure on adult neurological, immunological, and reproductive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, V C; Barone, S; Smialowicz, R J; Harris, M W; Davis, B J; Overstreet, D; Mauney, M; Chapin, R E

    2001-08-01

    Studies are under way to address concerns of potential persistent immunotoxic, reproductive, and neurotoxic effects of perinatal exposure to several pesticides. Tebuconazole, a triazole fungicide, was evaluated as part of this project. Sprague-Dawley dams were administered tebuconazole (0, 6, 20, or 60 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND)7; the pups were then dosed daily at the same levels from PND7-42. Separate groups of rats were used for testing of immunological parameters, neurobehavioral testing using a screening battery of functional tests, and cognitive evaluations. Other groups of rats were evaluated for reproductive development and function, while yet others were sacrificed at the end of the dosing period for histological analyses of major organs systems, including neuropathological assessments. Pup viability and body weight were decreased in the highest dose group. There were no differences in the fertility indices in the exposed rats mated as adults. In the sheep RBC-immunized high-dose rats, spleen weights and cellularity were increased, and the ratio of cell types was altered compared to controls. There were, however, no biologically significant changes in the immune function of these rats. At necropsy on PND46 or 152, kidney, liver, and spleen weights were altered by tebuconazole treatment, but a dose-response relationship was not clear for most organs; only decreased kidney and increased liver weights were consistent in both sexes. Histological analyses were generally unremarkable outside of the brain. One month after the end of dosing, acquisition of learning the platform location in a water tank (i.e., Morris water maze) was impaired in the high-dose group; there were no differences in neuromuscular ability, motor activity, or swim speed to account for this finding. Furthermore, there was no effect on recall of the position during a free-swim trial. Neuropathological evaluations revealed pyknotic cells across

  20. Age and Sex Differences in Reward Behavior in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed. PMID:23754712

  1. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miyanohara, Atsushi; Kamizato, Kota; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Navarro, Michael; Marsala, Silvia; Lukacova, Nada; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Curtis, Erik; Gabel, Brandon; Ciacci, Joseph; Ahrens, Eric T; Kaspar, Brian K; Cleveland, Don; Marsala, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal). Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i) potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii) delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii) potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem); and (iv) the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients. PMID:27462649

  2. Effects of Neonatal Dexamethasone Exposure on Adult Neuropsychiatric Traits in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Donald; Rodger, Jennifer; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of early life stress in utero or in neonates has long-term consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis function and neurodevelopment. These effects extend into adulthood and may underpin a variety of mental illnesses and be related to various developmental and cognitive changes. We examined the potential role of neonatal HPA axis activation on adult psychopathology and dopamine sensitivity in the mature rat using neonatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist and stress hormone, dexamethasone. We utilized a comprehensive battery of assessments for behaviour, brain function and gene expression to determine if elevated early life HPA activation is associated with adult-onset neuropsychiatric traits. Dexamethasone exposure increased startle reactivity under all conditions tested, but decreased sensitivity of sensorimotor gating to dopaminergic disruption–contrasting with what is observed in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Under certain conditions there also appeared to be mild long-term changes in stress and anxiety-related behaviours with neonatal dexamethasone exposure. Electrophysiology revealed that there were no consistent neuropsychiatric abnormalities in auditory processing or resting state brain function with dexamethasone exposure. However, neonatal dexamethasone altered auditory cortex glucocorticoid activation, and auditory cortex synchronization. Our results indicate that neonatal HPA axis activation by dexamethasone alters several aspects of adult brain function and behaviour and may induce long-term changes in emotional stress-reactivity. However, neonatal dexamethasone exposure is not specifically related to any particular neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:27936175

  3. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is enhanced by chronic eszopiclone treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Methippara, Melvi; Bashir, Tariq; Suntsova, Natalia; Szymusiak, Ron; McGinty, Dennis

    2010-09-01

    The adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) exhibits cell proliferation and neurogenesis throughout life. We examined the effects of daily administration of eszopiclone (Esz), a commonly used hypnotic drug and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, compared with vehicle, on DG cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and on sleep-wake patterns. Esz was administered during the usual sleep period of rats, to mimic typical use in humans. Esz treatment for 7 days did not affect the rate of cell proliferation, as measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining. However, twice-daily Esz administration for 2 weeks increased survival of newborn cells by 46%. Most surviving cells exhibited a neuronal phenotype, identified as BrdU-neuronal nuclei (NeuN) double-labeling. NeuN is a marker of neurons. Non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased on day 1, but not on days 7 or 14 of Esz administration. Delta electroencephalogram activity was increased on days 1 and 7 of treatment, but not on day 14. There is evidence that enhancement of DG neurogenesis is a critical component of the effects of antidepressant treatments of major depressive disorder (MDD). Adult-born DG cells are responsive to GABAergic stimulation, which promotes cell maturation. The present study suggests that Esz, presumably acting as a GABA agonist, has pro-neurogenic effects in the adult DG. This result is consistent with evidence that Esz enhances the antidepressant treatment response of patients with MDD with insomnia.

  4. Neonatal Androgen Exposure Causes Persistent Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Related to Metabolic Disease in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Núñez, Gracia María; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Alterations of gut microbiome have been proposed to play a role in metabolic disease, but the major determinants of microbiota composition remain ill defined. Nutritional and sex hormone challenges, especially during early development, have been shown to permanently alter adult female phenotype and contribute to metabolic disturbances. In this study, we implemented large-scale microbiome analyses to fecal samples from groups of female rats sequentially subjected to various obesogenic manipulations, including sex hormone perturbations by means of neonatal androgenization or adult ovariectomy (OVX), as a model of menopause, to establish whether these phenomena are related to changes in gut microbiota. Basic metabolic profiles concerning glucose/insulin homeostasis were also explored. The effects of the sex hormonal perturbations, either developmentally (androgenization) or in adulthood (OVX), clearly outshone the impact of nutritional interventions, especially concerning the gut microbiota profile. Notably, we observed a lower diversity in the androgenized group, with the highest Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, supporting the occurrence of durable alterations in gut microbiota composition, even in adulthood. Moreover, the elimination of adult ovarian secretions by OVX affected the richness of gut microbiota. Our data are the first to document the durable impact of sex steroid manipulations, and particularly early androgenization, on gut microbiota composition. Such dysbiosis is likely to contribute to the metabolic perturbations of conditions of obesity linked to gonadal dysfunction in the female.

  5. Embryonic amygdalar transplants in adult rats with motor cortex lesions: a molecular and electrophysiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Heredia, Margarita; Riolobos, Adelaida S; Gómez-Álvarez, Marcelo; Criado, José María; de la Fuente, Antonio; Yajeya, Javier; Navarro-López, Juan D

    2011-01-01

    Transplants of embryonic nervous tissue ameliorate motor deficits induced by motor cortex lesions in adult animals. Restoration of lost brain functions has been recently shown in grafts of homotopic cortical origin, to be associated with a functional integration of the transplant after development of reciprocal host-graft connections. Nevertheless little is known about physiological properties or gene expression profiles of cortical implants with functional restorative capacity but no cortical origin. In this study, we show molecular and electrophysiological evidence supporting the functional development and integration of heterotopic transplants of embryonic amygdalar tissue placed into pre-lesioned motor cortex of adult rats. Grafts were analyzed 3 months post-transplantation. Using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that key glutamatergic, GABAergic, and muscarinic receptors transcripts were expressed at different quantitative levels both in grafted and host tissues, but were all continuously present in the graft. Parallel sharp electrode recordings of grafted neurons in brain slices showed a regular firing pattern of transplanted neurons similar to host amygdalar pyramidal neurons. Synaptic connections from the adjacent host cortex on grafted neurons were electrophysiologically investigated and confirmed our molecular results. Taken together, our findings indicate that grafted neurons from a non-cortical, non-motor-related, but ontogenetical similar source, not only received functionally effective contacts from the adjacent motor cortex, but also developed electrophysiological and gene expression patterns comparable to host pyramidal neurons; suggesting an interesting tool for the field of neural repair and donor tissue in adults.

  6. Parenteral magnesium load testing with /sup 28/Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Caddell, J.L.; Calhoun, N.R.; Howard, M.P.; Patterson, K.Y.; Smith, J.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency.

  7. Antenatal Antioxidant Prevents Nicotine-Mediated Hypertensive Response in Rat Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perinatal nicotine exposure increased blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms were unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of hypertensive response is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps from Day 4 of gestation to Day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in the drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8-mo-old male offspring. Perinatal nicotine treatment resulted in a significant increase in arterial ROS production in offspring, which was abrogated by NAC. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced BP responses were significantly higher in nicotine-treated group than in saline-treated control group, and NAC treatment blocked the nicotine-induced increase in BP response. Consistent with that, the nicotine treatment significantly increased both Ang II-induced and phorbol [12, 13]-dibutyrate (PDBu, a Prkc activator)-induced arterial contractions in adult offspring, which were blocked by NAC treatment. In addition, perinatal nicotine treatment significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced arterial relaxation in offspring, which was also inhibited by NAC treatment. Results demonstrate that inhibition of ROS blocks the nicotine-induced increase in arterial reactivity and BP response to vasoconstrictors in adult offspring, suggesting a key role for increased oxidative stress in nicotine-induced developmental programming of hypertensive phenotype in male offspring.

  8. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  9. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  10. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  11. Repeated administration of a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist differentially affects cortical and accumbal neuronal morphology in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, A. F.; Reyes, B. A. S.; Ramalhosa, F.; Sousa, N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate a differential trajectory for cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and sub-cortical brain areas across postnatal development. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether chronic systemic exposure to a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist causes morphological changes in the structure of dendrites and dendritic spines in adolescent and adult pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). Following systemic administration of WIN 55,212-2 in adolescent (PN 37–40) and adult (P55–60) male rats, the neuronal architecture of pyramidal neurons and MSN was assessed using Golgi–Cox staining. While no structural changes were observed in WIN 55,212-2-treated adolescent subjects compared to control, exposure to WIN 55,212-2 significantly increased dendritic length, spine density and the number of dendritic branches in pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of adult subjects when compared to control and adolescent subjects. In the Acb, WIN 55,212-2 exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and number of branches in adult rat subjects while no changes were observed in the adolescent groups. In contrast, spine density was significantly decreased in both the adult and adolescent groups in the Acb. To determine whether regional developmental morphological changes translated into behavioral differences, WIN 55,212-2-induced aversion was evaluated in both groups using a conditioned place preference paradigm. In adult rats, WIN 55,212-2 administration readily induced conditioned place aversion as previously described. In contrast, adolescent rats did not exhibit aversion following WIN 55,212-2 exposure in the behavioral paradigm. The present results show that synthetic cannabinoid administration differentially impacts cortical and sub-cortical neuronal morphology in adult compared to adolescent subjects. Such differences may underlie the disparate development

  12. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings

  13. Posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy in adult rats after controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin M; Miller, Eric R; Lepsveridze, Eka; Kharlamov, Elena A; Mchedlishvili, Zakaria

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) has been modeled with different techniques of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) using mice and rats at various ages. We hypothesized that the technique of controlled cortical impact (CCI) could be used to establish a model of PTE in young adult rats. A total of 156 male Sprague-Dawley rats of 2-3 months of age (128 CCI-injured and 28 controls) was used for monitoring and/or anatomical studies. Provoked class 3-5 seizures were recorded by video monitoring in 7/57 (12.3%) animals in the week immediately following CCI of the right parietal cortex; none of the 7 animals demonstrated subsequent spontaneous convulsive seizures. Monitoring with video and/or video-EEG was performed on 128 animals at various time points 8-619 days beyond one week following CCI during which 26 (20.3%) demonstrated nonconvulsive or convulsive epileptic seizures. Nonconvulsive epileptic seizures of >10s were demonstrated in 7/40 (17.5%) animals implanted with 2 or 3 depth electrodes and usually characterized by an initial change in behavior (head raising or animal alerting) followed by motor arrest during an ictal discharge that consisted of high-amplitude spikes or spike-waves with frequencies ranging between 1 and 2Hz class 3-5 epileptic seizures were recorded by video monitoring in 17/88 (19%) and by video-EEG in 2/40 (5%) CCI-injured animals. Ninety of 156 (58%) animals (79 CCI-injured, 13 controls) underwent transcardial perfusion for gross and microscopic studies. CCI caused severe brain tissue loss and cavitation of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere associated with cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, hilus, and dentate granule cells, and thalamus. All Timm-stained CCI-injured brains demonstrated ipsilateral hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer. These results indicate that the CCI model of TBI in adult rats can be used to study the structure-function relationships that underlie epileptogenesis and PTE.

  14. Auditory map reorganization and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal's survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment. PMID:22973201

  15. A comparative study on the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampal CA1 area of adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Khair, Doaa M; El-Safti, Fatma El-Nabawia A; Nooh, Hanaa Z; El-Mehi, Abeer E

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is one of the most important problems nowadays. Aging is associated with learning and memory impairments. Diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. This work was carried out to compare the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampus of adult and aged male albino rats. Twenty adult and twenty aged male rats were used in this study. According to age, the rats were randomly subdivided into balanced and high cholesterol diet fed groups. The diet was 15 g/rat/day for adult rats and 20 g/rat/day for aged rats for eight weeks. Serial coronal sections of hippocampus and blood samples were taken from each rat. For diet effect evaluation, Clinical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric assessments were done. In compare to a balanced diet fed rat, examination of Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA 1) area in the hippocampus of the high cholesterol diet adult rats showed degeneration, a significant decrease of the pyramidal cells, attenuation and/or thickening of small blood vessels, apparent increase of astrocytes and apparent decrease of Nissl's granules content. Moreover, the high cholesterol diet aged rats showed aggravation of senility changes of the hippocampus together with Alzheimer like pathological changes. In conclusion, the high cholesterol diet has a significant detrimental effect on the hippocampus and aging might pronounce this effect. So, we should direct our attention to limit cholesterol intake in our food to maintain a healthy life style for a successful aging.

  16. Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

  17. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  18. Chronic exposure of adult rats to low doses of methylmercury induced a state of metabolic deficit in the somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hang-Kin; Wong, Ming-Hung; Chan, Hing-Man; Lo, Samuel Chun-Lap

    2013-11-01

    Because of the ever-increasing bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in the marine food chain, human consumers are exposed to low doses of MeHg continually through seafood consumption. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that chronic prenatal exposure to nanomolar of MeHg has immense negative impacts on neurological development in neonates. However, effects of chronic exposure to low doses (CELDs) of MeHg in adult brains on a molecular level are unknown. The current study aims to investigate the molecular effects of CELD of MeHg on adult somatosensory cortex in a rat model using proteomic techniques. Young adult rats were fed with a low dose of MeHg (40 μg/kg body weight/day) for a maximum of 12 weeks. Whole proteome expression of the somatosensory cortex (S1 area) of normal rats and those with CELD to MeHg were compared. Levels of MeHg, total calcium, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and pyruvate were also measured. Comparative proteomic studies of the somatosensory cortexes revealed that 94 proteins involved in the various metabolic processes (including carbohydrate metabolism, generation of precursors for essential metabolites, energy, proteins, cellular components for morphogenesis, and neurotransmission) were down-regulated. Consequently, levels of important end products of active metabolism including ATP, pyruvate, and total calcium were also found to be significantly reduced concomitantly. Our results showed that CELD of MeHg induced a state of metabolic deficit in the somatosensory cortex of adult rats.

  19. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production in rats.

    PubMed

    Kurowicka, B; Dietrich, G J; Kotwica, G

    2015-03-01

    The accessory gland weight, testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production were analyzed in four groups of rats housed at 20 or 34°C: (1) control rats (CR) kept at 20°C from birth to day 90; (2) adult heat-acclimated rats (AHA) kept at 20°C from birth to day 45 followed by 34°C to day 90; (3) neonatal heat-acclimated rats (NHA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 90 and (4) de-acclimated rats (DA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 45 followed by 20°C to day 90. In NHA and DA rats, accessory gland weight was higher than in controls. Despite the lack of differences in testicular and epididymal morphometry, curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was lower in the NHA group compared to controls. Areas of seminiferous tubules were lower in the DA than in CR and NHA groups, however, sperm concentration and motility were not affected by the treatment in this group. In AHA rats, epithelium of approximately 20% of seminiferous tubules was degenerated and Sertoli cell number was lower in the remaining tubules. In contrast to sperm motility, epididymal duct area, area of the duct occupied by spermatozoa and cauda epididymis sperm concentration were lower in AHA rats than in the other groups. In conclusion, neonatal heat acclimation did not affect the testicular morphometry and epididymal sperm concentration, suggesting adjustment to high ambient temperature. On the contrary, adult heat acclimation of rats affected the examined parameters, leading to decreased sperm concentration.

  20. Substratum preferences of motor and sensory neurons in postnatal and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Alé, Albert; Santos, Daniel; Barwig, Christina; Freier, Thomas; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2016-02-01

    After peripheral nerve injuries, damaged axons can regenerate but functional recovery is limited by the specific reinnervation of targets. In this study we evaluated if motor and sensory neurites have a substrate preference for laminin and fibronectin in postnatal and adult stages. In postnatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants, sensory neurons extended longer neurites on collagen matrices enriched with laminin (~50%) or fibronectin (~35%), whereas motoneurons extended longer neurites (~100%) in organotypic spinal cord slices embedded in fibronectin-enriched matrix. An increased percentage of parvalbumin-positive neurites (presumptive proprioceptive) vs. neurofilament-positive neurites was also found in DRG in fibronectin-enriched matrix. To test if the different preference of neurons for extracellular matrix components was maintained in vivo, these matrices were used to fill a chitosan guide to repair a 6-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of adult rats. However, the number of regenerating motor and sensory neurons after 1 month was similar between groups. Moreover, none of the retrotraced sensory neurons in DRG was positive for parvalbumin, suggesting that presumptive proprioceptive neurons had poor regenerative capabilities compared with other peripheral neurons. Using real-time PCR we evaluated the expression of α5β1 (receptor for fibronectin) and α7β1 integrin (receptor for laminin) in spinal cord and DRG 2 days after injury. Postnatal animals showed a higher increase of α5β1 integrin, whereas both integrins were similarly expressed in adult neurons. Therefore, we conclude that motor and sensory axons have a different substrate preference at early postnatal stages but this difference is lost in the adult.

  1. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  2. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  3. Effect of light-dark changes on the locomotor activity in open field in adult rats and opossums.

    PubMed

    Klejbor, I; Ludkiewicz, B; Turlejski, K

    2013-11-01

    There have been no reports on how the light-dark changes determine the locomotor activity of animals in the group of high reactivity (HR) and low reactivity (LR). In the present study we have compared selected parameters of the locomotor activity of the HR and the LR groups of the laboratory opossums and Wistar rats during consecutive, light and dark phases in the open field test. Sixty male Wistar adult rats, at an average weight of 350 g each, and 24 adult Monodelphis opossums of both sexes at an average weight of 120 g each were used. The animals' activity for 2 h daily between the hours of 17:30 and 19:30, in line with the natural light-dark cycle were recorded and then analysed using VideoTrack ver.2.0 (Vievpoint France). According to our results, we noted that a change of the experimental conditions from light to dark involves an increase in the locomotor activity in rats and opossums of the HR group, while there is no effect on the activity of the rats and opossums in the LR group. Locomotor activity in the HR rats, both in the light and dark conditions is characterised by a consistent pattern of change - higher activity in the first stage of the recording and a slowdown (habituation) in the second phase of the observation. The locomotor activity of the opossum, during both light and dark conditions, was observed to be at a consistently high level compared to the rats.

  4. Effects of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on social interactions and opioid receptors in adult rats: behavioural and autoradiographic studies.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, C L; Van Ree, J M; Spruijt, B M; Kitchen, I

    1999-09-01

    The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment during the isolation period on (social) behaviour and mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in adulthood were investigated by using a social interaction test and in vitro autoradiography in rats. Juvenile isolation reduced social exploration in adults. Morphine treatment counteracted this reduction in isolated rats, but decreased social exploration in nonisolated rats. Self-grooming and nonsocial exploration were enhanced after juvenile isolation. Morphine treatment had no effect on self-grooming, but suppressed nonsocial exploration in isolated rats. With respect to the opioid receptors, juvenile isolation resulted in regiospecific increases in mu-binding sites with a 58% increase in the basolateral amygdala and a 33% increase in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Morphine treatment in isolated rats reversed this upregulation in both areas. The number of delta-binding sites did not differ between the experimental groups. A general upregulation of kappa-binding sites was observed after juvenile isolation, predominantly in the cortical regions, the hippocampus and the substantia nigra. Morphine treatment did not affect the upregulation of kappa-receptors. The results show that juvenile isolation during the play period causes long-term effects on social and nonsocial behaviours and on the number of mu- and kappa- but not delta-opioid receptors in distinct brain areas. The number of mu-receptors in the basolateral amygdala appears to be negatively correlated with the amount of social exploration in adult rats.

  5. The effect of tannic acid on the bone tissue of adult male Wistar rats exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk, Agnieszka; Muszyński, Siemowit

    2017-03-02

    Toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) accumulate to the largest extent in bones. Rats at the age of 12 weeks were used to check whether tannic acid (TA) at the concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%. 2.0% or 2.5% would have a protective effect on the structure and properties of bones in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb (diet: 7mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg) for 12 weeks. The effects of administration of TA in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on bone mechanical and geometric properties, trabecular histomorphometry as well as the morphology of articular and growth cartilages were determined. All the rats co-exposured to Cd and Pb had enhanced heavy metals concentration in blood plasma and bone and reduced bone Ca content irrespective of the tannic acid administration. Heave metals given to adult rats did not influence the morphology and geometry of the femur, but reduced the mechanical endurance and histomorphometric parameters of trabecular bone irrespective of the treatment. A diet rich in TA improved articular cartilage and growth plate constituents in heavy metal-poisoned rats, as indicated by the measurement of the thickness of particular zones. It seems that a use of alimentary TA supplementation in adult rats can counteract, in a dose-dependent manner, only some of the destructive changes evoked by Cd and Pb excess.

  6. Perinatal undernutrition facilitates morphine sensitization and cross-sensitization to cocaine in adult rats: a behavioral and neurochemical study.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, E E; Valdomero, A; Orsingher, O A; Cuadra, G R

    2010-01-20

    The development of sensitization to the locomotor effects of morphine and cross-sensitization between morphine and cocaine were evaluated in adult rats submitted to a protein malnutrition schedule from the 14th day of gestation up to 30 days of age (D-rats), and compared with well-nourished animals (C-rats). Dose-response curves to morphine-induced locomotor activity (5, 7.5, 10 or 15 mg/kg, i.p., every other day for 5 days) revealed a shift to the left in D-rats compared to C-rats. This implies that D-rats showed behavioral sensitization to the lower dose of morphine used (5 mg/kg), which was ineffective in C-rats. Furthermore, when a cocaine challenge (10 mg/kg, i.p) was given 48 h after the last morphine administration, only D-rats exhibited cross-sensitization in morphine-pretreated animals (7.5 and 10 mg/kg). In order to correlate the differential response observed with the functioning of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, extracellular dopamine (DA) levels were measured in the nucleus accumbens (core and shell) and the dorsal caudate-putamen. A challenge with cocaine in morphine pre-exposed animals produced an increase in DA release, but only in the nucleus accumbens "core" of D-rats. Similar DA levels were found in the nucleus accumbens "shell" and in the dorsal caudate-putamen of both groups. Finally, these results demonstrate that D-rats had a lower threshold for developing both a progressive behavioral sensitization to morphine and a cross-sensitization to cocaine. In accordance with these behavioral findings, a higher responsiveness of the nucleus accumbens core, expressed by increased DA levels, both basal and after cocaine challenge, was observed in D-rats.

  7. Acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles cause DNA damage in the cerebral cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eria; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Zanoni, Elton Torres; de Souza Notoya, Frederico; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Daumann, Francine; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Ortiz; Benavides, Roberto; da Silva, Luciano; Andrade, Vanessa M; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques

    2014-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles is increasing in medicine; however, their toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Studies show that gold nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as accumulate in the brain. Therefore, this study was undertaken to better understand the effects of gold nanoparticles on rat brains. DNA damage parameters were evaluated in the cerebral cortex of adult rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of two different diameters: 10 and 30nm. During acute administration, adult rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of either gold nanoparticles or saline solution. During chronic administration, adult rats received a daily single injection for 28 days of the same gold nanoparticles or saline solution. Twenty-four hours after either single (acute) or last injection (chronic), the rats were euthanized by decapitation, their brains removed, and the cerebral cortices isolated for evaluation of DNA damage parameters. Our study showed that acute administration of gold nanoparticles in adult rats presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in their DNA compared to the control group. It was also observed that gold nanoparticles of 30nm presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in the DNA compared to the 10nm ones. When comparing the effects of chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of 10 and 30nm, we observed that occurred significant different index and frequency damage, comparing with control group. However, there is no difference between the 10 and 30nm groups in the levels of DNA damage for both parameters of the Comet assay. Results suggest that gold nanoparticles for both sizes cause DNA damage for chronic as well as acute treatments, although a higher damage was observed for the chronic one.

  8. Differential mechanisms of ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effect in adult and aged candesartan-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Bosnyak, S; Widdop, R E; Denton, K M; Jones, E S

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)) causes vasodilator effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) via angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT(2)R). However, the role of vascular AT(2)R in aging is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of aging on Ang (1-7)-mediated vasodepressor effects and vascular angiotensin receptor localization in aging. Blood pressure was measured in conscious adult (~17 weeks) and aged (~19 months) normotensive rats that received drug combinations in a randomised fashion over a 4-day protocol: (i) Ang (1-7) alone, (ii) AT(1)R antagonist, candesartan, alone, (iii) Ang (1-7) and candesartan, or (iv) Ang-(1-7), candesartan, and the AT(2)R antagonist, PD123319. In a separate group of animals, the specific MasR antagonist, A779, was administered in place of PD123319. Receptor localisation was also assessed in aortic sections from adult and aged WKY rats by immunofluorescence. Ang (1-7) reduced blood pressure (~15 mmHg) in adult normotensive rats although this effect was dependant on the background dose of candesartan. This depressor effect was reversed by AT(2)R blockade. In aged rats, the depressor effect of Ang (1-7) was evident but was now inhibited by either AT(2)R blockade or MasR blockade. At the same time, AT(2)R, MasR, and ACE2 immunoreactivity was markedly elevated in aortic sections from aged animals. These results indicate that the Ang (1-7)-mediated depressor effect was preserved in aged animals. Whereas Ang (1-7) effects were mediated exclusively via stimulation of AT(2)R in adult WKY, with aging the vasodepressor effect of Ang (1-7) involved both AT(2)R and MasR.

  9. Comparative effects of X irradiation on the testes of adult Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delic, J I; Schlappack, O K; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-10-01

    The response of the testes of two strains of adult rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) to graded single doses and split doses of 230 kVp X rays has been investigated. A marked difference was noted between the strains in the response of the clonogenic spermatogonia to irradiation, as measured histologically by the repopulation index. Single-dose response curves derived for these cells in the Sprague-Dawley strain had a much larger shoulder (up to about 4-5 Gy) than for the Wistar (less than 2 Gy). Split-dose studies revealed that this difference may partly be explained by a greater repair capacity in the cells of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Changes in serum FSH concentrations mirrored the changes in clonogenic spermatogonial survival following split doses of radiation.

  10. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the thiamin status of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Basu, T K; Aksoy, M; Dickerson, J W

    1979-01-01

    The effect of 5-fluorouracil on the thiamin status of normal female adult rats has been investigated. Pre-treatment of the animals with the cytotoxic drug daily for 3 successive days resulted in a significant decrease in hepatic concentrations of thiamin concomitant with a decrease in thiamin-dependent transketolase enzyme activity and an increase in thiamin-pyrophosphate-(TPP-)stimulating effect in whole blood when compared with those of pair-fed control animals. The TPP effect of transketolase enzyme activity was also increased by 5-fluorouracil in vitro. Furthermore, the treatment with 5-fluorouracil resulted in decreased liver and spleen concentrations without affecting the urinary excretory levels of thiamin in animals supplemented with large doses of the vitamin. Giving a dose comparable to a human therapeutic dose caused a similar increase in the TPP effect. These results indicate that treatment with 5-fluorouracil may be associated with thiamin deficiency by increasing either the utilization or the breakdown of thiamin.

  11. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    PubMed

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  12. Derivation, characterization, and phenotypic variation of hepatic progenitor cell lines isolated from adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Sun, Mingzeng; Ilic, Zoran; Leffert, Hyam L; Sell, Stewart

    2002-02-01

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) cloned from adult rat livers following allyl alcohol injury express hematopoietic stem cell and early hepatic lineage markers when cultured on feeder layers; under these conditions, neither mature hepatocyte nor bile duct, Ito, stellate, Kupffer cell, or macrophage markers are detected. These phenotypes have remained stable without aneuploidy or morphological transformation after more than 100 population doublings. When cultured without feeder layers, the early lineage markers disappear, and mature hepatocyte markers are expressed; mature hepatocytic differentiation and cell size are also augmented by polypeptide and steroidal growth factors. In contrast to hepatocytic potential, duct-like structures and biliary epithelial markers are expressed on Matrigel. Because they were derived without carcinogens or mutagens, these bipotential LPC lines provide novel tools for models of cellular plasticity and hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as lines for use in cellular transplantation, gene therapy, and bioreactor construction.

  13. A role for the prefrontal cortex in heroin-seeking after forced abstinence by adult male rats but not adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration.

  14. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina Repges, Hendrik; Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V.; Straub, Heidrun; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2007-11-15

    In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

  15. Behavioral differences between late preweanling and adult female Sprague-Dawley rat exploration of animate and inanimate stimuli and food.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kiersten S; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-03-01

    The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied stimuli, including inanimate objects systematically varied in size and interactive properties, biological stimuli, and food. Preweanlings were faster to initiate specific stimulus exploration and were more interactive with most specific stimuli than adults; the magnitude of these preweanling-adult quantitative differences ranged from fairly small to very large depending upon the stimulus. In contrast, preweanlings were adult-like in their interaction with food and prey. Preweanling response to some stimuli, for example to live pups, was qualitatively different from that of adults; the preweanling behavioral repertoire was characterized by pup-seeking while the adult response was characterized by pup-avoidance. The specific stimulus interactions of preweanlings were less impacted than those of adults by the time of day of testing and placement of a stimulus in an anxiety-provoking location. The impact of novelty was stimulus dependent. The differences in interactions of preweanlings versus adults with specific stimuli suggests that CNS systems underlying these behavior patterns are at different stages of immaturity at PND 18 such that there may be an array of developmental trajectories for various categories of specific stimuli. These data provide a basis for the use of the preweanling as a preclinical model for understanding and medicating human disorders during development that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli.

  16. Effect of "enriched environment" during development on adult rat behavior and response to the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, L C; Schütte, S R M; Koch, M; Schwabe, K

    2009-02-18

    Enriched housing conditions (enriched environment, EE) during development has been shown to influence adult rat behavior and transmitter systems, especially dopamine function. We were interested in how different degrees of enrichment during development would affect adult rats' behavior and response to dopamine receptor challenge. Two groups of male Wistar rats (n=11-12) were raised under two different degrees of EE, i.e. "high enriched" and "low enriched" groups. A third group was kept under standard conditions and served as "non-enriched" control. As adults, rats were tested for anxiety (elevated plus-maze), for spatial learning (four-arm-baited eight-arm radial maze), and for motivation (breakpoint of the progressive ratio test). Finally, locomotor activity (activity box) and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR)) were tested with and without challenge with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. The time spent on the open or enclosed arms of the elevated plus-maze did not differ between groups, but the high enriched group showed higher rearing activity on the open arms. The breakpoint did not differ between groups. Learning and memory in the radial maze task only differed on the first few trials, but high enriched rats run faster compared with the other groups. In contrast, in the activity box enriched groups were less active, but apomorphine had the highest effect. Between groups, no difference in PPI and startle amplitude was found, but in the high and low EE group startle amplitude was enhanced after administration of apomorphine, while the PPI deficit induced by this drug was not different between groups. Altogether, we found no evidence that different amounts of environmental enrichment without differences in social EE affect rats' cognitive, emotional or motivational behavior. However, motor activity seems to be enhanced when rats are behaviorally or pharmacologically challenged by dopamine receptor

  17. Effect of genetically modified corn on the jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Okasha, Ebtsam F

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; control and GM-corn fed group administered with 30% GM-corn for 90days. Specimens from the jejunum were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Different morphometrical parameters were assessed. Specimens from GM-corn fed group showed different forms of structural changes. Focal destruction and loss of the villi leaving denuded mucosal surface alternating with stratified areas were observed, while some crypts appeared totally disrupted. Congested blood capillaries and focal infiltration with mononuclear cells were detected. Significant upregulation of PCNA expression, increase in number of goblet cells and a significant increase in both villous height and crypt depth were detected. Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes with focal loss of the microvillous border were observed. Some enterocytes had vacuolated cytoplasm, swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some cells had dark irregular nuclei with abnormally clumped chromatin. It could be concluded that consumption of GM-corn profoundly alters the jejunal histological structure.

  18. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  19. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on induced skeletal muscle chemodenervation atrophy in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Azza S; Al-Ghonemy, Nabila M; Ahmed, Samah M; Mohamed, Samar R

    2017-04-01

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a potential therapeutic tool for improvement of skeletal muscle recovery after induced chemodenervation atrophy by repeated local injection of botulinum toxin-A in the right tibialis anterior muscle of adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were classified into control and experimental groups. Experimental group was further subdivided into 3 equal subgroups; induced atrophy, BM-MSCs treated and recovery groups. Biochemical analysis of serum LDH, CK and Real-time PCR for Bcl-2, caspase 3 and caspase 9 was measured. Skeletal muscle sections were stained with H and E, Mallory trichrome, and Immunohistochemical reaction for Bax and CD34. Improvement in the skeletal muscle histological structure was noticed in BM-MSCs treated group, however, in the recovery group, some sections showed apparent transverse striations and others still affected. Immunohistochemical reaction of Bax protein showed strong positive immunoreaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers in the induced atrophy group. BM-MSCs treated group showed weak positive reaction while the recovery group showed moderate reaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical reaction for CD34 revealed occasional positive CD34 stained cells in the induced atrophy group. In BM-MSCs treated group, multiple positive CD34 stained cells were detected. However, recovery group showed some positive CD34 stained cells at the periphery of the muscle fibers. Marked improvement in the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles after BM-MSCs therapy. Hence, stem cell therapy provides a new hope for patients suffering from myopathies and severe injuries.

  20. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  1. Response of ependymal progenitors to spinal cord injury or enhanced physical activity in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Cizkova, Dasa; Nagyova, Miriam; Slovinska, Lucia; Novotna, Ivana; Radonak, Jozef; Cizek, Milan; Mechirova, Eva; Tomori, Zoltan; Hlucilova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Sulla, Igor; Vanicky, Ivo

    2009-09-01

    Ependymal cells (EC) in the spinal cord central canal (CC) are believed to be responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis following pathological or stimulatory conditions. In this study, we have analyzed the proliferation of the CC ependymal progenitors in adult rats processed to compression SCI or enhanced physical activity. To label dividing cells, a single daily injection of Bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered over a 14-day-survival period. Systematic quantification of BrdU-positive ependymal progenitors was performed by using stereological principles of systematic, random sampling, and optical Dissector software. The number of proliferating BrdU-labeled EC increased gradually with the time of survival after both paradigms, spinal cord injury, or increased physical activity. In the spinal cord injury group, we have found 4.9-fold (4 days), 7.1-fold (7 days), 4.9-fold (10 days), and 5.6-fold (14 days) increase of proliferating EC in the rostro-caudal regions, 4 mm away from the epicenter. In the second group subjected to enhanced physical activity by running wheel, we have observed 2.1-2.6 fold increase of dividing EC in the thoracic spinal cord segments at 4 and 7 days, but no significant progression at 10-14 days. Nestin was rapidly induced in the ependymal cells of the CC by 2-4 days and expression decreased by 7-14 days post-injury. Double immunohistochemistry showed that dividing cells adjacent to CC expressed astrocytic (GFAP, S100beta) or nestin markers at 14 days. These data demonstrate that SCI or enhanced physical activity in adult rats induces an endogenous ependymal cell response leading to increased proliferation and differentiation primarily into macroglia or cells with nestin phenotype.

  2. Early postnatal stress alters the extinction of context-dependent conditioned fear in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko; Konno, Kohtaro; Koseki, Hiroyo; Hirata, Riki; Izumi, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2008-05-01

    Fear extinction is hypothesized to be a learning process based on a new inhibitory memory. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effect of early postnatal stress on the extinction of context-dependent fear memory in adult rats, with a focus on the serotonergic system. Extinction was estimated by the expression of freezing behavior during repeated extinction trials (i.e., repeated exposure to contextual fear conditioning) on consecutive days. The decrease in fear expression was attenuated in adult rats that had been subjected to footshock (FS) at the third postnatal week (3wFS), but not in those exposed to footshock at the second postnatal week (2wFS). The decreased attenuation of freezing behavior observed in 3wFS was abolished by repeated treatment with the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist D-cycloserine (15 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days), which has been shown to facilitate cue-dependent extinction. Repeated treatment with the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor agonist tandospirone (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days) prevented the expression of freezing behavior in 3wFS, whereas diazepam treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days) in 3wFS did not. These results suggest that exposure to early postnatal stress at the third week is responsible for attenuating extinction of contextual fear conditioning and is mediated by a serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptor mechanism. In other words, exposure to traumatic events during the early postnatal period might precipitate long-lasting alterations in synaptic function that underlie extinction processes of context-dependent fear memory.

  3. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson's Disease in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life.

  4. Cadmium exposure disrupts GABA and taurine regulation of prolactin secretion in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Caride, A; Fernández-Pérez, B; Cabaleiro, T; Esquifino, A I; Lafuente, A

    2009-03-28

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of cadmium exposure on 24 h changes of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine median eminence and pituitary contents. Also the possible alterations of the regulatory mechanisms of GABA and taurine on prolactin secretion were evaluated. Adult male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 25 mg/l of cadmium chloride in the drinking water for 30 days. Control age-matched rats received cadmium free water. Metal exposure induced the appearance of a maximal value of prolactin at 08:00 h. In median eminence, cadmium abolished the GABA and taurine maximal values and decreased GABA and taurine mean levels. In the anterior pituitary, cadmium treatment phase advanced 12 h the peak observed in controls at 00:00 h for both amino acids. There was a positive correlation between GABA and taurine contents in median eminence and the anterior pituitary in both control and cadmium-exposed animals. However, the correlation between GABA or/and taurine with prolactin levels disappeared in cadmium-exposed animals. These results suggest that cadmium exposure affects GABA and taurine daily pattern in the median eminence and anterior pituitary, and those changes explain, at least in part, the modification in the regulatory pattern of prolactin secretion.

  5. Neurobehavioral assessment following e-cigarette refill liquid exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Golli, Narges El; Dallagi, Yosra; Rahali, Dalila; Rejeb, Ines; Fazaa, Saloua El

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxic effect of e-cigarette refill liquid on cognitive and motor functions in adult rats. Animals were administered 28 μl/kg of body weight of e-liquid with/without a dose of 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight, using the intraperitoneally route for a period of 4 weeks. They were then evaluated by novel object recognition test (NORT) and spontaneous alternation T-maze test for cognitive functions. Results indicated that e-liquid without nicotine induced, in the NORT, a decrease in time exploring the novel object during the test session and lower discrimination and recognition indexes compared to control and e-liquid with nicotine treated rats. Furthermore, short-term spatial memory was affected after e-liquid treatment in the spontaneous alternation T-maze test, identifying recognition memory impairments. However, none of the treatments altered motor functions assessed by inclined plane test, Kondziela's inverted screen test and weights test. Cell cytotoxicity assessment following e-liquid exposure showed a significant decrease in hippocampal cell viability, but no change in cortical cell viability. Thereby, e-liquid without nicotine causes cognitive impairments, especially on the hippocampus. Based on these results, more extensive assessments on e-cigarettes must be carried out.

  6. Effects of prolonged alcohol exposure on somatotrophs and corticotrophs in adult rats: Stereological and hormonal study.

    PubMed

    Trifunović, Svetlana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Ristić, Nataša; Jurijević, Branka Šošić; Balind, Snežana Raus; Brajković, Gordana; Perčinić-Popovska, Florina; Milošević, Verica

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to alcohol alters many physiological processes, including endocrine status. The present study examined whether prolonged alcohol (A) exposure could modulate selected stereological and hormonal aspects of pituitary somatotrophs (growth hormone-GH cells) and corticotrophs (adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH cells) in adult rats. Changes in pituitary gland volume; the volume density, total number and volume of GH and ACTH cells following alcohol exposure were evaluated using a stereological system (newCAST), while peripheral GH and ACTH levels were determined biochemically. Our results demonstrated the reduction (p<0.05) of the volume density (37%) and volume of GH cells (29%) in the group A. Also, there was a tendency for the total number of GH cells to be smaller in the group A. Serum GH level was significantly decreased (p<0.05; 70%) in the group A when compared to control values. Moreover, prolonged alcohol exposure induced declines (p<0.05) in volume density (24%) and volume of ACTH cells (29%). The total number of ACTH cells and ACTH level were higher (p<0.05; 42%) in the group A than in control rats. Collectively, these results indicate that prolonged alcohol exposure leads not only to changes in GH and ACTH hormone levels, but also to alterations of the morphological aspects of GH and ACTH cells within the pituitary.

  7. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life. PMID:28216584

  8. Prenatal nicotine exposure results in the myocardial fibrosis in the adult male offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Zheng, Aiqiang; Qian, Jin; Li, Yuexia; Wu, Lei; Yang, Jian; Gao, Xiren

    2016-09-01

    Our previous study showed that prenatal nicotine exposure could increase the heart rate of adult male offspring rats, but little is known about the mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism. Nicotine was subcutaneously administered to pregnant rats at a dose of 1.5mgkg(-1) from the gestational days 3-21; the control group received the same volume of saline by the same route. The offsprings' heart weight, ejection function, ultrastructure, and blood hormones were determined. The present study exhibited that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased the offsprings' heart and body weight at gestational day 21 and at day 15 after birth, but had no effect on the heart and body weight at 90 days after birth. The hearts were fibrosed in the nicotine exposed male offsprings, and the heart ejection functions of the nicotine male offsprings at 90 days after birth were decreased, including SV, FS and EF. In addition, prenatal nicotine exposure significantly increased the offspring's blood adrenaline and norepinephrine levels. These data suggest that the increased heart rate caused by prenatal nicotine exposure may be a result of myocardial fibrosis, which leads to heart function decreases, and these data imply a myocardial fibrosis risk of prenatal nicotine exposure.

  9. Evidence of degradation process of sucrase-isomaltase in jejunum of adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Goda, T; Koldovský, O

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate degradation processes of sucrase-isomaltase in adult rat jejunum, we determined enzymic activity of sucrase and isomaltase and compared it with the amount of immunoreactive sucrase-isomaltase. In rats fed or starved for 18h, killed at 10:00 h or 22:00 h, sucrase activity (expressed on the basis of total protein or of immunoreactive sucrase-isomaltase) was significantly (P less than 0.02) lower in the lower jejunum than in the upper jejunum; isomaltase activity was similar in both segments. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated the existence of a second sucrase-isomaltase antigen reacting with anti-(sucrase-isomaltase) serum. This antigen was present in larger amounts in the lower jejunum than in the upper jejunum, exhibited immunological partial identity with the intact sucrase-isomaltase, and had isomaltase activity but no sucrase activity. Results suggest that this antigen is a degradation product of sucrase-isomaltase in which the sucrase active site has been broken down. To examine the role of pancreatic enzymes in degradation of sucrase-isomaltase, common pancreatico-biliary ducts were ligated. Within 18 h after the operation, the difference of sucrase activity between the upper and the lower jejunum disappeared and the amount of the second sucrase-isomaltase antigen markedly decreased in the lower jejunum. Our results indicate that, during the degradation of intestinal sucrase-isomaltase by the pancreatic proteinases, degradation of the sucrase active site precedes that of the isomaltase active site. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052022

  10. Early maternal care predicts reliance on social learning about food in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lindeyer, Charlotte M; Meaney, Michael J; Reader, Simon M

    2013-03-01

    Many vertebrates rely extensively on social information, but the value of information produced by other individuals will vary across contexts and habitats. Social learning may thus be optimized by the use of developmental or current cues to determine its likely value. Here, we show that a developmental cue, early maternal care, correlates with social learning propensities in adult rodents. The maternal behavior of rats Rattus norvegicus with their litters was scored over the first 6 days postpartum. Rat dams show consistent individual differences in the rate they lick and groom (LG) pups, allowing them to be categorized as high, low, or mid-LG mothers. The 100-day old male offspring of high and low-LG mothers were given the opportunity to learn food preferences for novel diets from conspecifics that had previously eaten these diets ("demonstrators"). Offspring of high-LG mothers socially learned food preferences, but offspring of low-LG mothers did not. We administered oxytocin to subjects to address the hypothesis that it would increase the propensity for social learning, but there were no detectable effects. Our data raise the possibility that social learning propensities may be both relatively stable throughout life and part of a suite of traits "adaptively programmed" by early developmental experiences.

  11. Regulation of molecular components of the synapse in the developing and adult rat superior cervical ganglion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.; Black, I.B.

    1987-12-01

    Rat superior cervical sympathetic ganglion was used to begin studying the regulation of molecular components of the synapse. Ganglionic postsynaptic densities (PSDs) exhibited a thin, disc-shaped profile electron microscopically, comparable to that described for brain. Moreover, the presumptive ganglionic PSD protein (PSDp) was phosphorylated in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ and calmodulin, bound /sup 125/I-labeled calmodulin, and exhibited a M/sub r/ of 51,000 all characteristic of the major PSD protein of brain. These initial studies indicated that ganglionic PSDp and the major PSD protein of brain are comparable, allowing the study synaptic regulation in the well-defined superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. To obtain enough quantities of ganglionic PSDp, the authors used synaptic membrane fractions. During postnatal development, calmodulin binding to the ganglionic PSDp increased 411-fold per ganglion from birth to 60 days, whereas synaptic membrane protein increased only 4.5-fold. Consequently, different synaptic components apparently develop differently. Moreover, denervation of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion in adult rats caused an 85% decrease in ganglionic PSDp-calmodulin binding, but denervation caused no change in synaptic membrane protein 2 weeks postoperatively. The observations suggest that presynaptic innervation selectively regulates specific molecular components of the postsynaptic membrane structure.

  12. Effect of hindlimb unloading on motor activity in adult rats: impact of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Canu, M H; Darnaudéry, M; Falempin, M; Maccari, S; Viltart, O

    2007-02-01

    Environmental changes that occur in daily life or, in particular, in situations like actual or simulated microgravity require neuronal adaptation of sensory and motor functions. Such conditions can exert long-lasting disturbances on an individual's adaptive ability. Additionally, prenatal stress also leads to behavioral and physiological abnormalities in adulthood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (a) to evaluate in adult rats the behavioral motor adaptation that follows 14 days of exposure to simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading) and (b) to determine whether restraint prenatal stress influences this motor adaptation. For this purpose, the authors assessed rats' motor reactivity to novelty, their skilled walking on a ladder, and their swimming performance. Results showed that unloading severely impaired motor activity and skilled walking. By contrast, it had no effect on swimming performance. Moreover, results demonstrated for the first time that restraint prenatal stress exacerbates the effects of unloading. These results are consistent with the role of a steady prenatal environment in allowing an adequate development and maturation of sensorimotor systems to generate adapted responses to environmental challenges during adulthood.

  13. Olanzapine treatment of adolescent rats alters adult reward behaviour and nucleus accumbens function.

    PubMed

    Vinish, Monika; Elnabawi, Ahmed; Milstein, Jean A; Burke, Jesse S; Kallevang, Jonathan K; Turek, Kevin C; Lansink, Carien S; Merchenthaler, Istvan; Bailey, Aileen M; Kolb, Bryan; Cheer, Joseph F; Frost, Douglas O

    2013-08-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are increasingly used in children and adolescents to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the long-term effects of early life antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment. Most APDs are potent antagonists or partial agonists of dopamine (DA) D₂ receptors; atypical APDs also have multiple serotonergic activities. DA and serotonin regulate many neurodevelopmental processes. Thus, early life APD treatment can, potentially, perturb these processes, causing long-term behavioural and neurobiological sequelae. We treated adolescent, male rats with olanzapine (Ola) on post-natal days 28-49, under dosing conditions that approximate those employed therapeutically in humans. As adults, they exhibited enhanced conditioned place preference for amphetamine, as compared to vehicle-treated rats. In the nucleus accumbens core, DA D₁ receptor binding was reduced, D₂ binding was increased and DA release evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area was reduced. Thus, adolescent Ola treatment enduringly alters a key behavioural response to rewarding stimuli and modifies DAergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. The persistence of these changes suggests that even limited periods of early life Ola treatment may induce enduring changes in other reward-related behaviours and in behavioural and neurobiological responses to therapeutic and illicit psychotropic drugs. These results underscore the importance of improved understanding of the enduring sequelae of paediatric APD treatment as a basis for weighing the benefits and risks of adolescent APD therapy, especially prophylactic treatment in high-risk, asymptomatic patients.

  14. Effects of neonatal ganglioside GM1 administration on memory in adult and old rats.

    PubMed

    Silv, R H; Bergamo, M; Frussa-Filho, R

    2000-09-01

    Numerous investigations have been reporting the involvement of GM1 ganglioside in central nervous system development and memory formation. The effects of neonatal treatment with GMI ganglioside on the performance of adult rats in a plus-maze discriminative avoidance task and old rats in a step-down passive avoidance task were investigated. Rats were injected subcutaneously from day 3 to 15 after birth with 10 mg/kg GM1 or saline. GM1 treatment did not modify indicative landmarks of physical and motor development. Behavioural tasks were carried out when the animals were 4 (discriminative avoidance) or 24 (passive avoidance) months old. Discriminative avoidance conditioning was performed in a modified elevated plus-maze. During the training session, the animals received aversive stimulation (light and hot air blow) in one of the enclosed arms. Tests were performed 7, 14 and 21 days after conditioning (tests 1, 2 and 3), in the absence of the aversive stimulation. In all tests, GM1-treated animals spent less time in the aversive arm than in the non-aversive enclosed arm. Control animals, however, spent a shorter time in the aversive arm only in tests 1 and 2. Passive avoidance conditioning was performed in an acrylic box with a grid floor, that was partially covered by an inclined platform. Animals were placed on the platform and received a 0,5 mA foot shock when stepped down. A test was performed 48 hr later. Latency to step down presented by GM 1-treated animals was significantly higher in the test session, whereas no significant increase in latency to step down was found for control animals. The results suggest a possible action of GM1 on the maturation of the central nervous system that persists during adulthood and ageing.

  15. Vitamin D Deficiency Exacerbates Experimental Stroke Injury and Dysregulates Ischemia-Induced Inflammation in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Balden, Robyn; Selvamani, Amutha

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is widespread and considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Low vitamin D levels are predictive for stroke and more fatal strokes in humans, whereas vitamin D supplements are associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality. Because VDD occurs with other comorbid conditions that are also independent risk factors for stroke, this study examined the specific effect of VDD on stroke severity in rats. Adult female rats were fed control or VDD diet for 8 wk and were subject to middle cerebral artery occlusion thereafter. The VDD diet reduced circulating vitamin D levels to one fifth (22%) of that observed in rats fed control chow. Cortical and striatal infarct volumes in animals fed VDD diet were significantly larger, and sensorimotor behavioral testing indicated that VDD animals had more severe poststroke behavioral impairment than controls. VDD animals were also found to have significantly lower levels of the neuroprotective hormone IGF-I in plasma and the ischemic hemisphere. Cytokine analysis indicated that VDD significantly reduced IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 expression in ischemic brain tissue. However, ischemia-induced IL-6 up-regulation was significantly higher in VDD animals. In a separate experiment, the therapeutic potential of acute vitamin D treatments was evaluated, where animals received vitamin D injections 4 h after stroke and every 24 h thereafter. Acute vitamin D treatment did not improve infarct volume or behavioral performance. Our data indicate that VDD exacerbates stroke severity, involving both a dysregulation of the inflammatory response as well as suppression of known neuroprotectants such as IGF-I. PMID:22408173

  16. The impact of postnatal environment on opioid peptides in young and adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lisa; Oreland, Sadia; Hoffmann, Pernilla; Nylander, Ingrid

    2008-04-01

    Early environmental influences can change the neuronal development and thereby affect behavior in adult life. The aim in the present study was to thoroughly examine the impact of early environmental factors on endogenous opioids by using a rodent maternal separation (MS) model. The endogenous opioid peptide system is not fully developed at birth, and short- and/or long-term alterations may occur in these neural networks in animals exposed to manipulation of the postnatal environment. Rat pups were subjected to one of five rearing conditions; 15 min (MS15) litter (l) or individual (i), 360 min (MS360) l or i daily MS, or housed under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions during postnatal days 1-21. Measurements of immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels in the pituitary gland and in a number of brain areas, were performed at three and 10 weeks of age, respectively. MS-induced changes were more pronounced in ir MEAP levels, especially in individually separated rats at three weeks of age and in litter-separated rats at 10 weeks of age. The enkephalin and dynorphin systems have different developmental patterns, dynorphin appearing earlier, which may point at a more sensitive enkephalin system during the early postnatal weeks. The results provide evidence that opioid peptides are sensitive for early environmental factors and show that the separation conditions are critical and also result in changes manifesting at different time points. MS-induced effects were observed in areas related to stress, drug reward and dependence mechanisms. By describing effects on opioid peptides, the study addresses the possible role of a deranged endogenous opioid system in the previously described behavioral consequences of MS.

  17. Estrogen normalizes perinatal nicotine-induced hypertensive responses in adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Daliao; Huang, Xiaohui; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal nicotine exposure caused a sex-dependent heightened vascular response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased blood pressure in adult male but not in female rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen normalizes perinatal nicotine-induced hypertensive response to Ang II in female offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol replacement were performed on 8-week-old female offspring. At 5 months of age, Ang II-induced blood pressure responses were not changed by nicotine treatment in the sham groups. In contrast, nicotine significantly enhanced Ang II-induced blood pressure responses as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups, which was associated with increased Ang II-induced vascular contractions. These heightened responses were abrogated by 17β-estradiol replacement. In addition, nicotine enhanced Ang II receptor type I, NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase type 2 protein expressions, and reactive oxygen species production of aortas as compared with saline control in the ovariectomy groups. Antioxidative agents, both apocynin and tempol, inhibited Ang II-induced vascular contraction and eliminated the differences of contractions between nicotine-treated and control ovariectomy rats. These findings support a key role of estrogen in the sex difference of perinatal nicotine-induced programming of vascular dysfunction, and suggest that estrogen may counteract heightened reactive oxygen species production, leading to protection of females from development programming of hypertensive phenotype in adulthood.

  18. Primary afferent plasticity following deafferentation of the trigeminal brainstem nuclei in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Pier Luigi; Russo, Antonella; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Stanzani, Stefania; Tringali, Giovanni; Roccazzello, Anna Maria; De Riu, Giacomo; Marongiu, Patrizia; Mameli, Ombretta

    2008-09-01

    Alpha-tyrosinated tubulin is a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in axonal growth and is considered a marker of neuronal plasticity in adult mammals. In adult rats, unilateral ablation of the left facial sensorimotor cortical areas induces degeneration of corticotrigeminal projections and marked denervation of the contralateral sensory trigeminal nuclei. Western blotting and real-time-PCR of homogenates of the contralateral trigeminal ganglion (TG) revealed consistent overexpression of growth proteins 15 days after left decortication in comparison with the ipsilateral side. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated marked overexpression of alpha-tyrosinated tubulin in the cells of the ganglion on the right side. Cytoskeletal changes were primarily observed in the small ganglionic neurons. Application of HRP-CT, WGA-HRP, and HRP to infraorbital nerves on both sides 15 days after left decortication showed a significant degree of terminal sprouting and neosynaptogenesis from right primary afferents at the level of the right caudalis and interpolaris trigeminal subnuclei. These observations suggest that the adaptive response of TG neurons to central deafferentation, leading to overcrowding and rearrangement of the trigeminal primary afferent terminals on V spinal subnuclei neurons, could represent the anatomical basis for distortion of facial modalities, perceived as allodynia and hyperalgesia, despite nerve integrity.

  19. Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ERα in the adult female rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S

    2013-02-01

    Acute 17β-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ERα is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ERα is associated with both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ERα in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ERα runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ERα from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ERα on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ERα in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain.

  20. Isolated Rat Epididymal Basal Cells Share Common Properties with Adult Stem Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Mandon, Marion; Hermo, Louis; Cyr, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    There is little information on the function of epididymal basal cells. These cells secrete prostaglandins, can metabolize radical oxygen species, and have apical projections that are components of the blood-epididymis barrier. The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible protocol to isolate rat epididymal basal cells and to characterize their function by gene expression profiling. Integrin-alpha6 was used to isolate a highly purified population of basal cells. Microarray analysis indicated that expression levels of 552 genes were enriched in basal cells relative to other cell types. Among these genes, 45 were expressed at levels of 5-fold or greater. These highly expressed genes coded for proteins implicated in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal function, ion transport, cellular signaling, and epidermal function, and included proteases and antiproteases, signal transduction, and transcription factors. Several highly expressed genes have been reported in adult stem cells, suggesting that basal cells may represent an epididymal stem cell population. A basal cell culture was established that showed that these basal cells can differentiate in vitro from keratin (KRT) 5-positive cells to cells that express KRT8 and connexin 26, a marker of columnar cells. These data provide novel information on epididymal basal cell gene expression and suggest that these cells can act as adult stem cells. PMID:26400399

  1. Parallel changes in cortical neuron biochemistry and motor function in protein-energy malnourished adult rats.

    PubMed

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Hackett, Mark J; Caine, Sally; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2017-04-01

    While protein-energy malnutrition in the adult has been reported to induce motor abnormalities and exaggerate motor deficits caused by stroke, it is not known if alterations in mature cortical neurons contribute to the functional deficits. Therefore, we explored if PEM in adult rats provoked changes in the biochemical profile of neurons in the forelimb and hindlimb regions of the motor cortex. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging using a synchrotron generated light source revealed for the first time altered lipid composition in neurons and subcellular domains (cytosol and nuclei) in a cortical layer and region-specific manner. This change measured by the area under the curve of the δ(CH2) band may indicate modifications in membrane fluidity. These PEM-induced biochemical changes were associated with the development of abnormalities in forelimb use and posture. The findings of this study provide a mechanism by which PEM, if not treated, could exacerbate the course of various neurological disorders and diminish treatment efficacy.

  2. Adult rat bone marrow stromal cells express genes associated with dopamine neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Brian C.; Woodbury, Dale . E-mail: WOODBURYDL@AOL.COM; Black, Ira B.

    2006-05-19

    An intensive search is underway to identify candidates to replace the cells that degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, no suitable substitute has been found. We have recently found that adult rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to assume a neuronal phenotype in vitro. These findings may have particular relevance to the treatment of PD. We now report that adult MSCs express multiple dopaminergic genes, suggesting that they are potential candidates for cell therapy. Using RT-PCR, we have examined families of genes that are associated with the development and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons. MSCs transcribe a variety of dopaminergic genes including patched and smoothened (components of the Shh receptor), Gli-1 (downstream mediator of Shh), and Otx-1, a gene associated with formation of the mesencephalon during development. Furthermore, Shh treatment elicits a 1.5-fold increase in DNA synthesis in cultured MSCs, suggesting the presence of a functional Shh receptor complex. We have also found that MSCs transcribe and translate Nurr-1, a nuclear receptor essential for the development of dopamine neurons. In addition, MSCs express a variety of growth factor receptors including the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand-binding subunit of the GDNF receptor, GFR{alpha}1, as well as fibroblast growth factor receptors one and four. The expression of genes that are associated with the development and survival of dopamine neurons suggests a potential role for these cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells exerts anti-apoptotic effects in adult rats after spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Li; Meng, Chun-yang; Liu, Ya-juan; Lu, Ri-feng; Li, Peng; Zhou, Yu-bo

    2014-05-02

    It is unknown whether transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can repair spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCII) in a rat model through an anti-apoptotic effect. Adult rats were divided into untreated or sham-operated controls, untreated models of SCII (uSCII) and BM-MSC-transplanted models of SCII (tSCII; labeled with CM-Dill transplanted at 1 h and 24 h after reperfusion). According to evaluation of hind-limb motor function, the motor functions of tSCII rats were significantly better than those of uSCII rats by the seventh day. H&E and TUNEL staining showed that the spinal cords of uSCII rats contained damaged neural cells with nuclear pyknosis and congestion of blood vessels, with a high percentage of apoptotic neural cells, while the spinal cords of tSCII rats were nearly normal with significantly fewer apoptotic neural cells. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence staining revealed that in tSCII rats CASP3 and neurofilament-H (NF-H) levels were 14.57% and 174% those of uSCII rats, respectively, and in tSCII rats the ratio of BAX to BCL2 was reduced by nearly 50%. The differentiation of transplanted CM-Dil-labeled BM-MSCs into neurons and astrocytes was observed in the spinal cords of the tSCII rats under laser scanning confocal microscopy. These results showed that transplantation of BM-MSCs improved functional recovery after SCII via anti-apoptosis.

  4. Juvenile stress potentiates aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and freezing during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic experiences that occur during adolescence can render individuals vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders. A model in juvenile rats (age: 27-29 days) was developed previously to study the long-term effects of adolescent stress exposure on behaviour and physiology. This paradigm, termed juvenile stress, involves subjecting juvenile rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we investigated the effects of the juvenile stress paradigm on freezing behaviour and aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats (age: 68-90 days). We found that rats previously subjected to juvenile stress increased aversive 22-kHz USVs (total calls and time spent calling) compared with controls during fear-conditioning training. The acoustic USV parameters between control and juvenile stress rats were largely equivalent, including duration, peak frequency and amplitude. While rats did not differ in freezing behaviour during fear conditioning, juvenile stress rats exhibited greater cue-conditioned freezing upon testing 24 h later. Our results show that juvenile stress elicited different long-term changes in freezing and aversive USVs during fear conditioning. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing USVs to detect experience-dependent differences between control and stress-exposed animals which are not detectable by measuring visible behaviour.

  5. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups.

  6. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor

  7. Chronic developmental lead exposure reduces neurogenesis in adult rat hippocampus but does not impair spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M E; Kelly, M E; Samsam, T E; Goodman, J H

    2005-08-01

    The dentate granule cell (DG) layer of the hippocampal formation has the distinctive property of ongoing neurogenesis that continues throughout adult life. Although the function of these newly generated neurons and the mechanisms that control their birth are unknown, age, activity, diet and psychosocial stress have all been demonstrated to regulate this type of neurogenesis. Little information on the impact of environmental insults on this process has appeared to date. Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been well documented to impair cognitive function in children and animals and reduce activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of rodents. Therefore, we examined the effects of this classic environmental neurotoxicant on hippocampal-dependent learning and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Pregnant rats were exposed to a low level of Pb-acetate (0.2%) via the drinking water from late gestation (GD 16) until weaning on postnatal day 21 (PN 21). At weaning, half of the Pb-exposed animals were weaned to control drinking water and the remainder were maintained on Pb water until termination of the study. Animals were paired- housed and on PN 75 were administered a series of injections of a thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a marker of DNA synthesis that labels proliferating cells and their progeny. At 12-h intervals for 12 days, rats received an ip injection of BrdU (50 mg/kg). Subjects were sacrificed and perfused 24 h and 28 days after the last injection. Spatial learning was assessed in an independent group of animals beginning on PN 110 using a Morris water maze. No Pb-induced impairments were evident in water maze learning. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of BrdU-labeled cells was performed on 40-microm coronal sections throughout the hippocampus. Continuous exposure to Pb (Life) reduced the total number of BrdU-positive cells at 28 days without affecting the total number of labeled cells evident 24 h after the last injection

  8. Susceptibility to Inhaled Flame-Generated Ultrafine Soot in Neonatal and Adult Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Anderson, Donald S.; Abid, Aamir D.; Wallis, Christopher D.; Dickinson, Dale A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Over a quarter of the U.S. population is exposed to harmful levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution, which has been linked to development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases leading to morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Young children are especially susceptible to PM and can experience altered anatomic, physiologic, and biological responses. Current studies of ambient PM are confounded by the complex mixture of soot, metals, allergens, and organics present in the complex mixture as well as seasonal and temporal variance. We have developed a laboratory-based PM devoid of metals and allergens that can be replicated to study health effects of specific PM components in animal models. We exposed 7-day-old postnatal and adult rats to a single 6-h exposure of fuel-rich ultrafine premixed flame particles (PFPs) or filtered air. These particles are high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content. Pulmonary cytotoxicity, gene, and protein expression were evaluated at 2 and 24 h postexposure. Neonates were more susceptible to PFP, exhibiting increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and ethidium homodimer-1 cellular staining in the lung in situ as an index of cytotoxicity. Basal gene expression between neonates and adults differed for a significant number of antioxidant, oxidative stress, and proliferation genes and was further altered by PFP exposure. PFP diminishes proliferation marker PCNA gene and protein expression in neonates but not adults. We conclude that neonates have an impaired ability to respond to environmental exposures that increases lung cytotoxicity and results in enhanced susceptibility to PFP, which may lead to abnormal airway growth. PMID:21914721

  9. Lack of neurogenesis in the adult rat cerebellum after Purkinje cell degeneration and growth factor infusion.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Rossi, Ferdinando

    2006-05-01

    Although constitutive neurogenesis exclusively occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, resident progenitors can be isolated from many different CNS sites, and neuronal neogeneration can be stimulated in vivo by injury or infusion of growth factors. To ask whether latent compensatory mechanisms, which may be exploited to promote repair processes, are present throughout the CNS, we examined the neurogenic potentialities of the adult rat cerebellum in normal conditions, following injury, and after infusion of growth factors. Degeneration of Purkinje cells was induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the toxin saporin, conjugated to anti-p75 antibodies. In addition, epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, or FGF8, were infused for 2 weeks to either intact or injured animals. In all conditions, proliferating cells were identified from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In the unmanipulated cerebellum there were rare dividing cells, mainly represented by NG2-positive presumptive oligodendrocyte precursors. Mitotic activity was strongly enhanced in cortical areas with Purkinje cell degeneration, being mostly sustained by microglia, plus minor fractions of NG2-expressing cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, growth factor infusion had a weak effect on both intact and injured cerebella. In all experimental conditions, we never found any BrdU-positive cells coexpressing distinctive markers for immature or differentiated cerebellar neurons. Therefore, although some progenitor cells reside in the adult cerebellum, the local environment, either intact or injured, does not provide efficient cues to direct their differentiation towards neuronal phenotypes. In addition, neurogenic potentialities cannot be induced or boosted by the application of growth factors which are effective in other CNS regions.

  10. Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Hansel, Gisele; Arús, Bernardo Assein; Bellaver, Gabriela; Longoni, Aline; Kolling, Janaina; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT 1 proteins in cells by immunofluorescence. Next, we determined the concentrations of thirteen amino acids, ATP, ADP, adenosine and calcium in astrocyte cultures, as well as the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase. Furthermore, we assessed the presence of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1) in the astrocytes. Cells demonstrated the presence of glutamine, consistent with their role in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as glutamate and D-serine, amino acids classically known to act as gliotransmitters. ATP was produced and released by the cells and ADP was consumed. Calcium levels were in agreement with those reported in the literature, as were the enzymatic activities measured. The presence of GAT 1 was detected, but the presence of CB 1 was not, suggesting a decreased neuroprotective capacity in adult astrocytes under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our results show cellular functionality regarding the astrocytic role in gliotransmission and neurotransmitter management since they are able to produce and release gliotransmitters and to modulate the cholinergic and GABAergic systems.

  11. Susceptibility to inhaled flame-generated ultrafine soot in neonatal and adult rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jackie K W; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Anderson, Donald S; Abid, Aamir D; Wallis, Christopher D; Dickinson, Dale A; Kumfer, Benjamin M; Kennedy, Ian M; Wexler, Anthony S; Van Winkle, Laura S

    2011-12-01

    Over a quarter of the U.S. population is exposed to harmful levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution, which has been linked to development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases leading to morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Young children are especially susceptible to PM and can experience altered anatomic, physiologic, and biological responses. Current studies of ambient PM are confounded by the complex mixture of soot, metals, allergens, and organics present in the complex mixture as well as seasonal and temporal variance. We have developed a laboratory-based PM devoid of metals and allergens that can be replicated to study health effects of specific PM components in animal models. We exposed 7-day-old postnatal and adult rats to a single 6-h exposure of fuel-rich ultrafine premixed flame particles (PFPs) or filtered air. These particles are high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content. Pulmonary cytotoxicity, gene, and protein expression were evaluated at 2 and 24 h postexposure. Neonates were more susceptible to PFP, exhibiting increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and ethidium homodimer-1 cellular staining in the lung in situ as an index of cytotoxicity. Basal gene expression between neonates and adults differed for a significant number of antioxidant, oxidative stress, and proliferation genes and was further altered by PFP exposure. PFP diminishes proliferation marker PCNA gene and protein expression in neonates but not adults. We conclude that neonates have an impaired ability to respond to environmental exposures that increases lung cytotoxicity and results in enhanced susceptibility to PFP, which may lead to abnormal airway growth.

  12. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood.

  13. Effects of neonatally administered chlorpromazine and reserpine on the responsiveness of rat hepatic drug-metabolising enzymes to testosterone in adult life.

    PubMed

    Finnen, M J; Hassall, K A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of neonatally administered chlorpromazine and reserpine on the response of rat hepatic drug-metabolising enzymes to testosterone in adult life have been investigated using the chlorinated cyclodiene substrate DME. Neonatal treatment with chlorpromazine and reserpine had effects on the metabolism of DME similar to, but not as pronounced as, those of castration when adult. The effects of adult castration of male rats on hepatic microsomal metabolism of DME were fully reversed by treatment with testosterone propionate, with metabolism being restored to that of a control intact male. However, testosterone propionate treatment of either intact or castrated adult males that had received neonatal reserpine or chlorpromazine did not restore levels of metabolism to those characteristic of control adult male rats. These results suggest that neonatally administered chlorpromazine and reserpine alter the sensitivity of hepatic drug-metabolising enzymes to the actions of testosterone in adult life.

  14. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following a... Bill) that amended the Cotton Research and Promotion Act (Cotton Act). The 2008 Farm Bill provided...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  5. Systemic elevation of interleukin-15 in vivo promotes apoptosis in skeletal muscles of young adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Emidio E; Alway, Stephen E

    2008-08-15

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that systemic elevation of IL-15 would attenuate apoptosis in skeletal muscles of aged rats. IL-15 was administered to young adult (n=6) and aged (n=6) rats for 14 days. Apoptosis was quantified using an ELISA assay and verified through TUNEL staining of muscle sections. As expected, apoptosis was greater in muscles from aged control rats, compared to age-matched control. Apoptosis was also greater in the muscles from young adult and aged rats treated with IL-15. These increases in apoptosis were associated with decreases in muscle mass of IL-15 treated rats. These data do not support our initial hypothesis and suggest that systemic elevation of IL-15 promotes apoptosis in skeletal muscle. The proposed anti-apoptotic property of IL-15 may be specific to cell-type and/or the degree of muscle pathology present; however, additional research is required to more clearly decipher its role in skeletal muscle.

  6. Evaluation of amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization enhancing effect of Centella asiatica (Linn) fresh leaf extract in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mohandas Rao, K G; Rao, Muddanna S; Rao, Gurumadhva S

    2012-12-03

    OBJECTIVE: Centella asiatica (CeA), a creeper, growing in moist places in India and other Asian countries. Leaves of CeA are used for memory enhancement in Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternative system of medicine originated from India. In the present study, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf extract treatment on adult rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: Adult rats (2.5-month old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 mL/(day kg) of fresh leaf extract of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period the rats were killed, brains were removed and amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Such silver impregnated amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with those of age matched control rats. RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in the dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points in amygdaloid neurons of the rats treated with higher dose [6 mL/(day·kg)] of CeA for longer period of time (i.e. 6 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Constituents/active principles present CeA fresh leaf extract has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders.

  7. Long-lasting alterations of hippocampal GABAergic neurotransmission in adult rats following perinatal Δ(9)-THC exposure.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Morgano, Lucia; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Luca

    2017-03-01

    The long-lasting effects of gestational cannabinoids exposure on the adult brain of the offspring are still controversial. It has already been shown that pre- or perinatal cannabinoids exposure induces learning and memory disruption in rat adult offspring, associated with permanent alterations of cortical glutamatergic neurotransmission and cognitive deficits. In the present study, the risk of long-term consequences induced by perinatal exposure to cannabinoids on rat hippocampal GABAergic system of the offspring, has been explored. To this purpose, pregnant rats were treated daily with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC; 5mg/kg) or its vehicle. Perinatal exposure to Δ(9)-THC induced a significant reduction (p<0.05) in basal and K(+)-evoked [(3)H]-GABA outflow of 90-day-old rat hippocampal slices. These effects were associated with a reduction of hippocampal [(3)H]-GABA uptake compared to vehicle exposed group. Perinatal exposure to Δ(9)-THC induced a significant reduction of CB1 receptor binding (Bmax) in the hippocampus of 90-day-old rats. However, a pharmacological challenge with either Δ(9)-THC (0.1μM) or WIN55,212-2 (2μM), similarly reduced K(+)-evoked [(3)H]-GABA outflow in both experimental groups. These reductions were significantly blocked by adding the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A. These findings suggest that maternal exposure to cannabinoids induces long-term alterations of hippocampal GABAergic system. Interestingly, previous behavioral studies demonstrated that, under the same experimental conditions as in the present study, perinatal cannabinoids exposure induced cognitive impairments in adult rats, thus resembling some effects observed in humans. Although it is difficult and sometimes misleading to extrapolate findings obtained from animal models to humans, the possibility that an alteration of hippocampus aminoacidergic transmission might underlie, at least in part, some of the cognitive deficits affecting the offspring of

  8. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance.

  9. Cotton insect pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production is challenged worldwide by a diversity of arthropod pests that require management to prevent or reduce crop damage. Advances in arthropod control technologies and improved insect and crop management systems have dramatically reduced levels of arthropod damage and the need for inse...

  10. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  11. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  12. Fabricating Cotton Analytical Devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-30

    A robust, low-cost analytical device should be user-friendly, rapid, and affordable. Such devices should also be able to operate with scarce samples and provide information for follow-up treatment. Here, we demonstrate the development of a cotton-based urinalysis (i.e., nitrite, total protein, and urobilinogen assays) analytical device that employs a lateral flow-based format, and is inexpensive, easily fabricated, rapid, and can be used to conduct multiple tests without cross-contamination worries. Cotton is composed of cellulose fibers with natural absorptive properties that can be leveraged for flow-based analysis. The simple but elegant fabrication process of our cotton-based analytical device is described in this study. The arrangement of the cotton structure and test pad takes advantage of the hydrophobicity and absorptive strength of each material. Because of these physical characteristics, colorimetric results can persistently adhere to the test pad. This device enables physicians to receive clinical information in a timely manner and shows great potential as a tool for early intervention.