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Sample records for adult cpa risk

  1. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  2. A Note of Caution: The International CPA Designation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA) is pursuing initiatives to make the U.S. Uniform CPA Examination more accessible to candidates outside of the United States. At the heart of their plan is a desire to ensure that the U.S.-CPA retains its position as a gold standard in the world of professional accountancy. Over the…

  3. 7 CFR 1773.5 - Qualifications of CPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... currently being reviewed (reciprocal reviews). After the initial peer review has been performed, the CPA... promoter, underwriter, trustee, director, officer, or employee. (c) Peer review requirement. The CPA must belong to and participate in a peer review program, and must have undergone a satisfactory peer review...

  4. A photovoice study of older adults' conceptualizations of risk.

    PubMed

    Rush, Kathy L; Murphy, Mary Ann; Kozak, Jean Francois

    2012-12-01

    Risk is a multifaceted and complex concept that mediates quality of life through the balance between risk taking and risk avoidance. Society expects older adults to identify and manage their personal risks yet little is known about the meaning of risk in their daily lives and how they balance the tensions between taking and avoiding risks. Therefore the purpose of this study was to explore how older adults construe risk. A qualitative exploratory study that incorporated photovoice methodology was used. Seventeen older adults, over a weeklong period, took pictures and kept a log of the places, spaces, events, activities, or situations that best represented risk. Subsequently, they participated in a follow-up individual interview. Older adults viewed risk both positively and negatively, judging the saliency of a risk according to criteria that related both to the risk itself and to personal characteristics. Although risk was avoided in specific situations, risk taking was participants' primary approach to risk, which assumed three forms: adaptive, opportunistic, and/or unjustifiable. Contrary to societal views, older adults view risk as constructive and personally relevant, and as something to be taken and need to be supported in risk taking rather than risk avoidance. PMID:22939541

  5. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kimberly B.; Grant, Julia D.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric rho = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems – behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD– and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. PMID:27322801

  6. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    PubMed

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322801

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  8. Variants in CPA1 are strongly associated with early-onset chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Heiko; Beer, Sebastian; Rosendahl, Jonas; Chen, Jian-Min; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Masamune, Atsushi; Bence, Melinda; Szmola, Richárd; Oracz, Grzegorz; Macek, Milan; Bhatia, Eesh; Steigenberger, Sandra; Lasher, Denise; Bühler, Florence; Delaporte, Catherine; Tebbing, Johanna; Ludwig, Maren; Pilsak, Claudia; Saum, Karolin; Bugert, Peter; Masson, Emmanuelle; Paliwal, Sumit; Bhaskar, Seema; Sobczynska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Bak, Daniel; Balascak, Ivan; Choudhuri, Gourdas; Reddy, D. Nageshwar; Rao, G. Venkat; Thomas, Varghese; Kume, Kiyoshi; Nakano, Eriko; Kakuta, Yoichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Durko, Lukasz; Szabó, András; Schnúr, Andrea; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Pfützer, Roland; Schneider, Alexander; Groneberg, David Alexander; Braun, Markus; Schmidt, Hartmut; Witt, Ulrike; Friess, Helmut; Algül, Hana; Landt, Olfert; Schuelke, Markus; Krüger, Renate; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Schmidt, Frank; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Müller, Thomas; Janecke, Andreas; Teich, Niels; Grützmann, Robert; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Mössner, Joachim; Keim, Volker; Löhr, Matthias; Férec, Claude; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas. We analyzed CPA1 encoding carboxypeptidase A1 in subjects with non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and controls in a German discovery cohort and three replication cohorts. Functionally impaired variants were present in 29/944 (3.1%) German patients and in 5/3,938 (0.1%) controls (odds ratio [OR] = 24.9; P = 1.5 × 10-16). The association was strongest in subjects aged ≤10 years (9.7%; OR = 84.0; P = 4.1 × 10-24). In the replication cohorts, defective CPA1 variants were observed in 8/600 (1.3%) patients and in 9/2,432 (0.4%) controls from Europe (P = 0.01), in 5/230 (2.2%) patients and 0/264 controls from India (P = 0.02), and in 5/247 (2.0%) patients but 0/341 controls from Japan (P = 0.013). The mechanism of increased pancreatitis risk by CPA1 variants may involve misfolding-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress rather than elevated trypsin activity as seen with other genetic risk factors. PMID:23955596

  9. Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. PMID:23509627

  10. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  11. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  12. Pathways to health risk exposure in adult film performers.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers' exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  13. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26469872

  14. Fabrication of CPA Salt Pill with Circulating Solution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, A.; Tokoi, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; McCammon, D.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on fabrication of a Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill. CPA is a typical paramagnetic salt used as refrigerant of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) because of its low Curie point, 4 11 mK. We made an test model of CPA salt pill by fast crystallizing method, namely circulating solution between 36°C and 15°C. The crystallizing rate was 0.5 g h-1, and 40 g of CPA crystal was obtained inside a stainless steel cylinder equipped with 160 copper wires. The cooling test was operated utilizing a commercial ADR system. We attached three thermometers and four heaters to the salt pill, in order to measure thermal conductance among different parts of the pill. It is confirmed that our salt pill was cooled down from B/ T=4 T/2 K to 64 mK at zero magnetic field. We suspect the cause of limiting the cooling temperature in the present level to be the dehydration of CPA, non-uniformity of magnetic field, and stainless steel of the pill which has large heat capacity below 0.1 K.

  15. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  16. EVALUATING RISK IN OLDER ADULTS USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  18. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  19. Risk Factors among Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing…

  20. Close-packed-array (CPA) thermoelectric module development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Wayne M.

    The technical approach for modifying the current two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) thermoelectric module to expand its applicability to more severe terrestrial applications and planetary space missions is to increase the operating temperature capability of the current design as well as reconfigure the minicouple array into a more densely packed CPA arrangement with the objective of increasing the module dynamic loading capability while minimizing size and weight. Use of the CPA technology will result in approximately a factor of five reduction in the area of the thermoelectric module cross section from the current minicouple packing density exemplified by the two-watt module.

  1. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  2. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Steven M.; Duffy, John

    2013-01-01

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p < .05) and also had a higher discount rate (15.6-21.0% vs. 10.3-15.5%, p < .01), indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan. PMID:24319671

  3. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555

  4. 7 CFR 1773.5 - Qualifications of CPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... promoter, underwriter, trustee, director, officer, or employee. (c) Peer review requirement. The CPA must belong to and participate in a peer review program, and must have undergone a satisfactory peer review of the accounting and audit practice conducted by an approved peer review program under paragraph...

  5. 7 CFR 1773.5 - Qualifications of CPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promoter, underwriter, trustee, director, officer, or employee. (c) Peer review requirement. The CPA must belong to and participate in a peer review program, and must have undergone a satisfactory peer review of the accounting and audit practice conducted by an approved peer review program under paragraph...

  6. 7 CFR 1773.5 - Qualifications of CPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... promoter, underwriter, trustee, director, officer, or employee. (c) Peer review requirement. The CPA must belong to and participate in a peer review program, and must have undergone a satisfactory peer review of the accounting and audit practice conducted by an approved peer review program under paragraph...

  7. 7 CFR 1773.5 - Qualifications of CPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... promoter, underwriter, trustee, director, officer, or employee. (c) Peer review requirement. The CPA must belong to and participate in a peer review program, and must have undergone a satisfactory peer review of the accounting and audit practice conducted by an approved peer review program under paragraph...

  8. The CPA Exam as a Postcurriculum Accreditation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barilla, Anthony G.; Jackson, Robert E.; Mooney, J. Lowell

    2008-01-01

    Business schools often attain accreditation to demonstrate program efficacy. J. A. Marts, J. D. Baker, and J. M. Garris (1988) hypothesized that candidates from Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB)-accredited accounting programs perform better on the CPA exam than do candidates from non-AACSB-accredited…

  9. The 150-Hour Requirement for CPA Licensure: One Institution's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all states now require candidates for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) examination and subsequent licensure to have completed 150 semester hours of college education. The rationale behind this requirement is to improve the preparation of students entering the profession and to increase their chances of successful completion of the…

  10. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2010-01-01

    Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive. PMID:20623001

  11. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M

    2012-04-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

  12. Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults.

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, P; Melamid, E; Burnam, m A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This effort used data from the Course of Homelessness study and comparative secondary data on the general population to identify negative childhood and family background experiences that may increase risk for adult homelessness. METHODS. Frequencies of negative childhood experiences were examined among a probability sample of 1563 homeless adults. Differences in risk for such experiences were calculated by sex, age cohort, and racial/ethnicity status. Where possible, rates of negative childhood experiences among the homeless were compared with the general population. RESULTS. Substantial numbers of this sample experienced multiple problems as children across several domains: poverty, residential instability, and family problems. Women and Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of poverty. Homeless adults were at increased risk of childhood out-of-home placement, tenure in public housing, and homelessness, but not at greater risk for physical abuse. Women appeared to be at greater risk for sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS. The problems that homeless individuals experience as adults have very clear analogs in their childhoods. Vulnerability to homelessness stems from factors unevenly distributed across age, sex, and race/ethnicity groups. PMID:7503338

  13. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  14. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010–2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results. We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions. We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  15. Perinatal Immunotoxicity: Why Adult Exposure Assessment Fails to Predict Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Piepenbrink, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has pointed to the developing immune system as a remarkably sensitive toxicologic target for environmental chemicals and drugs. In fact, the perinatal period before and just after birth is replete with dynamic immune changes, many of which do not occur in adults. These include not only the basic maturation and distribution of immune cell types and selection against autoreactive lymphocytes but also changes designed specifically to protect the pregnancy against immune-mediated miscarriage. The newborn is then faced with critical immune maturational adjustments to achieve an immune balance necessary to combat myriad childhood and later-life diseases. All these processes set the fetus and neonate completely apart from the adult regarding immunotoxicologic risk. Yet for decades, safety evaluation has relied almost exclusively upon exposure of the adult immune system to predict perinatal immune risk. Recent workshops and forums have suggested a benefit in employing alternative exposures that include exposure throughout early life stages. However, issues remain concerning when and where such applications might be required. In this review we discuss the reasons why immunotoxic assessment is important for current childhood diseases and why adult exposure assessment cannot predict the effect of xenobiotics on the developing immune system. It also provides examples of developmental immunotoxicants where age-based risk appears to differ. Finally, it stresses the need to replace adult exposure assessment for immune evaluation with protocols that can protect the developing immune system. PMID:16581533

  16. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  17. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  18. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  19. Risk factors for death among adults with severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Omachi, Theodore A; Iribarren, Carlos; Sarkar, Urmimala; Tolstykh, Irina; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mortality risk in adult asthma is poorly understood, especially the interplay between race, disease severity, and health-care access. Objective To examine mortality risk factors in adult asthma. Methods In a prospective cohort study of 865 adults with severe asthma in a closed-panel managed-care organization, we used structured interviews to assess baseline sociodemographics, asthma history, and health status. Subjects were followed until death or end of study, with a two-year average follow-up time. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the impact of sociodemographics, cigarette smoking, and validated measures of perceived asthma control, physical health status, and severity-of-asthma on the risk of death. Results We confirmed 123 deaths, a mortality rate of 6.7 per 100 person-years. In analysis adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco history, higher severity-of-asthma scores (hazard ratios [HR], 1.11 per ½ standard deviation increase in severity-of-asthma score; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 - 1.23) and lower perceived asthma control scores (HR, 0.91 per ½ standard deviation increase in perceived asthma control score, 95% CI, 0.83 - 0.99) were each associated with risk of all-cause mortality. In the same adjusted analysis, African American race was not associated with an increased mortality risk relative to white race (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.35 - 1.12). Conclusions In a large managed-care organization in which access to care is unlikely to vary widely, greater severity-of-asthma scores and poorer perceived asthma control scores are each associated with increased mortality risk among adults with severe asthma, but African Americans are not at increased risk of death relative to whites. PMID:18727467

  20. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  1. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  2. Latent Model Analysis of Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Minority Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min Qi; Matthew, Resa F.; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Yan, Fang; Bellamy, Nikki D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated substance use and HIV risk profile using a latent model analysis based on ecological theory, inclusive of a risk and protective factor framework, in sexually active minority adults (N=1,056) who participated in a federally funded substance abuse and HIV prevention health initiative from 2002 to 2006. Methods: Data…

  3. Close-packed-array (CPA) thermoelectric module development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Wayne M.

    1991-01-01

    Prior effort on the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Special Applications Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Technology Program and Two-Watt RTG Program has focused on terrestrial applications where the RTG will be exposed to relatively low temperature thermal environments (subsea). Thus, effort has been oriented towards design optimization at cold junction temperatures in the 10 to 93 °C (50 to 200 °F) range. However, for other more severe design environments (such as space applications where a high heat rejection radiator temperature in the 177 to 204 °C (350 to 400 °F) range is required to minimize RTG size and weight, and high g shock/vibration capability is necessary) a modified thermoelectric module design is dictated. In order to minimize the RTG system size and weight, and to increase the mechanical strength of the thermoelectric module to withstand increased dynamic loads, a close-packed-array (CPA) module configuration is desirable. The monolithic nature of such a module generally results in greater shear and compression load capability than free-standing individual couples. A CPA module is especially attractive for terrestrial and space applications where severe structural loads will be imposed such as airborne deployment or planetary landers and penetrators. An additional benefit of the CPA module is the potential for obtaining higher output voltage and increased circuit redundancy. The CPA module construction will permit fabrication and installation of smaller cross section thermoelectric minicouples due to the enhanced structural configuration. This is an important factor for small size, low power, high voltage terrestrial and space RTSs as well as modularity considerations in higher power space RTGs where circuit redundancy as well as high voltage are desirable.

  4. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159737.html Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors say the ... day be able to predict the risk for Alzheimer's disease in young adults, a new study suggests. ...

  5. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: High Blood Pressure More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously believed. With more ...

  6. Social Support and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Daphne C.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are prevalent among Black adults. Studies have demonstrated that functional social support buffers CVD risk. The objective of this study is to assess whether specific types of functional social support or their cumulative total buffers CVD risk factors among a convenience sample of Black adults, and whether these associations differ by gender or partner status. Design Cross-sectional study using self-reported survey data. Setting Large church in Houston, TX. Participants A total of 1,381 Black adults reported their perceived social support using appraisal, belonging, and tangible subscales of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12. A cumulative score was created based on the three subscales. Participants also reported on a number of socio-demographic characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Three self-reported CVD risk factors: diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol (yes versus no). Results A series of multivariate logistic regressions controlling for socio-demographic characteristics were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVD risk factors. Cumulative social support, rather than any specific type of social support, was significantly related to diabetes and high blood pressure. Higher cumulative social support was associated with lower odds of experiencing diabetes (aOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99) and high blood pressure (aOR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.95, 0.99). Neither gender nor partner status moderated associations. Conclusion In a high risk population for CVD, increasing all types of social support - appraisal, belonging, and tangible - might be useful in preventing or delaying the onset of CVD. PMID:25417427

  7. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this “toxic” stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = −0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  8. Dopamine Genetic Risk Score Predicts Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Adults and Adults with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Mortero, Sarah; Devan, William J.; Falcone, Guido J.; Lee, Phil; Holmes, Avram J.; Hollinshead, Marisa O.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Rosand, Jonathan; Cramer, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common source of human disability for which etiologic insights remain limited. Although abnormalities of monoamine neurotransmission, including dopamine, are theorized to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression, evidence linking dopamine-related genes to depression has been mixed. The current study sought to address this knowledge-gap by examining whether the combined effect of dopamine polymorphisms was associated with depressive symptomatology in both healthy individuals and individuals with depression. Methods Data were drawn from three independent samples: (1) a discovery sample of healthy adult participants (n = 273); (2) a replication sample of adults with depression (n = 1,267); and (3) a replication sample of healthy adult participants (n = 382). A genetic risk score was created by combining functional polymorphisms from five genes involved in synaptic dopamine availability (COMT and DAT) and dopamine receptor binding (DRD1, DRD2, DRD3). Results In the discovery sample, the genetic risk score was associated with depressive symptomatology (β = −0.80, p = 0.003), with lower dopamine genetic risk scores (indicating lower dopaminergic neurotransmission) predicting higher levels of depression. This result was replicated with a similar genetic risk score based on imputed genetic data from adults with depression (β = −0.51, p = 0.04). Results were of similar magnitude and in the expected direction in a cohort of healthy adult participants (β = −0.86, p = 0.15). Conclusions Sequence variation in multiple genes regulating dopamine neurotransmission may influence depressive symptoms, in a manner that appears to be additive. Further studies are required to confirm the role of genetic variation in dopamine metabolism and depression. PMID:24834916

  9. Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease among Navajo adults.

    PubMed

    Watt, James P; O'Brien, Katherine L; Benin, Andrea L; McCoy, Sandra I; Donaldson, Connie M; Reid, Raymond; Schuchat, Anne; Zell, Elizabeth R; Hochman, Michael; Santosham, Mathuram; Whitney, Cynthia G

    2007-11-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is 3-5 times more common among Navajo adults than in the general US population. The authors conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for IPD among Navajo adults. Navajos aged > or =18 years with IPD were identified through prospective, population-based active laboratory surveillance (December 1999-February 2002). Controls matched to cases on age, gender, and neighborhood were selected. Risk factors were identified through structured interviews and medical record reviews. The authors conducted a matched analysis based on 118 cases and 353 controls. Risk factors included in the final multivariable analysis were chronic renal failure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 7.7), congestive heart failure (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.5), self-reported alcohol use or alcoholism (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 5.4), body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) <5th (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.6) or >95th (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 8.0) percentile, and unemployment (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.5). The population attributable fractions were 10% for chronic renal failure, 18% for congestive heart failure, 30% for self-reported alcohol use or alcoholism, 6% for body mass index, and 20% for unemployment. Several modifiable risk factors for IPD in Navajos were identified. The high prevalence of renal failure, alcoholism, and unemployment among Navajo adults compared with the general US population may explain some of their increased risk of IPD. PMID:17693393

  10. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV. PMID:26271817

  11. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

  12. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  13. Psychosocial Distress and Stroke Risk in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kimberly M.; Clark, Cari J.; Lewis, Tené T.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Beck, Todd; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Brearley, Ann; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of psychosocial distress with risk of stroke mortality and incident stroke in older adults. Methods Data were from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a longitudinal population-based study conducted in three contiguous neighborhoods on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. Participants were community-dwelling black and non-Hispanic white adults, age 65 and older (N=4,120 for stroke mortality; N=2,649 for incident stroke). Psychosocial distress was an analytically-derived composite measure of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, neuroticism, and life dissatisfaction. Cox proportional hazards models examined the association of distress with stroke mortality and incident stroke over 6 years of follow-up. Results 151 stroke deaths and 452 incident strokes were identified. Adjusting for age, race, and sex, the hazard ratio (HR) for each 1-SD increase in distress was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.28–1.70) for stroke mortality and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07–1.30) for incident stroke. Associations were reduced following adjustment for stroke risk factors and remained significant for stroke mortality (HR=1.29; 95% CI=1.10–1.52) but not for incident stroke (HR=1.09; 95% CI=0.98–1.21). Secondary analyses of stroke subtypes showed that distress was strongly related to incident hemorrhagic strokes (HR=1.70; 95% CI=1.28–2.25) but not ischemic strokes (HR=1.02; 95% CI=0.91–1.15) in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing levels of psychosocial distress are related to excess risk of both fatal and nonfatal stroke in older black and white adults. Additional research is needed to examine pathways linking psychosocial distress to cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:23238864

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Hovi, Petteri; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sundvall, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Adults who were born preterm with a very low birth weight have higher blood pressure and impaired glucose regulation later in life compared with those born at term. We investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were born at any degree of prematurity in the Preterm Birth and Early Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease (ESTER) Study, a population-based cohort study of individuals born in 1985–1989 in Northern Finland. In 2009–2011, 3 groups underwent clinical examination: 134 participants born at less than 34 gestational weeks (early preterm), 242 born at 34–36 weeks (late preterm), and 344 born at 37 weeks or later (controls). Compared with controls, adults who were born preterm had higher body fat percentages (after adjustment for sex, age, and cohort (1985–1986 or 1987–1989), for those born early preterm, difference = 6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 13.2; for those born late preterm, difference = 8.0%, 95% CI: 2.4, 13.8), waist circumferences, blood pressure (for those born early preterm, difference = 3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.9, 5.1; for those born late preterm, difference = 1.7, 95% CI: −0.1, 3.4), plasma uric acid levels (for those born early preterm, difference = 20.1%, 95% CI: 7.9, 32.3; for those born late preterm, difference = 20.2%, 95% CI: 10.7, 30.5), alanine aminotransferase levels, and aspartate transaminase levels. They were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome (for those born early preterm, odds ratio = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.2; for those born late preterm, odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3). Elevated levels of conventional and emerging risk factors suggest a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease later in life. These risk factors are also present in the large group of adults born late preterm. PMID:25947956

  15. Improving Medication Management among At-risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Delinda; Kripalani, Sunil; DuPapau, V.J.

    2013-01-01

    Low health literacy is common among Medicare recipients and affects their understanding of complex medication regimens. Interventions are needed to improve medication use among older adults, while addressing low health literacy. Community-dwelling older adults in this study were enrolled in an inner-city adult day center. They completed a baseline measure of health literacy, medication self-efficacy, and medication adherence. They were provided with a personalized, illustrated daily medication schedule (PictureRx™). Six weeks later, their medication self-efficacy and adherence were assessed. Among the 20 participants in this pilot project, 70% had high likelihood of limited health literacy and took an average of 13.2 prescription medications. Both self-efficacy and medication adherence increased significantly after provision of the PictureRx cards (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Al participants rated the PictureRx cards as very helpful in terms of helping them remember the medication’s purpose and dosing. Illustrated daily medication schedules improve medication self-efficacy and adherence among at-risk, community-dwelling older adults. PMID:22587641

  16. Pre-experiment testing of the Multi Channel Systems 16-channel preamplifier CPA16

    SciTech Connect

    Patin, J B; Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Friensehner, A V

    2003-11-03

    The 16-channel preamplifier model CPA16 from Multi Channel Systems was studied. The CPA16 preamplifier/amplifier module is a candidate to be used as the preamplifiers and amplifiers for the focal plane detectors of the Mass Analyzer of Super Heavy Atoms (MASHA). The equipment used to test the CPA16, the results of testing the CPA16 with a pulser, a mixed {sup 229}Th/{sup 148}Gd source and a {sup 252}Cf source, and a summary of the results will be presented.

  17. Different risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN) according to age in Koreans. METHODS: A total of 70428 Koreans from an occupational cohort who underwent a colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were retrospectively selected. We evaluated and compared odds ratios (OR) for ACRN between the young-adults (YA < 50 years) and in the older-adults (OA ≥ 50 years). ACRN was defined as an adenoma ≥ 10 mm in diameter, adenoma with any component of villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer. RESULTS: In the YA group, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02-1.55), current smoking (OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.10), diabetes mellitus related factors (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.54), obesity (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.03-1.47), CEA (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02) were related with an increased risk of ACRN. However, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.68-2.68), current smoking (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.12-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.65) and CEA (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) also increased the risk of ACRN in the OA group. CONCLUSION: The risks of ACRN differed based on age group. Different colonoscopic screening strategies are appropriate for particular subjects with risk factors for ACRN, even in subjects younger than 50 years. PMID:27053853

  18. Close-packed-array (CPA) thermoelectric module development status

    SciTech Connect

    Brittain, W.M. )

    1991-01-05

    Prior effort on the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Special Applications Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Technology Program and Two-Watt RTG Program has focused on terrestrial applications where the RTG will be exposed to relatively low temperature thermal environments (subsea). Thus, effort has been oriented towards design optimization at cold junction temperatures in the 10 to 93 {degree}C (50 to 200 {degree}F) range. However, for other more severe design environments (such as space applications where a high heat rejection radiator temperature in the 177 to 204 {degree}C (350 to 400 {degree}F) range is required to minimize RTG size and weight, and high g shock/vibration capability is necessary) a modified thermoelectric module design is dictated. In order to minimize the RTG system size and weight, and to increase the mechanical strength of the thermoelectric module to withstand increased dynamic loads, a close-packed-array (CPA) module configuration is desirable. The monolithic nature of such a module generally results in greater shear and compression load capability than free-standing individual couples. A CPA module is especially attractive for terrestrial and space applications where severe structural loads will be imposed such as airborne deployment or planetary landers and penetrators.

  19. Statistical physics of multicomponent alloys using KKR-CPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Suffian N.; Staunton, J. B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2016-02-01

    We apply variational principles from statistical physics and the Landau theory of phase transitions to multicomponent alloys using the multiple-scattering theory of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). This theory is a multicomponent generalization of the S(2 ) theory of binary alloys developed by G. M. Stocks, J. B. Staunton, D. D. Johnson, and others. It is highly relevant to the chemical phase stability of high-entropy alloys as it predicts the kind and size of finite-temperature chemical fluctuations. In doing so, it includes effects of rearranging charge and other electronics due to changing site occupancies. When chemical fluctuations grow without bound, an absolute instability occurs and a second-order order-disorder phase transition may be inferred. The S(2 ) theory is predicated on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem; thus we derive the linear response of the CPA medium to perturbations in site-dependent chemical potentials in great detail. The theory lends itself to a natural interpretation in terms of competing effects: entropy driving disorder and favorable pair interactions driving atomic ordering. To further clarify interpretation, we present results for representative ternary alloys CuAgAu, NiPdPt, RhPdAg, and CoNiCu within a frozen charge (or band-only) approximation. These results include the so-called Onsager mean-field correction that extends the temperature range for which the theory is valid.

  20. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among US Adolescents and Young Adults and Risk of Early Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Saydah, Sharon; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Geiss, Linda; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of mortality associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a national sample of adolescents and young adults. METHODS Prospective study of participants in the third NHANES (1988–1994), aged 12 to 39 years at the time of the survey (n = 9245). Risk factors included 3 measures of adiposity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, self-reported smoking status, and cotinine level. Death before age 55 (n = 298) was determined by linkage to the National Death Index through 2006. Proportional hazards models, with age as the time scale, were used to determine the risk of death before age 55 years after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and presence of comorbid conditions. RESULTS After adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, results of categorical analyses showed that current smokers were at 86% greater risk for early death than those classified as never smokers; that those with a waist-to-height ratio >0.65 were at 139% greater risk than those with a WHR <0.5; and that those with an HbA1c level >6.5% were at 281% greater risk than those with an HbA1c level <5.7%. Neither high-density lipoprotein nor non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol measures were associated with risk for early death. CONCLUSIONS Our finding that risk for death before age 55 among US adolescents and young adults was associated with central obesity, smoking, and hyperglycemia supports reducing the prevalence of these risk factors among younger US residents. PMID:23420920

  1. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  2. Relationship between hemoglobin and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, T; Bild, D E

    1993-11-01

    To understand mechanisms of association between hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relationships between hemoglobin and CVD risk factors were examined in 5115 black and white men and women who participated in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Hemoglobin was higher in men than women, whites than blacks, and smokers than non-smokers (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking status, and clinical center, hemoglobin correlated with diastolic blood pressure (0.11 < or = r < or = 0.22, p < 0.001) and plasma total cholesterol (0.08 < or = r < or = 0.11, p < 0.01) in all four race-sex groups and with systolic blood pressure in all but black women (0.07 < or = r < or = 0.13, p < 0.05). Among other factors possibly related to CVD risk, only serum albumin and white blood cell count showed significant correlations with hemoglobin in all groups (0.19 < or = r < or = 0.27, 0.07 < or = r < or = 0.18, respectively). These findings suggest that an association of hemoglobin with CVD risk factors may explain the association of hemoglobin with CVD. PMID:8229103

  3. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  4. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes. PMID:27212806

  5. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

  6. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  7. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... 12 ounces of beer or five ounces of wine.) Finally, quit smoking. Among other things, smoking damages ...

  8. Adult leukemia risk and personal appliance use: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lovely, R H; Buschbom, R L; Slavich, A L; Anderson, L E; Hansen, N H; Wilson, B W

    1994-09-15

    The hypothesis that use of personal electric appliances may be associated with increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults was tested using interview data from a previously completed case-control study of 114 cases and 133 controls conducted between 1981 and 1984. Cases were obtained from a population-based cancer registry in western Washington state, and controls were obtained from the same area by random digit dialing. Of 32 electrical home appliances for which data on use were available for adult acute nonlymphocytic leukemia cases and controls, three motor-driven personal appliances (electric razors, hair dryers, and massage units) were selected a priori because their use represents exposure to higher peak magnetic fields than that from most other home appliances. When compared on an "ever used" versus "never used" basis, use of one or more of these appliances was not associated with increased risk of leukemia in the population studied (odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-1.24). When the appliances were considered individually, massage units were more likely to have been used by cases than by controls (OR = 3.00, 95% CI 1.43-6.32), while hair dryers were more likely to have been used by controls than cases (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.22-0.66). There was a nonsignificant tendency for electric razor use to differentiate the cases from controls (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.80-2.23). When reported daily time of use was stratified, there was no overall increased risk with increased time of use except for electric razors (p < 0.05). In addition to the analysis of appliance use data from the case-control study, the authors obtained several models of these motor-driven personal appliances and characterized the magnetic fields they produce. Magnetic field flux density, or the B-field, and spectral measurements showed that partial body exposure from such appliances may exceed 0.5 mTesla (root mean squared) at rates-of-change exceeding 10 Tesla

  9. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  10. Variables Affecting Emerging Adults' Self-Reported Risk and Reckless Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duangpatra, Krisna N. K.; Bradley, Graham L.; Glendon, A. Ian

    2009-01-01

    Young adults' behaviors are frequently characterized by risk-taking and recklessness. Few studies have examined the correlates of risk and reckless behaviors in emerging adults. Drawing on theories emphasising multifactorial effects of personality, social, and cognitive variables, this study explores psychosocial factors contributing to risk and…

  11. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  12. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  13. Triptans Use for Migraine Headache among Nonelderly Adults with Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and triptans use among adults with migraine. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used. Data were derived from 2009–2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The study sample consisted of adults (age > 21 years) with migraine headache (N = 1,652). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between CV risk factors and triptans use. Results. Overall, 21% adults with migraine headache used triptans. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of adults with migraine had at least one CV risk factor. A significantly lower percentage of adults with CV risk (18.1%) used triptans compared to those without CV risk factors (25.5%). After controlling for demographic, socioeconomic status, access to care, and health status, adults with no CV risk factors were more likely to use triptans as compared to those with one CV risk factor (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.17–2.87). There were no statistically significant differences in triptans use between those with two or more CV risk factors and those with one CV risk factor. Conclusion. An overwhelming majority of adults with migraine had a contraindication to triptans based on their CV risk factors. The use of triptans among adults with migraine and multiple CV risk factors warrants further investigation.

  14. Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavan, Amanda Hanora; Gallagher, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations. ADR risk increases with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, increasing burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and suboptimal monitoring of drugs. ADRs are a preventable cause of harm to patients and an unnecessary waste of healthcare resources. Several ADR risk tools exist but none has sufficient predictive value for clinical practice. Good clinical practice for detecting and predicting ADRs in vulnerable patients includes detailed documentation and regular review of prescribed and over-the-counter medications through standardized medication reconciliation. New medications should be prescribed cautiously with clear therapeutic goals and recognition of the impact a drug can have on multiple organ systems. Prescribers should regularly review medication efficacy and be vigilant for ADRs and their contributory risk factors. Deprescribing should occur at an individual level when drugs are no longer efficacious or beneficial or when safer alternatives exist. Inappropriate prescribing and unnecessary polypharmacy should be minimized. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and the use of explicit prescribing criteria can be useful in this regard. PMID:26834959

  15. Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lavan, Amanda Hanora; Gallagher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations. ADR risk increases with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, increasing burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and suboptimal monitoring of drugs. ADRs are a preventable cause of harm to patients and an unnecessary waste of healthcare resources. Several ADR risk tools exist but none has sufficient predictive value for clinical practice. Good clinical practice for detecting and predicting ADRs in vulnerable patients includes detailed documentation and regular review of prescribed and over-the-counter medications through standardized medication reconciliation. New medications should be prescribed cautiously with clear therapeutic goals and recognition of the impact a drug can have on multiple organ systems. Prescribers should regularly review medication efficacy and be vigilant for ADRs and their contributory risk factors. Deprescribing should occur at an individual level when drugs are no longer efficacious or beneficial or when safer alternatives exist. Inappropriate prescribing and unnecessary polypharmacy should be minimized. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and the use of explicit prescribing criteria can be useful in this regard. PMID:26834959

  16. Adult sensory capacities as a function of birth risk factors.

    PubMed

    Harland, R E; Coren, S

    1996-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between birth risk factors and sensory capacity in 1245 young adults (mean age = 19.9 years). Nine birth risk factors were included (long labour, breech birth, breathing difficulty, instrument delivery, Caesarian delivery, multiple birth, premature birth, low birth weight, and high-risk birth order) and six sensory capacities were tested (Snellen visual acuity, stereopsis, color discrimination, pure-tone hearing, speech recognition, and sound localization). Mild birth stressors were strongly predictive of reduced visual acuity and stereoscopic discrimination, and mildly predictive for the other sensory measures. The fact that vision was more vulnerable to the effects of birth stress than audition may be due to the slower maturation of the visual system. Of the birth stressors examined, twinning was found to have the largest effect on sensory function, possibly because it often occurs conjointly with other birth stressors such as low birth weight, breech presentation, and breathing difficulty and may involve the use of birthing instruments such as forceps. PMID:8877623

  17. CPA backlighting using 1φ and 2φ light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Steven; Brown, Colin; Hoarty, David

    2007-11-01

    A number of materials modelling and radiation hydrodynamics experiments proposed for high power laser systems have requirements for high-energy (>20keV), high resolution (˜10μm), short duration (>100ps) backlighters. One method of producing such a radiation source is the use of CPA lasers to produce fast-electron induced Kα fluorescence. The work outlined here covers the use of foils and fibres to produce radiographs of test resolution grids. Ag and Pd targets were illuminated with both 1φ and 2φ light from the HELEN CPA laser. Image plates were used to record an image of the test grid, which was used to determine source size and signal to background. An absolutely calibrated transmission crystal spectrograph was used to record the strength of the Kα line, and the conversion efficiency calculated. A hard X-ray spectrometer was used to measure the electron temperature. Conversion efficiencies of 10-4 were measured for 5μm thick foil targets, which produced <10μm resolution in one dimension. Slightly lower efficiencies were measured for 10μm fibre targets, ˜10μm resolution was measured parallel and perpendicular to the laser axis. No measurable effect of pre-pulse on the resolution was measured. The conversion efficiency with S-pol. 2φ laser light was significantly less than with P, as was the hot-electron fraction. P-pol. 2φ light produced lower K-alpha conversion efficiency than P-pol. 1φ, but with the advantage of reduced background.

  18. Left ventricular diastolic function in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Gidding, S S; Gardin, J M; Bild, D E; Wong, N D; Liu, K

    1995-01-01

    Doppler transmitral flow velocities have been used to assess left ventricular diastolic function. Associations of transmitral velocities with specific physiologic variables and cardiovascular risk factors have not been reported previously in a large population-based study of young adults. We performed Doppler analysis of left ventricular inflow in 3492 black and white men and women (aged 23 to 35 years) in the year-5 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. First third filling fraction, peak flow velocity in early diastole (PFVE), peak flow velocity in late diastole (PFVA), and the PFVA/PFVE ratio were measured. Women had higher PFVE and PFVA than had men (PFVE: 0.81 +/- 0.13 m/sec versus 0.76 +/- 0.13 m/sec; PFVA: 0.47 +/- 0.11 m/sec versus 0.43 +/- 0.10 m/sec; both p < 0.001). Gender-specific multiple regression analyses showed that age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular percent fractional shortening, and body weight were independently and positively related to PFVA (all p < 0.001) in men and women. Age, heart rate, and forced expiratory lung capacity in 1 second were inversely related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (both p < 0.01). Left ventricular percent fractional shortening was positively related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (p < 0.001). Age, heart rate, and body weight were positively correlated with the PFVA/PFVE ratio (all p < 0.001). Height had weak negative associations with PFVA and PFVE in women only. These results suggest that, in young adults, Doppler measures of left ventricular diastolic filling are related to age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic function, and lung function. PMID:8611277

  19. Preventing amputation in adults with diabetes: identifying the risks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eleanor

    2015-06-01

    Good management of diabetes can reduce the risk of complications of the disease. When not well managed, diabetes is associated with the complications of heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations. Diabetes can reduce the blood supply to the feet and cause a loss of feeling. As a result, foot injuries do not heal well and the person may not realise that their foot is sore or injured. Damage to the foot may lead to the development of foot ulcers, which if left untreated may result in amputation of the limb. Preventive care is a priority, but when complications occur the next step is to halt progression. Therefore, effective foot care and timely treatment of foot ulcers are important in preserving foot function and mobility, and preventing amputation in adults with diabetes. PMID:26036406

  20. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  1. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159737.html Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene test may one day be able to predict the risk for Alzheimer's ...

  2. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  3. Assessment of Interpersonal Risk (AIR) in Adults with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour--Piloting a New Risk Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…

  4. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  5. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  6. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260

  7. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamiya, Nanako; Okochi, Jiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76%) who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL), and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample) were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16–22.62, p < 0.001), daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39–15.65), feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27–10.48, p < 0.001), and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81–5.91, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each) were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910–5.619), deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948–6.952), dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720–23.643), and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031–2.539). Conclusion The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia

  8. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  9. Risk Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions for Hepatitis B: How Do Young Adults Fare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated in…

  10. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  11. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  12. Novel Carboxypeptidase A6 (CPA6) Mutations Identified in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic and Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sapio, Matthew R.; Vessaz, Monique; Thomas, Pierre; Genton, Pierre; Fricker, Lloyd D.; Salzmann, Annick

    2015-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase A6 (CPA6) is a peptidase that removes C-terminal hydrophobic amino acids from peptides and proteins. The CPA6 gene is expressed in the brains of humans and animals, with high levels of expression during development. It is translated with a prodomain (as proCPA6), which is removed before secretion. The active form of CPA6 binds tightly to the extracellular matrix (ECM) where it is thought to function in the processing of peptides and proteins. Mutations in the CPA6 gene have been identified in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and febrile seizures. In the present study, we screened for CPA6 mutations in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and identified two novel missense mutations: Arg36His and Asn271Ser. Patients harboring these mutations also presented with generalized epilepsy. Neither of the novel mutations was found in a control population. Asn271 is highly conserved in CPA6 and other related metallocarboxypeptidases. Arg36 is present in the prodomain and is not highly conserved. To assess structural consequences of the amino acid substitutions, both mutants were modeled within the predicted structure of the enzyme. To examine the effects of these mutations on enzyme expression and activity, we expressed the mutated enzymes in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. These analyses revealed that Asn271Ser abolished enzymatic activity, while Arg36His led to a ~50% reduction in CPA6 levels in the ECM. Pulse-chase using radio-labeled amino acids was performed to follow secretion. Newly-synthesized CPA6 appeared in the ECM with peak levels between 2-8 hours. There was no major difference in time course between wild-type and mutant forms, although the amount of radiolabeled CPA6 in the ECM was lower for the mutants. Our experiments demonstrate that these mutations in CPA6 are deleterious and provide further evidence for the involvement of CPA6 mutations in the predisposition for several types of epilepsy. PMID:25875328

  13. Integrated pulse stretchers for high-energy CPA and OPCPA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Lawrence; Bodnar, Nathan; Roumayah, Patrick; Webb, Benjamin; Bradford, Joshua; Richardson, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Pulse stretchers are critical components in chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and optical parametric CPA (OPCPA) laser systems. In CPA systems, pulse stretching and compression is typical accomplished using bulk diffraction gratings; however integrated devices such volume or fiber Bragg gratings can provide similar optical performance with significantly smaller footprint and simplified alignment. In this work, we discuss the use of such integrated devices to stretch a 100 fs pulse to 400 ps with customized third order dispersion for use in a multi-TW Ti:Sapphire system as well as integrated optics to control the pulse duration in pump lasers for OPCPA systems.

  14. Evaluation of 3D-CPA, HR-HPV, and TCT joint detection on cervical disease screening

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hui; Fu, Min; Zhou, Jian; Song, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The application value of three-dimensional color power angiography (3D-CPA), high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), ThinPrep cytology test (TCT) joint detection on cervical disease screening was investigated. In total, 1,900 patients that were examined in Gynecological and Cervix Clinic of Maternal and Child Care Service Center of Xuzhou from June 2012 to March 2015 were enrolled in the present study. After admission, the patients underwent TCT, HR-HPV and 3D-CPA examinations, and vascular morphology and typing, vascularization index (VI) were recorded. Colposcopic biopsy was performed in patients with a positive outcome of any of the three indices. Pathological diagnosis was taken as the golden standard to assess the sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic rate, and Youden index of the three methods being used independently or jointly. Of the 1,900 patients, 276 cases (14.53%) were HR-HPV-positive, 214 cases (11.26%) were VI-positive and 164 cases (8.63%) were TCT-positive. A total of 418 cases were confirmed with a positive outcome of any of the three indices and a cervical biopsy was obtained. Of the 418 cases, 162 cases (38.75%) were diagnosed with chronic cervicitis, 146 cases with low-level cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (34.93%), 104 cases (24.88%) with high level CIN, 6 cases (1.44%) with cervical cancer. Histology more than low level CIN was defined as positive: i) screening results when the three methods were used independently: HPV was confirmed with the highest sensitivity (90.63%), VI with the highest specificity (83.95%), and HPV with the highest diagnostic accuracy (83.73%); ii) screening results under HPV+TCT and HPV+TCT+VI: HPV+TCT+VI was confirmed with the highest sensitivity and specificity: sensitivity (94.53%), specificity (81.48%), diagnosis coincidence rate (89.47%) and the highest Youden index of 0.760; and iii) vascular morphology and grading were significantly different in the early stage cervical carcinoma, high level CIM, and

  15. A Nondisclosed CPA Examination: Implications for Education and the Accounting Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Geary, K. Michael

    1994-01-01

    A proposal to change the Uniform CPA Examination from disclosed to nondisclosed (not publicly available after administration) is undesirable due to issues of question quality, test security, public confidence, impact on instruction, and administrative costs. (SK)

  16. Genetic risk factors of cisplatin induced ototoxicity in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Talach, T; Rottenberg, J; Gal, B; Kostrica, R; Jurajda, M; Kocak, I; Lakomy, R; Vogazianos, E

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxicity is an important adverse effect of using Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) (CDDP) as a form of chemotherapy. The clinical picture of CDDP induced ototoxicity includes perceptive hearing impairment (reversible or permanent) and tinnitus. Ototoxicity manifests with considerable variability between patients. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate a possible genetic background to this variability. We assessed ototoxicity induced by therapeutic doses of CDDP in adult patients with germinative testicular tumors, or other tumors treated with an identical CDDP dosage scheme. Audiological examination before, during and after the treatment has shown deterioration in hearing; first in the high-frequencies and with increased CDDP cumulative doses, impairment in other frequencies as well. Occurrence of tinnitus was not dependent on the administered dose of CDDP, or the other risk factors examined in this study. The association of CDDP induced ototoxicity with genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes was examined. Our study has demonstrated an association of early onset of CDDP induced ototoxicity with the presence of two copies of GSTT1 gene (p=0,009) and with T allele of rs9332377 polymorphism in COMT gene (p=0,001). PMID:26774148

  17. Detection and quantification by PCR assay of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 on apples.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Teixidó, Neus; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Torres, Rosario

    2014-04-01

    The registration of biological control agents requires the development of monitoring systems to detect and quantify the agent in the environment. Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 is an effective biocontrol agent for postharvest diseases of citrus and pome fruits. The monitoring of CPA-2 in postharvest semi-commercial trials was evaluated by Rodac impression plates and the colonies isolated were confirmed by conventional PCR using the SCAR primers PAGA1 and PAGB1. Samples were taken from different surfaces that had contact with CPA-2, the surrounding environment and working clothes worn by handlers. Moreover, population dynamics of the strain CPA-2 were determined on apple surfaces using both the classical plating technique and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A qPCR assay using a 3'-minor groove-binding (MGB) probe was developed for the specific detection and quantification of P. agglomerans strain CPA-2. Based on the nucleotide sequence of a SCAR fragment of CPA-2, one primer set and TaqMan MGB probe were designed. The primers SP2-F/SP2-R and the TaqMan MGB probe showed a specific detection of strain CPA-2 on apple surfaces, which was verified tested against purified DNA from 17 strains of P. agglomerans, 4 related Pantoea species, and 21 bacterial strains from other genera isolated from whole and also freshly-cut fruit and vegetables. The detection level was approximately 10(3) cells per reaction, and the standard curve was linear within a range of 5log units. Results from semi-commercial trials showed that CPA-2 had a low impact. The maximum persistence of P. agglomerans CPA-2 was not longer than 5days in plastic boxes stored at 0°C. Significant differences in CPA-2 population level dynamics were observed in results obtained by qPCR and dilution plating. These differences may indicate the presence of non-degraded DNA from non-viable cells. In conclusion, qPCR is a novel potential tool to quickly and specifically monitor recent surface colonisation by CPA-2

  18. Recognising falls risk in older adult mental health patients and acknowledging the difference from the general older adult population.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen; Al Omari, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Older adults admitted to inpatient mental health units present with complex mental health care needs which are often compounded by the challenges of living with physical co-morbidities. They are a mobile population and a high risk group for falling during hospitalisation. To address quality and safety concerns around the increased risk for falls, a qualitative research study was completed to obtain an improved understanding of the factors that increase the risk of falling in this patient cohort. Focus groups were conducted with mental health professionals working across older adult mental health services in metropolitan Western Australia. Data were analysed using content analysis and three themes emerged that were significant concepts relevant to falls risk in this patient group. These themes were (1) limitations of using generic falls risk assessment and management tools, (2) assessment of falls risk not currently captured on standardised tools, and (3) population specific causes of falls. The findings demonstrate that older adult mental health patients are a highly mobile group that experience frequent changes in cognition, behaviour and mental state. The mix of patients with organic or functional psychiatric disorders within the same environment also presents complex and unique care challenges and multi-disciplinary collaboration is central to reduce the risk of falls. As this group of patients are also frequently admitted to both general inpatient and aged care settings, the findings are relevant to the assessment and management of falls risk across all health care settings. PMID:27188045

  19. Application of cross-priming amplification (CPA) for detection of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) strains.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-04-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are widely distributed among chickens. Detection of FAdVs is mainly accomplished by virus isolation, serological assays, various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). To increase the diagnostic capacity of currently applied techniques, cross-priming amplification (CPA) for the detection of the FAdV hexon gene was developed. The single CPA assay was optimised to detect all serotypes 1-8a-8b-11 representing the species Fowl aviadenovirus A-E. The optimal temperature and incubation time were determined to be 68 °C for 2 h. Using different incubation temperatures, it was possible to differentiate some FAdV serotypes. The results were recorded after addition of SYBR Green I(®) dye, which produced a greenish fluorescence under UV light. The CPA products separated by gel electrophoresis showed different "ladder-like" patterns for the different serotypes. The assay was specific for all serotypes of FAdV, and no cross-reactivity was observed with members of the genus Atadenovirus, duck atadenovirus A (egg drop syndrome virus EDS-76 [EDSV]) or control samples containing Marek's disease virus (MDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or chicken anaemia virus (CAV). The results of the newly developed FAdV-CPA were compared with those of real-time PCR. The sensitivity of CPA was equal to that of real-time PCR and reached 10(-2.0) TCID50, but the CPA method was more rapid and cheaper than the PCR systems. CPA is a highly specific, sensitive, efficient, and rapid tool for detection of all FAdV serotypes. This is the first report on the application of CPA for detection of FAdV strains. PMID:25655263

  20. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  1. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. PMID:22278732

  2. Improved Low-CPA Vitrification of Mouse Oocytes Using Quartz Microcapillary

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation by low-cryoprotectant (CPA) vitrification has the potential to combine all the advantages of the conventional high-CPA vitrification and slow-freezing approaches while avoiding their drawbacks. However, current low-CPA vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of oocytes requires a lengthy and multi-step procedure for unloading CPAs. In this study, we report a much-simplified procedure of using quartz microcapillary (QMC) for low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes with only one step for unloading CPAs. The immediate viability of oocytes after the improved low-CPA vitrification was determined to be more than 90%. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in terms of embryonic development from the two-cell to blastocyst stages between the fresh and vitrified oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This improved low-CPA vitrification technology has the potential for efficient cryopreservation of oocytes to preserve the fertility of mammals including humans for assisted reproductive medicine, maintenance of animal resource and endangered species, and livestock management. PMID:25869750

  3. Application of PbTe/TAGS CPA thermoelectric module technology in RTGs for Mars surface missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Wayne M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the status of PbTe/TAGS close-pack-array (CPA) thermoelectric module technology developed by Teledyne Energy Systems for use in terrestrial radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and discusses application of this technology to RTGs for Mars surface missions. Low-power RTGs with power levels ranging from 3 to 20 We have been identified as candidate power sources for various scientific packages to be landed on the Martian surface. This power range is consistent with the use of PbTe/TAGS CPA technology. Modifications required for the current CPA technology to increase mechanical shock loading capability and to permit operation at the higher temperatures required for efficient operation in the Martian planetary environment are identified. A conceptual 15-We space RTG design incorporating CPA technology is presented. CPA technology permits a significant improvement in the specific power of PbTe/TAGS RTG units, even at these relatively low power levels. Specific power is in the 3.7 We/kg (1.7 We/lb) range for RTGs employing CPA technology compared with approximately 2.2 We/kg (1 We/lb) for the RTGs employed in the NASA Pioneer Jupiter Fly-by and Viking Mars Lander missions in the 1970s.

  4. Improved low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes using quartz microcapillary.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    Cryopreservation by low-cryoprotectant (CPA) vitrification has the potential to combine all the advantages of the conventional high-CPA vitrification and slow-freezing approaches while avoiding their drawbacks. However, current low-CPA vitrification protocol for cryopreservation of oocytes requires a lengthy and multi-step procedure for unloading CPAs. In this study, we report a much-simplified procedure of using quartz microcapillary (QMC) for low-CPA vitrification of mouse oocytes with only one step for unloading CPAs. The immediate viability of oocytes after the improved low-CPA vitrification was determined to be more than 90%. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in terms of embryonic development from the two-cell to blastocyst stages between the fresh and vitrified oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This improved low-CPA vitrification technology has the potential for efficient cryopreservation of oocytes to preserve the fertility of mammals including humans for assisted reproductive medicine, maintenance of animal resource and endangered species, and livestock management. PMID:25869750

  5. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  6. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  7. Prevalence of 10-Year Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risks in Canadian Adults: The Contribution of Cardiometabolic Risk Assessment Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adult Canadians. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) derived from 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome (MetS) needs to be evaluated in Canadian adults. Objective. To determine CMR among Canadian adults by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Subjects and Methods. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), Cycle 1, 2007–2009, was used. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was implemented to predict 10-year risk of CVD, and metabolic syndrome was identified using the most recent criteria. The 10-year risk of CVD was multiplied by 1.5 in individuals with MetS to obtain CMR. Data were weighted and bootstrapped to be able to generalize the results nationally. Results and Conclusion. CMR gave more accurate estimation of 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults from 30 to 74 years than using only FRS. The 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults significantly increased when CMR was taken into account from 8.10% to 9.86%. The CVD risk increased by increase in age, decrease in education, and decrease in physical activity and in smokers. Canadians with medium risk of CVD consumed significantly less fruit and vegetable juice compared to Canadians with low risk. No other dietary differences were found. PMID:23738053

  8. Prevalence of 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and associated risks in canadian adults: the contribution of cardiometabolic risk assessment introduction.

    PubMed

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adult Canadians. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) derived from 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome (MetS) needs to be evaluated in Canadian adults. Objective. To determine CMR among Canadian adults by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Subjects and Methods. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), Cycle 1, 2007-2009, was used. Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was implemented to predict 10-year risk of CVD, and metabolic syndrome was identified using the most recent criteria. The 10-year risk of CVD was multiplied by 1.5 in individuals with MetS to obtain CMR. Data were weighted and bootstrapped to be able to generalize the results nationally. Results and Conclusion. CMR gave more accurate estimation of 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults from 30 to 74 years than using only FRS. The 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults significantly increased when CMR was taken into account from 8.10% to 9.86%. The CVD risk increased by increase in age, decrease in education, and decrease in physical activity and in smokers. Canadians with medium risk of CVD consumed significantly less fruit and vegetable juice compared to Canadians with low risk. No other dietary differences were found. PMID:23738053

  9. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  10. Can preferences in information processing aid in understanding suicide risk among emerging adults?

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Bryson, Claire N; Gardner, Brett O; Webber, Wesley B

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated emerging adult (n = 192 college students) preferences in information processing (PIP), defined by the need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC), as they may be associated with suicide risk. The following were direct indicators of elevated suicide risk: presence of lifetime exposure to suicide (i.e., lifetime yes/no), elevated depressive symptoms, and greater NFA avoidance. Two different interactions resulted in elevated suicide risk: high depressive symptoms and high NFA avoidance, and high NFC and high NFA. Present results concerning PIP hold the potential to inform suicide risk assessment and prevention efforts among young adults. PMID:27007001

  11. Early Detection of Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Adults with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presentation and risk factors for depression in adults with mild/moderate intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 151 adults (83 males and 68 females) participated in a semi-structured interview. According to results on the Beck Depression Inventory II, 39.1% of participants evinced symptoms of…

  12. At Risk for Violence Test (ARFV). For Identifying Violence-Prone Teens and Adults. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, William A.

    The At Risk for Violence Test (ARFV) is a test used to identify violence prone teens and adults. The ARFV, teen version, is designed for use in public and private schools, grades 6 through 12, as an annual screening early in the school year. Norms for girls and boys are used for scoring reports. The adult version may be used to screen job…

  13. Patterns of Risk in Adult Protection Referrals for Sexual Abuse and People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge, Paul; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Milne, Alisoun; Mansell, Jim; Whelton, Beckie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult protection monitoring data held by local authorities in England provide opportunities to examine referrals for alleged sexual abuse for people with intellectual disability to identify patterns of risk. Methods: Adult protection monitoring data collected by two local authorities was analysed, with referrals for alleged sexual…

  14. Chronic Disease Risks in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Forewarned Is Forearmed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Carl V.; Schramm, Sarah C.; Karafa, Matthew; Tang, Anne S.; Jain, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    An emerging, cost-effective method to examine prevalent and future health risks of persons with disabilities is electronic health record (EHR) analysis. As an example, a case-control EHR analysis of adults with autism spectrum disorder receiving primary care through the Cleveland Clinic from 2005 to 2008 identified 108 adults with autism spectrum…

  15. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  16. Including Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Research: Scientists' Perceptions of Risks and Protections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.; Nelms, Sandra L.; Parker, Michael R.; Kimmel, Ali; Keys, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Social and cognitive characteristics of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) place them at risk for inappropriate inclusion in or exclusion from research participation. As we grapple with how to include adults with ID in research in order to secure their right to contribute to scientific advancements and be positioned to derive benefit from…

  17. A family study of adult twins with and without a history of childhood abuse: stability of retrospective reports of maltreatment and associated family measures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Elliot C; Lynskey, Michael T; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G

    2010-04-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical abuse (CPA) are well-established risk-factors for a wide of range of proximal and distal outcomes. The lack of availability of an optimal design for examining abuse and its consequences has resulted in the use of various approaches, each having its own limitations. We describe the Childhood Trauma Study, which ascertained families from a large young adult Australian twin cohort on the basis of twins' responses to screening questions assessing CSA and CPA. We report data from 3407 participants including twins, non-twin siblings, and their parents. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of using a comprehensive assessment to evaluate retrospective history of childhood abuse in an adult sample. We observed that risk for each form of abuse increased incrementally with the number of parents with alcohol problems. Psychometric properties of our measures of CSA and CPA including reasonable long-term stability, construct validity, and evidence of familial corroboration compare favorably with those of other reports in which samples were considerably younger and assessments were repeated over shorter intervals. PMID:20397742

  18. Effect of carotid atherosclerosis screening on risk stratification during primary cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Bard, Robert L; Kalsi, Henna; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Wakefield, Thomas; Fex, Beverly; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D

    2004-04-15

    We investigated the effect that carotid plaque area (CPA) and intima media thickness (IMT) measurements have on risk stratification in 95 patients with intermediate Framingham scores (6% to 19%). The risk status of each patient was adjusted to be low, intermediate, or high based on the results of carotid ultrasound. After carotid testing, 44% (IMT) and 45% (CPA) of the intermediate-risk patients were stratified as low risk, and 22% (IMT) and 40% (CPA) were stratified as high risk. Using the threshold values derived from our laboratory, 28% (IMT) and 45% (CPA) of patients were stratified as low risk, and 35% (IMT) and 27% (CPA) were identified as high risk. These tests adjust the risk strata of >/=63% of patients deemed as having intermediate risk by Framingham scores. PMID:15081449

  19. Adult-Onset Asthma Might Raise Heart Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Risks But shared risk factors, such as air pollution, might explain the connection, researchers say To use ... is often caused by different factors -- such as air pollution -- and often results in a more rapid decline ...

  20. Attenuated Neural Processing of Risk in Young Adults at Risk for Stimulant Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Reske, Martina; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Flagan, Taru M.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate), which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early stages of stimulant use show altered decision making processing. Methods 158 occasional stimulants users (OSU) and 50 comparison subjects (CS) performed a “risky gains” decision making task during which they could select safe options (cash in 20 cents) or gamble them for double or nothing in two consecutive gambles (win or lose 40 or 80 cents, “risky decisions”). The primary analysis focused on risky versus safe decisions. Three secondary analyses were conducted: First, a robust regression examined the effect of lifetime exposure to stimulants and marijuana; second, subgroups of OSU with >1000 (n = 42), or <50 lifetime marijuana uses (n = 32), were compared to CS with <50 lifetime uses (n = 46) to examine potential marijuana effects; third, brain activation associated with behavioral adjustment following monetary losses was probed. Results There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options. Discussion Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p < 0.001). In adults without DM, risk factors for periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Conclusions: Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM. PMID:27604799

  2. [PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE IN ADULTS REDUCES THE RISK OF INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE].

    PubMed

    Belocerkovskaja, Ju G; Romanovskih, A G; Styrt, E A

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of severe disease worldwide, particularly in the risk population. Two pneumococcal vaccines are currently available for specific prevention of pneumococcal infections among adults in Russia: a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The article describes modern views on the effectiveness and safety of two pneumococcal vaccines in adults with underlying medical conditions and adults aged ≥ 65 years and provides current recommendations for routine use of PPSV23 and PCV13 among persons included in the risk group. PMID:27172726

  3. Young Adult Exposure to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Events Later in Life: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pletcher, Mark J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor exposure during early adulthood contributes to CHD risk later in life. Our objective was to analyze whether extent of early adult exposures to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, HDL) are independent predictors of CHD events later in life. Methods and Findings We used all available measurements of SBP, DBP, LDL, and HDL collected over 40 years in the Framingham Offspring Study to estimate risk factor trajectories, starting at age 20 years, for all participants. Average early adult (age 20–39) exposure to each risk factor was then estimated, and used to predict CHD events (myocardial infarction or CHD death) after age 40, with adjustment for risk factor exposures later in life (age 40+). 4860 participants contributed an average of 6.3 risk factor measurements from in-person examinations and 24.5 years of follow-up after age 40, and 510 had a first CHD event. Early adult exposures to high SBP, DBP, LDL or low HDL were associated with 8- to 30-fold increases in later life CHD event rates, but were also strongly correlated with risk factor levels later in life. After adjustment for later life levels and other risk factors, early adult DBP and LDL remained strongly associated with later life risk. Compared with DBP≤70 mmHg, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–5.7) for DBP = 71–80, 2.6 (0.9–7.2) for DBP = 81–90, and 3.6 (1.2–11) for DBP>90 (p-trend = 0.019). Compared with LDL≤100 mg/dl, adjusted HRs were 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for LDL = 101–130, 2.2 (1.2–4.0) for LDL = 131–160, and 2.4 (1.2–4.7) for LDL>160 (p-trend = 0.009). While current levels of SBP and HDL were also associated with CHD events, we did not detect an independent association with early adult exposure to either of these risk factors. Conclusions Using a mixed modeling approach to estimation of young adult exposures

  4. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  5. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-08-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age moderate an influence of SEIM on sexual risk behavior. The authors conducted a 2-wave panel survey among nationally representative random samples of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults. SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior among adults, but not among adolescents. More specifically, moderator analyses showed that SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior only among male adults, but not among female adults. In the adolescent sample, no moderating gender effect occurred. Neither among adolescents nor among adults did age moderate the effects. Our study shows that SEIM may influence outcomes related to people's sexual health. It also suggests that male adults may present a potential risk group for adverse effects of SEIM. PMID:21476164

  6. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646

  7. Emotional, Behavioral, and HIV Risks Associated with Sexual Abuse among Adult Homosexual and Bisexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholow, Bradford N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men found that sexual abuse in childhood was significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) risk behavior, and risk of…

  8. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

  10. Risk Factors of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Logistic Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; Noe, Douglas A.; Bailer, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A novel logistic regression tree-based method was applied to identify fall risk factors and possible interaction effects of those risk factors. Design and Methods: A nationally representative sample of American older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 9,592) in the Health and Retirement Study 2004 and 2006 modules was used.…

  11. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  12. Risk Factors for Unidirectional and Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…

  13. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults in Europe: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Antoni; Peetermans, Willy E; Viegi, Giovanni; Blasi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in adults, particularly in the elderly. Methods Structured searches of PubMed were conducted to identify up-to-date information on the incidence of CAP in adults in Europe, as well as data on lifestyle and medical risk factors for CAP. Results The overall annual incidence of CAP in adults ranged between 1.07 to 1.2 per 1000 person-years and 1.54 to 1.7 per 1000 population and increased with age (14 per 1000 person-years in adults aged ≥65 years). Incidence was also higher in men than in women and in patients with chronic respiratory disease or HIV infection. Lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of CAP included smoking, alcohol abuse, being underweight, having regular contact with children and poor dental hygiene. The presence of comorbid conditions, including chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, dementia, dysphagia, HIV or chronic renal or liver disease all increased the risk of CAP by twofold to fourfold. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors and underlying medical conditions are associated with an increased risk of CAP in European adults. Understanding of the types of individual at greatest risk of CAP can help to ensure that interventions to reduce the risk of infection and burden of disease are targeted appropriately. PMID:24130229

  14. Celiac disease and risk of fracture in adults--a review.

    PubMed

    Hjelle, A M; Apalset, E; Mielnik, P; Bollerslev, J; Lundin, K E A; Tell, G S

    2014-06-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) have low bone mineral density. Evidence of increased fracture risk in these patients is conflicting, and the indication for bone mineral density screening of all adult CD patients is debated. Our aim was to review current published data on fractures in CD. Cross-sectional cohort studies and one case study were identified by searching Medline and Embase. Although the identified studies are heterogeneous and difficult to compare, the overall findings indicate a positive association between CD and risk of fracture. Adult patients with CD should be considered for bone densitometry in order to estimate fracture risk. PMID:24691647

  15. Sensation seeking and psychological reactance as health risk predictors for an emerging adult population.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Quick, Brian L

    2010-04-01

    Two personality traits, sensation seeking (SS) and psychological reactance (PR), were examined as predictors of health risk behaviors within an emerging adult population. Results using items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) survey developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate both personality traits are predictive of risky substance use behaviors, but only PR was found to be predictive of risky sexual activity. Furthermore, a significant interaction involving PR and sex emerged concerning alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of considering SS and PR as critical personality variables when designing and evaluating health risk messages and campaigns targeting adolescent and emerging adult populations. PMID:20461612

  16. Emotion, Affect, and Risk Communication with Older Adults: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Melissa L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotion, affect, and cognition play important roles in risk perception and that their roles in judgment and decision-making processes may change over the lifespan. This paper discusses how emotion and affect might help or hinder risk communication with older adults. Currently, there are few guidelines for developing effective risk messages for the world’s aging population, despite the array of complex risk decisions that come with increasing age and the importance of maintaining good decision making in later life. Age-related declines in cognitive abilities such as memory and processing speed, increased reliance on automatic processes, and adaptive motivational shifts toward focusing more on affective (especially positive) information mean that older and younger adults may respond differently to risk messages. Implications for specific risk information formats (probabilities, frequencies, visual displays, and narratives) are discussed and directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:19169420

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of At-Risk Drinking Among Older Adults: The Project SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alison A.; Xu, Haiyong; Ang, Alfonso; Tallen, Louise; Mirkin, Michelle; Ettner, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND At-risk drinking, excessive or potentially harmful alcohol use in combination with select comorbidities or medication use, affects about 10% of elderly adults and is associated with higher mortality. Yet, our knowledge is incomplete regarding the prevalence of different categories of at-risk drinking and their associations with patient demographics. OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence and correlates of different categories of at-risk drinking among older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. SUBJECTS Current drinkers ages 60 and older accessing primary care clinics around Santa Barbara, California (n = 3,308). MEASUREMENTS At-risk drinkers were identified using the Comorbidity Alcohol Risk Evaluation Tool (CARET). At-risk alcohol use was categorized as alcohol use in the setting of 1) high-risk comorbidities or 2) high-risk medication use, and 3) excessive alcohol use alone. Adjusted associations of participant characteristics with at-risk drinking in each of the three at-risk categories and with at-risk drinking of any kind were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS Over one-third of our sample (34.7%) was at risk. Among at-risk individuals, 61.9% had alcohol use in the context of high-risk comorbidities, 61.0% had high-risk medication use, and 64.3% had high-risk alcohol behaviors. The adjusted odds of at-risk drinking of any kind were decreased and significant for women (odds ratio, OR = 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.48; p-value < 0.001), adults over age 80 (OR = 0.55; CI: 0.43-0.72; p < 0.001 vs. ages 60-64), Asians (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.20-0.80; p = 0.01 vs. Caucasians) and individuals with higher education levels. Similar associations were observed in all three categories of at-risk drinking. CONCLUSIONS High-risk alcohol use was common among older adults in this large sample of primary care patients, and male Caucasians, those ages 60-64, and those with lower levels of education

  18. Implications of "Amae" for HIV Risk in Japanese Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuoha, Francis N.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2005-01-01

    Assertiveness, defined as perceived confidence to express true feelings in interpersonal relationships, has been reported to correlate with HIV risk avoidance. However, Japanese social structure encourages "amae" or self-repression. The present study investigated the implications of "amae" for HIV risk avoidance among Japanese university students.…

  19. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. Methods and Results We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (P<0.01). These results were consistent by sex. Conclusions These findings highlight potential shortcomings of using short-term risk tools for primary prevention strategies because a substantial proportion of Peruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. PMID:26254303

  20. Adverse childhood experiences among Hawai'i adults: Findings from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Survey.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dailin; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among Hawai'i adults and their impact on the health of affected individuals are unknown. Aiming to provide Hawai'i State baseline information on ACEs and their associations with health conditions and risk behaviors, the 2010 Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included the ACE module. Using 5,928 survey respondents who completed the module, demographic attributes were estimated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between ACEs and sixteen selected health indicators. In 2010, approximately 57.8% of Hawai'i adults reported experiencing at least one ACE. Native Hawaiians had the highest prevalence followed by Whites. Adults aged ≥ 65 years had the lowest prevalence on all ACEs. The prevalence of ACEs was inversely related to education and household income levels. Compared to those without ACEs, adults with ACEs had higher odds for a number of health conditions and risk behaviors. Moreover, as the number of ACEs increased, the odds for these health conditions and risk behaviors increased. Hawai'i adults with ACEs were more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those without ACEs. Men were more likely to report having a family member in prison, while women were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse. Recommendations include further research on the unbiased contributions of ACEs to diseases and risk behaviors, and the development of culturally-appropriate interventions to reduce the prevalence of ACEs in Hawai'i. PMID:24959392

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Hawai‘i Adults: Findings from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dailin

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among Hawai‘i adults and their impact on the health of affected individuals are unknown. Aiming to provide Hawai‘i State baseline information on ACEs and their associations with health conditions and risk behaviors, the 2010 Hawai‘i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included the ACE module. Using 5,928 survey respondents who completed the module, demographic attributes were estimated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between ACEs and sixteen selected health indicators. In 2010, approximately 57.8% of Hawai‘i adults reported experiencing at least one ACE. Native Hawaiians had the highest prevalence followed by Whites. Adults aged ≥ 65 years had the lowest prevalence on all ACEs. The prevalence of ACEs was inversely related to education and household income levels. Compared to those without ACEs, adults with ACEs had higher odds for a number of health conditions and risk behaviors. Moreover, as the number of ACEs increased, the odds for these health conditions and risk behaviors increased. Hawai‘i adults with ACEs were more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those without ACEs. Men were more likely to report having a family member in prison, while women were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse. Recommendations include further research on the unbiased contributions of ACEs to diseases and risk behaviors, and the development of culturally-appropriate interventions to reduce the prevalence of ACEs in Hawai‘i. PMID:24959392

  2. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION... OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2012-2017 Western Planning Area Lease Sales 229, 233, 238, 246, and 248... et seq. (1988)). SUMMARY: BOEM has prepared a ROD for oil and gas CPA Lease Sale 227 scheduled...

  3. Decrease in the Number of People Taking the CPA Exam Not Due to the 150-Hour Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metinko, Teresa R.; Gray, Dahli

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that examined the association of the 120/150-hour education requirement with the number of CPA exam candidates during 1998 and 2008. Data gathered from the NASBA Candidate Performance Reports 1999 and 2009 found no relationship between the number of CPA exam candidates and the education requirements in…

  4. Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female

  5. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  6. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. PMID:24507206

  7. An Analysis of CPA Firm Recruiters' Perceptions of Online Masters of Accounting Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metrejean, Eddie; Noland, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Online education continues to grow at a rapid pace. Assessment of the effectiveness of online programs is needed to differentiate legitimate programs from diploma mills. The authors examined the perceptions of CPA firm recruiters on whether an online Master of Accounting (MACC) matters in the hiring decision. Results show that recruiters do not…

  8. Implementing Assessment Engineering in the Uniform Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Matthew; Devore, Richard; Stopek, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to bring principled assessment design to a large-scale, high-stakes licensure examination by employing the frameworks of Assessment Engineering (AE), the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT), and Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA). The Uniform CPA Examination is practice-oriented and focuses on the skills of accounting. In…

  9. Candidate Performance on the Business Environment and Concepts Section of the CPA Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. H.; Tan, K. B.; Campbell, Annhenrie

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how differences in curricular design of undergraduate accounting programs influence pass rates on the Business Environment and Concepts Section of the CPA Exam. The association of the pass rate of a school's accounting graduates to the design of the schools accounting program and to other school characteristics was examined…

  10. Educational Competencies That Mid-Sized CPA Firms Value in Their Professional Accounting Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margheim, Loren; Hora, Judith A.; Pattison, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the educational competencies mid-sized accounting firm partners value in their professional staff when making promotion decisions to senior, manager, and partner. Mid-sized firms were defined in this study to include all of the non-Big 4 national firms, the large regional CPA firms, and several large local firms. Over 1,380…

  11. Falls risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Vinik, Etta J; Colberg, Sheri R; Morrison, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Falls are a major health issue for older adults, especially for those who develop type 2 diabetes who must contend with age-related declines in balance, muscle strength, and walking ability. They must also contend with health-related issues specific to the disease process. Given the general association between these variables and falls, being able to identify which measures negatively impact on balance in older diabetic persons is a critical step. Moreover, designing specific interventions to target these physiologic functions underlying balance and gait control will produce the greatest benefit for reducing falls in older persons with diabetes. PMID:25453303

  12. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  13. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  14. School Performance and the Risk of Suicidal Thoughts in Young Adults: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dalman, Christina; Fredlund, Peeter; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Although low school performance is related to attempted and completed suicide, its relationship with suicidal thoughts has been less clear. We conducted a population-based study including 10081 individuals aged 18–29 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and found a clear positive gradient in the risk of lifetime suicidal thoughts with decreasing levels of compulsory school leaving grades. This relationship was somewhat attenuated but remained significant in multivariate models accounting for family background, severe adult psychopathology and adult socioeconomic conditions. School failure is associated with an increased risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts and may also increase the tendency of acting upon them. PMID:25347404

  15. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  16. CPA4 is a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker for Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lichao; Wang, Yipeng; Yuan, Hebao; Burnett, Joseph; Pan, Jian; Yang, Zhihua; Ran, Yuliang; Myers, Ila; Sun, Duxin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4) belongs to a member of the metallocarboxypeptidase family, and its expression in lung cancer samples and clinical significance are still not investigated until now. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of CPA4 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples and correlate its level with clinical outcome. Methods. CPA4 gene expression in lung cancer tissues were analyzed by using the Oncomine database (www.oncomine.org). The expression of CPA4, Survivin and VEGF in lung cancer and adjacent normal tissues were evaluated by IHC using the corresponding primary antibodies on two different commercial tissue arrays (Shanghai Biochip Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China). Their levels in serum were determined by using commercial human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. We also examined their relations to clinicopathologic parameters, and explored the diagnostic and prognostic value in NSCLC. Results. We identified an elevation of CPA4 in mRNA level and gene amplification in lung cancer tissues in comparison to normal lung tissues. High CPA4 expression was observed in 120/165 (72.7%) NSCLC samples, and significantly correlated with Tumor size, Depth of invasion, Lymph Node Metastasis, Stage, VEGF level and Survivin level. High CPA4 expression is associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CPA4 expression was an independent prognostic factor. Furthermore, serum CPA4 level was also significantly higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis revealed that serum CPA4 and CYFRA21-1 level were the significant parameters for detecting NSCLC. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) in NSCLC patients versus normal people yielded the optimal cut-off value was 2.70 ng/ml for CPA4 and 19 ng/ml for CYFRA21-1, respectively. The area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.830 for the combination of the two tumor markers. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated

  17. CPA4 is a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker for Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lichao; Wang, Yipeng; Yuan, Hebao; Burnett, Joseph; Pan, Jian; Yang, Zhihua; Ran, Yuliang; Myers, Ila; Sun, Duxin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4) belongs to a member of the metallocarboxypeptidase family, and its expression in lung cancer samples and clinical significance are still not investigated until now. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of CPA4 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples and correlate its level with clinical outcome. Methods. CPA4 gene expression in lung cancer tissues were analyzed by using the Oncomine database (www.oncomine.org). The expression of CPA4, Survivin and VEGF in lung cancer and adjacent normal tissues were evaluated by IHC using the corresponding primary antibodies on two different commercial tissue arrays (Shanghai Biochip Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China). Their levels in serum were determined by using commercial human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. We also examined their relations to clinicopathologic parameters, and explored the diagnostic and prognostic value in NSCLC. Results. We identified an elevation of CPA4 in mRNA level and gene amplification in lung cancer tissues in comparison to normal lung tissues. High CPA4 expression was observed in 120/165 (72.7%) NSCLC samples, and significantly correlated with Tumor size, Depth of invasion, Lymph Node Metastasis, Stage, VEGF level and Survivin level. High CPA4 expression is associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CPA4 expression was an independent prognostic factor. Furthermore, serum CPA4 level was also significantly higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis revealed that serum CPA4 and CYFRA21-1 level were the significant parameters for detecting NSCLC. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) in NSCLC patients versus normal people yielded the optimal cut-off value was 2.70 ng/ml for CPA4 and 19 ng/ml for CYFRA21-1, respectively. The area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.830 for the combination of the two tumor markers. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated

  18. Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of suicide screening by primary care clinicians: There ... not enough evidence to weigh the benefits and harms of screening the general population for suicide risk. ...

  19. Analgesic use and the risk of primary adult brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Egan, Kathleen M; Nabors, Louis B; Thompson, Zachary J; Rozmeski, Carrie M; Anic, Gabriella A; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Chowdhary, Sajeel A; Forsyth, Peter A; Thompson, Reid C

    2016-09-01

    Glioma and meningioma are uncommon tumors of the brain with few known risk factors. Regular use of aspirin has been linked to a lower risk of gastrointestinal and other cancers, though evidence for an association with brain tumors is mixed. We examined the association of aspirin and other analgesics with the risk of glioma and meningioma in a large US case-control study. Cases were persons recently diagnosed with glioma or meningioma and treated at medical centers in the southeastern US. Controls were persons sampled from the same communities as the cases combined with friends and other associates of the cases. Information on past use of analgesics (aspirin, other anti-inflammatory agents, and acetaminophen) was collected in structured interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for analgesic use adjusted for potential confounders. All associations were considered according to indication for use. A total of 1123 glioma cases, 310 meningioma cases and 1296 controls were included in the analysis. For indications other than headache, glioma cases were less likely than controls to report regular use of aspirin (OR 0.69; CI 0.56, 0.87), in a dose-dependent manner (P trend < 0.001). No significant associations were observed with other analgesics for glioma, or any class of pain reliever for meningioma. Results suggest that regular aspirin use may reduce incidence of glioma. PMID:26894804

  20. Risk factors for the development of complicated appendicitis in adults

    PubMed Central

    Naderan, Mohammad; Babaki, Amir Eslami Shahr; Shoar, Saeed; Mahmoodzadeh, Hossein; Nasiri, Shirzad; Khorgami, Zhamak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the patient’s history and physical examination information to find out risk factors associated with complicated appendicitis. Material and Methods: Two hundred patients who were admitted with complicated appendicitis (including abscess, phlegmon, and generalized peritonitis) were retrieved from our database. Two hundred patients with non-complicated acute appendicitis were randomly selected from the same period. These two groups were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, past medical history, and presenting symptoms. We made a multivariate analysis model using binary logistic regression and backward stepwise elimination. Results: Based on multivariate analysis, risk factors for complicated appendicitis included presenting with epigastric pain (OR=3.44), diarrhea (OR=23.4) or malaise (OR=49.7), history of RLQ pain within the past 6 months (OR=4.93), older age (OR=1.04), being married (OR=2.52), lack of anorexia (OR=4.63) and longer interval between onset of symptoms and admission (OR=1.46). Conversely, higher (academic) education was associated with decreased odds for complicated appendicitis (OR=0.26). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a surgeon’s clinical assessment is more reliable to make a judgment. “Bedside evaluation” is a useful, cheap, quick and readily available method for identifying those at risk for developing complicated acute appendicitis. PMID:26985166

  1. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  2. Problem gambling patterns among Australian young adults: Associations with prospective risk and protective factors and adult adjustment.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-04-01

    There is instability in the developmental course of problem gambling [PG] over time; however, studies that examine PG at an aggregate level obscure these variations. The current study employed data from a longitudinal study of Australian young adults to investigate: 1) PG patterns (i.e., resistance, persistence, desistence, and new incidence); 2) prospective risk and protective factors for these patterns; and 3) behavioural outcomes associated with these patterns. A sample of 2261 young adults (55.73% female) from Victoria, Australia, who were part of the International Youth Development Study completed a survey in 2010 (T1, age 21) and 2012 (T2, age 23) measuring PG (two items based on established measures), risk and protective factors, and behavioural outcomes. The majority of the sample (91.69%) were resistors (no PG at T1 and T2), 3.62% were new incidence PG cases, 2.63% were desistors (PG at T1 but not T2), and 2.07% reported persistent PG at T1 and T2. Individual civic activism was protective of new incidence PG, while affiliation with antisocial peers and frequent alcohol use increased the risk of persistence. Persistent problem gamblers also experienced the greatest number of poor behavioural outcomes at T2. New incidence was associated with internalising symptoms at T2, while desistance was not associated with any behavioural outcomes. In conclusion, each PG pattern was associated with different predictors and outcomes, highlighting the need to consider variation in the course of young adult PG in order to provide efficacious prevention and intervention approaches, and to protect against relapse. PMID:26790138

  3. Stressful Life Events, Sexual Orientation, and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine whether sexual minority young adults are more vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic risk following exposure to stressful life events than heterosexual young adults. Method Data came from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Shin, Edwards, & Heeren, 2009; Brummett et al., 2013), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood. A total of 306 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 6,667 heterosexual respondents met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Measures of cumulative stressful life events were drawn from all 4 waves of data collection; sexual orientation and cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at Wave 4 (2008–2009). Results Gay/bisexual men exposed to 1–2 (β = 0.71, p = .01) and 5 + (β = 0.87, p = .01) stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk, controlling for demographics, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Moreover, in models adjusted for all covariates, lesbian/bisexual (β = 0.52, p = .046) women with 5 + stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk. There was no relationship between stressful life events and cardiometabolic risk among heterosexual men or women. Conclusion Stressful life events during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood place LGB young adults at heightened risk for elevated cardiometabolic risk as early as young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require future study. PMID:25133830

  4. Dietary intake in adults at risk for Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Marder, K; Zhao, H; Eberly, S; Tanner, C M.; Oakes, D; Shoulson, I

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine caloric intake, dietary composition, and body mass index (BMI) in participants in the Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study (PHAROS). Methods: Caloric intake and macronutrient composition were measured using the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in 652 participants at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who did not meet clinical criteria for HD. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between macronutrients, BMI, caloric intake, and genetic status (CAG <37 vs CAG ≥37), adjusting for age, gender, and education. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between caloric intake, BMI, and CAG repeat length. Results: A total of 435 participants with CAG <37 and 217 with CAG ≥37 completed the FFQ. Individuals in the CAG ≥37 group had a twofold odds of being represented in the second, third, or fourth quartile of caloric intake compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, gender, education, and BMI. This relationship was attenuated in the highest quartile when additionally adjusted for total motor score. In subjects with CAG ≥37, higher caloric intake, but not BMI, was associated with both higher CAG repeat length (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.26, p = 0.032) and 5-year probability of onset of HD (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.024; p = 0.013). Adjusted analyses showed no differences in macronutrient composition between groups. Conclusions: Increased caloric intake may be necessary to maintain body mass index in clinically unaffected individuals with CAG repeat length ≥37. This may be related to increased energy expenditure due to subtle motor impairment or a hypermetabolic state. GLOSSARY BEE = basal energy expenditure; BMI = body mass index; FFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire; HD = Huntington disease; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease; PHAROS = Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study; TEE = total energy expenditure; UHDRS = Unified

  5. Prevalence of risk factors of chronic kidney disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M S; Dutta, P K; Islam, M N; Hasan, M J; Mondol, G

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emergent public health burden. Its prevalence varies country to country, even in different professional and social groups in the same country. In Bangladesh there is no reported nationwide survey but there are some reports of survey in disadvantageous and advantageous population. In this study 125 CKD patients (cases) and 125 age and sex matched healthy subjects (control) in Mymensingh Medical College, a tertiary hospital of Bangladesh were compared for the presence of non-modifiable [age, sex, family history of hypertension (HTN), Cardiovascular disease (CVD), family history of kidney disease and Socioeconomic condition] and modifiable [HTN, Diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking habit, and obesity] risk factors. The mean age of control was 43.5 ± 6.3 years and the mean age of CKD cases was 44.7 ± 12.7 years. Out of 125 patients of CKD, males were 96 in number (76.8%) and females were 29 in numbers (23.2%). Most of the patients (52.8%) were in poor socioeconomic status while most of controls were from middle class (68.8%). Most of the participants were in stage-3 CKD [67.2%, creatinine clearance (Ccr):36.74 ± 13.61 ml/min]. Glomerulonephritis was the dominant cause of CKD (67.2%) followed by diabetes (24%), hypertension (4.8%) and others (4%). 72.8% of CKD patients were smokers. Among CKD, 86.4% participants had hypertension and 26.4% had diabetes. The difference of hypertension, diabetes and Body mass index (BMI) between case and control group is statistically significant (p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found with risk factor like family history of kidney diseases. This emphasizes risk factor identification in general population to early diagnose CKD. PMID:23134905

  6. Early Life Environmental Exposures and Height, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures like rainfall and temperature influence infectious disease exposure and nutrition, two key early life conditions linked to later life health. However, few tests of whether early life environmental exposures impact adult health have been performed, particularly in developing countries. This study examines the effects of experiencing rainfall and temperature shocks during gestation and up through the first four years after birth on measured height, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors using data on adults aged 50 and above (N=1,036) from the 2007–2008 World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and district-level meteorological data from India. Results from multivariate logistic regressions show that negative rainfall shocks during gestation and positive rainfall shocks during the post-birth period increase the risk of having adult hypertension and CVD risk factors. Exposure to negative rainfall shocks and positive temperature shocks in the post-birth period increases the likelihood of falling within the lowest height decile. Prenatal shocks may influence nutrition in utero, while postnatal shocks may increase exposure to infectious diseases and malnutrition. The results suggest that gestation and the first two years after birth are critical periods when rainfall and temperature shocks take on increased importance for adult health. PMID:26266969

  7. Expression of Cryptosporidium parvum Cpa135/CpCCP1 chimeras in Giardia duodenalis: organization of the protein domains affects the protein secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Lalle, Marco; Rosati, Maria Adelaide; Bien, Justina; Hehl, Adrian B; Pozio, Edoardo; Tosini, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    Cpa135 is a multidomain antigenic protein secreted at the sporozoite stage of the Apicomplexa protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum. Previous studies have shown that the protozoan flagellate parasite Giardia duodenalis is a suitable system for the heterologous expression of secreted proteins of Apicomplexa. Here, we designed three different Cpa135 variants fused to a C-terminal HA tag in order to test their expression in G. duodenalis under the control of the inducible promoter of the cyst wall protein 1 gene (cwp1). The three Cpa135 chimeras encompassed different portions of the protein; CpaG encodes the entire polypeptide of 1574 amino acids (aa); CpaGΔC includes the first 826 aa at the N-terminus; and CpaGΔN consists in of the final 833 aa at the C-terminus. Immunoblot experiments showed that CpaG and CpaGΔN maintained the epitopes recognized by anti-C. parvum-specific human serum. The intracellular localization and transport of the three Cpa135 variants were studied by immunofluorescence in combination with G. duodenalis-specific antibodies. CpaGΔC was mainly accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum and the intact form was also excreted in the medium. Differently, the Cpa135 chimeras possessing an intact C-terminus (CpaG and CpaGΔN) were transported towards the forming cyst wall possibly and were not detected in the medium. Furthermore, the full-length CpaG was incorporated into the cyst wall. The data presented suggest that the C-terminus of Cpa135, which includes a cysteine reach domain, could influence the secretion of the chimeric proteins. PMID:21112325

  8. Suicide Risk in Primary Care: Identification and Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raue, Patrick J.; Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20% within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. PMID:25030971

  9. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  10. A culture of future planning: perceptions of sexual risk among educated young adults.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Ann M; Ostrach, Bayla; Marcus, Ruthanne; Frank, Cynthia; Ball, Cassandra; Erickson, Pamela I

    2014-10-01

    In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants' narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educators need to address how social processes shape sexual practices, encourage educated young adults to challenge unequal gender expectations, and consider how sexually transmitted infections might also interfere with life plans. PMID:25156216

  11. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mary L.; Merriam, George R.; Kargi, Atil Y.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity, and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT) is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD); beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long-term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality. PMID:23761782

  12. Predictors of Asphyxiation Risk in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, R.; Chadwick, D. D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Adults with learning disabilities referred for assessment of their eating and drinking are frequently reported to cough and choke when eating and drinking. The research literature investigating dysphagia has often overlooked asphyxiation risk, highlighting coughing and choking as indicators of aspiration only. This is a notable…

  13. Dismissed Intergenerational Support? New Social Risks and the Economic Welfare of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majamaa, Karoliina

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the declining role of the welfare state in supporting young adults. The literature on new social risks concentrates on the incapacity of institutions to respond to a new social situation, and has so far largely neglected the capacity of alternative systems or institutions to fill the vacuum created. The focus in the paper is on…

  14. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  15. Democratic Adult and At-Risk Youth Participations through Interactive Radio Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurubacak, Gulsun; Yuzer, T. Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Interactive Radio Programs (IRPs) forge effective participations between adults (communicational and pedagogical workers and parents) and at-risk youth (jeopardizing their present and future adjustments) to explore their engagements with community activism engaging in building their communities. IRPs are vital for them to be engaged citizens,…

  16. Counseling Older Adults at Risk of Suicide: Recognizing Barriers, Reviewing Strategies, and Exploring Opportunities for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Patricia; Williams, Beverly Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Age-related challenges to health and well-being among older adults give rise to a distinctive array of risk factors for suicide, calling for a unique approach to suicide interventions. Americans over the age of 65 are disproportionally overrepresented in the number of completed suicides. This paper examines the epidemiology of geriatric suicide,…

  17. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  18. A One-to-One Programme for At-Risk Readers Delivered by Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…

  19. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  20. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  1. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

  2. Help Needed: How Can High-Risk Adults Prepare for Skilled Jobs in South Carolina?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Curtis

    A study examined the job-training needs of high-risk adults to determine who they are, what they need in order to obtain productive careers paying a living wage, what is available, what works and doesn't, and what South Carolina should do to assist this population. Data were obtained from several dozen focus groups across the state, discussion…

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  4. Household Structure, Coupling Constraints, and the Nonpartner Victimization Risks of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Carolyn; Griffiths, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Victimization studies consistently find that household structure influences the risk of personal and property victimization among adult household members, with those in "traditional" homes enjoying the most protection from victimization and lone parents experiencing the greatest vulnerability. Drawing on the concept of "coupling constraints,"…

  5. Literacy Profiles of At-Risk Young Adults Enrolled in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A latent profile analysis of 323 economically and academically at-risk adolescent and young adult learners yielded two classes: an average literacy class (92%) and a low literacy class (8%). The class profiles significantly differed in their word reading and math skills, and in their processing speeds and self-reported learning disabilities. The…

  6. No Worries about the Future: Young Adults' Perceptions of Risk and Opportunity while Attending Technical College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasch, Antje

    2006-01-01

    In this ever-changing economy, young adults must remain flexible and adaptable as they transition from school to work and plan their future life courses. It is difficult for today's youth to choose training programs which will guarantee them secure, long-term employment. As the future grows less predictable, greater uncertainty and risk are…

  7. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  8. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  9. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  10. Positive affect and mortality risk in older adults: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing; Han, Buxin

    2016-06-01

    We performed a meta-analysis on the relationship between positive affect (PA) and mortality risk in older adults (55 years and older) and reviewed evidence on the Main Effect Model and the Stress-buffering Model of PA. Four databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, APA PsycNET, PubMed, and Embase) were used to identify potential studies. Three types of effect sizes (ESs), odds ratio, relative risk, and hazard ratio (OR, RR, and HR), were calculated and analyzed within a random effects model. The analysis of the studies in which the effects of other variables were not controlled indicated that older adults with higher levels of positive affect had lower mortality risk (75%, HR = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-0.85) than those with lower positive affect. In studies in which the effects of covariates were controlled, this rate was 85% (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.81-0.89), which was still significant. These results suggest that higher positive affect is associated with lower mortality risk in community-dwelling older adults, even after controlling for medical, psychological, and social factors. The results point to potential methods of improving longevity, and to achieving healthy aging in older adults. PMID:27113246

  11. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school…

  12. Risk factor profiles among intravenous drug using young adults: a latent class analysis (LCA) approach.

    PubMed

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2013-03-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population. PMID:23254231

  13. Risk Factor Profiles among Intravenous Drug Using Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) Approach

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population. PMID:23254231

  14. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Pillai, Sharmila GK; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA), a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests. Methods One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males), aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61), participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST), short physical performance battery (SPPB), functional reach test (FRT), static balance test (SBT), TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS), and gait speed test (GST) were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests) with falls risk (dependent variable). Results Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05) were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01) weak correlation was found between PPA and TST (r=0.25), TUG (r=0.27), SBT (r=0.23), SPPB (r=−0.33), and FRT (r=−0.23). Binary logistic regression results demonstrated that SBT measuring postural sways objectively using a balance board was the only significant predictor of physiological falls risk (P<0.05, odds ratio of 2.12). Conclusion The

  15. Weight, dietary behavior, and physical activity in childhood and adolescence: implications for adult cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Pendzich, Margaret K; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2009-01-01

    Lifestyle factors related to energy balance, including weight, dietary behavior and physical activity, are associated with cancer risk. The period of childhood and growth into adolescence and early adulthood may re-present a 'cumulative risk' for later adult-onset cancers. We review a number of epidemiologic studies that have examined associations among childhood and adolescent body size, diet, and physical activity with adult cancer risk. These studies suggest that unhealthy behaviors that develop early in life and persist over time may increase the risk of some cancer types, such as premenopausal breast, ovarian, endometrial, colon and renal cancer, adversely affect cancer-related morbidities, and increase mortality. Continued research is needed to further determine and refine how timing and degree of such exposures in early childhood and adolescence relate to adult cancer risk. Presently, sufficient evidence suggests a continued need for stronger primary prevention in cancer and obesity research via modified lifestyle behaviors earlier in the developmental spectrum, i.e. during childhood and adolescence. PMID:20054223

  16. Strategies for obstacle crossing in older adults with high and low risk of falling.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui-Fen; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Chang, Wei-Ning; Renn, Jenn-Huei; Wu, Hong-Wen

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Tripping is a frequent cause of falls among aging adults. Appropriate limb movements while negotiating obstacles are critical to trip avoidance. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanics of obstacle crossing in older adults at low or high risk of falling. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty community-dwelling adults aged ≥55 years, were evaluated with the Tinetti Balance and Gait scale and classified as being at high or low risk of falling. Between-group comparisons of kinematics were evaluated for obstacle heights of 10%, 20%, and 30% of leg length. [Results] The high-risk group demonstrated greater toe-obstacle clearance of the leading leg. Increasing obstacle height led to increased maximal toe-obstacle clearance, toe-obstacle distance, and shortened swing phase of the leading limb. Adaptation of clearance height was greater for the trailing leg. Individuals at high risk of falling demonstrated less symmetry between the leading and trailing legs and a narrower step width, features that increase the likelihood of tripping. [Conclusion] Kinematic parameters of obstacle clearance, including the symmetry index described in our study, could provide clinicians with a quick screening tool to identify patients at risk of falling and to evaluate outcomes of training programs. PMID:27313384

  17. Strategies for obstacle crossing in older adults with high and low risk of falling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui-Fen; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Chang, Wei-Ning; Renn, Jenn-Huei; Wu, Hong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Tripping is a frequent cause of falls among aging adults. Appropriate limb movements while negotiating obstacles are critical to trip avoidance. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanics of obstacle crossing in older adults at low or high risk of falling. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty community-dwelling adults aged ≥55 years, were evaluated with the Tinetti Balance and Gait scale and classified as being at high or low risk of falling. Between-group comparisons of kinematics were evaluated for obstacle heights of 10%, 20%, and 30% of leg length. [Results] The high-risk group demonstrated greater toe-obstacle clearance of the leading leg. Increasing obstacle height led to increased maximal toe-obstacle clearance, toe-obstacle distance, and shortened swing phase of the leading limb. Adaptation of clearance height was greater for the trailing leg. Individuals at high risk of falling demonstrated less symmetry between the leading and trailing legs and a narrower step width, features that increase the likelihood of tripping. [Conclusion] Kinematic parameters of obstacle clearance, including the symmetry index described in our study, could provide clinicians with a quick screening tool to identify patients at risk of falling and to evaluate outcomes of training programs. PMID:27313384

  18. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps) provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258) completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction. PMID:26844135

  19. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps) provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258) completed a brief web survey in October-November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction. PMID:26844135

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adult Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mimi S.; Merke, Deborah P.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired cortisol biosynthesis, with or without aldosterone deficiency, and androgen excess. Patients with the classic (severe) form also have epinephrine deficiency. Patients with CAH have an increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. Androgen excess in women appears to be an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima media thickness, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis also has been found to be increased in adults with CAH. The multiple hormonal imbalances present in the adult woman with CAH, in combination with chronic glucocorticoid therapy, contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. Further investigation of the predisposition to cardiovascular disease in women with CAH is warranted. Longitudinal studies are needed and interventions targeting obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperandrogenism may offer improved outcome. PMID:19530065

  1. The influence of mental health problems on AIDS-related risk behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F; Cunningham, R

    1992-05-01

    This paper explores how symptoms of mental health problems influence acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related risk behaviors, and how changes in those symptoms relate to risk behaviors engaged in by young adults. Repeated interviews with 602 youths since 1984 provide a history of change in behaviors. Mental health symptoms during adolescence (alcohol/drug [r = .28]; conduct disorder [r = .27]; depression [r = .16]; suicide [r = .14]; anxiety [r = .16]; and posttraumatic stress [r = .09]) are associated with higher numbers of risk behaviors (specifically, prostitution, use of intravenous drugs, and choice of a high-risk sex partner) during young adulthood. Changes in mental health symptoms between adolescence and young adulthood are related to the number of risk behaviors engaged in by young adulthood (total number of symptoms [B = .10], alcohol/drug abuse or dependence [B = .34], depression [B = .20], suicidality [B = .35], anxiety [B = .13], and posttraumatic stress [B = .14]). Changes in symptoms of mental health problems are associated specifically with those risk behaviors that are initiated primarily in young adulthood: intravenous drug use, prostitution, and choice of risky partners. The findings show that prevention and treatment of mental health problems are important components of preventive interventions for human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk teens and young adults. PMID:1583474

  2. Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Asthma in Chilean Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Corvalán, Camila; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Rona, Roberto J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and asthma symptoms, severity of asthma, atopy, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine. Methods. We studied 1232 men and women born between 1974 and 1978 in a semirural area of Chile. We assessed asthma symptoms with a standardized questionnaire, atopy with a skin-prick test to 8 allergens, and BHR to methacholine with the tidal breathing method. SES was derived from several indicators: education, occupation, completion of a welfare form, belongings, housing, number of siblings, and overcrowding. Results. Those with fewer belongings had more asthma symptoms. Those who had higher education and those who owned cars had fewer asthma symptoms and BHR. Overcrowding was negatively related to atopy, atopy with asthma symptoms, and BHR. Higher education and noncompletion of a welfare form were risk factors for atopy. Conclusion. The strength and direction of the association between asthma and SES depended on what definition of asthma was analyzed. Asthma symptoms were more common among poor people. There was some support for the hygiene hypothesis, as overcrowding was associated with less wheezing with atopy, less atopy, and less BHR. PMID:15985644

  3. Vascular risk assessment in older adults without a history of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, P; Tan, W S; Mulcahy, R; Pope, G A; Cooke, J

    2016-06-15

    Modern cardiovascular risk prediction tools, which have their genesis in the Framingham Heart Study, have allowed more accurate risk stratification and targeting of treatments worldwide over the last seven decades. Better cardiovascular risk factor control during this time has led to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and, at least in part, to improved life expectancy. As a result, western societies as a whole have seen a steady increase in the proportion of older persons in their populations. Unfortunately, several studies have shown that the same tools which have contributed to this increase cannot be reliably extrapolated for use in older generations. Recent work has allowed recalibration of existing models for use in older populations but these modified tools still require external validation before they can be confidently applied in clinical practice. Another complication is emerging evidence that aggressive risk factor modification in older adults, particularly more frail individuals, may actually be harmful. This review looks at currently available cardiovascular risk prediction models and the specific challenges faced with their use in older adults, followed by analysis of recent attempts at recalibration for this cohort. We discuss the issue of frailty, looking at our evolving understanding of its constituent features and various tools for its assessment. We also review work to date on the impact of frailty on cardiovascular risk modification and outline its potentially central role in determining the most sensible approach in older patients. We summarise the most promising novel markers of cardiovascular risk which may be of use in improving risk prediction in older adults in the future. These include markers of vascular compliance (such as aortic pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis), of endothelial function (such as flow mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium scores), and also biochemical and

  4. Projected impact of polypill use among US adults: medication use, cardiovascular risk reduction and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Mann, Devin; Wildman, Rachel P; Shimbo, Daichi; Fuster, Valentin; Woodward, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Polypills which include multiple medications for reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a single pill have been proposed for population-wide use. The number of US adults eligible for polypills and potential benefits are unknown. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2007-2008 were analyzed to estimate treatment rates for medications proposed for inclusion in polypills (aspirin, statin, an ACE-inhibitor, and a thiazide-type diuretic for those without, a beta-blocker for those with, a history of myocardial infarction) among US adults. The number of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke events potentially prevented through polypill use was projected by published meta-analyses and three large population-based cohort studies. Two polypill eligibility criteria were analyzed (1) US adults ≥ 55 years and (2) US adults with a history of CVD. Results There are 67.6 million US adults ≥ 55 years and 15.4 million US adults with a history of CVD and, thus, eligible for polypills using the two outlined criteria. In 2007-2008, 37.3% of US adults ≥ 55 years and 57.0% of those with a history of CVD were taking statins. Use of other polypill medications was also low. Polypill use by US adults age ≥ 55 years is projected to potentially prevent 3.2 million CHD events and 1.7 million strokes over 10 years. Amongst those with a history of CVD, the potential to prevent of 0.9 million CHD events and 0.5 million strokes is projected. Conclusions Polypills have the potential to lower CVD incidence substantially among US adults. PMID:21473971

  5. Risk of hospitalization due to pneumococcal disease in adults in Spain. The CORIENNE study.

    PubMed

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Pascual-Garcia, Raquel; Walter, Stefan; Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Gil-De-Miguel, Ángel

    2016-07-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes a high burden of disease in adults, leading to high rates of hospitalization, especially in the elderly. All hospital discharges for pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia among adults over 18 y of age reported in first diagnostic position in 2011 (January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011) were obtained. A total of 10,861 hospital discharges due to pneumococcal disease were reported in adults in Spain in 2011 with an annual incidence of hospitalization of 0.285 (CI 95%: 0.280-0.291) per 1,000 population over 18 y old. Case-fatality rate was 8%. Estimated cost of these hospitalisations in 2011 was more than 57 million €. Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for the 92% of the hospital discharges All the chronic condition studied: asplenia, chronic respiratory disease, chronic heart disease, chronic renal disease, Diabetes Mellitus and immunosuppression, increased the risk of hospitalization in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, especially in those aged 18-64 y old. Case-fatality rate among adult patients hospitalized with at least one underlying condition was significantly higher than among patients without comorbidities. Our results identified asplenia, chronic respiratory disease, chronic heart disease, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, Diabetes Mellitus and immunosuppression as risk groups for hospitalization. Older adults, immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent patients with underlying conditions could benefit from vaccination. PMID:26901683

  6. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods Adult cocaine and methamphetamine users (N=544) in rural Arkansas and Kentucky were interviewed. Data were analyzed using both bivariate analyses and multiple logistic and log-linear regression models, with dependent variables being any substance abuse/dependence, stimulant abuse/dependence, total number of arrests since age 18 and days incarcerated since age 18. Findings One-third reported three or more conduct disorder problems prior to age 15; half reported initiation of substances (excluding alcohol) before age 15; and 60% reported family history of substance problems. All three variables were associated with adult substance abuse/dependence but only the latter two were associated with stimulant abuse/dependence. Conclusions This study highlights early risk factors for adult substance abuse/dependence among rural stimulant users. PMID:19166561

  7. Risks and Benefits of Exercise Training in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Marie-A; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Khairy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Exercise capacity in adults with various forms of congenital heart disease is substantially lower than that of the general population. Although the underlying congenital heart defect, and its sequelae, certainly contribute to observed exercise limitations, there is evidence suggesting that deconditioning and a sedentary lifestyle are important implicated factors. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular comorbidities is on the increase in the aging population with congenital heart disease, such that obesity and a sedentary lifestyle confer increased risk. Health fears and misconceptions are common barriers to regular physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease, despite evidence linking lower functional capacity to poor outcomes, and data supporting the safety and efficacy of exercise in bestowing numerous physical and psychosocial rewards. With few exceptions, adults with congenital heart disease should be counselled to exercise regularly. In this contemporary review, we provide a practical approach to assessing adults with congenital heart disease before exercise training. We examine available evidence supporting the safety and benefits of exercise training. Risks associated with exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease are discussed, particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death. Finally, recommendations for exercise training are provided, with consideration for the type of congenital heart disease, the nature (ie, static vs dynamic) and intensity (ie, low, medium, high) of the physical activity, and associated factors such as systemic ventricular dysfunction and residual defects. Further research is required to determine optimal exercise regimens and to identify effective strategies to implement exercise training as a key determinant of healthy living. PMID:26868839

  8. Increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability in patients at risk for adult respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tennenberg, S.D.; Jacobs, M.P.; Solomkin, J.S.; Ehlers, N.A.; Hurst, J.M.

    1987-04-01

    Two methods for predicting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated prospectively in a group of 81 multitrauma and sepsis patients considered at clinical high risk. A popular ARDS risk-scoring method, employing discriminant analysis equations (weighted risk criteria and oxygenation characteristics), yielded a predictive accuracy of 59% and a false-negative rate of 22%. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was determined with a radioaerosol lung-scan technique in 23 of these 81 patients, representing a statistically similar subgroup. Lung scanning achieved a predictive accuracy of 71% (after excluding patients with unilateral pulmonary contusion) and gave no false-negatives. We propose a combination of clinical risk identification and functional determination of PACP to assess a patient's risk of developing ARDS.

  9. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  10. Fall-risk prediction in older adults with cancer: an unmet need.

    PubMed

    Wildes, Tanya M; Depp, Brittany; Colditz, Graham; Stark, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Falls in older adults with cancer are more common than in noncancer controls, yet no fall-risk screening tool has been validated in this population. We undertook a cross-sectional pilot study of the Falls Risk Questionnaire (FRQ) in 21 adults aged ≥65 receiving systemic cancer therapy. Participants completed the FRQ, geriatric assessment measures, and a measure of fear-of-falling. The recruitment rate was 87.5 %, with 95.2 % completion of the FRQ and additional geriatric assessment and quality of life measures. The FRQ correlated significantly with the Timed Up and Go test (Pearson r 0.479, p = 0.028). In addition, the FRQ score correlated directly with fear-of-falling and inversely with QOL, particularly physical health and neurotoxicity subscales. In conclusion, the FRQ was feasible in older adults receiving cancer therapy and correlates with measures of physical performance, functional status, and fear-of-falling. The FRQ may prove to be a valuable fall-risk screening tool to implement fall-prevention interventions in this vulnerable population of older adults with cancer. PMID:27341803

  11. 10-TW high-contrast double CPA laser system for ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, A.; Sakaki, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Jinno, S.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Shimomura, T.; Ogura, K.; Mori, M.; Bolton, P. R.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate an insertable pulse cleaning module (IPCM) that is connected to a commercial CPA Ti:sapphire laser system and reduces the background of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), when the output energy and repetition rate of the original laser system is completely preserved. The ASE temporal contrast is suppressed by three orders of magnitude on the benefit of double saturable absorbers involved in the module. Our method can reform old conventional lasers into high-contrast advanced systems.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and its associated risk factors in Iranian adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clustering cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dylipedemia. It has been a growing health problem in Iranian adults in recent decade. The objective of this article was to review the prevalence of MetS and the corresponding risk factors among Iranian adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to extract the published articles regarding metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among Iranian adults aged >19 years by searching in PubMed, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Iranmedex databases. The forty-three published articles were selected regarding MetS among Iranian adults in this review during 2005-2014. Results: From the 43 studies, the rate of MetS varied from 10% to 60% depending on sex, age and region. The highest rate reported among postmenopausal women in Shiraz was over 60%. There was almost a consistent finding that the rate of MetS was higher among women compared with men across national level except in one study. A very sharp difference (43.3% vs. 17.1%) was observed in western Iran (Kordestan province) between sexes. MetS was significantly more prevalent among older adults, postmenopausal women, less-educated people, those living in urban areas and those with low physical activity and unhealthy eating habits across national level consistently. Conclusion: An emerging high rate of MetS across national level highlights the lifestyle modification as preventive measures in Iranian population by focusing primarily on high risk profiles such as low socioeconomic background, low level of education, older age and postmenopausal women. PMID:26221500

  13. Falls, Depression, and Other Hospitalization Risk Factors for Adults in Residential Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Gimm, Gilbert W; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2016-06-01

    Prior research has shown a relationship between falls, hospitalizations, and depression among older adults in nursing home settings, but few studies have explored these relationships for younger and older adults in residential care facilities. This study examined risk factors for hospitalizations among assisted living residents. Using the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities, the study found that 24% of residents had a hospital stay in the past year. Residents with falls were more than twice as likely to have a hospitalization. For younger residents, depression was a key risk factor (OR = 1.74, p < .01). However, older residents with dementia had a lower risk of hospitalization (OR = 0.71, p < .01). More attention is needed to prevent falls and identify residents with depression and severe mental illness, who are at greater risk of hospitalization. Reducing avoidable hospitalizations can improve well-being for older and younger adults in residential care facilities. PMID:27147680

  14. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Anthony S.; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F.; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui’one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March – August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents’ role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes’ “risk and enabling environment” heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention. PMID:22647562

  15. Comparison of 11-C-Palmitic Acid (CPA), and 123-I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) turnover in human heart

    SciTech Connect

    Notohamiprodjo, G.; Schmid, A.; Spohr, G.; Vyska, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1985-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the results obtained with IHA in the investigation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism (MFAM) with those obtained by the use of CPA.- 8 patients (pts) without clinical signs of heart or metabolic disease were investigated under rest and fasting condition by dynamic PET following i.v. injection of 3 mCi CPA and by conventional scintigraphy following i.v. injection of 3 mCi IHA. Data were collected over a period of 90 min (frame rate was 1/min) and corrected for blood activity and catabolically released 123-I.-In 6 pts a good agreement between CPA and IHA data was observed. The activity release from the myocardium in these cases was biexponential. The ratio Q ranged between 0.7 and 6.7. -In the remaining 2 pts significant discrepancies between CPA and IHA data were observed. Since these pts were known to have cardiac neurosis and the first measurement was carried out with CPA, the authors assumed that the anxiety of the pt during CPA examination is responsible for the changing of the MFAM. This was confirmed by examination of these pts with IHA under mental stress. In both vases the data obtained by the use of CPA agree closely with those obtained by the use of IHA under mental stress. These data indicate that both CPA and IHa are applicable for studying MFAM and that in external assessment of MFAM, not only the dietary status, but also the mental state of the pts should be considered.

  16. Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas graminis CPA-7 against foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut apples under simulated commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Usall, Josep; Anguera, Marina; Altisent, Rosa; Abadias, Maribel

    2013-04-01

    Recently, we reported that the application of the strain CPA-7 of Pseudomonas graminis, previously isolated from apple, could reduce the population of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed (MP) apples and peaches under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to find an antioxidant treatment and a packaging atmosphere condition to improve CPA-7 efficacy in reducing a cocktail of four Salmonella and five Listeria monocytogenes strains on MP apples under simulated commercial processing. The effect of CPA-7 application on apple quality and its survival to simulated gastric stress were also evaluated. Ascorbic acid (2%, w/v) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (1%, w/v) as antioxidant treatments reduced Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and CPA-7 recovery, meanwhile no reduction was observed with NatureSeal(®) AS1 (NS, 6%, w/v). The antagonistic strain was effective on NS-treated apple wedges stored at 10 °C with or without modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Then, in a semi-commercial assay, efficacy of CPA-7 inoculated at 10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1) against Salmonella and L. monocytogenes strains on MP apples with NS and MAP and stored at 5 and 10 °C was evaluated. Although high CPA-7 concentrations/populations avoided Salmonella growth at 10 °C and lowered L. monocytogenes population increases were observed at both temperatures, the effect was not instantaneous. No effect on apple quality was detected and CPA-7 did not survived to simulated gastric stress throughout storage. Therefore, CPA-7 could avoid pathogens growth on MP apples during storage when use as part of a hurdle technology in combination with disinfection techniques, low storage temperature and MAP. PMID:23200645

  17. 78 FR 9420 - Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...On Wednesday, March 20, 2013, BOEM will open and publicly announce bids received for blocks offered in CPA Sale 227, in accordance with the provisions of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA, 43 U.S.C. 1331-1356, as amended) and the regulations issued thereunder (30 CFR part 556). The CPA 227 Final Notice of Sale (NOS) package (Final NOS Package) contains information essential to potential bidders, and......

  18. Risk factors for invasive fungal disease in critically ill adult patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over 5,000 cases of invasive Candida species infections occur in the United Kingdom each year, and around 40% of these cases occur in critical care units. Invasive fungal disease (IFD) in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at a cost to both the individual and the National Health Service. In this paper, we report the results of a systematic review performed to identify and summarise the important risk factors derived from published multivariable analyses, risk prediction models and clinical decision rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients to inform the primary data collection for the Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation Study. Methods An internet search was performed to identify articles which investigated risk factors, risk prediction models or clinical decisions rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients. Eligible articles were identified in a staged process and were assessed by two investigators independently. The methodological quality of the reporting of the eligible articles was assessed using a set of questions addressing both general and statistical methodologies. Results Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria, of which eight articles examined risk factors, four developed a risk prediction model or clinical decision rule and one evaluated a clinical decision rule. Studies varied in terms of objectives, risk factors, definitions and outcomes. The following risk factors were found in multiple studies to be significantly associated with IFD: surgery, total parenteral nutrition, fungal colonisation, renal replacement therapy, infection and/or sepsis, mechanical ventilation, diabetes, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) or APACHE III score. Several other risk factors were also found to be statistically significant in single studies only. Risk factor selection process and modelling strategy also varied across studies, and sample sizes were inadequate for obtaining

  19. Abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Predicts Cardiac Mortality in Low, Intermediate and High Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ≥65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk. PMID:21134026

  20. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  1. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults. PMID:26428668

  2. Characteristics of Interventions Targeting Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours in Adult Populations: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    King, Kristel; Meader, Nick; Wright, Kath; Graham, Hilary; Power, Christine; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Sowden, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable lifestyle risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and alcohol misuse are the leading causes of major, non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is increasingly being recognised that interventions which target more than one risk behaviour may be an effective and efficient way of improving people’s lifestyles. To date, there has been no attempt to summarise the global evidence base for interventions targeting multiple risk behaviours. Objective To identify and map the characteristics of studies evaluating multiple risk behaviour change interventions targeted at adult populations in any country. Methods Seven bibliographic databases were searched between January, 1990, and January/ May, 2013. Authors of protocols, conference abstracts, and other relevant articles were contacted. Study characteristics were extracted and inputted into Eppi-Reviewer 4. Results In total, 220 studies were included in the scoping review. Most were randomised controlled trials (62%) conducted in the United States (49%), and targeted diet and physical activity (56%) in people from general populations (14%) or subgroups of general populations (45%). Very few studies had been conducted in the Middle East (2%), Africa (0.5%), or South America (0.5%). There was also a scarcity of studies conducted among young adults (1%), or racial and minority ethnic populations (4%) worldwide. Conclusions Research is required to investigate the interrelationships of lifestyle risk behaviours in varying cultural contexts around the world. Cross-cultural development and evaluation of multiple risk behaviour change interventions is also needed, particularly in populations of young adults and racial and minority ethnic populations. PMID:25617783

  3. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  4. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  5. Risk of Post-Lung Transplant Renal Dysfunction in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Aitken, Moira L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the leading indications for lung transplantation. The incidence and pre-lung transplant risk factors for posttransplant renal dysfunction in the CF population remain undefined. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using adults (≥ 18 years old) in the CF Foundation Patient Registry from 2000 to 2008 to determine the incidence of post-lung transplant renal dysfunction, defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify independent pretransplant risk factors for post-lung transplant renal dysfunction. Results: The study cohort included 993 adult lung transplant recipients with CF, with a median follow-up of 2 years. During the study period, 311 individuals developed renal dysfunction, with a 2-year risk of 35% (95% CI, 32%-39%). Risk of posttransplant renal dysfunction increased substantially with increasing age (25 to < 35 years vs 18 to < 25 years: hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; 95% CI, 1.15-2.23; vs ≥ 35 years: HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.73-3.47) and female sex (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.22-1.99). CF-related diabetes requiring insulin therapy (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.67) and pretransplant renal function impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 60-90 mL/min/m2 vs > 90 mL/min/m2: HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.19-2.12) also increased the risk of posttransplant renal dysfunction. Conclusions: Renal dysfunction is common following lung transplant in the adult CF population. Increased age, female sex, CF-related diabetes requiring insulin, and pretransplant renal impairment are significant risk factors. PMID:22222189

  6. Adult Mortality Attributable to Preventable Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in Japan: A Comparative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Imano, Hironori; Saito, Eiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Shibuya, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the two major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan. There is a large potential population health gain if multiple risk factors are jointly controlled. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22291576

  7. Variability modifies life satisfaction's association with mortality risk in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Julia K.; Winning, Ashley; Segerstrom, Suzanne; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction is associated with greater longevity, but its variability across time has not been examined relative to longevity. We investigated whether mean levels of life satisfaction across time, variability in life satisfaction across time, and their interaction were associated with mortality over 9 years of follow-up. Participants were 4,458 Australians initially ≥50 years old. During the follow-up, 546 people died. Adjusting for age, greater mean life satisfaction was associated with reduced risk and greater variability in life satisfaction was associated with increased risk of mortality. These findings were qualified by a significant interaction such that individuals with low mean satisfaction and high variability in satisfaction had the greatest risk of mortality over the follow-up period. In combination with mean levels of life satisfaction, variability in life satisfaction is relevant for mortality risk among older adults. Considering intraindividual variability provides additional insight into associations between psychological characteristics and health. PMID:26048888

  8. A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M

    2010-08-01

    A three-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  9. Basic psychological needs, suicidal ideation, and risk for suicidal behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Britton, Peter C; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Hirsch, Jameson K; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Associations between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness with current suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior were examined. Two logistic regressions were conducted with a cross-sectional database of 440 university students to examine the association of need satisfaction with suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior, while controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15% of participants and 18% were found to be at risk for suicidal behavior. A one standard deviation increase in need satisfaction reduced the odds of suicidal ideation by 53%, OR (95% CI) = 0.47 (0.33-0.67), and the odds of being at risk for suicidal behavior by 50%, OR (95% CI) = 0.50 (0.37-0.69). Young adults whose basic psychological needs are met may be less likely to consider suicide and engage in suicidal behavior. Prospective research is needed to confirm these associations. PMID:24494652

  10. Basic psychological needs, suicidal ideation, and risk for suicidal behavior in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Peter C.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness with current suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior. Two logistic regressions were conducted with a cross-sectional database of 440 university students to examine the association of need satisfaction with suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior, while controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15% of participants and 18% were found to be at risk for suicidal behavior. A one standard deviation increase in need satisfaction reduced the odds of suicidal ideation by 53%, OR (95% CI) = 0.47 (0.33-0.67), and the odds of being at risk for suicidal behavior by 50%, OR (95% CI) = 0.50 (0.37-0.69). Young adults whose basic psychological needs are met may be less likely to consider suicide and engage in suicidal behavior. Prospective research is needed to confirm these associations. PMID:24494652

  11. Arterial Hypertension and other risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among adults1

    PubMed Central

    Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; dos Santos, Lucimary Afonso; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its association with cardiovascular risk factors among adults. METHOD: cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study conducted with 408 adult individuals. Data were collected through a questionnaire and measurements of weight, height and waist circumference. Person's Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used in the data analysis. RESULTS: 23.03% of the individuals reported hypertension with a higher prevalence among women. Odds Ratio indicated that smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were positively associated with arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: high self-reported hypertension and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia show the need for specific nursing interventions and the implementation of protocols focused on minimizing complications arising from hypertension, as well as to prevent the emergence of other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296137

  12. Is pessimism a risk factor for depressive mood among community-dwelling older adults?

    PubMed

    Isaacowitz, D M; Seligman, M E

    2001-03-01

    This study examined two senses in which pessimism might be a risk factor for depressive mood among older adults. The first was that a pessimistic explanatory style would predict changes toward depressive mood when combined with stressful life events. The second was that predictive pessimism, or thinking that bad events will happen in the future, would predict changes in depressive symptoms. We found an interaction between explanatory style and life stressors, but it was the optimists who were at higher risk for depressive symptoms after negative life events. We also found support for predictive pessimism, however, as a predictor of depressive symptoms over time. PMID:11227808

  13. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings. PMID:18400653

  14. Insomnia and risk of dementia in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Almondes, Katie Moraes; Costa, Mônica Vieira; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Diniz, Breno Satler

    2016-06-01

    There are cross-sectional evidences of an association between sleep disorders and cognitive impairment on older adults. However, there are no consensus by means of longitudinal studies data on the increased risk of developing dementia related to insomnia. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of incident all-cause dementia in individuals with insomnia in population-based prospective cohort studies. Five studies of 5.242 retrieved references were included in the meta-analysis. We used the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model to calculate the pooled risk of dementia in older adults with insomnia. We assessed heterogeneity in the meta-analysis by means of the Q-test and I2 index. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale The results showed that Insomnia was associated with a significant risk of all-cause dementia (RR = 1.53 CI95% (1.07-2.18), z = 2.36, p = 0.02). There was evidence for significant heterogeneity in the analysis (q-value = 2.4, p < 0.001 I2 = 82%). Insomnia is associated with an increased risk for dementia. This results provide evidences that future studies should investigate dementia prevention among elderly individuals through screening and proper management of insomnia. PMID:27017287

  15. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and sexual risk behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Luckman, Diana; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically, particularly in young adults. Previous work has noted associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and the use of illicit drugs, and associations between the use of illicit drugs and sexual risk behavior. Investigations examining associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and sexual risk behavior are sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=435) ages 18-25 completed an instrument assessing these behaviors. Overall, 35.6% of participants reported NMUPD. Individuals who reported NMUPD were more likely to also report the use of alcohol, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, and poppers. Participants who indicated they had used prescription medications without a doctor's consent had significantly higher rates of sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners and more instances of unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Results suggest that a significant minority of young adults are using prescription medication recreationally and are risking negative consequences, including the potential for addiction, dangerous interactions between prescription and recreational drugs, and greater risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. PMID:20863626

  16. Serum carotenoid levels and risk of lung cancer death in US adults

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung-bok; Min, Jin-young

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer-induced death in the USA. Although much attention has been focused on the anti-carcinogenic effect of consuming carotenoid-containing food or supplements, the results have been inconsistent. We investigated whether serum carotenoid levels were associated with the mortality risk of lung cancer in US adults using data from a nationally representative sample. The data were obtained from the Third Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES III) database and the NHANES III Linked Mortality File. A total of 10 382 participants aged over 20 years with available serum carotenoid levels and no other missing information on questionnaires and biomarkers at baseline (NHANES III) were included in the present study. Of the 10 382 participants, 161 subjects died due to lung cancer. We found that high serum levels of alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin at baseline were significantly associated with a lower risk of lung cancer death. When we stratified the risk by current smoking status, the risk of death of current smokers was significantly decreased to 46% (95% confidence interval, 31–94%) for alpha-carotene and 61% (95% confidence interval, 19–80%) for beta-cryptoxanthin. By contrast, no association was observed among never/former smokers at baseline. High serum levels of alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin are associated with a lower risk of lung cancer death in US adults. PMID:24673770

  17. Risk factors for opioid misuse in adolescents and young adults with focus on oncology setting.

    PubMed

    Peck, Kelly R; Ehrentraut, Jennifer Harman; Anghelescu, Doralina L

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid use has increased in recent decades. Although opioids provide effective pain control, their use may be associated with the risk of misuse. Opioid misuse (OM) is prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Opioids are necessary to treat cancer-related pain; however, oncology patients are not immune to medication misuse. Research examining OM among AYAs with cancer is scarce. This article examines the risk factors described in the general adult and adolescent medication abuse literature and aims to provide recommendations for practice in the AYA oncology population. The following risk factors should be examined in AYA oncology patients to determine their relevance: age, sex, behavioral and academic problems, psychological conditions, and a history of illicit drug use/abuse. To maintain the delicate balance of providing adequate pain relief while protecting patients from the risk of OM, clinicians must consider potential risk factors, motivating factors, and individual behaviors. Placing these challenges in perspective, this review provides clinical considerations, recommendations, and intervention strategies for OM prevention in AYA oncology patients. PMID:27435441

  18. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Their Clustering among Adults in Jilin (China)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianxing; Ma, Yonghui; Yang, Sen; Pang, Kai; Yu, Yaqin; Tao, Yuchun; Jin, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors constitutes a major public health challenge. Although a number of researchers have investigated the CVD risk factor clusters in China, little is known about the related prevalence and clustering associated with demographics in Jilin Province in China; this study aims to reveal that relationship. Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on a sample of 16,834 adults aged 18 to 79 years was conducted in Jilin in 2012. The prevalence and clustering of CVD risk factors were analysed through complex weighted computation. Quantitative variables were compared by the t test, and categorical variables were compared by the Rao-Scott-χ2 test. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the CVD risk factor clusters associated with demographics. Results: The prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight and smoking were 37.3%, 8.2%, 36.8%, 47.3%, and 31.0%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with gender, education level, age, occupation and family income (p < 0.05). Overall, compared with females, the adjusted ORs of ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 risk factors clusters in males were 3.70 (95%CI 3.26 to 4.20), 4.66 (95%CI 4.09 to 5.31), and 5.76 (95%CI 5.01 to 6.63), respectively. In particular, the adjusted ORs of ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 risk factors increased with age. Conclusions: CVD risk factor clusters are common among adults in northeast China, and they constitute a major public health challenge. More effective attention and interventions should be directed toward the elderly and toward persons with lower incomes and low levels of education. PMID:26703706

  19. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: Support for gender- and age-specific interventions

    PubMed Central

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G.; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    STI prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14–29 years old) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men. PMID:23403603

  20. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  1. Correlates and Consequences of Opioid Misuse among High-Risk Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schrager, Sheree M.; Silva, Karol; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Iverson, Ellen; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18–25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16–25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse, recency of misuse, and alternate modes of administration within the past 12 months, 3 months, and 30 days. Results. Four latent classes emerged that were differentially associated with heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use, tranquilizer misuse, daily opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal. Alternate modes of administering opioids were associated with increased risk for these outcomes. Sociodemographic factors, homelessness, prescription history, and history of parental drug use were significantly associated with riskier opioid misuse trajectories. Conclusion. Young adults who reported more debilitating experiences as children and adolescents misused opioids longer and engaged in higher risk alternate modes of administering opioids. Data on decisions both to use and to alter a drug's form can be combined to describe patterns of misuse over time and predict important risk behaviors. PMID:25506462

  2. Connection between competence, usability, environment and risk of falls in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Leiva-Caro, José Alex; Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther Carlota; Gómez-Meza, Marco Vinicio; Hunter, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine connections between competence, usability, environment and risk of falls in elderly adults. Method: correlational descriptive study, 123 elderly adults, both male and female, aged 70 years and older were included. Data was collected via the Tinetti Scale, CESD-7 Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Usability Questionnaire on Housing and Housing Enabler; and sociodemographic and health background certificate data. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were used, multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. Results: 42.0% of the elderly adults had presented with falls, with a higher prevalence in women, and in the group of 70-75 years. The physical environment of the house, gait, and usability were set as risk factors for falls. A negative relationship between usability and depressive symptoms, cognitive health, balance, gait, the social and physical environment was found, p <0.05; and a strong positive correlation between walking and balance, p <0.05. Conclusion: this study helps to better understand the phenomenon of falling, to find a connection between usability with the risk of falls, and other variables. PMID:26626006

  3. The role of biochemical risk factors in the etiology of AIS in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kopyta, Ilona; Zimny, Mikołaj; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is an abrupt onset of both focal and global neurological deficits secondary to a vascular event lasting more than 24 h and with a vascular background as its only cause. It can be triggered by a rupture of a blood vessel, aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke, HS), thrombosis or embolisms (ischemic stroke, IS). In developed countries, it is the third most common cause of death in the adult population. Stroke in children is a rare disorder with a reported frequency of about 3 cases per 100,000 children per year. The history of acute brain ischemia is burdened with neurological complications such as motor impairment, speech impairment and intellectual delay. Moreover, in children after AIS seizures and epilepsy are also quite common. Stroke is a heterogeneous disorder; its risk factors in adults are well known, however, in pediatrics, in more than 20% cases, the cause of stroke is impossible to determine. Due to the fact that stroke usually arises as a consequence of the cerebral thrombosis, many of the mechanisms responsible for its occurrence can be considered as risk factors. We have reviewed the recent case-control studies conducted on pediatric patients regarding biochemical risk factors such as elevated levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lipoprotein(a), cholesterol and its fractions, and compared them with the results obtained from adult patients. PMID:25428197

  4. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence on the associations of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers with genes may help identify intermediate pathways of disease susceptibility in the general population. This population-based study is aimed to determine the presence of associations between a wide array of genetic variants and emerging cardiovascular risk markers among adult US women. Methods The current analysis was performed among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III phase 2 samples of adult women aged 17 years and older (sample size n = 3409). Fourteen candidate genes within ADRB2, ADRB3, CAT, CRP, F2, F5, FGB, ITGB3, MTHFR, NOS3, PON1, PPARG, TLR4, and TNF were examined for associations with emerging cardiovascular risk markers such as serum C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid, and plasma fibrinogen. Linear regression models were performed using SAS-callable SUDAAN 9.0. The covariates included age, race/ethnicity, education, menopausal status, female hormone use, aspirin use, and lifestyle factors. Results In covariate-adjusted models, serum C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly (P value controlling for false-discovery rate ≤ 0.05) associated with polymorphisms in CRP (rs3093058, rs1205), MTHFR (rs1801131), and ADRB3 (rs4994). Serum homocysteine levels were significantly associated with MTHFR (rs1801133). Conclusion The significant associations between certain gene variants with concentration variations in serum C-reactive protein and homocysteine among adult women need to be confirmed in further genetic association studies. PMID:20078877

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy in adult medulloblastoma: is it an option for average-risk patients?

    PubMed

    Franceschi, E; Bartolotti, M; Paccapelo, A; Marucci, G; Agati, R; Volpin, L; Danieli, D; Ghimenton, C; Gardiman, M P; Sturiale, C; Poggi, R; Mascarin, M; Balestrini, D; Masotto, B; Brandes, A A

    2016-06-01

    The standard treatment in children with average-risk medulloblastoma (MB) is reduced-dose radiotherapy (RT) followed by chemotherapy. However, in adults, there is no agreement on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of adult MB patients with average-risk disease, defined as no postsurgical residual (or ≤1.5 cm(2)) and no metastatic disease (M0). Main inclusion criteria were: age >16 years, post-surgical treatment with craniospinal irradiation with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide ± cyclophosphamide). From 1988 to 2012 were accrued 43 average-risk MB patients treated with surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifteen (34.9 %) patients received also chemotherapy: 7 before RT, 5 after RT, and 3 before and after RT. Reasons to administer chemotherapy were presence of residual disease (even if ≤1.5 cm) and delay in RT. After a median follow up time of 10 years (range: 8-13), median survival was 18 years (95 % CI 9-28) in patients who receive RT alone, and was not reached in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years were 100 %, 78.6 % (95 % CI 60.0-97.2 %) and 60.2 % (95 % CI 36.9-83.5 %), in patients treated with RT alone, and 100, 100 and 100 %, in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy (p = 0.079). Our findings suggest a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of average-risk MB adult patients. Further improvements might drive to add chemotherapy in average-risk setting with less favourable biological signatures (i.e., non-WNT group). PMID:26940908

  6. Risk factors for development of asthma in Thai adults in Phitsanulok: a university-based study.

    PubMed

    Uthaisangsook, Suwannee

    2010-03-01

    Studies have shown that asthma in children is caused by environmental and genetic factors. In adult asthma, risk factors were less well recognized. Likewise, in Thailand, data in adult asthma is limited. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors, determine skin reactivities to allergens, and assess concomitant allergy among adult asthma in Phitsanulok, a major city in the lower northern Thailand. Five hundred and thirteen Naresuan University staff members and students completed 2 sets of questionnaires and underwent allergy skin prick tests. The first set of questionnaires was standardized Thai version of ISAAC questionnaire for identifying asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. The second set was modified from ISAAC phase II questionnaire to identify asthma risk factors. Fifty-eight subjects (11.6%) were identified as having physician's diagnosed asthma and 89 subjects (17.7%) wheezed in the past 12 months. Among 89 subjects, 14.4% wheezed more than once a month, 45.6% had wheezes interfering with sleep. Concomitant allergic rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema among these asthma subjects were 82.5%, 67.9%, and 14.9%, respectively. Eighty seven point nine percent of asthmatic subjects had positive skin reactivities to at least one allergen. Two of the most common allergens were house dust mites and cockroaches. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, smoking among family members, and family history of allergy were statistically significant risks for developing asthma, while having a rice field around the residence represented a significant protective factor. In conclusion, high prevalence of asthma presented in Phitsanulok and many asthmatic subjects were partly controlled or uncontrolled. The environment such as a rice field could protect against asthma, however atopy and smoking exposure were significant risks for asthma development PMID:20527512

  7. The risk of pancreatitis with sitagliptin therapy in older adults: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L.; Hramiak, Irene; Garg, Amit X.

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of pancreatitis with sitagliptin use in routine care remains to be established in older patients. We aimed to determine this risk in older adults who were newly prescribed sitagliptin versus an alternative hypoglycemic agent in the outpatient setting. Methods In a population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario from 2010 until 2012 involving adults aged 66 years and older, we studied those who were newly prescribed sitagliptin or an alternative hypoglycemic agent. Our primary outcome of interest was a hospital encounter (emergency department visit or hospital admission) with acute pancreatitis within 90 days. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance the 2 groups and logistic regression with a robust variance estimate to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 57 689 patients (mean age 74 yr) were newly prescribed sitagliptin, and 83 405 patients (mean age 75 yr) were given an alternative hypoglycemic agent (metformin, glyburide, gliclazide or insulin) during the study period. After weighting, there were no significant differences in measured baseline characteristics between groups. In the weighted sample, sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of a hospital encounter with pancreatitis compared with alternative hypoglycemic agents (weighted total 46 of 57 689 patients taking sitagliptin [0.08%] v. 48 of 55 705 patients taking alternative hypoglycemic agents [0.09%], absolute risk difference –0.01% [95% CI –0.05% to 0.02%], OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.55 to 1.55]). Interpretation Older adults newly prescribed sitagliptin in routine care were not at a substantially higher risk of pancreatitis than those prescribed alternative hypoglycemic agents. These findings are reassuring for those who use or prescribe sitagliptin in the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26389095

  8. Distribution of transport injury and related risk behaviours in a large national cohort of Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Karen; Kelly, Matthew; Mcclure, Rod; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Bain, Christopher; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Background A major barrier to addressing the problem of transport injury in low to middle-income countries is the lack of information regarding the incidence of traffic crashes and the demographic, behavioural and socio-economic determinants of crash-related injury. This study aimed to determine the baseline frequency and distribution of transport injury and the prevalence of various road safety behaviours in a newly recruited cohort of Thai adults. Methods The Thai Health-Risk Transition Study includes an ongoing population-based cohort study of 87,134 adult students residing across Thailand. Baseline survey data from 2005 includes data on self-reported transport injury within the previous 12 months and demographic, behavioural and transportation factors that could be linked to Thailand's transport risks. Results Overall, 7279 (8.4% or 8354 per 100,000) of respondents reported that their most serious injury in the 12 months prior to recruitment in the cohort was transport-related, with risk being higher for males and those aged 15–19 years. Most transport injuries occurred while using motorcycles. A much higher proportion of males reported driving after three or more glasses of alcohol at least once in the previous year compared to females. The prevalence of motorcycle helmet and seat belt wearing in this sample were higher than previously reported for Thailand. Conclusions The reported data provide the basis for monitoring changes in traffic crash risks and risk behaviours in a cohort of adults in the context of ongoing implementation of policy and programs that are currently being introduced to address the problem of transport-related injury in Thailand. PMID:21376902

  9. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Todd; Reeds, Dominic N.; Mondy, Kristin E.; Overton, Turner; Grassino, Joseph; Tucker, Shawn; Bopp, Coco; Laciny, Erin; Hubert, Sara; Lassa-Claxton, Sherry; Yarasheski, Kevin E.

    2009-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV are high priorities. Objective We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virologic or immunologic status, or quality of life in HIV-infected adults more than in a matched control group. Methods Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 wks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were; 2hr-oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4+ T-cell number and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 health-related quality of life inventory. Results Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced more (p=0.04) in the yoga group (−5±2 and −3±1 mmHg) than in the standard of care group (+1±2 and +2±2 mmHg), despite no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass, proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall quality of life after yoga. Immune and virologic status was not adversely affected. Conclusion Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low cost, simple to administer, non-pharmacological, popular behavioral intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors. PMID:20059570

  10. Polygenic risk for coronary artery disease is associated with cognitive ability in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Saskia P; Harris, Sarah E; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Hall, Lynsey; Luciano, Michelle; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana Maria; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Starr, John M; Porteous, David J; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with cognitive decrements and risk of later dementia, but it is not known if shared genetic factors underlie this association. We tested whether polygenic risk for CAD was associated with cognitive ability in community-dwelling cohorts of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Individuals from Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, N = 9865) and from the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921, N = 517) and 1936 (LBC1936, N = 1005) provided cognitive data and genome-wide genotype data. Polygenic risk profile scores for CAD were calculated for all of the cohorts using the largest available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data set, the CARDIoGRAM consortium (22 233 cases and 64 762 controls). Polygenic risk profile scores for CAD were then tested for their association with cognitive abilities in the presence and absence of manifest cardiovascular disease. Results: A meta-analysis of all three cohorts showed a negative association between CAD polygenic risk and fluid cognitive ability (β = −0.022, P = 0.016), verbal intelligence (β = −0.024, P = 0.011) and memory (β = −0.021, P = 0.028). Conclusions: Increased polygenic risk for CAD is associated with lower cognitive ability in older adults. Common genetic variants may underlie some of the association between age-related cognitive decrements and the risk for CAD. PMID:26822939

  11. Detection of Cardiovascular Disease Risk's Level for Adults Using Naive Bayes Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eka; Amelga, Alowisius Y.; Maribondang, Marco M.; Salim, Mulyadi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The number of deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke is predicted to reach 23.3 million in 2030. As a contribution to support prevention of this phenomenon, this paper proposes a mining model using a naïve Bayes classifier that could detect cardiovascular disease and identify its risk level for adults. Methods The process of designing the method began by identifying the knowledge related to the cardiovascular disease profile and the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors for adults based on the medical record, and designing a mining technique model using a naïve Bayes classifier. Evaluation of this research employed two methods: accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity calculation as well as an evaluation session with cardiologists and internists. The characteristics of cardiovascular disease are identified by its primary risk factors. Those factors are diabetes mellitus, the level of lipids in the blood, coronary artery function, and kidney function. Class labels were assigned according to the values of these factors: risk level 1, risk level 2 and risk level 3. Results The evaluation of the classifier performance (accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity) in this research showed that the proposed model predicted the class label of tuples correctly (above 80%). More than eighty percent of respondents (including cardiologists and internists) who participated in the evaluation session agree till strongly agreed that this research followed medical procedures and that the result can support medical analysis related to cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The research showed that the proposed model achieves good performance for risk level detection of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27525161

  12. Risk perceptions of smokeless tobacco among adolescents and adult users and nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sherry T.; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth in smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has raised questions about consumer risk perceptions of ST products, especially in high-risk vulnerable populations. This qualitative study examined risk perceptions of ST among adolescent and adult users and non-users in Ohio Appalachia. Focus groups and interviews were held with adolescents (n=53; mean age of 17 years) and adults (n=63; mean age of 34 years) from four Ohio Appalachian counties. Participants were asked about their perceptions of ST-related health risks, ST safety, and the relative safety of ST compared to cigarettes. Transcriptions were coded independently by two individuals. Overall, participants were knowledgeable about health problems from ST use (e.g., oral cancers, periodontal disease). Nearly all participants stated that ST use is not safe; however, there was disagreement about its relative safety. Some perceived all tobacco products as equally harmful; others believed that ST is safer than cigarettes for either the user or those around the user. Disagreements about ST relative safety may reflect mixed public health messages concerning the safety of ST. Comprehensive consumer messages about the relative safety of ST compared to cigarettes are needed. Messages should address the effect of ST on the health of the user as well as those exposed to the user. PMID:25832126

  13. [Benefits and risks of growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Cordido, Fernando

    2014-10-21

    Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency is a well-recognized clinical syndrome with adverse health consequences. Many of these may improve after replacement therapy with recombinant GH. This treatment induces an increase in lean body mass and a decrease in fat mass. In long-term studies, bone mineral density increases and muscle strength improves. Health-related quality of life tends to increase after treatment with GH. Lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk also improve with therapy. Nevertheless, GH replacement therapy is not without risk. According to some studies, GH increases blood glucose, body mass index and waist circumference and may promote long-term development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Risk of neoplasia does not appear to be increased in adults treated with GH, but there are some high-risk subgroups. Methodological shortcomings and difficulties inherent to long-term studies prevent definitive conclusions about the relationship between GH and survival. Therefore, research in this field should remain active. PMID:24485161

  14. Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma - incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of life. In a cross-sectional survey 29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing (DB), more likely to be female and younger, with no differences for severity of asthma. No clear risk factors were demonstrated for DB in asthma, nor the impact of asthma medication was evaluated. The objective of this study was to describe the DB phenotype in adults with asthma treated in a specialised asthma centre. Methods Adult patients aged 17–65 with diagnosed asthma were screened for DB using the Nijmegen questionnaire (positive predictive score >23) and confirmed by progressive exercise testing. The following were evaluated as independent risk factors for DB in the multiple regression analysis: female sex; atopy, obesity, active smoker, moderate/severe rhinitis, psychopathology, GERD, arterial hypertension; severe asthma, asthma duration > 5 years, lack of asthma control, fixed airway obstruction, fast lung function decline, frequent exacerbator and brittle asthma phenotypes; lack of ICS, use of LABA or LTRA. Results 91 adults with asthma, mean age 35.04 ±1.19 years, 47(51.65%) females were evaluated. 27 (29.67%) subjects had a positive screening score on Nijmegen questionnaire and 16(17.58%) were confirmed by progressive exercise testing as having DB. Independent risk factors for DB were psychopathology (p = 0.000002), frequent exacerbator asthma phenotype (p = 0.01) and uncontrolled asthma (p < 0.000001). Conclusion Dysfunctional breathing is not infrequent in asthma patients and should be evaluated in asthma patients presenting with psychopathology, frequent severe asthma exacerbations or uncontrolled asthma. Asthma medication (ICS, LABA or LTRA) had no significant relation with dysfunctional breathing. PMID:22992302

  15. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters. PMID:24941890

  16. Contribution of Major Lifestyle Risk Factors for Incident Heart Failure in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Kalantarian, Shadi; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lemaitre, Rozenn; Siscovick, David S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to determine the relative contribution of major lifestyle factors on the development of heart failure (HF) in older adults. Background HF incurs high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs among adults ≥65 years of age, which is the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population. Methods We prospectively investigated separate and combined associations of lifestyle risk factors with incident HF (1,380 cases) over 21.5 years among 4,490 men and women in the Cardiovascular Health Study, which is a community-based cohort of older adults. Lifestyle factors included 4 dietary patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, an American Heart Association 2020 dietary goals score, and a Biologic pattern, which was constructed using previous knowledge of cardiovascular disease dietary risk factors), 4 physical activity metrics (exercise intensity, walking pace, energy expended in leisure activity, and walking distance), alcohol intake, smoking, and obesity. Results No dietary pattern was associated with developing HF (p > 0.05). Walking pace and leisure activity were associated with a 26% and 22% lower risk of HF, respectively (pace >3 mph vs. <2 mph; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.86; leisure activity ≥845 kcal/week vs. <845 kcal/week; HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.87). Modest alcohol intake, maintaining a body mass index <30 kg/m2, and not smoking were also independently associated with a lower risk of HF. Participants with ≥4 healthy lifestyle factors had a 45% (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.74) lower risk of HF. Heterogeneity by age, sex, cardiovascular disease, hypertension medication use, and diabetes was not observed. Conclusions Among older U.S. adults, physical activity, modest alcohol intake, avoiding obesity, and not smoking, but not dietary patterns, were associated with a lower risk of HF. PMID:26160366

  17. Frailty and cardiovascular disease: potential role of gait speed in surgical risk stratification in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of late life decline and vulnerability, typified by physical weakness and decreased physiologic reserve. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of frailty share features with those of cardiovascular disease. Gait speed can be used as a measure of frailty and is a powerful predictor of mortality. Advancing age is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Older adults comprise approximately half of cardiac surgery patients, and account for nearly 80% of the major complications and deaths following surgery. The ability of traditional risk models to predict mortality and major morbidity in older patients being considered for cardiac surgery may improve if frailty, as measured by gait speed, is included in their assessment. It is possible that in the future frailty assessment may assist in choosing among therapies (e.g., surgical vs. percutaneous aortic valve replacement for patients with aortic stenosis). PMID:25678904

  18. Emotional, behavioral, and HIV risks associated with sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, B N; Doll, L S; Joy, D; Douglas, J M; Bolan, G; Harrison, J S; Moss, P M; McKirnan, D

    1994-09-01

    From May 1989 through April 1990, 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men attending urban sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding abusive sexual contacts during childhood and adolescence. Sexual abuse was found to be significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV risk behavior including unprotected and intercourse and injecting drug use, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. Data suggest that sexual abuse may have a wide-ranging influence on the quality of life and health risk behavior of homosexual men. Increased awareness as to the potential outcomes of male sexual abuse is critically important to the design and implementation of medical and psychological services for sexually abused men. PMID:8000905

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Reasons for Living-Older Adults Scale: A Suicide Risk Assessment Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Barry A.; Heisel, Marnin J.; McKee, Deborah R.; Martin, Ronald R.; Koven, Lesley P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Britton, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of these studies were to develop and initially evaluate the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version (RFL-OA), an older adults version of a measure designed to assess reasons for living among individuals at risk for suicide. Design and Methods: Two studies are reported. Study 1 involved…

  20. Are Rural Women Powerless When it Comes to HIV & AIDS Risk? Implications for Adult Education Programmes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Castle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for fresh approaches to HIV & AIDS education for adults and youth in South Africa, particularly for those marginalised by society, such as rural black women. In this article we explore the factors which affect awareness, condom use and HIV & AIDS risk among a group of women who attend classes in a rural Adult Education…

  1. Ageism and Risk-Taking in Young Adults: Evidence for a Link between Death Anxiety and Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, Lauren E.; Kennison, Shelia M.; Bradley, Kristopher I.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between ageism and risk-taking in young adults. They hypothesized that young adults may attempt to distance themselves from their future older selves and from an awareness of their mortality by seeking out experiences that make them feel strong, energetic, and invulnerable (i.e., experiences involving…

  2. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Elci, Okan; McCormack, Shana E; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-04-01

    Using adult identified bone mineral density (BMD) loci, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) to determine if they were associated with changes in BMD during childhood. Longitudinal data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study were analyzed (N = 798, 54% female, all European ancestry). Participants had up to 6 annual dual energy X-ray scans, from which areal BMD (aBMD) Z-scores for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck were estimated, as well as total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) Z-scores. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and the percentage of BMD-lowering alleles carried was calculated (overall adult GRS). Subtype GRS that include SNPs associated with fracture risk, pediatric BMD, WNT signaling, RANK-RANKL-OPG, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were also calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between each GRS and bone Z-scores, and if any association differed by sex and/or chronological age. The overall adult, fracture, and WNT signaling GRS were associated with lower Z-scores (eg, spine aBMD Z-score: βadult  = -0.04, p = 3.4 × 10(-7) ; βfracture = -0.02, p = 8.9 × 10(-6) ; βWNT  = -0.01, p = 3.9 × 10(-4) ). The overall adult GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores in females (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The fracture GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores with increasing age (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The WNT GRS associations remained consistent for both sexes and all ages (p-interaction > 0.05 for all sites). The RANK-RANKL-OPG GRS was more strongly associated in females with increasing age (p-interaction < 0.05 for all sites). The mesenchymal stem cell GRS was associated with lower total hip and femoral neck Z-scores, in both boys and girls, across all ages. No associations were observed between the pediatric GRS and bone Z-scores. In conclusion, adult identified BMD loci associated with BMD and

  3. Macrolide antibiotics and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Trac, Mai H.; McArthur, Eric; Jandoc, Racquel; Dixon, Stephanie N.; Nash, Danielle M.; Hackam, Daniel G.; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many respiratory tract infections are treated with macrolide antibiotics. Regulatory agencies warn that these antibiotics increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. We examined the 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with macrolide antibiotics relative to nonmacrolide antibiotics. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study involving older adults (age > 65 yr) with a new prescription for an oral macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin, clarithromycin or erythromycin) in Ontario from 2002 to 2013. Our primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 30 days after a new prescription. Our secondary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. We matched patients 1:1 using propensity scores to patients prescribed nonmacrolide antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefuroxime or levofloxacin). We used conditional logistic regression to measure the association between macrolide exposure and outcomes, and repeated the analysis in 4 subgroups defined by the presence or absence of chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and concurrent use of a drug known to prolong the QT interval. Results: Compared with nonmacrolide antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics were not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia (0.03% v. 0.03%; relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–1.36) and were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (0.62% v. 0.76%; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78–0.86). These associations were similar in all subgroups. Interpretation: Among older adults, macrolide antibiotics were not associated with a higher 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia than nonmacrolide antibiotics. These findings suggest that current warnings from the US Food and Drug Administration may be overstated. PMID:26903359

  4. Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. PMID:25354771

  5. Morbidity risks among older adults with pre-existing age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Akushevich, Igor; Kravchenko, Julia; Ukraintseva, Svetlana; Arbeev, Konstantin; Kulminski, Alexander; Yashin, Anatoliy I

    2013-12-01

    Multi-morbidity is common among older adults; however, for many aging-related diseases there is no information for U.S. elderly population on how earlier-manifested disease affects the risk of another disease manifested later during patient's lifetime. Quantitative evaluation of risks of cancer and non-cancer diseases for older adults with pre-existing conditions is performed using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry data linked to the Medicare Files of Service Use (MFSU). Using the SEER-Medicare data containing individual records for 2,154,598 individuals, we empirically evaluated age patterns of incidence of age-associated diseases diagnosed after the onset of earlier manifested disease and compared these patterns with those in general population. Individual medical histories were reconstructed using information on diagnoses coded in MFSU, dates of medical services/procedures, and Medicare enrollment/disenrollment. More than threefold increase of subsequent diseases risk was observed for 15 disease pairs, majority of them were i) diseases of the same organ and/or system (e.g., Parkinson disease for patients with Alzheimer disease, HR=3.77, kidney cancer for patients with renal failure, HR=3.28) or ii) disease pairs with primary diseases being fast-progressive cancers (i.e., lung, kidney, and pancreas), e.g., ulcer (HR=4.68) and melanoma (HR=4.15) for patients with pancreatic cancer. Lower risk of subsequent disease was registered for 20 disease pairs, mostly among patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, e.g., decreased lung cancer risk among patients with Alzheimer's (HR=0.64) and Parkinson's (HR=0.60) disease. Synergistic and antagonistic dependences in geriatric disease risks were observed among US elderly confirming known and detecting new associations of wide spectrum of age-associated diseases. The results can be used in optimization of screening, prevention and treatment strategies of chronic diseases among U.S. elderly

  6. Polygenic Risk of Schizophrenia and Cognition in a Population-Based Survey of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Liebers, David T; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Seiffudin, Fayaz; Musliner, Katherine L; Zandi, Peter P; Goes, Fernando S

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common feature of the major psychotic disorders, with deficits often present in at risk individuals and unaffected first-degree relatives. Previous studies have suggested that polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia (SCZ) are associated with cognitive deficits, but there has been little examination of this association in longitudinal datasets, or comparison with other disorders. We used mixed models to study the association between PRS for 4 adult onset psychiatric disorders with cross-sectional cognitive performance and longitudinal cognitive decline in 8616 older adults from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), followed for an average of 10 years. PRS were computed for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Alzheimer's disease (ALZ). SCZ PRS associated with decreased cognitive function (z = -3.00, P = .001, ΔR (2) = 0.04%), which was largely driven by an association with impaired attention and orientation (z = -3.33, P = 4.3×10(-4), ΔR (2) = 0.08%). We found no effect of BD or MDD PRS on cognition, in contrast to a robust effect of the APOE4/TOMM40 locus (z = -5.05, P = 2.2×10(-7), ΔR (2) = 0.36%), which was primarily associated with impaired verbal memory (z = -5.15, P = 1.3×10(-7), ΔR (2) = 0.21%). APOE4/TOMM40 locus and the ALZ PRS, but not the PRS for SCZ, were associated with greater cognitive decline. In summary, using a large, representative sample of older adults, we found evidence for different degrees of association between polygenic risk for SCZ and genetic risk factors for ALZ on cognitive function and decline, highlighting potential differences in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits seen in SCZ and ALZ. PMID:26873889

  7. Direct B-integral measurement, and SPM compensation in fiber optic CPA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, S.; Mielke, M.

    2014-09-01

    A direct B-integral measurement, and SPM compensation method in fiber optic CPA systems is demonstrated. For a pair of input pulses, the chirped nature of the amplification transforms a nonlinear phase change into a temporal amplitude change resulted in a satellite side pulses generation. The SHG autocorrelation measurement of these satellite pulses is directly correlated to B-integral value. Then the accumulated SPM is removed by precompensation of the spectral phase. The degree of compensation again confirmed the described B-integral measurement result.

  8. Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death and disability worldwide. Obesity increases the risk for clinically identifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as a host of other metabolic, sleep, and orthopedic disorders. Coordinated and systematic interventions are needed to manage obesity and reduce these risks. The Obesity 2 Expert Panel updated previous guidelines and produced the “Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.” The Panel used data from publications from years 1999 to 2011 to address five critical questions, provide evidence statements, and recommend creation of a treatment algorithm to guide decision making about clinical care. The current review discusses the evidence statements pertaining to CVD risk in the assessment and management of patients who are overweight and obese. We summarize the FDA-approved medications for the treatment of overweight and obesity and their impact on CVD risk and risk factors, as well as ongoing clinical trials which will further inform clinical practice. PMID:25092581

  9. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of adult meningioma, glioma, and acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Preetha; Hutchinson, Amy; Wichner, Sara; Black, Peter M; Fine, Howard A; Loeffler, Jay S; Selker, Robert G; Shapiro, William R; Rothman, Nathaniel; Linet, Martha S; Inskip, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Although the etiology of primary brain tumors is largely unknown, prior studies suggest that DNA repair polymorphisms may influence risk of glioma. Altered DNA repair is also likely to affect the risk of meningioma and acoustic neuroma, but these tumors have not been well studied. We estimated the risk of glioma (n = 362), meningioma (n = 134), and acoustic neuroma (n = 69) in non-Hispanic whites with respect to 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 26 genes involved in DNA repair in a hospital-based, case-control study conducted by the National Cancer Institute. We observed significantly increased risk of meningioma with the T variant of GLTSCR1 rs1035938 (OR(CT/TT) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.9; P(trend) .0006), which persisted after controlling for multiple comparisons (P = .019). Significantly increased meningioma risk was also observed for the minor allele variants of ERCC4 rs1800067 (P(trend) .01); MUTYH rs3219466 (P(trend) .02), and PCNA rs25406 (P(trend) .03). The NBN rs1805794 minor allele variant was associated with decreased meningioma risk (P(trend) .006). Risk of acoustic neuroma was increased for the ERCC2 rs1799793 (P(trend) .03) and ERCC5 rs17655 (P(trend) .05) variants and decreased for the PARP1 rs1136410 (P(trend) .03). Decreased glioma risk was observed with the XRCC1 rs1799782 variant (P(trend) .04). Our results suggest that common DNA repair variants may affect the risk of adult brain tumors, especially meningioma. PMID:20150366

  10. Sociodemographic and Health-Related Risk Factors Associated with Tooth Loss Among Adults in Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, Catherine A.; Oh, Junhie; Fuller, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being. Very little Rhode Island state-level information exists on the determinants of tooth loss. The objective of this study was to systematically identify sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, health conditions and disabilities, and dental insurance coverage associated with tooth loss among noninstitutionalized adults in Rhode Island. Methods We analyzed Rhode Island’s 2008 and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data in 2011. The survey had 4 response categories for tooth loss: none, 1 to 5, 6 or more but not all, and all. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between 4 risk factor domains and tooth loss. Results An estimated 57.6% of Rhode Island adults had all their teeth, 28.9% had 1 to 5 missing teeth, 8.9% had 6 to 31 missing teeth, and 4.6% were edentulous. Respondents who had low income, low education, unhealthy behaviors (ie, were former or current smokers and did not engage in physical activity), chronic conditions (ie, diabetes and obesity) or disabilities, and no dental insurance coverage were more likely to have fewer teeth compared with their referent groups. However, the association of these variables with tooth loss was not uniform by age group. Conclusion Adults who report risky health behaviors or impaired health may be considered target subpopulations for prevention of tooth loss and promotion of good oral health. PMID:23537519

  11. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners. PMID:27459165

  12. Enhancing awareness to mitigate the risk of HIV/AIDS in older adults.

    PubMed

    Inelmen, Emine Meral; Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Manzato, Enzo

    2014-12-01

    HIV is often assumed to only affect younger people, and many older people do not realize that they might risk acquiring the virus. Given that sexual transmission is by far the most common way to contract HIV around the world, health care professionals do not usually pay enough attention to the possibility of HIV/AIDS in older adults, based on the common conviction that they no longer have any sexual desires and that they are sexually inactive. Nevertheless, the sexual behavior of older people is likely to change over time, as aging baby boomers progress into their 60s and 70s, meeting the criteria for "successful aging", and not conforming to the stereotype of "sexless elderly". Hence the urgent need to awareness is that HIV remains as a major health threat even in advanced age. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are especially crucial in older adults because of their general frailty and high comorbidity levels. This article reviews recent literature concerning HIV/AIDS in older adults, as regard the related epidemiological, clinical and public health issues, with a view to suggesting how the rising rate of HIV transmission in this age group might be mitigated, and shows the main points that HCP should tackle to identify older people at risk of HIV infection. In summary, there is a pressing need to develop effective prevention schemes and to adapt clinical and programmatic approaches to improve the survival of older people with HIV. PMID:24789219

  13. Anticholinergic Medication Use and Risk of Fracture in Elderly Adults with Depression.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Satabdi; Bali, Vishal; Carnahan, Ryan M; Chen, Hua; Johnson, Michael L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-07-01

    Limited research exists regarding the effect of anticholinergics on falls and fractures in elderly nursing home residents in the United States. This study examined the risk of fractures associated with anticholinergic medication use in elderly nursing home residents with depression. A nested case-control design involving a cohort of elderly adults with depression from the 2007 to 2010 Minimum Data Set (MDS)-linked Medicare data was used to evaluate the risk of fractures. The study sample included Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older diagnosed with depression having at least one nursing home stay during 2007 to 2010 and no history of falls or fractures in 2007 (base period). Cases were individuals with incident fractures after the baseline period. For each case, four age- and sex-matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. Anticholinergic exposure was defined using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). Prescription of Level 2 or 3 anticholinergic medications within 30 days before the event date was the primary exposure. The primary outcome was an inpatient or outpatient claim for a fracture between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. A conditional logistic regression model stratified on matched case-control sets was used to evaluate association between anticholinergic use and fractures, controlling for other risk factors of the outcome. The study sample consisted of 40,452 individuals with fractures and 161,808 matched controls. After adjusting for other risk factors, high-level anticholinergic use was associated with 14% greater fracture risk than nonuse (odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.17). The high risk of fractures remained consistent across levels of anticholinergic potency (Level 2, OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.11-1.19; Level 3, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.15). The study findings remained consistent in multiple sensitivity analyses. Overall, use of high-level anticholinergic medications was associated with

  14. Controlled loading of cryoprotectants (CPAs) to oocyte with linear and complex CPA profiles on a microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yun Seok; Lee, Ho-Joon; Hassell, Bryan A; Irimia, Daniel; Toth, Thomas L; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-10-21

    Oocyte cryopreservation has become an essential tool in the treatment of infertility by preserving oocytes for women undergoing chemotherapy. However, despite recent advances, pregnancy rates from all cryopreserved oocytes remain low. The inevitable use of the cryoprotectants (CPAs) during preservation affects the viability of the preserved oocytes and pregnancy rates either through CPA toxicity or osmotic injury. Current protocols attempt to reduce CPA toxicity by minimizing CPA concentrations, or by minimizing the volume changes via the step-wise addition of CPAs to the cells. Although the step-wise addition decreases osmotic shock to oocytes, it unfortunately increases toxic injuries due to the long exposure times to CPAs. To address limitations of current protocols and to rationally design protocols that minimize the exposure to CPAs, we developed a microfluidic device for the quantitative measurements of oocyte volume during various CPA loading protocols. We spatially secured a single oocyte on the microfluidic device, created precisely controlled continuous CPA profiles (step-wise, linear and complex) for the addition of CPAs to the oocyte and measured the oocyte volumetric response to each profile. With both linear and complex profiles, we were able to load 1.5 M propanediol to oocytes in less than 15 min and with a volumetric change of less than 10%. Thus, we believe this single oocyte analysis technology will eventually help future advances in assisted reproductive technologies and fertility preservation. PMID:21887438

  15. Controlled loading of cryoprotectants (CPAs) to oocyte with linear and complex CPA profiles on a microfluidic platform†

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Yun Seok; Lee, Ho-Joon; Hassell, Bryan A.; Irimia, Daniel; Toth, Thomas L.; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Toner, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation has become an essential tool in the treatment of infertility by preserving oocytes for women undergoing chemotherapy. However, despite recent advances, pregnancy rates from all cryopreserved oocytes remain low. The inevitable use of the cryoprotectants (CPAs) during preservation affects the viability of the preserved oocytes and pregnancy rates either through CPA toxicity or osmotic injury. Current protocols attempt to reduce CPA toxicity by minimizing CPA concentrations, or by minimizing the volume changes via the step-wise addition of CPAs to the cells. Although the step-wise addition decreases osmotic shock to oocytes, it unfortunately increases toxic injuries due to the long exposure times to CPAs. To address limitations of current protocols and to rationally design protocols that minimize the exposure to CPAs, we developed a microfluidic device for the quantitative measurements of oocyte volume during various CPA loading protocols. We spatially secured a single oocyte on the microfluidic device, created precisely controlled continuous CPA profiles (step-wise, linear and complex) for the addition of CPAs to the oocyte and measured the oocyte volumetric response to each profile. With both linear and complex profiles, we were able to load 1.5 M propanediol to oocytes in less than 15 min and with a volumetric change of less than 10%. Thus, we believe this single oocyte analysis technology will eventually help future advances in assisted reproductive technologies and fertility preservation. PMID:21887438

  16. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity With Cardiovascular Risk in Mobility‐limited Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Jodi D.; Johnson, Lindsey; Hire, Don G.; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Anton, Stephen D.; Dodson, John A.; Marsh, Anthony P.; McDermott, Mary M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Tudor‐Locke, Catrine; White, Daniel K.; Yank, Veronica; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M.; Buford, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data are sparse regarding the impacts of habitual physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior on cardiovascular (CV) risk in older adults with mobility limitations. Methods and Results This study examined the baseline, cross‐sectional association between CV risk and objectively measured PA among participants in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. The relationship between accelerometry measures and predicted 10‐year Hard Coronary Heart Disease (HCHD) risk was modeled by using linear regression, stratified according to CVD history. Participants (n=1170, 79±5 years) spent 642±111 min/day in sedentary behavior (ie, <100 accelerometry counts/min). They also spent 138±43 min/day engaging in PA registering 100 to 499 accelerometry counts/min and 54±37 min/day engaging in PA ≥500 counts/min. Each minute per day spent being sedentary was associated with increased HCHD risk among both those with (0.04%, 95% CI 0.02% to 0.05%) and those without (0.03%, 95% CI 0.02% to 0.03%) CVD. The time spent engaging in activities 100 to 499 as well as ≥500 counts/min was associated with decreased risk among both those with and without CVD (P<0.05). The mean number of counts per minute of daily PA was not significantly associated with HCHD risk in any model (P>0.05). However, a significant interaction was observed between sex and count frequency (P=0.036) for those without CVD, as counts per minute was related to HCHD risk in women (β=−0.94, −1.48 to −0.41; P<0.001) but not in men (β=−0.14, −0.59 to 0.88; P=0.704). Conclusions Daily time spent being sedentary is positively associated with predicted 10‐year HCHD risk among mobility‐limited older adults. Duration, but not intensity (ie, mean counts/min), of daily PA is inversely associated with HCHD risk score in this population—although the association for intensity may be sex specific among persons without CVD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www

  17. "Is there a gun in the home?" Assessing the risks of gun ownership in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinholt, Ellen M; Mitchell, Joshua D; Butler, Jane H; Kumar, Harjinder

    2014-06-01

    An important ethical and safety concern that geriatricians, primary care providers, and home health professionals need to address is gun ownership by elderly adults. Those aged 65 and older now have the highest rate of gun ownership in America, and they also have a high prevalence of depression and suicide. Dementia can add additional layers of risk. Even older gun owners who are otherwise intellectually intact may benefit from information about gun safety with the increasing numbers of children being cared for by grandparents. Health professionals should ask patients, "Is there a gun in the home?" in the clinic and during home visits. Healthcare professionals must have knowledge and skills to address safe gun ownership in elderly adults. The 5 L's (Locked, Loaded, Little children, feeling Low, Learned owner) will assist professionals in addressing all aspects of safe ownership. PMID:24898055

  18. Test of the depression distress amplification model in young adults with elevated risk of current suicidality.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-11-30

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression. PMID:25063018

  19. Alcohol dependence in adult children of alcoholics: longitudinal evidence of early risk.

    PubMed

    Jennison, K M; Johnson, K A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk for alcohol dependence in adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) with a control group of non-ACAs. A cohort of 12,686 young adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) is examined over a five-year period and conventional and lineal intergenerational models of alcoholism transmission are assessed. The results of multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that the risk is relatively greater for male ACAs; sons of alcoholics drink significantly more heavily, experience problems earlier, and develop alcohol dependence more extensively than female ACAs or non-ACAs of either gender. The extent of dependence found in subjects with a lineal history of alcoholism on the father's side of the family, as well as heavy drinking, cigarette smoking and drinking onset in adolescence should be considered as critical predisposing factors of high risk for dependence at later ages. These observations corroborate clinical studies and support a growing body of biopsychosocial research literature. PMID:9567578

  20. Soy provides modest benefits on endothelial function without affecting inflammatory biomarkers in adults at cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    Reverri, Elizabeth J.; LaSalle, Colette D.; Franke, Adrian A.; Steinberg, Francene M.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Epidemiological evidence supports an association between whole soy food consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this randomized, controlled, crossover study was to evaluate the effects of soy nut consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and endothelial function and to assess whether isoflavone metabolism to secondary products, equol and/or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA), modifies these responses. Methods and Results n=17 adults at cardiometabolic risk were randomly assigned to the order of two snack interventions, soy nuts and macronutrient-matched control snack, for four weeks each, separated by a two week washout period. Outcome measures included biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycemic control (ELISA and clinical analyzers), endothelial function and arterial stiffness (peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT)), and isoflavone metabolites (LC-MS/MS). Results revealed that consuming soy nuts improved arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index using PAT (P=0.03), despite lack of improvement in inflammatory biomarkers. Addition of equol and/ODMA production status as covariates did not significantly change these results. Conclusions Soy nuts when added to a usual diet for one month provide some benefit on arterial stiffness in adults at cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25351805

  1. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  2. Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?

    PubMed Central

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Landolt, Karin; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. Design and participants The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. Measurements In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic sociodemographic variables (sex, education). Findings In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. Conclusions Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue. PMID:19624327

  3. The role of romantic relationship status in pathways of risk for emerging adult alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Thomas, Nathaniel S; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-05-01

    Dating several people in emerging adulthood has been associated with higher alcohol use compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship. As a follow-up to that report, we examined whether romantic relationship status is part of a pathway of risk between antecedent alcohol use risk factors and subsequent alcohol outcomes. Participants were 4,410 emerging adults assessed at 2 time-points during their first year of college. We found that a parental history of alcohol problems was indirectly related to dating several people via 2 modestly correlated pathways. The first pathway was through conduct problems. The second pathway was through positive urgency (i.e., a positive emotion-based predisposition to rash action). In turn, dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use. Our results suggest that these familial and individual-level alcohol risk factors are related to emerging adults' selection into subsequent romantic relationship experiences that are associated with higher alcohol use. These findings have implications for how romantic relationship experiences may fit into developmental models of the etiology of alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214170

  4. Lithium treatment and risk for dementia in adults with bipolar disorder: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, Tobias; Devanand, D P; Huang, Cecilia; Crystal, Stephen; Olfson, Mark

    2015-07-01

    BackgroundLithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, an enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia.AimsTo examine the association of lithium and dementia risk in a large claims-based US cohort of publicly insured older adults with bipolar disorder.MethodThe cohort included individuals ≥50 years diagnosed with bipolar disorder who did not receive dementia-related services during the prior year. Each follow-up day was classified by past-year cumulative duration of lithium use (0, 1-60, 61-300 and 301-365 days). Dementia diagnosis was the study outcome. Anticonvulsants commonly used as mood stabilisers served as a negative control.ResultsCompared with non-use, 301-365 days of lithium exposure was associated with significantly reduced dementia risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.99). No corresponding association was observed for shorter lithium exposures (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31 for 61-300 days; HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67-1.71 for 1-60 days) or for any exposure to anticonvulsants.ConclusionsContinuous lithium treatment may reduce dementia risk in older adults with bipolar disorder. PMID:25614530

  5. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. PMID:24259558

  6. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a “traditional food pattern,” consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork, and fish; a “fast and processed food pattern” consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar, and confectionery; a “soybean, grain, and flour food pattern”; and a “dairy, animal liver, and other animal food pattern.” These patterns explained 17.48, 9.52, 5.51, and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of “traditional Chinese food” is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes, and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver, and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors. PMID:24350217

  7. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  8. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  9. Adult weight gain and risk of prostate cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Chen, Tao; Shi, Wentao; Zhang, Tianyi; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Zhichao; Wei, Xin; Liu, Yuzhou; He, Jia

    2016-02-15

    The association between adult weight gain and risk of prostate cancer has not been widely studied and the findings are inconsistent. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the association between adult weight gain and risk of prostate cancer. PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant studies published before September 2014 using terms related to weight gain and prostate cancer. Summary estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Dose-response meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis and publication bias tests were performed. Nine studies involving 497,634 participants and 22,338 cancer cases were included. For total prostate cancer, a positive relationship with adult weight gain was observed until weight gain increased to >30 kg. For low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer, a positive relationship with adult weight gain was observed until weight gain increased to >15 kg. For high-risk prostate cancer, we observed a positive linear relationship with adult weight gain with a relative risk (RR) of 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.04] for every 5-kg increase. For fatal prostate cancer, we observed a positive linear relationship with adult weight gain with an RR of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.05-1.19) for every 5-kg increase. There is evidence that adult weight gain is associated with an increased risk of high-risk and fatal prostate cancer, but only low weight gain is positively associated with low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer. PMID:26356247

  10. Maternal Grand Multiparity and the Risk of Severe Mental Disorders in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Marius; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Jari; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Tuovinen, Soile; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Mikkonen, Maiju; Osmond, Clive; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that maternal grand multiparity may predict an increased risk of mental disorders in young adult offspring, but whether such effects persist throughout adulthood remains unknown. The current study examined if maternal grand multiparity predicts the risks of severe mental disorders, suicides, suicide attempts and dementias throughout adult life. Methods Our study sample comprised 13243 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934–1944 participants (6905 men and 6338 women). According to hospital birth records, 341 offspring were born to grand multiparous mothers. From Finnish national hospital discharge and causes of death registers, we identified 1682 participants diagnosed with mental disorders during 1969–2010. Results Maternal grand multiparity predicted significantly increased risks of mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 1.64, p = 0.03), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.02, p = 0.002), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 3.94, p = 0.01) in adult offspring. Furthermore, women born to grand multiparous mothers had significantly increased risks of any severe mental disorder (Hazard Ratio = 1.79, p = 0.01), non-psychotic substance use disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.77, p = 0.02) schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.02), mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.002), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.91, p<0.001), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 5.05, p = 0.01) in adulthood. The effects of maternal grand multiparity on offspring psychopathology risk were independent of maternal age and body mass index at childbirth, and of year of birth, sex, childhood socioeconomic position, and birth weight of the offspring. In contrast, no significant effects were found among men. Conclusions Women born to grand multiparous mothers are at an increased risk of severe mental disorders and suicide attempts across

  11. Screening for Violence Risk Factors Identifies Young Adults at Risk for Return Emergency Department Visit for Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Abigail; Wei, Stanley; Foreman, Juron; Houry, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Homicide is the second leading cause of death among youth aged 15–24. Prior cross-sectional studies, in non-healthcare settings, have reported exposure to community violence, peer behavior, and delinquency as risk factors for violent injury. However, longitudinal cohort studies have not been performed to evaluate the temporal or predictive relationship between these risk factors and emergency department (ED) visits for injuries among at-risk youth. The objective was to assess whether self-reported exposure to violence risk factors in young adults can be used to predict future ED visits for injuries over a 1-year period. Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed in the ED of a Southeastern US Level I trauma center. Eligible participants were patients aged 18–24, presenting for any chief complaint. We excluded patients if they were critically ill, incarcerated, or could not read English. Initial recruitment occurred over a 6-month period, by a research assistant in the ED for 3–5 days per week, with shifts scheduled such that they included weekends and weekdays, over the hours from 8AM-8PM. At the time of initial contact in the ED, patients were asked to complete a written questionnaire, consisting of previously validated instruments measuring the following risk factors: a) aggression, b) perceived likelihood of violence, c) recent violent behavior, d) peer behavior, e) community exposure to violence, and f) positive future outlook. At 12 months following the initial ED visit, the participants' medical records were reviewed to identify any subsequent ED visits for injury-related complaints. We analyzed data with chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: Three hundred thirty-two patients were approached, of whom 300 patients consented. Participants' average age was 21.1 years, with 60.1% female, 86.0% African American. After controlling for participant gender, ethnicity, or injury complaint at time of first visit, return

  12. Sedentary Behavior Is Not Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, K. Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to determine whether time spent in sedentary behaviors (SED) was associated with 2-hour glucose and insulin resistance in adults with abdominal obesity. We also examined the association between light physical activity (LPA) and sporadic (accumulated in bouts <10 minutes in duration) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with glucose metabolism. Methods Participants were 135 inactive, abdominally obese adults recruited from Kingston, Canada. SED and physical activity were determined by accelerometry over 7 days and summarized as SED (accelerometer counts/min <100), LPA (counts/min 100–1951), and MVPA (counts/min ≥1952). A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was used to ascertain 2-hour glucose; the homeostasis model of assessment was used to determine insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); lipid, lipoproteins and blood pressure were determined using standard protocols. Secondary analyses considered the association between SED and physical activity with other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Participants spent 627.2±82.9 min/d in SED, 289.0±91.7 min/d in LPA and 19.2±13.5 min/d in MVPA. Neither SED nor the physical activity variables were associated with 2-hour glucose or HOMA-IR (p>0.05). In secondary analyses, SED was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); with the exception of blood pressure (p<0.05), LPA was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); and MVPA was independently associated with total cholesterol and triglycerides (p<0.05). Conclusions Objectively measured SED was not associated with 2-hr glucose or HOMA-IR. Our findings also suggest that the accumulation of LPA and sporadic MVPA is not associated with glucose metabolism in adults with abdominal obesity. PMID:21695179

  13. Non-Parental Adults in the Social and Risk Behavior Networks of Sexual Minority Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655

  14. Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-ε4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-ε4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307

  15. Applying the Gender Lens to Risk Factors and Outcome after Adult Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eifert, Sandra; Guethoff, Sonja; Kaczmarek, Ingo; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Seeland, Ute; Gulbins, Helmut; Seeburger, Jörg; Deutsch, Oliver; Jungwirth, Bettina; Katsari, Elpiniki; Dohmen, Pascal; Pfannmueller, Bettina; Hultgren, Rebecka; Schade, Ina; Kublickiene, Karolina; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Gansera, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Applying the gender lens to risk factors and outcome after adult cardiac surgery is of major clinical interest, as the inclusion of sex and gender in research design and analysis may guarantee more comprehensive cardiovascular science and may consecutively result in a more effective surgical treatment as well as cost savings in cardiac surgery. Methods We have reviewed classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking) according to a gender-based approach. Furthermore, we have examined comorbidities such as depression, renal insufficiency, and hormonal influences in regard to gender. Gender-sensitive economic aspects have been evaluated, surgical outcome has been analyzed, and cardiovascular research has been considered from a gender perspective. Results The influence of typical risk factors and outcome after cardiac surgery has been evaluated from a gender perspective, and the gender-specific distribution of these risk factors is reported on. The named comorbidities are listed. Economic aspects demonstrated a gender gap. Outcome after coronary and valvular surgeries as well as after heart transplantation are displayed in this regard. Results after postoperative use of intra-aortic balloon pump are shown. Gender-related aspects of clinical and biomedical cardiosurgical research are reported. Conclusions Female gender has become an independent risk factor of survival after the majority of cardiosurgical procedures. Severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction independently predicts survival in men, whereas age does in females. PMID:26288584

  16. Compact, all-PM fiber-CPA system based on a chirped volume Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Krzempek, Karol; Tarka, Jan; Sotor, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) of ultrashort pulses in a compact setup utilizing a chirped volume Bragg grating (CVBG) at 1560 nm wavelength. The system comprises a seed laser, dual-stage fiber amplifier and one CVBG, which is used as a stretcher and compressor simultaneously. The pulses from the low-power oscillator were amplified to 1 W of average power at a 50 MHz repetition rate with a pulse duration of 2.44 ps. The setup utilizes only polarization maintaining (PM) fibers and components, which ensures excellent stability and immunity to external disturbances. The output beam is linearly polarized with excellent geometrical quality (M 2 parameter close to 1). The usage of CVBG instead of classical grating-based stretchers and compressors allows the reduction of the complexity of the CPA system and minimizes its footprint. Such a simple and compact setup might be used as a pump source for nonlinear frequency conversion or mid-infrared supercontinuum generation.

  17. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Older Adults With Critical Illness: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Sileanu, Florentina E.; Murugan, Raghavan; Trietley, Gregory S.; Handler, Steven M.; Kellum, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) in older adults has not been systematically evaluated. We sought to delineate the determinants of risk for AKI in older compared to younger adults. Study Design Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized in July 2000–September 2008. Setting & Participants We identified all adult patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (n=45,655) in a large tertiary care university hospital system. We excluded patients receiving dialysis or kidney transplant prior to hospital admission, and patients with baseline creatinine ≥ 4 mg/dl, liver transplantation, indeterminate AKI status, or unknown age, leaving 39,938 patients. Predictor We collected data on multiple susceptibilities and exposures including age, sex, race, body mass, comorbid conditions, severity of illness, baseline kidney function, sepsis, and shock. Outcomes We defined AKI according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. We examined susceptibilities and exposures across age strata for impact on development of AKI. Measurements We calculated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for prediction of AKI across age groups. Results 25,230 patients (63.2%) were aged 55 years or older. Overall 25,120 patients (62.9%) developed AKI (69.2% aged 55 years or older). Examples of risk factors for AKI in the oldest age category (75 years or older) were drugs (vancomycin, aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories), history of hypertension (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02–1.25) and sepsis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.68–2.67). Fewer variables remained predictive of AKI as age increased and the model for older patients was less predictive (p<0.001). For the age categories 18–54, 55–64, 65–74, and 75 years or older, the AUCs were 0.744 (95% CI, 0.735–0.752), 0.714 (95% CI, 0.702–0.726), 0.706 (95% CI, 0.693–0.718), and 0.673 (95% CI, 0.661–0.685), respectively. Limitations Analysis may not apply to non-ICU patients

  18. Effective Communication of Risks to Young Adults: Using Message Framing and Visual Aids to Increase Condom Use and Std Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)--including HIV/AIDS--are among the most common infectious diseases in young adults. How can we effectively promote prevention and detection of STDs in this high risk population? In a two-phase longitudinal experiment we examined the effects of a brief risk awareness intervention (i.e., a sexual health…

  19. Lived Experiences of At-Risk Adult Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Januwoina R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the phenomenological inquiry was to uncover the lived experiences of at-risk adult students in historically black colleges and universities. The intent was to provide an in-depth understanding of what these at-risk students face as they enter and matriculate at college, either for the first time or as returning students. The ten…

  20. Dietary Fiber Intake and Cardiometabolic Risks among US Adults, NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Kya N.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Pham, Do Quyen; Djousse, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Methods Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and non-pregnant women aged 20+ years from 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Results Dietary fiber intake remained consistently below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7g–17.0g. Mexican-Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic Whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic Blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% CI) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69–0.88), 0.66 (0.61–0.72), and 0.77 (0.71–0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, though statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Conclusions Low dietary fiber intake from 1999–2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. PMID:24135514

  1. The CpAL Quorum Sensing System Regulates Production of Hemolysins CPA and PFO To Build Clostridium perfringens Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Shak, Joshua R.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens strains produce severe diseases, including myonecrosis and enteritis necroticans, in humans and animals. Diseases are mediated by the production of potent toxins that often damage the site of infection, e.g., skin epithelium during myonecrosis. In planktonic cultures, the regulation of important toxins, such as CPA, CPB, and PFO, is controlled by the C. perfringens Agr-like (CpAL) quorum sensing (QS) system. Strains also encode a functional LuxS/AI-2 system. Although C. perfringens strains form biofilm-like structures, the regulation of biofilm formation is poorly understood. Therefore, our studies investigated the role of CpAL and LuxS/AI-2 QS systems and of QS-regulated factors in controlling the formation of biofilms. We first demonstrate that biofilm production by reference strains differs depending on the culture medium. Increased biomass correlated with the presence of extracellular DNA in the supernatant, which was released by lysis of a fraction of the biofilm population and planktonic cells. Whereas ΔagrB mutant strains were not able to produce biofilms, a ΔluxS mutant produced wild-type levels. The transcript levels of CpAL-regulated cpa and pfoA genes, but not cpb, were upregulated in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. Accordingly, Δcpa and ΔpfoA mutants, in type A (S13) or type C (CN3685) backgrounds, were unable to produce biofilms, whereas CN3685Δcpb made wild-type levels. Biofilm formation was restored in complemented Δcpa/cpa and ΔpfoA/pfoA strains. Confocal microscopy studies further detected CPA partially colocalizing with eDNA on the biofilm structure. Thus, CpAL regulates biofilm formation in C. perfringens by increasing levels of certain toxins required to build biofilms. PMID:25824838

  2. The high-risk environment of homeless young adults: consequences for physical and sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Beal, Morgan R

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how the social environment of homeless youth contributes to their risk and how it varies for different types of victimization. As such, the current study examines the constructs of victimization theories in order to investigate the potential risk for physical and sexual victimization among homeless young adults. Results revealed that running at an earlier age, running more often, sleeping on the street, panhandling, deviant peers associations, and not having a family member in one's network are associated with more physical victimization. Being female, a sexual minority, having an unkempt physical appearance, panhandling, and having friends who traded sex are associated with more sexual victimization. Overall, we find that the constructs differed in their ability to explain sexual versus physical victimization. PMID:20229696

  3. Prevalence of isolated diastolic hypertension and associated risk factors among adults in Kanpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Midha, Tanu; Lalchandani, Arati; Nath, Bhola; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Pandey, Umeshwar

    2012-01-01

    Background Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) is a largely unrecognized subtype of hypertension, more commonly seen in the younger age group. Aims (1) To determine the prevalence of IDH in the adult population of Kanpur district. (2) To study the associated risk factors of IDH. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 801 subjects, aged 20 years and above, using multistage stratified random sampling technique. Results The prevalence of IDH was 4.5%, which was 6.2% in men and 3.1% in women. A significant proportion of IDH was seen in the 40–49 years age group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the associated risk factors showed that gender, physical activity and BMI were significantly associated with IDH. Conclusion Isolated diastolic hypertension is an emerging problem in developing countries. IDH is more common among men, sedentary individuals and those with a higher BMI. PMID:22929820

  4. Psychological consequences and associated risk factors among adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914

  5. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary. PMID:23022824

  6. Early community contexts, race/ethnicity and young adult CVD risk factors: the protective role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lott, Ryan E

    2012-08-01

    Using a sample of 13,500 adolescents (53% female and 47% male) who participated in all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multilevel regression to examine the influence of early structural community adversity (as measured by rates of community poverty, single-parent headed families, and two indicators of employment) and racial/ethnic status on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of young adults (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure). The moderating role of youth's socioeconomic attainment was also examined. Results indicate that early community adversity and African American racial status place young adults at risk for CVD. Youth's socioeconomic attainment does not erase the persistent influences of early community adversity and African American racial status on CVD risk. However, the level of education attained can protect African American young adults and those experiencing early community adversity from CVD risk factors. PMID:22101680

  7. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among US Adults in 6 States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is linked to weight gain. Our objective was to examine state-specific SSB intake and behavioral characteristics associated with SSB intake. Methods We used data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 38,978 adults aged 18 years or older from 6 states: Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with SSB intake from regular soda and fruit drinks. Results Overall, 23.9% of adults drank SSBs at least once a day. Odds of drinking SSBs 1 or more times per day were significantly greater among younger adults; males; non-Hispanic blacks; adults with lower education; low-income adults or adults with missing income data; adults living in Delaware, Iowa, and Wisconsin versus those living in Minnesota; adults with fruit intake of less than 1 time a day versus 1 or more times a day; adults who were physically inactive versus highly active adults; and current smokers versus nonsmokers. Odds for drinking SSBs 1 or more times per day were significantly lower among adults with 100% fruit juice intake of less than 1 time per day versus 1 or more times per day and among adults who drank alcohol versus those who did not drink alcohol. Conclusion SSB intake varied by states and certain sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. States can use findings from this study to tailor efforts to decrease SSB intake and to encourage consumption of more healthful beverages (eg, water) among their high-risk populations. PMID:24762529

  8. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  9. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670 ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306 ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. PMID:26575634

  10. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Bockting, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed individual (ie, internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation, and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion toward homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N = 1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  11. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies. PMID:26585167

  12. Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David S.; Sotoodehnia, Nona

    2013-01-01

    Although fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) may increase risk of diabetes and exert negative cardiac inotropy, it is unknown whether plasma concentrations of FABP4 are associated with incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We prospectively analyzed data on 4,560 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study. FABP4 was measured at baseline using ELISA, and SCD events were adjudicated through review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate effect measures. During a median followup of 11.8 years, 146 SCD cases occurred. In a multivariable model adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and metabolic factors, relative risk of SCD associated with each higher standard deviation (SD) of plasma FABP4 was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.38), P = 0.15. In a secondary analysis stratified by prevalent diabetes status, FABP4 was associated with higher risk of SCD in nondiabetic participants, (RR per SD higher FABP4: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.07–1.65), P = 0.009) but not in diabetic participants (RR per SD higher FABP4: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62–1.27), P = 0.50), P for diabetes-FABP4 interaction 0.049. In summary, a single measure of plasma FABP4 obtained later in life was not associated with the risk of SCD in older adults overall. Confirmation of our post-hoc results in nondiabetic people in other studies is warranted. PMID:24455402

  13. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Dodd, Lorna J.; Al-Nuaim, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors) included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors) included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors) included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health. PMID:25913183

  14. Clustering of Risk Factors With Smoking Habits Among Adults, Sousse, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Harrabi, Imed; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; al’Absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry; Ghannem, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Tunisia, few studies have assessed the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease (eg, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity). We studied 1,880 adults to determine the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors in Tunisia. Methods This study was part of an assessment of the prevalence of chronic disease risk factors in a community-based trial conducted in 2009 to implement a chronic disease prevention program. The study population was randomly selected from 3 districts of the region of Sousse. The questionnaires were administered by personal interview and included the assessment of tobacco use and other chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthful diet habits and physical inactivity. Results Of the 1,880 study participants, 64% were women. The mean age of the participants was 37.9 (standard deviation, 13.5 y). The prevalence of tobacco use in our population was 50.4% for men and 3.1% for women. Among men, the proportion of alcohol consumption was significantly higher among smokers (25.3% vs 5.7% [P <.001]). Smokers consumed fewer fruits and vegetables and more high-fat, high-salt, and high-sugar foods than did nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between male smokers and nonsmokers regarding physical activity (P = .36). Conclusion Physical activity and dietary characteristics may be important areas for physicians to assess during smoking-cessation interventions. PMID:24355104

  15. Risk factors for unfavorable outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2012-05-01

    This study was undertaken to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Taipei, Taiwan in 2007-2008. Taiwanese adults with culture-positive PTB diagnosed in Taipei during the study period were included in this retrospective cohort study. Unfavorable outcomes were classified as treatment default, death, treatment failure, or transfer. Of 1616 eligible patients, 22.6% (365) had unfavorable outcomes, mainly death. After controlling for patient sociodemographic factors, clinical findings, and underlying disease, independent risk factors for unfavorable outcomes included advanced age, unemployment, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, acid-fast bacilius smear-positivity, multidrug-resistant TB, and notification from ordinary ward or intensive care unit. In contrast, patients receiving directly observed treatment, and with a high school or higher education were significantly less likely to have unfavorable outcomes. This study advanced our understanding by revealing that a high school or higher education might lower the risk of an unfavorable outcome. Our results also confirmed the risk factors for unfavorable outcomes shown in previous research. Future TB control programmes in Taiwan should target particularly high-risk patients including those who had lower educational levels. PMID:22387265

  16. An investigation into the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Dodd, Lorna J; Al-Nuaim, Anwar

    2015-04-01

    This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18-25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students' lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors) included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors) included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors) included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student's health. PMID:25913183

  17. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I-but not on the aMed-showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, <0.001-0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing the extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32-0.68) (HEI-2005), 0.48 (0.33-0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30-0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men. PMID:26927167

  18. Association between pornography use and sexual risk behaviors in adult consumers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Emily L; Mullan, Barbara; Mullan, Barbara M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research. PMID:25587721

  19. Suicide risk factors for young adults: testing a model across ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, P M; Rodriguez, P J; Garcia, P

    2001-06-01

    A general path model based on existing suicide risk research was developed to test factors contributing to current suicidal ideation in young adults. A sample of 673 undergraduate students completed a packet of questionnaires containing the Beck Depression Inventory, Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, and Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale. They also provided information on history of suicidality and exposure to attempted and completed suicide in others. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the data to the hypothesized model. Goodness-of-fit indices were adequate and supported the interactive effects of exposure, repulsion by life, depression, and history of self-harm on current ideation. Model fit for three subgroups based on race/ethnicity (i.e., White, Black, and Hispanic) determined that repulsion by life and depression function differently across groups. Implications of these findings for current methods of suicide risk assessment and future research are discussed in the context of the importance of culture. PMID:11803983

  20. Parahippocampal white matter volume predicts Alzheimer's disease risk in cognitively normal old adults.

    PubMed

    Stoub, Travis R; Detoledo-Morrell, Leyla; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2014-08-01

    An in vivo marker of the underlying pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is atrophy in select brain regions detected with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although gray matter changes have been documented to be predictive of cognitive decline culminating in AD among healthy older adults, very little attention has been given to alterations in white matter as a possible MRI biomarker predictive of AD. In this investigation, we examined parahippocampal white matter (PWM) volume derived from baseline MRI scans in 2 independent samples of 65 cognitively normal older adults, followed longitudinally, to determine if it was predictive of AD risk. The average follow-up period for the 2 samples was 8.5 years. Comparisons between the stable participants (N = 50) and those who declined to AD (N = 15) over time revealed a significant difference in baseline PWM volume (p < 0.001). Furthermore, baseline PWM volume was predictive not only of time to AD (hazard ratio = 3.1, p < 0.05), but also of baseline episodic memory performance (p = 0.041). These results demonstrate that PWM atrophy provides a sensitive MRI biomarker of AD dementia risk among those with normal cognitive function. PMID:24656833

  1. Sex differences in the risk of receiving potentially inappropriate prescriptions among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Weymann, Deirdre; Pratt, Brandy; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J.; Raymond, Colette; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to measure sex differences in the risk of receiving potentially inappropriate prescription drugs and to examine what are the factors that contribute to these differences. Design: a retrospective cohort study. Setting: community setting of British Columbia, Canada. Participants: residents of British Columbia aged 65 and older (n = 660,679). Measurements: we measured 2013 period prevalence of prescription dispensations satisfying the American Geriatrics Society's 2012 version of the Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. We used logistic regressions to test for associations between this outcome and a number of clinical and socioeconomic factors. Results: a larger share of women (31%) than of men (26%) filled one or more potentially inappropriate prescription in the community. The odds of receiving potentially inappropriate prescriptions are associated with several clinical and socioeconomic factors. After controlling for those factors, community-dwelling women were at 16% higher odds of receiving a potentially inappropriate prescription than men (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.12–1.21). Much of this sex difference stemmed from women's increased odds of receiving potentially inappropriate prescriptions for benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, for tertiary tricyclic antidepressants and for non-selective NSAIDs. Conclusion: there are significant sex differences in older adults' risk of receiving a potentially inappropriate prescription as a result of complex intersections between gender and other social constructs. Appropriate responses will therefore require changes in the information, norms and expectations of both prescribers and patients. PMID:27151390

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea. PMID:24956921

  3. Concurrent Use of Warfarin and Antibiotics and the Risk of Bleeding in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Holmes, Holly M.; Lin, Yu-li; Raji, Mukaila A.; Sharma, Gulshan; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic medications are associated with an increased risk of bleeding among patients receiving warfarin. The recent availability of data from the Medicare Part D prescription drug program provides an opportunity to assess the association of antibiotic medications and the risk of bleeding in a national population of older adults receiving warfarin. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested within a cohort of 38,762 patients aged 65 years and older who were continuous warfarin users, using enrollment and claims data for a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries with Part D benefits. Cases were defined as persons hospitalized for a primary diagnosis of bleeding and were matched with three control subjects on age, race, gender, and indication for warfarin. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of bleeding associated with prior exposure to antibiotic medications. Results Exposure to any antibiotic agent within the 15 days of the event/index date was associated with an increased risk of bleeding (aOR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.62-2.50). All six specific antibiotic drug classes examined [azole antifungals (aOR, 4.57; 95% CI, 1.90-11.03), macrolides (aOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.21), quinolones (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.62), cotrimoxazole (aOR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.46-5.05), penicillins (aOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.21-2.07) and cephalosporins (aOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.52-3.95) were associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Conclusion Among older continuous warfarin users, exposure to antibiotic agents—particularly azole antifungals—was associated with an increased risk of bleeding. PMID:22269622

  4. Toxicity and risk of permethrin and naled to non-target insects after adult mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-08-01

    We derived laboratory LC50 values, assessed non-target insect risks, and conducted a field bioassay for ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides used to manage adult mosquitoes. The house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), was used as an indicator species for medium- to large-bodied ground dwelling insects. The 24-h LC(50) values for Permanone (formulated product of permethrin), Permanone + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), technical grade permethrin, and technical grade permethrin + PBO ranged from 0.052 to 0.9 microg/cm(2). The 24 h LC(50) for technical grade naled and Trumpet((R)) (formulated product of naled) were 0.038 and 0.44 microg/cm(2), respectively. The synergist ratio was 2.65 for Permanone + PBO and 1.57 for technical grade permethrin + PBO. The toxicity of technical grade permethrin was about 10-fold greater than Permanone. A risk assessment using modeled estimated environmental concentrations resulted in risk quotients (RQ) that exceeded regulatory levels of concern, but when compared to field-derived actual environmental concentrations RQs did not exceed a regulatory level of concern, except in the case of technical grade naled. These results were expected because higher tiered risk assessments using field-verified data generally lead to lower risk estimates. Field bioassays using caged crickets showed no significant mortality for permethrin or naled after a single truck-mounted ULV application. The results of the risk assessment using actual environmental concentrations are supported by the field bioassays and suggest that a single ULV application of synergized or unsynergized permethrin and naled most likely will not result in population impacts on medium- to large-bodied insects. PMID:20429029

  5. Attendance at chlorinated indoor pools and risk of asthma in adult recreational swimmers.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcello; Schenk, Kai; Mantovani, William; Papadopoulou, Christina; Posenato, Chiara; Ferrari, Pietro; Poli, Albino; Tardivo, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    To study a potential correlation between attendance at chlorinated indoor pools and the onset of asthma in adult leisure swimmers. 1136 adult swimmers attending indoor pools in the city of Verona completed a modified ECRHS questionnaire. The cumulative time spent in the pools was calculated on the basis of the mean frequency and duration of weekly swim activity for every year of attendance. The median value (320 h) was used to divide participants into 2 groups. Other questions concerned the family history of allergies, the medical diagnosis and the onset of asthma. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the study group was compared with that of a general population sample. New-onset asthma, first identified at least 12 months after the start of regular pool attendance, was more prevalent among swimmers characterized by a higher cumulative pool attendance (23/514, 4.5%) than in swimmers who were attending indoor pools less frequently (2/508, 0.4%; ratio 11.1, 95% CI 2.6-47.4). The statistical analysis revealed an independent association between the cumulative lifetime hours spent in indoor swimming pools and new onset asthma (relative risk 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07). Respiratory symptoms were less frequent in the study population versus a general population sample (prevalence ratio 0.26-0.68). Attendance at chlorinated indoor pools may constitute a risk factor for developing asthma in leisure adult swimmers. Future research and efforts should aim at improving disinfection techniques, hygiene and ventilation in indoor swimming pools in order to provide an unobjectionable ambient for salubrious swim activities. PMID:21257346

  6. Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 μg/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 μg/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

  7. Dietary patterns in Mexican adults are associated with risk of being overweight or obese.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mario; Macias, Nayeli; Rivera, Marta; Lozada, Ana; Barquera, Simón; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan; Tucker, Katherine L

    2010-10-01

    Our objective was to identify and describe the major dietary patterns in the Mexican adult population and their association with being overweight or obese. Dietary intake was evaluated by a FFQ that was completed by 15,890 Mexican adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Dietary patterns were generated by cluster analysis based on the percent contribution to total energy intake from 30 food groups. We identified 3 major dietary patterns: refined foods and sweets (RS), traditional (T), and diverse (D). The T pattern was characterized by low dietary diversity, with maize and maize foods accounting for ~47% of energy intake. This pattern had the lowest contribution of most food groups, with the exception of beans (~4.0%). The RS pattern had the highest contribution of alcohol (9.4%), soft drinks (9.4%), white bread (7.7%), fast food, sweets, and snacks. The D pattern had the lowest contribution of maize (15.5%) and the highest contribution of whole-fat dairy (8.0%), rice and pasta, meat, poultry, eggs, saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables. After adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, socioeconomic status, area, and region, the RS and D dietary patterns were associated with 14 and 17% increased risk of being overweight (P < 0.01) and 20% increased risk of being obese, respectively, compared with the T dietary pattern (P < 0.001). These findings support an association of dietary patterns with being overweight or obese in a nationally representative sample of Mexican adults. PMID:20739452

  8. Neighborhood and Family Environment of Expectans Mothers May Influence Prenatal Programming of Adult Cancer Risk: Discussion and an Illustrative DNA Methylation Example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood stressors including physical abuse predict adult cancer risk. Prior research portrays this finding as an indirect mechanism that operates through coping behaviors, including adult smoking, or through increased toxic exposures during childhood. Little is known about pote...

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiometabolic Risks: A Juxtaposition of Arab Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Aljohani, Naji; Alokail, Majed; Al-Attas, Omar; Alnaami, Abdullah M.; Sabico, Shaun; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Harbi, Mohammed; Alfawaz, Hanan; Chrousos, George P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and girls, remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 2225 apparently healthy Saudi adolescents (1187 boys and 1038 girls, aged 13-17 years old) and 830 adults (368 men and 462 women, aged 18-50 years old) were respectively recruited from different public schools and medical practices within Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were taken and fasting blood samples withdrawn to examine serum glucose and lipid profile by routine analysis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by ELISA. Almost half of the girls (47.0%) had vitamin D deficiency as compared to only 19.4% of the boys (p<0.001), 36.8% of the adult women and 17.7% of the adult men (p<0.001). Furthermore, in boys there were more significant inverse associations between serum 25(OH)vitamin D levels and cardiometabolic indices than girls, while in contrast women had more significant associations than men. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) [OR 3.47 (CI1.26-5.55); p<0.05] and pre-DM [OR 2.47 (CI 1.48-4.12); p<0.01] in boys. Furthermore, vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in boys [OR 2.75 (CI 1.1-7.1); p<0.05]. These associations for DMT2 and abdominal obesity were not observed in adult males, girls and adult women. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and hyperglycemia is high among Arab adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is mostly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent Arab boys. This indicates a sex- and age-related disadvantage for boys with low vitamin D status and challenges the extra-skeletal protection of vitamin D correction in adolescent females. PMID:26186591

  10. Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiometabolic Risks: A Juxtaposition of Arab Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Aljohani, Naji; Alokail, Majed; Al-Attas, Omar; Alnaami, Abdullah M; Sabico, Shaun; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Harbi, Mohammed; Alfawaz, Hanan; Chrousos, George P

    2015-01-01

    The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and girls, remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 2225 apparently healthy Saudi adolescents (1187 boys and 1038 girls, aged 13-17 years old) and 830 adults (368 men and 462 women, aged 18-50 years old) were respectively recruited from different public schools and medical practices within Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were taken and fasting blood samples withdrawn to examine serum glucose and lipid profile by routine analysis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by ELISA. Almost half of the girls (47.0%) had vitamin D deficiency as compared to only 19.4% of the boys (p<0.001), 36.8% of the adult women and 17.7% of the adult men (p<0.001). Furthermore, in boys there were more significant inverse associations between serum 25(OH)vitamin D levels and cardiometabolic indices than girls, while in contrast women had more significant associations than men. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) [OR 3.47 (CI1.26-5.55); p<0.05] and pre-DM [OR 2.47 (CI 1.48-4.12); p<0.01] in boys. Furthermore, vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in boys [OR 2.75 (CI 1.1-7.1); p<0.05]. These associations for DMT2 and abdominal obesity were not observed in adult males, girls and adult women. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and hyperglycemia is high among Arab adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is mostly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent Arab boys. This indicates a sex- and age-related disadvantage for boys with low vitamin D status and challenges the extra-skeletal protection of vitamin D correction in adolescent females. PMID:26186591

  11. Risk of Mortality during Four Years after Substance Detoxification in Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gaeta, Jessie; Cheng, Debbie M.; Richardson, Jessica M.; Larson, Mary Jo; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the mortality rate and risk factors in adults, with substance dependence, who are not receiving primary medical care (PC). Date and cause of death were identified using the National Death Index data and death certificates for 470 adults without PC over a period of almost 4 years after detailed clinical assessment after detoxification. Factors associated with risk of mortality were determined using stepwise Cox proportional hazards models. Subjects were 76% male, 47% homeless, and 47% with chronic medical illness; 40% reported alcohol, 27% heroin, and 33% cocaine as substance of choice. Median age was 35. During a period of up to 4 years, 27 (6%) subjects died. Median age at death was 39. Causes included: poisoning by any substance (40.9% of deaths), trauma (13%), cardiovascular disease (13.6%), and exposure to cold (9.1%). The age adjusted mortality rate was 4.4 times that of the general population in the same city. Among these individuals without PC in a detoxification unit, risk factors associated with death were the following: drug of choice [heroin: hazard ratio (HR) 6.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–31.1]; alcohol: HR 3.7 (95% CI 0.79–16.9) compared to cocaine); past suicide attempt (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.96–4.5); persistent homelessness (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.3); and history of any chronic medical illness (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.93–4.7). Receipt of primary care was not significantly associated with death (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.34–2.1). Risk of mortality is high in patients with addictions and risk factors identifiable when these patients seek help from the health care system (i.e., for detoxification) may help identify those at highest risk for whom interventions could be targeted. PMID:17221296

  12. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified. PMID:26892361

  13. Five-year changes in adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk factors among Guatemalan young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Martorell, Reynaldo; Narayan, KM Venkat; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapidly transitioning societies are experiencing dramatic increases in obesity and cardio-metabolic risk; however, few prospective studies from developing countries have quantified these increases or described their joint relationships. Methods We collected dietary, physical activity, demographic, anthropometric and cardio-metabolic risk factor data from 376 Guatemalan young adults in 1997–98 (aged 20–29 years) and in 2002–04 (aged 25–34 years). Results In total, 42% of men and 56% of women experienced weight gain >5kg in 5 years. Percent body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC) increased by 4·2% points and 5·5 cm among men, and 3·2% points and 3·4 cm among women, respectively. Five-year increases in both %BF and WC were associated with lower physical activity, urban residence and shorter height among men but not among women (test for heterogeneity P<0·05 for residence and physical activity). Changes in %BF and WC and concomitant changes in cardio-metabolic risk factors were similar for men and women. In standardised regression, change in %BF was associated with changes in TAG (β=0·19; 95% CI 0·08, 0·30), total:HDL cholesterol (β=0·22; 95% CI 0·12, 0·33) and systolic (β=0·22; 95% CI 0·12, 0·33) and diastolic (β=0·18; 95% CI 0·08, 0·28) blood pressure, but not with glucose; associations were similar for WC. Conclusions Over 5 years this relatively young population of Guatemalan adults experienced rapid increases in multiple measures of adiposity, which were associated with adverse changes in lipid and blood pressure levels. PMID:18702839

  14. Characteristics of and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in young adults in a screening population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Jo, Hee Bum; Kwack, Won Gun; Jeong, Yun Jin; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in adults aged < 50 years, for whom screening is not recommended. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared prevalence and characteristics of colorectal and advanced adenomas in patients aged < 50 years who underwent colonoscopy screening with subjects aged ≥ 50 years. To evaluate risk factors for colorectal and advanced adenoma in young adults, we used multivariable logistic regression models. Colorectal neoplasm characteristics were evaluated and compared with those in older patients. RESULTS: Among 2819 patients included, prevalences of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were 19.7% and 1.5%, respectively. As patient age increased, so did the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm. However, prevalence of advanced adenoma did not differ between age-groups 45-49 years and ≥ 50 years (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.17-1.07, P = 0.070). In younger age-group (< 50 years), colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with older age, waist circumference (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.15-2.55, P = 0.008), and current smoking (OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.07-2.41, P = 0.023). Alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for colorectal advanced adenoma (OR = 3.69, 95%CI: 1.08-12.54, P = 0.037). Multiple neoplasms and large neoplasms (≥ 1 cm) were more prevalent in subjects ≥ 50 years. CONCLUSION: Current screening strategies for colorectal cancer may need to be amended to account for patient age, especially in young subjects with abdominal obesity, current smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:26973394

  15. Cardiometabolic risk factors predict cerebrovascular health in older adults: results from the Brain in Motion study.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Amanda V; Argourd, Laurie; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Davenport, Margie H; Forbes, Scott C; Gill, Stephanie J; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Anderson, Todd J; Wilson, Ben J; Smith, Eric E; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Aging and physical inactivity are associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). With the rising prevalence of MetS, it is important to determine the extent to which it affects cerebrovascular health. The primary purpose of this report is to examine the impact of MetS on cerebrovascular health (resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) peak velocity (V¯P), cerebrovascular conductance (CVC), and CBF responses to hypercapnia) in healthy older adults with normal cognition. A secondary goal was to examine the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 expression on these indices. In a sample of 258 healthy men and women older than 53 years, 29.1% met criteria for MetS. MetS, sex, and age were found to be significant predictors of CVC, and V¯P, MetS, and APOE status were significant predictors of V¯P-reactivity, and CVC-reactivity was best predicted by MetS status. After controlling for these factors, participants with MetS demonstrated lower cerebrovascular measures (CVC, V¯P, CVC-reactivity, and V¯P-reactivity) compared to participants without MetS. APOE ε4 carriers had higher V¯P-reactivity than noncarriers. These results provide evidence that cardiometabolic and vascular risk factors clustered together as the MetS predict measures of cerebrovascular health indices in older adults. Higher V¯P-reactivity in APOE ε4 carriers suggests vascular compensation for deleterious effects of this known risk allele for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. PMID:27117804

  16. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037

  17. Decreased Functional Status as a Risk Factor for Severe Clostridium difficile Infection among Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishna; Micic, Dejan; Chenoweth, Elizabeth; Deng, Lili; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Ring, Cathrin; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.; Malani, Preeti N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults, who are among the patients at highest risk of severe infection. The role of impaired functional status as a risk factor for severe CDI remains poorly understood. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The University of Michigan Health System, a 930-bed tertiary care hospital. Participants Hospitalized patients with CDI, age ≥50 years. Measurements Included demographics; clinical characteristics; and a composite outcome, the CDI severity score: fever [T >38°C]; acute organ dysfunction; white blood cell count >15 000/mm3; lack of response to therapy; intensive care unit admission, need for colectomy, or death due to CDI. Pre-admission functional status was assessed by ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs); patients were assigned to an ADL Class (independent, some assistance, or full assistance). Secondary outcomes included length of stay; 90-day mortality and readmission; and CDI recurrence. Results We identified 90 hospitalized patients with CDI (mean age 66.6 [± SD 10.2]). Fifty-eight patients (64.4%) had severe CDI as measured by a positive severity score. At baseline, 25 (27.8%) required assistance with ADLs. On univariate analysis, an ADL Class of “full assistance” was associated with severity score (OR 7, CI 95 1.83–26.79, P = .004). In a multivariable model which included age, ADL Class, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, depression, weighted Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, immunosuppression, prior CDI, and PPI use, an ADL Class of “full assistance” retained its association with severity score (OR 8.1, CI 95 1.24–52.95, P = .029). ADL Class was not associated with secondary outcomes. Conclusion Among this cohort of hospitalized older adults, impaired functional status was an independent risk factor for severe CDI. PMID:24083842

  18. Childhood body mass index and adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L; Nguyen, Tuong L; Stone, Jennifer; Aujard, Kelly; Matheson, Melanie C; Abramson, Michael J; Burgess, John A; Walters, E Haydn; Dite, Gillian S; Bui, Minh; Evans, Christopher; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Ward, Gail; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Apicella, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine if body mass index (BMI) during childhood is associated with the breast cancer risk factor 'adult mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI'. In 1968, the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study studied every Tasmanian school child born in 1961. We obtained measured heights and weights from annual school medical records across ages 7-15 years and imputed missing values. Between 2009 and 2012, we administered to 490 women a questionnaire that asked current height and weight and digitised at least one mammogram per woman. Absolute and percent mammographic densities were measured using the computer-assisted method CUMULUS. We used linear regression and adjusted for age at interview and log current BMI. The mammographic density measures were negatively associated: with log BMI at each age from 7 to 15 years (all p < 0.05); with the average of standardised log BMIs across ages 7-15 years (p < 0.0005); and more strongly with standardised log BMI measures closer to age 15 years (p < 0.03). Childhood BMI measures explained 7 and 10 % of the variance in absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively, and 25 and 20 % of the association between current BMI and absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively. Associations were not altered by adjustment for age at menarche. There is a negative association between BMI in late childhood and the adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk. This could explain, at least in part, why BMI in adolescence is negatively associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:26907766

  19. Socioeconomic and clinical factors explaining the risk of unstructured antiretroviral therapy interruptions among Kenyan adult patients.

    PubMed

    Mûnene, Edwin; Ekman, Björn

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the extent of unstructured HIV treatment interruptions (TIs) and investigate the effects of socioeconomic, socio-demographic, HIV treatment-related and clinical factors on the magnitude and rate of the same among adult patients at a Kenyan regional referral center. Four hundred and twenty-one adult patients actively receiving antiretroviral therapy at Nyeri County Referral Hospital since 2003 were randomly selected to complete a health survey questionnaire. Electronic records were used to obtain their HIV treatment utilization history. The marginal effects of selected determinants on prevalence and rate of TI were assessed by fitting multiple Poisson log-linear regression models. In total, 392 patients participated in the study. HIV TI was prevalent with 64.5% having had at least one TI of 3 months or more during treatment. The risk of TI was significantly higher in those longer on treatment (prevalence ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.28). Greater risk of TI was also associated with lower income (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 0.9, 95% CI 0.83-1.00), low medication adherence (PRR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.13-0.72), inconsistent treatment engagement (PRR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.19-0.75) and, contrarily, fewer adverse drug reactions (PRR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Unstructured HIV TIs appear to be fairly common at the study site. The results suggest that efforts to minimize HIV TI could benefit from treatment-continuity monitoring strategies that target the high-risk sub-samples identified. PMID:26846424

  20. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W; Dogan, Meesha V; Philibert, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood (age 19), was associated with both SES risk and protective parenting. Three categories of genes were identified whose methylation was associated with parenting, SES risk, and young adult health. Methylation was a significant mediator of the impact of parenting and SES risk on young adult health. Variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was also examined and controlled, showing that it did not account for observed effects of parenting and SES risk on health. PMID:26822447

  1. Fish consumption and risk of subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, J K.; Siscovick, D S.; Longstreth, W T.; Kuller, L H.; Mozaffarian, D

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between fish consumption and subclinical brain abnormalities. Methods: In the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study, 3,660 participants age ≥65 underwent an MRI scan in 1992–1994. Five years later, 2,313 were scanned. Neuroradiologists assessed MRI scans in a standardized and blinded manner. Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary intakes. Participants with known cerebrovascular disease were excluded from the analyses. Results: After adjustment for multiple risk factors, the risk of having one or more prevalent subclinical infarcts was lower among those consuming tuna/other fish ≥3 times/week, compared to <1/month (relative risk 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54–1.01, p = 0.06, p trend = 0.03). Tuna/other fish consumption was also associated with trends toward lower incidence of subclinical infarcts. Additionally, tuna/other fish intake was associated with better white matter grade, but not with sulcal and ventricular grades, markers of brain atrophy. No significant associations were found between fried fish consumption and any subclinical brain abnormalities. Conclusions: Among older adults, modest consumption of tuna/other fish, but not fried fish, was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white matter abnormalities on MRI examinations. Our results add to prior evidence that suggest that dietary intake of fish with higher eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content, and not fried fish intake, may have clinically important health benefits. GLOSSARY ARR = absolute risk reduction; BMI = body mass index; CHD = coronary heart disease; CHS = Cardiovascular Health Study; DHA = docosahexaenoic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; FFQ = food frequency questionnaire; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acid; RR = relative risk. PMID:18678827

  2. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. RESULTS Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p < 0.05). The obese participants also had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the non-obese participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking soy milk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.447; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.253–0.787; p < 0.05) and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215–0.900; p < 0.05) were associated with a reduced risk of obesity. The risk of obesity was higher in younger participants (adjusted OR 2.714; 95% CI 1.225–6.011; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION The prevalence of obesity was high among the apparently healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population. PMID:24570317

  3. Providing earplugs to young adults at risk encourages protective behaviour in music venues.

    PubMed

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan

    2016-06-01

    For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use. PMID:25662567

  4. Risk for congenital anomalies in offspring of childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Viivi I; Artama, Miia S; Malila, Nea K; Pitkäniemi, Janne M; Rantanen, Matti E; Ritvanen, Annukka K; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria

    2016-10-15

    Offspring of cancer survivors (CS) may be at risk for congenital anomalies due to the mutagenic therapies received by their parents. Our population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the risk for congenital anomalies in offspring of CS compared to offspring of their siblings. Using the Finnish Cancer Registry, Central Population Register, and Hospital Discharge Register, we identified hospital contacts due to congenital anomalies in 6,862 offspring of CS (early-onset cancer between 1953 and 2004) and 35,690 offspring of siblings. Associations between congenital anomalies and cancer were evaluated using generalized linear regression modelling. The ratio of congenital anomalies in offspring of CS (3.2%) was slightly, but non-significantly, elevated compared to that in offspring of siblings (2.7%) [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.25]. When offspring of childhood and adolescent survivors (0-19 years at cancer diagnosis) were compared to siblings' offspring, the risk for congenital anomalies was non-significantly increased (PR 1.17, 95% CI 0.92-1.49). No such increase existed for offspring of young adult survivors (20-34 years at cancer diagnosis) (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.83-1.23). The risks for congenital anomalies were elevated among offspring of CS diagnosed with cancer in the earlier decades (1955-1964: PR 2.77, 95% C I 1.26-6.11; and 1965-1974: PR 1.55, 95% C I 0.94-2.56). In our study, we did not detect an overall elevated risk for congenital anomalies in offspring of survivors diagnosed in young adulthood. An association between cancer exposure of the parent and congenital anomalies in the offspring appeared only for those CS who were diagnosed in the earlier decades. PMID:27280956

  5. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:26143162

  6. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Hansen, Helen M.; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S.; Madsen, Nils R.; Bracci, Paige M.; Pico, Alexander R.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Wiencke, John K.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82×10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48×10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83×10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis. PMID:26646793

  7. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle M; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P; Smirnov, Ivan V; McCoy, Lucie S; Hansen, Helen M; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S; Madsen, Nils R; Bracci, Paige M; Pico, Alexander R; Molinaro, Annette M; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D; Jenkins, Robert B; Wiemels, Joseph L; Samani, Nilesh J; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82x10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48x10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83x10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis. PMID:26646793

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by CPA47 cells - Evidence for a divalent cation-independent cell-surface proteolytic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. J.; Chen, Y. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is rapidly cleared and degraded in vivo. Nonguanylate-cyclase receptors (C-ANPR) and a metalloproteinase, neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) (NEP 24.11), are thought to be responsible for its metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms of ANP degradation by an endothelial-derived cell line, CPA47. CPA47 cells degraded 88 percent of 125I-ANP after 1 h at 37 degrees C as determined by HPLC. Medium preconditioned by these cells degraded 41 percent of the 125I-ANP, and this activity was inhibited by a divalent cation chelator, EDTA. Furthermore, a cell-surface proteolytic activity degraded 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA when receptor-mediated endocytosis was inhibited either by low temperature (4 degrees C) or by hyperosmolarity at 37 degrees C. The metalloproteinase, NEP 24.11, is unlikely to be the cell-surface peptidase because 125I-ANP is degraded by CPA47 cells at 4 degrees C in the presence of 5 mM EDTA. These data indicate that CPA47 cells can degrade ANP by a novel divalent cation-independent cell-surface proteolytic activity.

  9. 75 FR 6874 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Central Planning Area (CPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ... all CPA leasing maps and OPD's, please refer to 66 FR 28002 (published May 21, 2001), 69 FR 23211 (published April 28, 2004), 72 FR 27590 (published May 16, 2007), 72 FR 35720 (published June 29, 2007), and 73 FR 63505 (October 24, 2008). In addition, Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagrams (SOBD's)...

  10. A Study of Student Involvement Variables in Higher Education Their Influence on Success on the Uniform CPA Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Accounting educators are continually seeking ways to better prepare their students for success after graduation. One path to this goal is the successful completion of the CPA exam. This national exam provides an endorsement of the knowledge and comprehension that has been achieved by the candidate and opens up opportunities for advancement. The…

  11. Online versus Face-to-Face Accounting Education: A Comparison of CPA Exam Outcomes across Matched Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Programmatic-level comparisons are made between the certified public accountant (CPA) exam outcomes of two types of accounting programs: online or distance accounting programs and face-to-face or classroom accounting programs. After matching programs from each group on student selectivity at admission, the two types of programs are compared on CPA…

  12. 7 CFR 1773.20 - CPA's submission of the auditor's report, report on compliance, report on compliance and on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CPA's submission of the auditor's report, report on compliance, report on compliance and on internal controls over financial reporting, and management letter. 1773.20 Section 1773.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. Genome-Wide Identification of Epigenetic Hotspots Potentially Related to Cardiovascular Risk in Adult Women after a Complicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, Cees; Poutsma, Ankie; Michel, Omar; Mulders, Joyce; Visser, Allerdien; van Dijk, Marie; Nauta, Tessa; Bokslag, Anouk; Paulus, Walter; de Haas, Andreas; Koolwijk, Pieter; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The physiological demands of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system can catapult women into a metabolic syndrome that predisposes to atherosclerosis in later life. We sought to identify the nature of the epigenomic changes associated with the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adult women following pre-eclampsia. Findings We assessed the genome wide epigenetic profile by methyl-C sequencing of monozygotic parous twin sister pairs discordant for a severe variant of pre-eclampsia. In the adult twin sisters at risk for CVD as a consequence of a complicated pregnancy, a set of 12 differentially methylated regions with at least 50% difference in methylation percentage and the same directional change was found to be shared between the affected twin sisters and significantly different compared to their unaffected monozygous sisters. Conclusion The current epigenetic marker set will permit targeted analysis of differentially methylated regions potentially related to CVD risk in large cohorts of adult women following complicated pregnancies. PMID:26870946

  14. Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: Evidence from prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Smagula, Stephen F; Stone, Katie L; Fabio, Anthony; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-02-01

    No systematic review of epidemiological evidence has examined risk factors for sleep disturbances among older adults. We searched the PubMed database combining search terms targeting the following domains 1) prospective, 2) sleep, and 3) aging, and identified 21 relevant population-based studies with prospective sleep outcome data. Only two studies utilized objective measures of sleep disturbance, while six used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and thirteen used insomnia symptoms or other sleep complaints as the outcome measure. Female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness were most consistently identified as risks for future sleep disturbances. Less robust evidence implicated the following as potentially relevant predictors: lower physical activity levels, African-American race, lower economic status, previous manual occupation, widowhood, marital quality, loneliness and perceived stress, preclinical dementia, long-term benzodiazepine and sedative use, low testosterone levels, and inflammatory markers. Chronological age was not identified as a consistent, independent predictor of future sleep disturbances. In conclusion, prospective studies have identified female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness as general risk factors for future sleep disturbances in later life, although specific physiological pathways have not yet been established. Research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms through which these factors influence sleep over time. PMID:26140867

  15. Multicenter study on caries risk assessment in adults using survival Classification and Regression Trees

    PubMed Central

    Arino, Masumi; Ito, Ataru; Fujiki, Shozo; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is an important public health problem worldwide. This study aims to prove how preventive therapies reduce the onset of caries in adult patients, and to identify patients with high or low risk of caries by using Classification and Regression Trees based survival analysis (survival CART). A clinical data set of 732 patients aged 20 to 64 years in nine Japanese general practices was analyzed with the following parameters: age, DMFT, number of mutans streptococci (SM) and Lactobacilli (LB), secretion rate and buffer capacity of saliva, and compliance with a preventive program. Results showed the incidence of primary carious lesion was affected by SM, LB and compliance with a preventive program; secondary carious lesion was affected by DMFT, SM and LB. Survival CART identified high-risk patients for primary carious lesion according to their poor compliance with a preventive program and SM (≥106 CFU/ml) with a hazard ratio of 3.66 (p = 0.0002). In the case of secondary caries, patients with LB (≥105 CFU/ml) and DMFT (>15) were identified as high risk with a hazard ratio of 3.50 (p < 0.0001). We conclude that preventive programs can be effective in limiting the incidence of primary carious lesion. PMID:27381750

  16. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem. PMID:26285356

  17. Multicenter study on caries risk assessment in adults using survival Classification and Regression Trees.

    PubMed

    Arino, Masumi; Ito, Ataru; Fujiki, Shozo; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is an important public health problem worldwide. This study aims to prove how preventive therapies reduce the onset of caries in adult patients, and to identify patients with high or low risk of caries by using Classification and Regression Trees based survival analysis (survival CART). A clinical data set of 732 patients aged 20 to 64 years in nine Japanese general practices was analyzed with the following parameters: age, DMFT, number of mutans streptococci (SM) and Lactobacilli (LB), secretion rate and buffer capacity of saliva, and compliance with a preventive program. Results showed the incidence of primary carious lesion was affected by SM, LB and compliance with a preventive program; secondary carious lesion was affected by DMFT, SM and LB. Survival CART identified high-risk patients for primary carious lesion according to their poor compliance with a preventive program and SM (≥10(6) CFU/ml) with a hazard ratio of 3.66 (p = 0.0002). In the case of secondary caries, patients with LB (≥10(5) CFU/ml) and DMFT (>15) were identified as high risk with a hazard ratio of 3.50 (p < 0.0001). We conclude that preventive programs can be effective in limiting the incidence of primary carious lesion. PMID:27381750

  18. Fast Eating Speed Increases the Risk of Endoscopic Erosive Gastritis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyung; Kim, E-Yeon; Han, Byoung-Duck; Cho, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast eating or overeating can induce gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis. However, the association between gastritis and speed of eating is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether eating speed is associated with increased risk of endoscopic erosive gastritis (EEG). Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 10,893 adults who underwent a general health checkup between 2007 and 2009. Two groups, EEG patients and EEG-free patients, were compared by using the t-test and the chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between eating speed and EEG. Results The group with EEG had a higher proportion of males, average age, body mass index, and percentages of current smokers and risky drinkers than those without EEG. After adjusting for anthropometric, social, and endoscopic parameters, the group with the highest eating speed (<5 min/meal) had 1.7 times higher risk for EEG than the group with the lowest eating speed (≥15 min/meal) (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.45). Conclusion High eating speed is an independent risk factor for EEG. Our results indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of eating speed in gastritis. PMID:26634096

  19. DETERMINING OSTEOPOROSIS RISK IN OLDER COLONO ADULTS FROM RURAL AMAZONIAN ECUADOR USING CALCANEAL ULTRASONOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    MADIMENOS, FELICIA C.; LIEBERT, MELISSA A.; CEPON-ROBINS, TARA J.; SNODGRASS, J. JOSH; SUGIYAMA, LAWRENCE S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low bone density and osteoporosis prevalence, while well-documented in wealthy nations, are poorly studied in rural, non-clinical contexts in economically-developing regions such as Latin America. This study contributes preliminary osteoporosis risk data for a rural Colono (mestizo) population from Amazonian Ecuador. Methods Anthropometrics were collected for 119 adult participants (74 females, 45 males [50–90 years old]). Heel bone density and T-scores were recorded using calcaneal ultrasonometry Results Approximately 33.6% of the participants had low bone density and were at high-risk for osteoporosis. Four times as many females as males were considered high-risk. Consistent with epidemiological literature, advancing age was significantly associated with lower bone density values (p=0.001). Conclusions Low bone density and osteoporosis prevalence are expected to increase in this and other economically-transitioning populations, yet infrastructure to monitor this changing epidemiological landscape is almost non-existent. Human biologists are uniquely positioned to contribute data from remote populations, a critical step towards initiating increased resource allocation for diagnosis and prevention. PMID:25242164

  20. Cross-Cultural Differences and Sexual Risk Behavior of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tami L.; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Dalmida, Safiya George; Frados, Andrew; Klienert, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined population-specific risk factors that increase emerging adults’ risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papillomavirus (HPV). Design and Method A cross-sectional sample of 335 diverse, emerging adults ages 18 to 24 years was recruited from a health center at a large university in the Southeastern United States. The mean age was 20.6 ± 1.9 years, majority were females (74.0%), and 61.0% were Hispanic. Results Findings revealed inconsistent condom use, reasons for not using condoms, and a need for more culturally-specific intervention strategies. Discussion and Conclusions Healthcare providers should identify culturally-specific reasons for inconsistent condom use, examine cultural and geographic differences in sexual risk behaviors among groups and communities, and modify communication, educational programs, and interventions accordingly. Implications for Practice By adopting a multi-cultural approach to the control of STIs, nurses can address specific cultural attitudes and behaviors that may influence exposure to STIs, including HPV. PMID:24692340

  1. The prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in adults living in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Onal, A E; Erbil, S; Ozel, S; Aciksari, K; Tumerdem, Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension were determined among habitants in the European side of Istanbul who are 25 years and older. Eight administrative districts were selected with the method of simple random sampling. The participants were selected through systematic calling from address lists. Between 17 and 22 June 2002, the questionnaires were applied to the participants in a face-to-face interview; then arterial blood pressures, body weights and heights of the participants were measured. Of 423 adults participating in the study, 35.5% were hypertensive; 35.9% were obese, 27.9% were overweight and 2.1% were underweight. Risk factors for hypertension such as age, gender, educational status, social security, family history of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, medical history of diabetes and congestive heart failure, smoking and alcohol use, and body mass index in the hypertensive and non-hypertensive groups were investigated by means of logistic regression analysis. Age [odds ratio (OR): 5.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.18-12.40], body mass index (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.57-3.16) and smoking (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55-0.95) were found to be correlated with hypertension. The results showed that the prevalence of hypertension was high in Istanbul, and obesity, being overweight and advanced age were the risk factors for hypertension. PMID:15083638

  2. Risk factors for syngeneic graft-versus-host disease after adult hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kristina M; Holmberg, Leona A; Leisenring, Wendy; Fefer, Alexander; Guthrie, Katherine A; Tylee, Tracy S; McDonald, George B; Bensinger, William I; Nelson, J Lee

    2004-09-15

    Syngeneic graft-versus-host disease (sGVHD) has been described after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but remains poorly defined. We retrospectively reviewed adult syngeneic HCTs at our center (1980-2002) for sGVHD to investigate incidence, morbidity, and risk factors with a primary focus on parity. Among 119 transplantations, there were 21 cases of biopsy-proven sGVHD. The cumulative incidence was 18%, with multiorgan involvement in 6 cases and 1 death. sGVHD was more frequent when the donor was parous (32%) than nulliparous (9%) or male (13%; P =.03) and when the recipient was parous (31%) than nulliparous (7%) or male (13%; P =.02). Other univariable risk factors included older age (P <.01), busulfan/melphalan/thiotepa conditioning (P <.01), interleukin-2 (P =.02), HLA-A26 (P =.03), and more recent transplantation year (P <.01). Overall, risk factors were similar to those described in GVHD. Although an independent effect of parity could not be completely separated from other factors, donor and recipient pregnancy history merits further investigation. PMID:15117763

  3. Increased Risk of Second Primary Malignancy in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Treated with Radioactive Iodine for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Jennifer L.; Jain, Kunal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The long-term sequelae of radioactive iodine (RAI) for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in pediatric and young adult patients are not well-defined. Epidemiologic analyses of second primary malignancy (SPM) risk have only been performed in the adult population. Existing data are limited to case series with limited follow-up. The objective of this study was to analyze the elevated risk of SPM attributable to RAI in young patients treated for DTC. Methods: Population-based analysis of 3850 pediatric and young adult patients (<25 years old) undergoing treatment with surgery with/without RAI for DTC, followed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry (1973–2008), equating to 54,727 person-years at risk (PYR). The excess risk of SPM was calculated relative to a reference population and expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10,000 PYR. Excess risk was compared in RAI-treated and non-RAI-treated patients. Results: A total of 1571 patients (40%) received RAI. The percentage of patients treated with RAI increased over time, from 4% in 1973 to 62% in 2008 (p<0.001). Among patients who received RAI, 26 SPMs were observed, and 18.3 were expected. The relative risk of SPM at any site was significantly elevated (SIR=1.42), corresponding to 4.4 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. SPM risk was not elevated in the non-RAI-treated cohort (SIR=1.01, EAR=0). Patients treated with RAI were at dramatically elevated risk for development of a salivary malignancy (SIR=34.1), corresponding to 1.7 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. The risk of leukemia in RAI-treated patients was elevated (SIR=4.0, EAR=0.9) but did not reach statistical significance. There was no elevated risk of salivary cancer or leukemia in the non-RAI-treated cohort. Conclusions: Pediatric and young adult patients who receive RAI for DTC experience an elevated risk of SPM, mainly salivary gland cancer. These risks appear to be only slightly higher

  4. Are decreases in drug use risk associated with reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors among adults in an urban hospital primary care setting?

    PubMed

    Walter, Angela Wangari; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Bernstein, Judith; Saitz, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Drug use is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. We examined whether decreases in drug use risk are associated with reduction in HIV-related sex risk behaviors among adults. Data was from a cohort of participants (n = 574) identified by drug use screening in a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug use in an urban primary care setting. Inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between decreases in drug use risk and sex-related HIV risk behavior reduction from study entry to six months. Weights were derived from propensity score modeling of decreases in drug use risk as a function of potential confounders. Thirty seven percent of the study participants (213/574) reported a decrease in drug use risk, and 7% (33/505) reported decreased sex-related HIV risk behavior at the six-month follow-up point. We did not detect a difference in reduction of risky sexual behaviors for those who decreased drug use risk (unadjusted: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.65-2.70; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.54-2.36). Adults who screened positive for high drug use risk had greater odds of reducing sex risk behavior in unadjusted analyses OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.81-7.60; but the results were not significant after adjusting for confounding AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.85-7.30). In this primary care population, reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors have complex etiologies and reductions in drug use risk do not appear to be an independent predictor of them. PMID:27570734

  5. Association between risk factors for coronary heart disease in schoolboys and adult mortality rates in the same localities.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Weir, D C; Whitehead, J E; Rogers, D I; Sapiano, S B; Floyd, C A; Kirk, P M; Stalker, C R; Field, N J; Cayton, R M

    1990-01-01

    Risk factors for coronary heart disease were compared in fifth year boys (15-16 years old) from two schools that were chosen from localities with a fourfold difference in adult mortality from coronary heart disease. One school was in an underprivileged urban locality in the area of increased incidence of heart disease ('high risk') and the other in a semi-rural affluent locality with an incidence of heart disease similar to the national average ('low risk'). Smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, physical fitness, and inactivity were evaluated as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Smoking, increased body fat, poor diet, and physical inactivity were found increased among pupils from the school in the high risk area compared with those in the low risk area. Lipids, maximum oxygen uptake, and hypertension were similar in both schools. The risk of coronary heart disease seems to reflect the adult mortality rates in the area. To reduce the overall incidence of coronary heart disease, health education should be directed towards prevention of smoking, improving diets, and increasing amounts of activity among school children, with special attention directed toward children in regions where there is a high mortality from coronary heart disease among adults. PMID:2301987

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, S; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2015-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to select 544 participants. An interviewer administrated questionnaire was used. Anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded and biochemical parameters were analysed. Response rate was 95.3%. Of them, 224 (43.8%) were male. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.3- 19.9); in males 19.6% (95% CI: 14.6-25.4) and in females 13.9% (95% CI: 10.1-18.5). Of the diabetics, 27.4% were previously undiagnosed. In the final multivariable model, participants with family history of diabetes were 3.5 times (p<0.001) more likely and those with high waist hip ratio were 2 times (p=0.009) more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. PMID:26520866

  7. Hierarchy in gene expression is predictive of risk, progression, and outcome in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-02-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 AML patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is non-trivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis.

  8. Hierarchy in Gene Expression is Predictive of Risk, Progression, and Outcome in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 acute myeloid leukemia patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is nontrivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis. PMID:25685944

  9. Advances in haplo-identical stem cell transplantation in adults with high-risk hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Michael J; Medin, Jeffrey A; Foley, Ronan S

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a life-saving procedure for adults and children that have high-risk or relapsed hematological malignancies. Incremental advances in the procedure, as well as expanded sources of donor hematopoietic cell grafts have significantly improved overall rates of success. Yet, the outcomes for patients for whom suitable donors cannot be found remain a significant limitation. These patients may benefit from a hematopoietic cell transplant wherein a relative donor is fully haplotype mismatched. Previously this procedure was limited by graft rejection, lethal graft-versus-host disease, and increased treatment-related toxicity. Recent approaches in haplo-identical transplantation have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes. Based on years of incremental pre-clinical research into this unique form of bone marrow transplant, a range of approaches have now been studied in patients in relatively large phase II trials that will be summarized in this review. PMID:25258660

  10. Advances in haplo-identical stem cell transplantation in adults with high-risk hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Michael J; Medin, Jeffrey A; Foley, Ronan S

    2014-09-26

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a life-saving procedure for adults and children that have high-risk or relapsed hematological malignancies. Incremental advances in the procedure, as well as expanded sources of donor hematopoietic cell grafts have significantly improved overall rates of success. Yet, the outcomes for patients for whom suitable donors cannot be found remain a significant limitation. These patients may benefit from a hematopoietic cell transplant wherein a relative donor is fully haplotype mismatched. Previously this procedure was limited by graft rejection, lethal graft-versus-host disease, and increased treatment-related toxicity. Recent approaches in haplo-identical transplantation have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes. Based on years of incremental pre-clinical research into this unique form of bone marrow transplant, a range of approaches have now been studied in patients in relatively large phase II trials that will be summarized in this review. PMID:25258660

  11. Intimate Partner Violence Among Hong Kong Young Adults: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p < .05) and those who had a university degree or were unemployed were more likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (OR = 8.48, p < .01 and OR = 8.14, p < .05 respectively). Female youths who had a full-time job were less likely to experience the lifetime violence (OR = 0.15, p < .05) and those who were ever pregnant with current partner were more likely to experience both lifetime intimate partner violence (OR = 5.00, p < .05) and past-year violence (OR = 5.63, p < .05). Both female and male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670

  12. Risk factors for low molar bite force in adult orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Malene Krogh; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to analyse which parameters in a standard orthodontic material are most important for identifying factors for low bite force. Such analyses have not previously been reported in adult orthodontic patients. The sample comprised 95 adults (67 females and 28 males) aged 18-55 years sequentially admitted for conventional orthodontic treatment. All subjects had moderate to severe malocclusions. Bite force was measured by a pressure transducer, craniofacial dimensions and head posture were measured on profile radiographs, number of teeth in contact were evaluated with a plastic strip in intercuspidal position, and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were evaluated by TMD screening. Associations were assessed by Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test, and multiple stepwise regression analyses. Associations were found between bite force and craniofacial dimensions as mandibular prognathia (S-N-Pg, P < 0.05; S-N-sm, P < 0.05), sagittal jaw relationship (SS-N-Pg, P < 0.05), mandibular inclination (NSL/ML, P < 0.05), and mandibular plane angle (ML/RL, P < 0.01) and between bite force and TMD symptoms (P < 0.05) and TMD signs (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender (P < 0.001), TMD symptoms (P < 0.01), and mandibular plane angle (P < 0.001) were the most important factors for the magnitude of the bite force in adult orthodontic patients (R (2) = 0.32). The results showed that particularly women with TMD symptoms and an increased mandibular plane angle are at risk of having low bite force. This may prove valuable in the clinic, especially in orthodontic cases with an increased need for vertical anchorage during treatment. PMID:22291432

  13. Risk factors of obesity in a cohort of 1001 Cypriot adults: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, E; Hajigeorgiou, PG; Kyriakou, K; Avraam, Th; Chappa, G; Kallis, P; Lazarou, Ch; Philippou, Ch; Christoforou, C; Kokkinofta, R; Dioghenous, C; Savva, SC; Kafatos, A; Zampelas, A; Papandreou, D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: To measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in the Republic of Cyprus, and to evaluate and relate possible obesity risk factors of the adult Cypriot population. Methods: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study on a stratified random sample of 1001 (48.5% males-51.5% females) subjects, aged 18-80 years old. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary/lifestyle characteristics included in the study. Results: The prevalence of overweight (Ow) and obesity (Ob) was 46.9% and 28.8% for males and 26% and 27% for females, respectively. Overweight and obese subjects were found to have statistically significant higher levels of Body Mass Index (p<0.001), Waist circumference (p<0.001), Total serum cholesterol (p<0.001), Low density lipoprotein (p<0.005), Glucose (p<0.007) and Triglycerides (p<0.001) compared to normal peers. In addition, Ow and Ob participants consumed significantly lower levels of fruits and vegetables (p<0.001), exercised less time/d (p<0.001) and smoke more cigarettes/d (p<0.001), compared to normal subjects, respectively. In multiple regression analysis of factors associated with overweight and obesity, Waist Circumference (beta: 1.132, p<0.001), Glucose (beta: 0.892, p<0.045), alcohol consumption (beta: 0.563, p<0.001), and exercise levels (beta: -0.444, p<0.001), were the most significant ones. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in Cypriot adults. The current study also revealed a significant positive relation of Ow and Ob with waist circumference, high blood glucose levels and increased consumption of alcohol and a negative one with decreased levels of exercise. PMID:23935294

  14. Brain changes in older adults at very low risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fjell, Anders M; McEvoy, Linda; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a slow onset, so it is challenging to distinguish brain changes in healthy elderly persons from incipient AD. One-year brain changes with a distinct frontotemporal pattern have been shown in older adults. However, it is not clear to what extent these changes may have been affected by undetected, early AD. To address this, we estimated 1-year atrophy by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 132 healthy elderly persons who had remained free of diagnosed mild cognitive impairment or AD for at least 3 years. We found significant volumetric reductions throughout the brain. The sample was further divided into low-risk groups based on clinical, biomarker, genetic, or cognitive criteria. Although sample sizes varied, significant reductions were observed in all groups, with rates and topographical distribution of atrophy comparable to that of the full sample. Volume reductions were especially pronounced in the default mode network, closely matching the previously described frontotemporal pattern of changes in healthy aging. Atrophy in the hippocampus predicted change in memory, with no additional default mode network contributions. In conclusion, reductions in regional brain volumes can be detected over the course of 1 year even in older adults who are unlikely to be in a presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:23658162

  15. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  16. Quantitative risk assessment on the dietary exposure of Finnish children and adults to nitrite.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi M; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from the consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25-74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was then used together with individual food consumption data from the FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in a stochastic exposure assessment by a Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every 10th child between the ages 3 and 6 years was estimated to have a nitrite intake exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g day(-1) or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice. PMID:26609554

  17. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  18. Potential for Adult-Based Epidemiological Studies to Characterize Overall Cancer Risks Associated with a Lifetime of CT Scans

    PubMed Central

    Shuryak, Igor; Lubin, Jay H.; Brenner, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that radiation exposure from pediatric CT scanning is associated with small excess cancer risks. However, the majority of CT scans are performed on adults, and most radiation-induced cancers appear during middle or old age, in the same age range as background cancers. Consequently, a logical next step is to investigate the effects of CT scanning in adulthood on lifetime cancer risks by conducting adult-based, appropriately designed epidemiological studies. Here we estimate the sample size required for such studies to detect CT-associated risks. This was achieved by incorporating different age-, sex-, time- and cancer type-dependent models of radiation carcinogenesis into an in silico simulation of a population-based cohort study. This approach simulated individual histories of chest and abdominal CT exposures, deaths and cancer diagnoses. The resultant sample sizes suggest that epidemiological studies of realistically sized cohorts can detect excess lifetime cancer risks from adult CT exposures. For example, retrospective analysis of CT exposure and cancer incidence data from a population-based cohort of 0.4 to 1.3 million (depending on the carcinogenic model) CT-exposed UK adults, aged 25–65 in 1980 and followed until 2015, provides 80% power for detecting cancer risks from chest and abdominal CT scans. PMID:24828111

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Metropolitan City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanaraj, Baskaran; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Vedachalam, Chandrasekaran; Sundaram, Vijayaraj; Shanmugam, Shivakumar; Sekar, Gomathi; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area. Methods A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify significant risk factors. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping was performed on isolated M. tuberculosis strains. Mapping of PTB cases was done using geographic positioning systems. Results Of 59,957 eligible people, 55,617 were screened by X-ray and /or TB symptoms and the prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated to be 228 (95% CI 189–265), 259 (95% CI 217–299) and 349 (95% CI 330–428) per 100,000 population, respectively. Prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was highest amongst men aged 55–64 years. Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of both culture and bacteriologically positive PTB disease was significantly associated with: age >35 years, past history of TB treatment, BMI <18.5 Kgs/m2, solid cooking fuel, and being a male currently consuming alcohol. The most frequent spoligotype family was East African Indian. Spatial distribution showed that a high proportion of patients were clustered in the densely populated north eastern part of the city. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that TB is a major public health problem in this urban area of south India, and support the use of intensified case finding in high risk groups. Undernutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors for TB disease. PMID:25905900

  20. Hemoglobin and hip fracture risk in older non-Hispanic white adults1

    PubMed Central

    Looker, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The few studies to date that have examined the relationship between hemoglobin and fracture risk have focused on low hemoglobin values. The present study examined hip fracture risk across the hemoglobin distribution in older non-Hispanic white adults from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Methods Hemoglobin was measured using a Coulter S-plus Jr.® (Coulter Electronics, Hialeah, FL) in 2122 non-Hispanic whites age 65 years and older. Hip fracture cases were identified using linked Medicare and mortality records obtained through 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the best-fitting model and to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) for hip fracture by hemoglobin decile before and after adjusting for selected confounders. Results There were 239 hip fracture cases in the analytic sample. The best fitting model was quadratic. When compared to values in the middle of the distribution, those with hemoglobin in the lowest and highest deciles had increased hip fracture risk (HRlowest decile =2.96, 95% CI 1.44–6.08; HRhighest decile = 2.06, 95% CI 1.09–3.92) after adjusting for age and sex. Both HRs remained significant after adjusting for additional confounders (HRlowest decile =2.24, 95% CI 1.09–3.92; HRhighest decile = 2.37, 95% CI 1.35–4.16). Conclusions Both low and high hemoglobin values were associated with increased hip fracture risk. The mechanism underlying the relationship is not clear, but there was some suggestion that it may differ for low versus high hemoglobin. PMID:24938506

  1. Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  2. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I—but not on the aMed—showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, <0.001–0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing the extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32–0.68) (HEI-2005), 0.48 (0.33–0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30–0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men. PMID:26927167

  3. Gender Differences in Emotional Risk for Self- and Other-Directed Violence among Externalizing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Javdani, Shabnam; Finy, M. Sima; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Women and men generally differ in how frequently they engage in other-and self-directed physical violence and may show distinct emotional risk factors for engagement in these high-impact behaviors. To inform this area, we investigated gender differences in the relationship of emotional tendencies (i.e., anger, hostility, and anhedonic depression) that may represent risk for other-directed (i.e., physical fighting, attacking others unprovoked) and self-directed violence (i.e., self-injury, suicide attempts). METHOD The ethnically-diverse sample consisted of 372 adults (252 men and 120 women ages 18–55) with a history of criminal convictions. Facets of emotional risk assessed with the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Warren, 2000) and Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (Watson et al., 1995) were entered simultaneously as explanatory variables in regression analyses to investigate their unique contributions to other- and self-directed physical violence in men and women. RESULTS Analyses revealed anhedonic depressive tendencies negatively predicted other-directed violence and positively predicted self-directed violence in both men and women, consistent with a model of depression in which aggression is turned inwards (Henriksson et al., 1993). Gender differences, however, emerged for the differential contributions of anger and hostility to other-and self-directed violence. Specifically, trait anger (i.e., difficulty controlling one’s temper) was associated with other-directed violence selectively in men, whereas trait hostility (i.e., suspiciousness and alienation) was associated with self- and other-directed violence among women. CONCLUSIONS The divergent findings for trait anger and hostility underscore the need to examine gender-specific risk factors for physical violence to avoid excluding potentially useful clinical features of these mental health outcomes. PMID:21261437

  4. Coronary artery calcium scores and cardiovascular risk factors in 31,545 asymptomatic Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sung Mok; Sung, Jidong; Cho, Soo Jin; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the distribution of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) by age group and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and to evaluate the association between CV risk factors and CACS classification in asymptomatic adults. The study included 31,545 asymptomatic Koreans, over 20 years of age with no previous history of malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or stroke, who underwent CACS computed tomography at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 2005 and June 2013. Mean (±SD) age was 53.8 (±8.5) years overall, 56.1 (±8.3) in men, and 53.3 (±8.5) in women. They were classified into five groups based on their resting CACS: none (CAC = 0), minimal (0 < CAC ≤ 10), mild (10 < CAC ≤ 100), moderate (100 < CAC ≤ 400), and extensive (400 > CAC). Older age groups exhibited higher CACS values. The proportion of CACS classification in our study was 55.5 % with no CACS, 9.5 % with minimal CACS, 19.8 % with mild CACS, 10.8 % with moderate CACS, and 4.3 % with extensive CACS. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for CV risk factors to determine their association with CACS. When analyzed according to sex, in males, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, chronic kidney disease, and smoking status. While, in females, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of HT, DM, and obesity. CV risk factors appear to be significantly associated with CACS in the Korean population. PMID:27119164

  5. Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  6. Self-Esteem and HIV Risk Practices among Young Adult “Ecstasy” Users

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role that self-esteem plays in HIV-related risk taking among users of the drug, ecstasy. The first part of the analysis focuses on the relationship of self-esteem to HIV risk-taking. The second part of the analysis examines predictors of self-esteem in this population. The research is based on a sample of 283 young adult ecstasy users. The study took place between August 2002 and August 2004 and entailed face-to-face interviews that were completed with the use of computer-assisted structured interviews. Study participants were recruited in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that self-esteem is associated with a variety of risky practices, including: the number of sex partners that people reported having, individuals’ likelihood of having multiple sex partners, the number of different types of illegal drugs that people reported using, and their condom use self-efficacy. The multivariate analysis conducted to ascertain the factors that impact young adult ecstasy users’ levels of self-esteem yielded six such factors: educational attainment (positive), coming from a family-of-origin whose members got along well (positive), the extent of alcohol problems experienced recently (negative), the number of positive effects experienced recently as a result of ecstasy use (positive), the number of negative effects experienced recently as a result of ecstasy use (negative), and the extent of experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (negative). PMID:21305909

  7. High risk and little knowledge: Overdose experiences and knowledge among young adult nonmedical prescription opioid users

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Bennett, Alex; Wendel, Travis; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid-involved overdoses in the United States have dramatically increased in the last 15 years, largely due to a rise in prescription opioid (PO) use. Yet few studies have examined the overdose knowledge and experience of nonmedical PO users. Methods In depth, semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were conducted with 46 New York City young adults (ages 18–32) who reported using POs nonmedically within the past 30 days. Verbatim interview transcripts were coded for key themes in an analytic process informed by grounded theory. Results Despite significant experience with overdose (including overdose deaths), either personally or within opioid-using networks, participants were relatively uninformed about overdose awareness, avoidance and response strategies, in particular the use of naloxone. Overdose experiences typically occurred when multiple pharmaceuticals were used (often in combination with alcohol) or after participants had transitioned to heroin injection. Participants tended to see themselves as distinct from traditional heroin users, and were often outside of the networks reached by traditional opioid safety/overdose prevention services. Consequently, they were unlikely to utilize harm reduction services, such as syringe exchange programs (SEPs), that address drug users' health and safety. Conclusions These findings suggest that many young adult nonmedical PO users are at high risk of both fatal and non-fatal overdose. There is a pressing need to develop innovative outreach strategies and overdose prevention programs to better reach and serve young PO users and their network contacts. Prevention efforts addressing risk for accidental overdose, including opioid safety/overdose reversal education and naloxone distribution, should be tailored for and targeted to this vulnerable group. PMID:25151334

  8. Frailty and depression in older adults: A high-risk clinical population

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick J.; Roose, Steven P.; Fieo, Robert; Liu, Xinhua; Rantanen, Taina; Sneed, Joel R.; Rutherford, Bret R.; Devanand, D.P.; Avlund, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify salient characteristics of frailty that increase risk of death in depressed elders. Design Data from the Nordic Research on Ageing Study. Setting Research sites in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. Participants Sample included 1027 75-year-old adults, 436 men and 591 women. Main Outcome Measure Time of death was obtained, providing a maximum survival time of 11.08 years (initial evaluation took place between 1988-1991). Results Depressed elders showed greater baseline impairments in each frailty characteristic (gait speed, grip strength, physical activity levels, and fatigue). Simultaneous models including all four frailty characteristics showed slow gait speed (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.21) and fatigue (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.11-3.40) associated with faster progression to death in depressed women; none of the frailty characteristics in the simultaneous model were associated with death in depressed men. In women, the effect of impaired gait speed on mortality rates nearly doubled when depression was present (mortality rates, nondepressed women: no gait impairment =26%; slow gait =40%; depressed women: no gait impairment=32%; slow gait =58%). A similar pattern was observed for fatigue. Conclusions The confluence of specific characteristics of frailty (fatigue and slow gait speed) and depressive illness is associated with an increased risk of death in older adults; this association is particularly strong in older depressed women. Future research should investigate whether multimodal interventions targeting depressive illness, mobility deficits, and fatigue can decrease mortality and improve quality of life in older depressed individuals with characteristics of the syndrome of frailty. PMID:23973252

  9. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-01

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems. PMID:27144438

  10. Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A.; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socioeconomic status (SES) were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was also a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hotspots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was found to be clearly evident in this rural population. PMID:23733287

  11. Cardiovascular risk scores in the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: Evidence from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Raiko, Juho R.H.; Magnussen, Costan G.; Kivimäki, Mika; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jula, Antti; Loo, Britt-Marie; Thomson, Russell J.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Aims To study the utility of risk scores in prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults. Methods and results Participants were 2,204 healthy Finnish adults aged 24–39 years in 2001 from population-based follow-up study Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. We examined the performance of the Framingham, Reynolds, SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation), PROCAM, and Finrisk cardiovascular risk scores to predict subclinical atherosclerosis, i.e. carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMT) and plaque, carotid artery distensibility (CDist) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) 6 years later. In 6-year prediction of high IMT (highest decile or plaque), areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for baseline Finrisk (0.733), SCORE (0.726), PROCAM (0.712) and Reynolds (0.729) risk scores were similar as for Framingham risk score (0.728, P always ≥0.15). All risk scores had similar discrimination in predicting low CDist (lowest decile) (0.652, 0.642, 0.639, 0.658, 0.652 respectively, P always ≥0.41). In prediction of low FMD (lowest decile), Finrisk, PROCAM, Reynolds and Framingham scores had similar AUCs (0.578, 0.594, 0.582, 0.568, P always ≥0.08) and SCORE discriminated slightly better (AUC=0.596, P<0.05). Prediction of subclinical outcomes was consistent when estimated from other statistical measures of discrimination, reclassification, and calibration. Conclusions CVD risk scores had equal performance in predicting subclinical atherosclerosis measured by IMT and CDist in young adults. SCORE was more accurate at predicting low FMD than Framingham risk score. PMID:20354441

  12. Diabetes and obesity risks in African American young adult freshmen attending a historically black college/university.

    PubMed

    Owens, Chequita Smith

    2008-11-01

    Convincing African American and other young adults that obesity increases their risk for diabetes and its complications is challenging for health educators and clinicians. At a historically Black university (HBCU) this question was examined, Do overweight and obese African American freshmen have higher risks for diabetes through low physical activity or toning and poor nutritional habits? Survey data found 40% of the 101 respondents sampled there were obese (defined as body mass index of 30 or more kg/m2), which is a higher proportion of obesity than found in other college health surveys. Scores reflecting higher risks of diabetes mellitus were significantly related to higher BMI values and low aerobic physical activity. Students had low levels of physical activity and toning than reported in general college populations. To reduce diabetes-disparity risks and obesity-related behaviors, African American younger adult freshmen may benefit from effective intervention strategies targeting them. PMID:19029739

  13. Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socioeconomic status among Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Choinière, R; Lafontaine, P; Edwards, A C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to describe the distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status in adult men and women across Canada using the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Database. METHODS: The data were derived from provincial cross-sectional surveys done between 1986 and 1992. Data were obtained through a home interview and a clinic visit using a probability sample of 29,855 men and women aged 18-74 years of whom 23,129 (77%) agreed to participate. The following risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered: elevated total plasma cholesterol (greater than 5.2 mmol/L), regular current cigarette smoking (one or more daily), elevated diastolic or systolic blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg), overweight (body mass index and lack of leisure-time physical activity [less than once a week in the last month]). Education and income adequacy were used as measures of socioeconomic status and mother tongue as a measure of cultural affiliation. RESULTS: For most of the risk factors examined, the prevalence of the risk factors was inversely related to socioeconomic status, but the relationship was stronger and more consistent for education than for income. The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of the risk factors was particularly strong for smoking and overweight, where a gradient was observed: 46% (standard error [SE] 1.4) of men and 42% (SE 4.3) of women who had not completed secondary school were regular smokers, but only 12% (SE 1.0) of men and 13% (SE 0.9) of women with a university degree were regular smokers. Thirty-nine percent (SE 1.4) of men and 19% (SE 3.8) of women who had not completed secondary school were overweight, compared with 26% (SE 2.6) of male and 19% of female university graduates. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity and elevated cholesterol was highest in both men and women in the lowest socioeconomic category, particularly by level of education. INTERPRETATION

  14. Sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥ 5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0- < 3.0 SB/day was 1.33 (95% CI; 1.04-1.70) and 1.35 (95% CI; 1.04-1.75) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to women who consume less than half a SB/day, independent of other covariables. Men and women with high SB consumption and a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 had greater risk for hyperuricemia than men and women with low SB consumption and normal BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the consumption of SB is associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults. However, longitudinal research is needed to confirm the association between SB intake and

  15. Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase, dietary folate intake, and the risk of leukemia in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Min; Xie, Xing; Jin, Jie; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2016-03-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are critical enzymes in folate metabolism. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk, which may due to the lack of information on folate intake. We investigated the risks of adult leukemia with genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolic enzymes (MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and TS) and evaluated if the associations varied by dietary folate intake from a multicenter case-control study conducted in Chinese. This study comprised 442 incident adult leukemia cases and 442 outpatient controls, individually matched to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site. Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Dietary folate intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The MTHFR 677TT genotype conferred a significant higher risk of leukemia in males than in females and exhibited an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but a decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype appeared to decrease the risks of leukemia in both genders, in AML and ALL. Stratified analysis by dietary folate intake showed the increased risks of leukemia with the MTHFR 677TT and TS 2R3R/2R2R genotypes were only significant in individuals with low folate intake. A significant interaction between TS polymorphism and dietary folate intake was observed (P = 0.03). This study suggests that dietary folate intake and gender may modify the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk. PMID:26438060

  16. The Effect of Transition Clinics on Knowledge of Diagnosis and Perception of Risk in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganju, Rohit G.; Nanda, Ronica H.; Esiashvili, Natia; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Marchak, Jordan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improved treatment for pediatric cancers has ensured an evergrowing population of patients surviving into adulthood. The current study evaluated the impact of previous engagement in survivor care on patient knowledge and awareness of health risks as young adults. Procedure Young adult survivors of childhood cancers (N = 93, M age = 23.63 y) were recruited during their annual survivor clinic visit. Participants completed self-reported measures of demographics, treatment knowledge, perception of future health risks, participation in previous survivor care, and neurocognitive functioning. Results In total, 82% of patients (N = 76/93) reported previously participating in survivorship care. These patients were more likely to have knowledge of their radiation treatment (P = 0.034) and more likely to recognize risk for future health effects from their treatment (P = 0.019). Income between $10,000 and $24,999 (odds ratio = 0.168; 95% confidence interval, 0.046–0.616; P = 0.031) was associated with decreased patient knowledge regarding diagnosis. Male sex (odds ratio = 0.324; 95% confidence interval, 0.135–0.777; P = 0.012) was associated with less knowledge of future health risks. Patients with self-reported difficulties on the CCSS-NCQ were more likely to regard their cancer treatment as a future health risk. Conclusion Participation in survivor care plays an important role in imparting information to young adult survivors of pediatric cancer regarding their disease history and risk for future health problems. PMID:26925717

  17. Analysis of mycotoxins in coffee and risk assessment in Spanish adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    García-Moraleja, A; Font, G; Mañes, J; Ferrer, E

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungal secondary metabolism that cause toxicological effects. Coffee is a highly popular beverage that is susceptible to contamination by mycotoxigenic fungi. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of the following 21 mycotoxins in coffee using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS-IT): aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2; ochratoxin A; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; neosolaniol; T-2 and HT-2 toxin; sterigmatocystin; enniatin A, A1, B, and B1; beauvericin; and fumonisin B1 and B2. We aimed to determine differences by coffee process (coffee maker, electrical machine, soluble and traditional Turkish process) and to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) and risk assessment of mycotoxins from coffee consumption using deterministic approach at various scenarios of food consumption in Spanish adolescents and adults. The results demonstrate that all studied mycotoxins were detected in samples with mean concentrations ranging from 0.69 µg/kg to 282.89 µg/kg. Eleven percent of samples did not show contamination with legislated mycotoxins. Only 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, fumonisin B1, and ochratoxin A exhibited significant differences between methods of coffee brewing. The results show that coffee intake does not represent a potential risk for consumers with respect to individual mycotoxin contamination. PMID:26514696

  18. Self-esteem and HIV risk practices among young adult ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the role that self-esteem plays in HIV-related risk taking among users of the drug, Ecstasy. The first part of the analysis focuses on the relationship of self-esteem to HIV risk-taking. The second part examines predictors of self-esteem in this population. Conducted between 2002 and 2004, the research is based on a sample of 283 young adult Ecstasy users who completed approximately two-hour-long, face-to-face interviews via computer-assisted structured interviews. Study participants were recruited in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping. Results indicated that self-esteem is associated with a variety of risky practices, including: the number of sex partners that people had, individuals' likelihood of having multiple sex partners, the number of different illegal drugs people used, and their condom use self-efficacy. The multivariate analysis conducted to ascertain the factors that impact participants' levels of self-esteem yielded six factors: educational attainment (positive), coming from a family-of-origin whose members got along well (positive), the extent of alcohol problems (negative), the number of positive effects experienced as a result of Ecstasy use (positive), the number of negative effects experienced as a result of Ecstasy use (negative), and the extent of experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (negative). PMID:21305909

  19. Self-reported electrical appliance use and risk of adult brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Linet, Martha S; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Tarone, Robert E; Black, Peter M; Selker, Robert G; Shapiro, William R; Fine, Howard A; Inskip, Peter D

    2005-01-15

    Electrical appliances produce the highest intensity exposures to residential extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. The authors investigated whether appliances may be associated with adult brain tumors in a hospital-based case-control study at three centers in the United States from 1994 to 1998. A total of 410 glioma, 178 meningioma, and 90 acoustic neuroma cases and 686 controls responded to a self-administered questionnaire about 14 electrical appliances. There was little evidence of association between brain tumors and curling iron, heating pad, vibrating massager, electric blanket, heated water bed, sound system, computer, television, humidifier, microwave oven, and electric stove. Ever use of hair dryers was associated with glioma (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.5), but there was no evidence of increasing risk with increasing amount of use. In men, meningioma was associated with electric shaver use (odds ratio = 10.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.3, 50), and odds ratios increased with cumulative minutes of use, although they were based on only two nonexposed cases. Recall bias for appliances used regularly near the head or chance may provide an alternative explanation for the observed associations. Overall, results indicate that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields from commonly used household appliances are unlikely to increase the risk of brain tumors. PMID:15632263

  20. Cortisol reactivity to experimentally manipulated psychosocial stress in young adults at varied risk for depression.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Wang, Lily; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cortisol and affective reactivity to a psychosocial stress task in 102 young adults who varied in risk for depression (56 remitted depressed, 46 never depressed). Participants were randomly assigned to either a stress (i.e., social-evaluative threat) or control (i.e., no social-evaluative threat) condition. For never-depressed individuals, cortisol responses were significantly greater in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were significantly greater for never-depressed than remitted-depressed individuals in the stress condition. For individuals with a history of depression, cortisol responses did not differ significantly between the stress and control conditions. Negative affective reactivity also was higher for never depressed, but not remitted depressed, individuals in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were inversely related to negative affect during the recovery phase in both stress and control conditions. Findings indicate the lack of a robust cortisol response to social evaluation stress among remitted-depressed individuals as compared to that of never-depressed controls. Future studies should investigate unique and interactive links between these hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and affective reactivity alterations and risk for subsequent depressive episodes. PMID:23606237

  1. The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Tang, Suqin; Yu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Xie, Qiuyuan; Wang, Jianping

    2014-10-30

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients. PMID:24924526

  2. Measures of sexual minority status and suicide risk among young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Almazan, Elbert P; Roettger, Michael E; Acosta, Pauline S

    2014-01-01

    Multiple measures of sexual minority status are necessary to accurately describe the diversity of attractions, identities, and behaviors in sexual minority populations. We investigated whether four measures of sexual minority status (sexual minority attraction, sexual minority identity, sexual minority lifetime behavior, and sexual minority recent 12-month behavior) were associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among young adults ages 24 to 34 in the United States. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We employed logistic regression models in the analysis. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicidal thoughts among women and men. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicide attempts among women, but not among men. Diverse sexual minority populations are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. Multiple measures of sexual minority status should be utilized in future studies of sexual minority status and suicide risk. Suicide prevention programs should ensure intervention is available across diverse sexual minority populations. PMID:24611686

  3. Fat brains, greedy genes, and parent power: a biobehavioural risk model of child and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Kim, Yale; Pryor, Katherine

    2012-06-01

    We live in a world replete with opportunities to overeat highly calorific, palatable foods - yet not everyone becomes obese. Why? We propose that individuals show differences in appetitive traits (e.g. food cue responsiveness, satiety sensitivity) that manifest early in life and predict their eating behaviours and weight trajectories. What determines these traits? Parental feeding restriction is associated with higher child adiposity, pressure to eat with lower adiposity, and both strategies with less healthy eating behaviours, while authoritative feeding styles coincide with more positive outcomes. But, on the whole, twin and family studies argue that nature has a greater influence than nurture on adiposity and eating behaviour, and behavioural investigations of genetic variants that are robustly associated with obesity (e.g. FTO) confirm that genes influence appetite. Meanwhile, a growing body of neuroimaging studies in adults, children and high risk populations suggests that structural and functional variation in brain networks associated with reward, emotion and control might also predict appetite and obesity, and show genetic influence. Together these different strands of evidence support a biobehavioural risk model of obesity development. Parental feeding recommendations should therefore acknowledge the powerful - but modifiable - contribution of genetic and neurological influences to children's eating behaviour. PMID:22724640

  4. Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in US Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of body mass index with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)–specific mortality risks among US adults and calculated the rate advancement period by which death is advanced among the exposed groups. Methods. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) linked to the National Death Index mortality file with follow-up to 2006 (n = 16 868). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the rate of dying and rate advancement period for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality for overweight and obese adults relative to their normal-weight counterparts. Results. Compared with normal-weight adults, obese adults had at least 20% significantly higher rate of dying of all-cause or CVD. These rates advanced death by 3.7 years (grades II and III obesity) for all-cause mortality and between 1.6 (grade I obesity) and 5.0 years (grade III obesity) for CVD-specific mortality. The burden of obesity was greatest among adults aged 45 to 64 years for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality and among women for all-cause mortality. Conclusions. These findings highlight the impact of the obesity epidemic on mortality risk and premature deaths among US adults. PMID:24432921

  5. Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk

    PubMed Central

    Walshe, Elizabeth A.; Patterson, Matthew R.; Commins, Seán; Roche, Richard A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. In particular, higher-level executive functions are suggested to play a key role in gait and fall-risk, but the specific underlying neurocognitive processes remain unclear. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and falls. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task) in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation) on gait. All DTs elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater DT costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, an initial late-positivity, considered a potential early P3a, was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. We argue that executive control functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the use of neurocognitive processes as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation. PMID:25941481

  6. Risk indicators of coronal and root caries in Greek middle aged adults and senior citizens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay of multiple determinants which may change overtime. Therefore, periodic surveys of caries experience and redetermination of the risk indicators of the disease are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of coronal and root caries in Greeks aged 35-44 and 65-74-year-old in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Furthermore, trends in coronal caries experience of the 35-44-year-olds were investigated. Methods A sample of 1188 35-44-year-old and 1093 65-74-year-old individuals was selected in 2005 according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys. Caries was assessed in dentate subjects using the DMFT, DMFS, RDFS and RCI indices. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the effect of socio-demographic parameters. Results The mean DMFT and DMFS scores of the adults were 14.06 and 45.78 respectively, while those of the senior citizens were 20.63 and 89.82. Among the 35-44-year-ods, men and those having a higher educational attainment had significantly lower DMFS values (women OR = 1.679, CI: 1.243-2.267 and >12 years of education OR = 0.321, CI: 0.193-0.535 respectively), while educational level was the only predictor of DMFS in senior citizens (OR = 0.279, CI: 0.079-0.992). The mean DMFT score of the 35-44-year-olds has not improved since 1985, but there was a remarkable reduction in the number of DT related to a simultaneous increase in the number of FT. The mean RDFS rose from 0.39 in adults to 2.66 in senior citizens. The mean RDFS score of the middle aged adults was significantly correlated with education (OR = 0.346, CI: 0.180-0.664). The RCI was almost four times greater in seniors (9.73) than in adults (2.53). There were significant differences in caries experience between the surveyed regions. MS and RDS were the major components of the DMFS and RDFS indices

  7. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  8. Risk Factors for Falls in Older Adults with Lower Extremity Arthritis: A Conceptual Framework of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gyurcsik, Nancy C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: As the numbers of Canadians aged 65 years and over increases over the next 20 years, the prevalence of chronic conditions, including arthritis, will rise as will the number of falls. Although known fall-risk factors are associated with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), minimal research has evaluated fall and fracture risk and/or rates in this population. Thus, the purpose was to summarize research on fall and fracture risk in older adults with hip or knee OA and to develop a conceptual framework of fall-risk screening and assessment. Method: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, clinical practice guidelines for fall-risk screening, and a selected literature review were used. Results: Gaps exist in our knowledge of fall and fracture risk for this population. Muscle performance, balance, and mobility impairments have been identified, but little is known about whether personal and environmental contextual factors impact fall and fracture risk. Physical activity may help to prevent falls, but non-adherence is a problem. Conclusion: A need exists to assess fall risk in older adults with hip and knee OA. Promoting regular physical activity by focusing on disease- and activity-specific personal contextual factors may help direct treatment planning. PMID:23729967

  9. The Power of Problem-Based Learning for Building Democratic Adult and At-Risk Youth Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurubacak, Gulsun

    2007-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) forges effective communications between adult (communicational and pedagogical workers and parents) and at-risk youth (jeopardizing their present and future adjustments) to explore their engagements with community activism engaging in building their communities. PBL is vital for them to be engaged citizens, informed…

  10. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  11. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Chanyang; Noh, Hwayoung; Kang, Yun-Sook; Sim, Hea Jin; Baik, Hyun Wook; Song, Won O; Yoon, Jihyun; Park, Young-Hee; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of skipping breakfast on diet quality and metabolic disease risk factors in healthy Korean adults. Subjects included 415 employees (118 men, 297 women; 30-50 years old) of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances. Data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary intake, blood pressure, and blood analyses. The subjects were classified into three groups based on the number of days they skipped breakfast: 'Regular breakfast eater', 'Often breakfast eater', or 'Rare breakfast eater'. Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less rice, potatoes, kimchi, vegetables, fish and shellfish, milk and dairy products, and sweets than did participants in the other two groups (P for trend < 0.05) and ate more cookies, cakes, and meat for dinner (P for trend < 0.05). Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less daily energy, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, and potassium than did participants in the other groups (P for trend < 0.05). The percent energy from carbohydrates was lower and fat intake was higher in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other groups (P for trend < 0.01). When diets were compared using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Koreans, 59.1% of subjects in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed more energy from fat compared with the other two groups (P < 0.005). According to the Estimated Average Requirements for Koreans, intake of selected nutrients was lower in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The risk of elevated serum triglycerides was decreased in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group (OR, 0.3 [0.1-1.0], P for trend = 0.0232). We conclude that eating breakfast regularly enhances diet quality, but may increase the risk of elevated serum triglycerides. PMID:22125684

  12. Lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 1 diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Catherine; Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Gingras, Véronique; Desjardins, Katherine; Strychar, Irene; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a major upward shift in the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors (central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia) in patients with type 1 diabetes, which could have either an additive or a synergistic effect on risk for cardiovascular disease. These metabolic changes are occurring in parallel to the worldwide obesity epidemic and the widespread use of intensive insulin therapy. Poor lifestyle habits (poor diet quality, sedentary behaviours and smoking) are known to be driving factors for increased CMR factors in the general population. The objective of this review is to explore the lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes and its potential association with CMR factors. Evidence suggests that adherence to dietary guidelines is low in subjects with type 1 diabetes with a high prevalence of patients consuming an atherogenic diet. Sedentary habits are also more prevalent than in the general population, possibly because of the additional contribution of exercise-induced hypoglycemic fear. Moreover, the prevalence of smokers is still significant in the population with type 1 diabetes. All of these behaviours could trigger a cascade of metabolic anomalies that may contribute to increased CMR factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. The intensification of insulin treatment leading to new daily challenges (e.g. carbohydrates counting, increase of hypoglycemia) could contribute to the adoption of poor lifestyle habits. Preventive measures, such as identification of patients at high risk and promotion of lifestyle changes, should be encouraged. The most appropriate therapeutic measures remain to be established. PMID:24485215

  13. Clinical features & risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Ajjampur, S.S. Rao; Asirvatham, J.R.; Muthusamy, Dheepa; Gladstone, B.P.; Abraham, O.C.; Mathai, Dilip; Ward, Honorine; Wanke, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives Cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of protracted, life threatening diarrhoea in HIV infected patients. Although data on prevalence are available for Indian patients, no information on risk factors for transmission exists. We therefore undertook this study to identify risk factors for transmission of cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected adults. Methods Both symptomatic (diarrhoeal) and asymptomatic HIV infected patients were screened for cryptosporidiosis. All Cryptosporidium spp. positive cases were enrolled in the study and interviewed to record socio-demographic information, water supply and animal contact. Data were analysed to study clinical features and potential association with species and genotype. Results Of the 28 cryptosporidial infections identified on screening 111 HIV positive patients with diarrhoea, 10 (35.7%) had chronic diarrhoea, 14 (50%) had associated fever and 8 (28.6%) had nausea. Symptomatic patients had a significantly higher number of co-infections with other enteric parasites (P=0.04) than 20 asymptomatics of 423 HIV positive individuals screened. Eleven of 17 (64%) patients with potentially zoonotic infections had diarrhoea. Patients with zoonotic species (64%) also tended to have fever more frequently than those infected with C. hominis (58%). Association between area of residence, rural or urban, water source and contact with animals and acquisition of cryptosporidiosis was not statistically significant. Interpretation & conclusions Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of morbidity in HIV infected individuals in India, resulting in chronic diarrhoea. Risk factors for potentially zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis were described in this study, but larger studies need to be done for a clearer understanding of the transmission dynamics of different cryptosporidial species in developing countries. PMID:18219083

  14. Evaluation of Objective and Perceived Mental Fatigability in Older Adults with Vascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Roiland, Rachel; Heffner, Kathi; Johnson, Melissa; Chen, Ding-Geng (Din); Mapstone, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mental fatigability refers to the failure to sustain participation in tasks requiring mental effort. Older adults with vascular risk are at particular risk for experiencing mental fatigability. The present study (1) tested a new way of measuring objective mental fatigability by examining its association with perceived mental fatigability; and (2) identified psychological, physiological, and situational factors that would be associated with mental fatigability. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 49 community-dwelling participants aged 75+ years with vascular risk. A 20-minute fatigability-manipulation task was used to induce mental fatigability and develop objective and perceived mental fatigability measures. Objective fatigability was calculated by the change of reaction time over the course of the task. Perceived fatigability was calculated by the change of fatigue self-reported before and after the task. A set of potential psychological, physiological, and situational predictors were measured. Results There was a significant increase in reaction time and self-reported fatigue to the fatigability manipulation task, indicating occurrence of objective and perceived mental fatigability. Reaction time and self-reported fatigue were moderately, but significantly correlated. Higher levels of executive control and having a history of more frequently engaging in mental activities were associated with lower objective mental fatigability. None of the examined factors were associated with perceived mental fatigability. Conclusion Objective and perceived mental fatigability were sensitive to our fatigability-manipulation task. While these two measures were correlated, they were not associated with the same factors. These findings need to be validated in a large study with a more heterogeneous sample and a greater variety of fatigability-manipulation tasks. PMID:24840140

  15. Lower Zinc Bioavailability May Be Related to Higher Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort), which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women) aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. Results We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80th percentile value of cIMT (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009), and especially in elderly men (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021). We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. Conclusions Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk. PMID:24223217

  16. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures. PMID:19628108

  17. Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Michael E; Alkhalaf, Ahmed M; Whalley, Ben

    2013-12-01

    The use of physical punishment for children is associated with poor psychological and behavioral outcomes, but the causal pathway is controversial, and the effects on later physical health unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of asthma, cancer, and cardiac patients (150 in each category, 75 male) recruited from outpatient clinics and 250 healthy controls (125 male). All participants were 40-60 years old and citizens of Saudi Arabia, where the use of beating and insults is an acceptable parenting style. Demographic data and recalled frequency of beatings and insults as a child were assessed on an 8-point scale. Beating and insults were highly correlated (ρ = 0.846). Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between the disease and healthy groups. After controlling for differences, more frequent beating (once or more per month) and insults were associated with a significantly increased risk for cancer (RR = 1.7), cardiac disease (RR = 1.3) and asthma (RR = 1.6), with evidence of increased risk for cancer and asthma with beating frequency of once every 6 months or more. Our results show that a threatening parenting style of beating and insults is associated with increased risk for somatic disease, possibly because this form of parenting induces stress. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that child abuse and other early life stressors adversely affect adult somatic health, but provide evidence that the pathogenic effects occur also with chronic minor stress. A stress-inducing parenting style, even when normative, has long term adverse health consequences. PMID:23054177

  18. Structural Insights into the Distinct Binding Mode of Cyclic Di-AMP with SaCpaA_RCK.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Liang, Juin-Ming; Yang, Jauo-Guey; Shih, Min-Shao; Tu, Zhi-Le; Wang, Yu-Chuang; Sun, Xing-Han; Hu, Nien-Jen; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2015-08-11

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a relatively new member of the family of bacterial cyclic dinucleotide second messengers. It has attracted significant attention in recent years because of the abundant roles it plays in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. The structural features that allow diverse bacterial proteins to bind c-di-AMP are not fully understood. Here we report the biophysical and structural studies of c-di-AMP in complex with a bacterial cation-proton antiporter (CpaA) RCK (regulator of the conductance of K(+)) protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa). The crystal structure of the SaCpaA_RCK C-terminal domain (CTD) in complex with c-di-AMP was determined to a resolution of 1.81 Å. This structure revealed two well-liganded water molecules, each interacting with one of the adenine bases by a unique H2Olp-π interaction to stabilize the complex. Sequence blasting using the SaCpaA_RCK primary sequence against the bacterial genome database returned many CpaA analogues, and alignment of these sequences revealed that the active site residues are all well-conserved, indicating a universal c-di-AMP binding mode for CpaA_RCK. A proteoliposome activity assay using the full-length SaCpaA membrane protein indicated that c-di-AMP binding alters its antiporter activity by approximately 40%. A comparison of this structure to all other reported c-di-AMP-receptor complex structures revealed that c-di-AMP binds to receptors in either a "U-shape" or "V-shape" mode. The two adenine rings are stabilized in the inner interaction zone by a variety of CH-π, cation-π, backbone-π, or H2Olp-π interaction, but more commonly in the outer interaction zone by hydrophobic CH-π or π-π interaction. The structures determined to date provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which a single c-di-AMP can interact with a variety of receptor proteins, and how c-di-AMP binds receptor proteins in a special way different from that of c-di-GMP. PMID:26171638

  19. Prevalence and correlates of coronary calcification in black and white young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Bild, D E; Folsom, A R; Lowe, L P; Sidney, S; Kiefe, C; Westfall, A O; Zheng, Z J; Rumberger, J

    2001-05-01

    Whereas cardiovascular risk factor levels are substantially different in black and white Americans, the relative rates of cardiovascular disease in the 2 groups are not always consistent with these differences. To compare the prevalence of coronary calcification, an indicator of coronary atherosclerosis, in young adult blacks and whites, we performed electron-beam computed tomography of the heart in 443 men and women aged 28 to 40 years recruited from a population-based cohort. The presence of calcium, defined as at least 1 focus of at least 2.05 mm(2) in area and >130 Hounsfield units in density within the coronary arteries, was identified in 16.1% of black men, 11.8% of black women, 17.1% of white men, and 4.6% of white women (P=0.04 for comparison across groups). Coronary calcium was associated with age and male sex, and after adjustment for age, race, and sex, coronary calcium was positively associated with body mass index, weight, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin and negatively associated with education (all P<0.05). Independent risk factors included male sex, body mass index, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Race was not significantly associated with coronary calcium in men or women, before or after adjustment for risk factors. Coronary calcification is associated with increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, and its prevalence is not significantly different in blacks and whites. PMID:11348886

  20. A Study of the Academic and Life Factors that Contribute to Attrition of Male Adult At-Risk Students Attending For-Profit Degree-Granting Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Eli J.

    2010-01-01

    Adults are a significant, growing part of today's postsecondary education demographic that may face special challenges that classify them as at-risk. Specifically, adult "at-risk" students may be recent immigrants to the United States, residents of a home where English is not the native language, members of a minority group, employees working…

  1. Sedentary behaviours and obesity in adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, I; Helajärvi, H; Pahkala, K; Heinonen, O J; Hirvensalo, M; Pälve, K; Tammelin, T; Yang, X; Juonala, M; Mikkilä, V; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour may contribute to the development of obesity. We investigated the relations between different types of sedentary behaviour and adiposity markers in a well-characterised adult population after controlling for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Multicenter Study. Participants Sedentary time (TV viewing, computer time, reading, music/radio listening and other relaxation) was assessed with a questionnaire for 1084 women and 909 men aged 30–45 years. Other study variables included occupational and leisure-time physical activity, sleep duration, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, adherence to the recommended diet, multiple individual food items, age and genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI). Primary outcome measures BMI in kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC in cm). Results Of the different sedentary behaviour types, TV viewing was most consistently related to higher BMI and WC, both in men and women. One additional daily TV hour was associated with a 1.81±0.44 cm larger WC in women and 2 cm±0.44 cm in men (both p<0.0001). The association with TV was diluted, but remained highly significant after adjustments with all measured covariates, including several potentially obesogenic food items associated with TV viewing. The intakes of food items such as sausage, beer and soft drinks were directly associated with TV viewing, while the intakes of oat and barley, fish, and fruits and berries were associated indirectly. After these adjustments, non-TV sedentary behaviour remained associated with adiposity indices only in women. Conclusions Out of the different types of sedentary behaviour, TV viewing was most consistently associated with adiposity markers in adults. Partial dilution of these associations after adjustments for covariates suggests that the obesogenic effects of TV viewing are partly mediated by

  2. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span. PMID:26788781

  3. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Qun; Shu, Long; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Yu; Xuan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Su-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45–60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination); the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day−1 in men and 10 g day−1 in women); no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: “Traditional Chinese”, “Animal food”, “Grains-vegetables” and “High-salt” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the “Animal food” pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.063–1.724; p < 0.05) than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), compared with the lowest quartile of the “Grains-vegetables” pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618–0.977, p < 0.05). However, the “traditional Chinese” and “high-salt” dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the

  4. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years); (2) compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3) ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR). Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7). In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6). In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6), being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6), soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6) and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4). Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings suggest that

  5. Dietary sodium intake and the risk of airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, J.; Pavord, I.; Richards, K.; Knox, A.; Wisniewski, A.; Weiss, S.; Tattersfield, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--High dietary sodium intake has been identified as a potential cause of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is an independent determinant of the risk of hyperreactivity in the general population, and to assess the role of atopy in the association between these factors. METHODS--Airway reactivity to methacholine, atopy, 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, and self-reported smoking and symptom history were measured in a random sample of 1702 adults aged 18-70 from an administrative district of Nottingham. Hyperreactivity was defined as a PD20FEV1 of 12.25 mumol or less, and atopy was defined quantitatively as the mean allergen skin weal response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat fur, and grass pollen, and categorically as the occurrence of any allergen response 1 mm or greater than the saline control. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent relative odds of hyperreactivity, atopy, or symptoms in relation to sodium excretion in all 1702 subjects, and multiple linear regression to assess the independent relation between sodium excretion and mean allergen skin weal diameter, and the PD20 value amongst hyperreactive subjects. RESULTS--There was no relation between the relative odds of hyperreactivity to methacholine and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, either before or after adjustment for age, smoking, allergen skin weal diameter, and sex, and similarly no relation if the analysis was restricted to men or women only. The relative odds of having at least one allergen skin test response 1 mm greater than the saline control were increased in relation to sodium excretion after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking by a ratio of 2.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 4.15) per log10 unit increase in sodium excretion, but there was no evidence of an association between sodium excretion and the occurrence of self-reported wheeze, hay fever, eczema, or asthma. There was no

  6. Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Conclusion Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam. PMID:24587031

  7. The statistical physics of multi-component alloys using KKR-CPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Suffian; Staunton, J. B.; Stocks, G. M.

    We apply the Landau theory of phase transitions to multicomponent alloys using the multiple-scattering theory of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). This theory is a multicomponent generalization of the S (2) theory of binary alloys developed by G. M. Stocks, J. B. Staunton, D. D. Johnson and others. It is highly relevant to the chemical phase stability of high-entropy alloys as it predicts the kind and size of finite-temperature chemical fluctuations of a disordered alloy. In doing so it includes effects of charge-rearrangements and other electronics due to changing site occupancies. When chemical fluctuations grow without bound an absolute instability occurs and a second-order order-disorder phase transition may be inferred. The theory lends itself to a natural interpretation in terms of competing effects: entropy driving disorder and favorable pair interactions driving atomic ordering. To further clarify interpretation we present results for the representative ternary alloys CuAgAu, NiPdPt, RhPdAg, and CoNiCu. This work was supported by the Materials Sciences & Engineering Division of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. A case-control study of risk factors for rotavirus infections in adults, Denmark, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Dorleans, F; Falkenhorst, G; Böttiger, B; Howitz, M; Midgley, S; Nielsen, J; Mølbak, K; Ethelberg, S

    2016-02-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections affect young children, but can also occur in adults. We sought to identify risk factors for RV infections in adults aged ⩾18 years in Denmark, and to describe illness and genotyping characteristics. From March 2005 to February 2009, we recruited consecutive cases of laboratory-confirmed RV infection and compared them with healthy controls matched by age, gender and municipality of residence. We collected information on illness characteristics and exposures using postal questionnaires. We calculated univariable and multivariable matched odds ratios (mOR) with conditional logistic regression. The study comprised 65 cases and 246 controls. Illness exceeded 10 days in 31% of cases; 22% were hospitalized. Cases were more likely than controls to suffer serious underlying health conditions [mOR 5·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·7-18], and to report having had close contact with persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (mOR 9·4, 95% CI 3·6-24), in particular young children aged 18 years. Close contact with young children or adults with gastrointestinal symptoms is the main risk factor for RV infection in adults in Denmark. RV vaccination assessments should consider that RV vaccination in children may indirectly reduce the burden of disease in adults. PMID:26143648

  9. Evaluation of Periodontal Risk in Adult Patients using Two Different Risk Assessment Models – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Shruthi; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary; Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Devulapalli, Narasimha Swamy; Swarna, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal risk of individuals using periodontal risk assessment (PRA) model and modified PRA model. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with chronic periodontitis, age 30-60 years were selected randomly and charting of the periodontal status was performed and those who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Parameters recorded were- percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP), number of sites with pocket depths (PD) ≥ 5mm, number of the teeth lost, bone loss (BL)/age ratio, Clinical attachment loss(CAL)/age ratio, diabetic and smoking status, dental status, systemic factors like diabetes were assessed. All the risk factors were plotted on the radar chart in (PRA) and (mPRA) models, using Microsoft excel and periodontal risk were categorized as low, moderate and high risk. Results: Among 50 patients 31 were in low risk, 9 in moderate risk, and 10 in high risk identified by modified (PRA) model, whereas 28 patients were in low risk, 13 in moderate risk and 9 in high risk identified by (PRA). Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the risk scores (X2 = 0.932 with degree of freedom = 2, P = 0.627). Conclusion: Both the periodontal risk models are effective in evaluating the risk factors and can be useful tool for predicting proper diagnosis, disease progression and therapeutic strategies during the supportive periodontal therapy. PMID:25859520

  10. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Erin E; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Barry, Kristen L; Booth, Brenda M; Walton, Maureen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between prescription drug misuse (PDM) and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) among adolescents and emerging adults. Method: In a hospital emergency department, 2,127 sexually active 14- to 20-year-olds (61% female) reported on past-year alcohol use severity (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–consumption [AUDIT-C]), cannabis use, PDM (n = 422), and SRBs (inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, intercourse following alcohol/other drug use). Results: Bivariately, AUDIT-C score, cannabis use, and PDM of stimulants, opioids, and sedatives were positively associated with each SRB. Because many participants reported PDM for multiple drug classes (i.e., sedatives, stimulants, opioids), participants were categorized as (a) no PDM (n = 1,705), (b) PDM of one class (n = 251), (c) PDM of two classes (n = 90), or (d) PDM of three classes (n = 81). Three hierarchical logistic regression models evaluated the associations of number of classes of PDM with SRBs separately, after accounting for demographics (age, gender, race), AUDIT-C score, and cannabis use. Adding PDM statistically improved each model beyond what was accounted for by demographics, alcohol, and cannabis use. For inconsistent condom use and substance use before sex, PDM of one, two, or three classes was significantly associated with increased odds of these SRBs. PDM of two or three classes was associated with increased odds of reporting multiple partners. Conclusions: Findings suggest that PDM, especially poly-PDM, may be a pertinent risk factor for SRBs among youth. Event-based research could further evaluate how PDM, as well as other substance use, is related to SRBs at the event level in order to inform interventions. PMID:24650820

  11. Dietary carbohydrates, refined grains, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Danxia; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Xianglan

    2013-11-15

    The potential long-term association between carbohydrate intake and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear, especially among populations who habitually have high-carbohydrate diets. We prospectively examined intakes of carbohydrates and staple grains as well as glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to CHD among 117,366 Chinese women and men (40-74 years of age) without history of diabetes, CHD, stroke, or cancer at baseline in Shanghai, China. Diet was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. Incident CHD cases were ascertained during follow-ups (in women, the mean was 9.8 years and in men, the mean was 5.4 years) and confirmed by medical records. Carbohydrate intake accounted for 67.5% of the total energy intake in women and 68.5% in men. Seventy percent of total carbohydrates came from white rice and 17% were from refined wheat products. Positive associations between carbohydrate intakess and CHD were found in both sexes (all P for heterogeneity > 0.35). The combined multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the lowest to highest quartiles of carbohydrate intake, respectively, were 1.00, 1.38, 2.03, and 2.88 (95% confidence interval: 1.44, 5.78; P for trend = 0.001). The combined hazard ratios comparing the highest quartile with the lowest were 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.17) for refined grains and 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 3.53) for glycemic load (both P for trend = 0.03). High carbohydrate intake, mainly from refined grains, is associated with increased CHD risk in Chinese adults. PMID:24008907

  12. Association of fracture risk with benzodiazepine among adults in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin Seub; Oh, Sung-Hee; Oh, Kang Seob; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Boung-Chul; Park, EunJeong; Kwak, Su Jin; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association between fracture and benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription in Korean adults using case-crossover (CCO) and self-controlled case-series (SCCS) designs, which have the advantage to control confounding bias, such as individual characteristics. Patients with fracture were defined as patients who visited the emergency room and orthopedics department with the ICD-10 diagnosis code for fracture. Fractures due to motor vehicle accidents and stroke were excluded. Whereas the CCO design presented odds ratio (OR) using a conditional logistic regression model, SCCS design showed incidence rate ratio (IRR) using a conditional Poisson regression model. The concomitant drugs that can affect the fracture were adjusted. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis by age (elderly vs. nonelderly), action mechanism (short-acting vs. long-acting), and prescription duration (short-term user vs. long-term user) were conducted. The adjusted OR (AOR) for control period I (prior to 90 days from case) was 1.39 (95% CI=1.25-1.54) for all BZD prescriptions. The adjusted ORs for other control periods showed similar trends. The adjusted IRRs (AIRR) during the first 4 weeks, 4-8 weeks, 8-12 weeks, and 12-16 weeks from new BZD use were 1.46 (95% CI=1.28-1.66), 1.23 (95% CI=1.01-1.49), 1.09 (95% CI=0.86-1.37), and 1.38 (95% CI=1.07-1.77), respectively. Regardless of age group, action mechanism, or prescription duration, fracture risk was higher during case period than control. The risk for fracture was higher in both elderly and non-elderly people with BZD prescription than in those without BZD prescription. Careful monitoring for people who start BZD treatment and further research in the non-elderly is required. PMID:25492849

  13. Lifestyle risk factors for atherosclerosis in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Franziska K; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Ogden, Lorraine G; Kinney, Greg L; Rewers, Marian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the amount of self-reported physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in a large sample of adults with type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic subjects. A second aim is to test the hypothesis that these lifestyle risk factors are associated cross-sectionally with coronary artery calcification. In 2000-2002, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study applied validated questionnaires for smoking, alcohol and physical activity to 582 type 1 diabetes subjects and 724 non-diabetic subjects. More type 1 diabetes subjects reported current smoking than non-diabetic subjects (12.3% versus 8.6%, p=0.027). Overall, reported physical activity did not differ by diabetes status (p=0.79). More type 1 diabetes subjects reported never having consumed alcohol (10% versus 4%, p<0.0001) and those who drank consumed less alcohol (p=0.0015) than non-diabetic subjects. Physical activity and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of coronary artery calcification (adjusted OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.996, p=0.045, and OR=1.7, CI: 1.1-2.6, p=0.03, respectively). Type 1 diabetes was independently associated with increased odds of coronary artery calcification (OR=3.5, 95% CI: 2.5-5.0, p<0.0001). Differences exist in lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects in the CACTI study. PMID:20368221

  14. Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment Among U.S. Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors of low/mid-frequency and high-frequency hearing impairment among a nationally representative sample of diabetic adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data came from 536 participants, aged 20–69 years, with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes who completed audiometric testing during 1999–2004 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We defined hearing impairment as the pure-tone average >25 dB hearing level of pure-tone thresholds at low/mid-frequencies (500; 1,000; and 2,000 Hz) and high frequencies (3,000; 4,000; 6,000; and 8,000 Hz) and identified independent risk factors using logistic regression. RESULTS Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and marital status, odds ratios for associations with low/mid-frequency hearing impairment were 2.20 (95% CI 1.28–3.79) for HDL <40 mg/dL and 3.55 (1.57–8.03) for poor health. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex, and income-to-poverty ratio, odds ratios for associations with high-frequency hearing impairment were 4.39 (1.26–15.26) for history of coronary heart disease and 4.42 (1.26–15.45) for peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS Low HDL, coronary heart disease, peripheral neuropathy, and having poor health are potentially preventable correlates of hearing impairment for people with diabetes. Glycemic control, years since diagnosis, and type of glycemic medication were not associated with hearing impairment. PMID:21593298

  15. Health risk for children and adults consuming apples with pesticide residue.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in apples raises serious health concerns, especially when the fresh fruits are consumed by children, particularly vulnerable to the pesticide hazards. This study demonstrates the results from nine years of investigation (2005-2013) of 696 samples of Polish apples for 182 pesticides using gas and liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric techniques. Only 33.5% of the samples did not contain residues above the limit of detection. In 66.5% of the samples, 34 pesticides were detected, of which maximum residue level (MRL) was exceeded in 3%. Multiple residues were present in 35% of the samples with two to six pesticides, and one sample contained seven compounds. A study of the health risk for children, adults and the general population consuming apples with these pesticides was performed. The pesticide residue data have been combined with the consumption of apples in the 97.5 percentile and the mean diet. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures that are based on the average and high concentrations of residues. Additionally, the "worst-case scenario" and "optimistic case scenario" were used to assess the chronic risk. In certain cases, the total dietary pesticide intake calculated from the residue levels observed in apples exceeds the toxicological criteria. Children were the group most exposed to the pesticides, and the greatest short-term hazard stemmed from flusilazole at 624%, dimethoate at 312%, tebuconazole at 173%, and chlorpyrifos methyl and captan with 104% Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) each. In the cumulative chronic exposure, among the 17 groups of compounds studied, organophosphate insecticides constituted 99% acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results indicate that the occurrence of pesticide residues in apples could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring and tighter regulation of pesticide residues is recommended. PMID

  16. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (≤ 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  17. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low. PMID:25341819

  18. Analysis of older adults' domestic kitchen storage practices in the United Kingdom: identification of risk factors associated with listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2015-04-01

    Increased listeriosis incidence among older adults (≥ 60 years) has been reported internationally, with many cases reported to be sporadic and associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food products with extended refrigerated shelf life. Given that the home kitchen is recognized as a significant location where foodborne illnesses are acquired, it is important that consumers implement safe food practices to minimize risks. This is crucial for vulnerable consumers, such as older adults. Consumer food safety recommendations in the United Kingdom to reduce the risk of listeriosis at home include (i) following "use-by" dates on unopened prepacked RTE food products, (ii) consuming RTE food products within 2 days of opening, and (iii) ensuring the safe operating temperatures of domestic refrigerators (≤ 5 °C). This study utilized observation, self-reporting, and microbiological analysis to determine actual food storage practices to identify behavioral risk factors. A domestic kitchen survey was conducted in older adult (≥ 60 years) consumers' domestic kitchens (n = 100) in South Wales, United Kingdom. Forty-one percent of foods in home refrigerators were beyond the use-by date, of which 11% were unopened RTE food products commonly associated with listeriosis. Sixty-six percent of opened RTE foods had been or were intended to be stored beyond the recommended 2 days after opening. Older adults failed to ensure safe refrigeration temperatures, with 50% of central storage and 85% of door storage areas operating at temperatures >5 °C. Older refrigerators operated at significantly (P < 0.05) higher temperatures. Given that Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 2% of kitchens, these findings suggest that storage malpractices may have a greater effect on the potential risk of listeriosis than its presence alone. The study has determined that many older adults fail to adhere to recommendations and subject RTE foods associated with L. monocytogenes to prolonged storage at unsafe

  19. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yutian; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Yuhan; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Shili; Zhang, Huiping; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI) than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn), potassium (K), copper (Ca), and sodium (Na) as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05) were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se), and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038). Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33). Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98) but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02). Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95% CI = 1

  20. Gestational diabetes - metabolic risks of adult women with respect to birth weight.

    PubMed

    Vejrazkova, D; Lukasova, P; Vankova, M; Bradnova, O; Vacinova, G; Vcelak, J; Cirmanova, V; Andelova, K; Krejci, H; Bendlova, B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are connected with birth weight. Low and high birth weight is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the association between birth weight and anthropometric as well as biochemical components of MetS in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in comparison with control women. In part of the GDM group, we re-evaluated metabolic changes over 5-8 years. Anthropometry, blood pressure, glucose metabolism during the 3-h oGTT, lipid profile, uric acid, thyroid hormones, and liver enzymes were assessed. From the analyzed components of MetS in adult women we proved the association of low birth weight (birth weight <25th percentile) with glucose processing, in particular among women with a history of GDM. Low birth weight GDM women revealed significantly higher postchallenge insulin secretion and lower peripheral insulin sensitivity. Re-examinations indicate this association persists long after delivery. PMID:26680474

  1. HIV testing among heterosexual young adults: the influence of partners' risk behaviors and relationship dynamics.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Monica A; Johnson, Wendi L; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C

    2013-01-01

    Using relational theory and survey data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 665), this article examined whether individuals were tested for HIV while intimately involved in a current or recent heterosexual relationship. The analyses included the respondent's and partner's sexual risk factors (non-exclusivity and lifetime number of partners), relational variables, prior testing, and demographic characteristics. It was found that 39% of respondents had an HIV test while involved in their current or most recent sexual relationship, and women (47%), compared with men (29%), were significantly more likely to have been tested. Whereas some predictors operated similarly (number of sex partners and pressured to have sex), others displayed significant gender differences (partner's sexual exclusivity, sexual communication difficulties, and pregnancy), particularly related to women's testing behaviors. Excerpts from qualitative interviews with male respondents suggested that some relational dynamics, not well reflected in relational theory, played a role in their testing. Results highlight the need to consider gendered dynamics when targeting young adults for routine HIV testing. PMID:22489753

  2. Multiple sclerosis and risk of young-adult-onset Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Burkill, Sarah; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and young-adult-onset Hodgkin lymphoma (YAHL) as this will signal etiologic similarities relevant both to inherited characteristics and environmental exposures in childhood. Methods: Swedish general population registers identified a cohort of 29,617 with an MS diagnosis between 1968 and 2012, matched with a cohort of 296,164 without MS. Cox regression was used to assess the association of MS with subsequent YAHL (defined as onset between ages 15 and 39 years; n = 20), with adjustment, for age/period, sex, county of residence, and level of education. Results: The adjusted hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) for the association of MS with YAHL is 3.30 (1.01–10.73), resulting from 4 and 16 events in the MS and non-MS cohorts, respectively. All 4 of the YAHL diagnoses in MS occurred in women, and the association of MS with YAHL has a hazard ratio of 4.04 (1.17–13.94) among women. There was no notable association of MS with older-onset Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: There may be common risks for YAHL and MS, consistent with an etiologic role in MS for early-life exposures, such as to infectious agents. PMID:27144218

  3. Late-Life and Life History Predictors of Older Adults of High-Risk Alcohol Consumption and Drinking Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55–65 to age 75–85. Design, Setting, Participants A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. Measurements At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Results Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Conclusion Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. PMID:19969428

  4. Pulmonary function abnormalities in adult patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis: A retrospective risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanliang; Niu, Yuqian; Tian, Guizhen; Wei, Jingan; Gao, Zhancheng

    2015-08-01

    Lung function impairments, especially airflow obstruction, are important features during acute exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis. Recognition of the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction is important in the management of these exacerbations. The medical records of adult patients admitted to the Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China, from 2004 to 2011 with a diagnosis of bronchiectasis were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction. Airflow obstruction was found in 55.6% of 156 patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis, and the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction included young age (≤14 years old) at diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.454, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.709-6.982, p = 0.001) as well as the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR = 14.677, 95% CI 5.696-37.819, p = 0.001), asthma (OR = 3.063, 95% CI 1.403-6.690, p = 0.005), and wheezing on auscultation (OR = 3.279, 95% CI 1.495-7.194, p = 0.003). The C-reactive protein (13.9 mg/dl vs. 6.89 mg/dl, p = 0.005), partial pressure of arterial oxygen (66.7 ± 8.57 mmHg vs. 89.56 ± 12.80 mmHg, p < 0.001), and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (40.52 ± 2.77 mmHg vs. 42.87 ± 5.39 mmHg, p = 0.02) profiles were different between patients with or without airflow obstruction. In addition, patients colonized with potential pathogenic microorganisms had a decreased diffusing capacity (56.0% vs. 64.7%, p = 0.04). Abnormal pulmonary function was common in hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis exacerbations. Airflow obstruction was correlated with the patient's age at diagnosis, as well as the presence of combined COPD and asthma, and wheezing on auscultation, which also resulted in more severe systemic inflammation and hypoxemia. PMID:25882894

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Black, Lucinda J; Burrows, Sally; Lucas, Robyn M; Marshall, Carina E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Chan She Ping-Delfos, Wendy; Beilin, Lawrence J; Holt, Patrick G; Hart, Prue H; Oddy, Wendy H; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence associating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors is inconsistent and studies have largely been conducted in adult populations. We examined the prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood in the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations, BMI, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the 17-year (n 1015) and 20-year (n 1117) follow-ups. Hierarchical linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to investigate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors, accounting for potential confounders. In males and females, respectively, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 73·6 (sd 28·2) and 75·4 (sd 25·9) nmol/l at 17 years and 70·0 (sd 24·2) and 74·3 (sd 26·2) nmol/l at 20 years. Deseasonalised serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI (coefficient -0·01; 95 % CI -0·03, -0·003; P=0·014). No change over time was detected in the association for males; for females, the inverse association was stronger at 20 years compared with 17 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with log-HOMA-IR (coefficient -0·002; 95 % CI -0·003, -0·001; P<0·001) and positively associated with log-TAG in females (coefficient 0·002; 95 % CI 0·0008, 0·004; P=0·003). These associations did not vary over time. There were no significant associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and HDL-cholesterol or SBP. Clinical trials in those with insufficient vitamin D status may be warranted to determine any beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance, while monitoring for any deleterious effect on TAG. PMID:27153206

  6. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested. PMID:25575844

  7. Recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study: Comparison of risk factors between living and deceased donor recipients.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Fredric D; Goldberg, David S; Goodrich, Nathan P; Lok, Anna S F; Verna, Elizabeth C; Selzner, Nazia; Stravitz, R Todd; Merion, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) recurs in 15%-25% of patients transplanted for PSC. In the United States, PSC transplant patients are more likely to receive an organ from a living donor (LD) than patients without PSC. Our aims were to (1) compare risk of PSC recurrence in LD versus deceased donor recipients and (2) identify risk factors for PSC recurrence. There were 241 living donor liver transplantations (LDLTs) and 65 deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) patients transplanted between 1998 and 2013 enrolled in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study who were evaluated. PSC recurrence risk for LDLT and DDLT recipients was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests. Cox models were used to evaluate PSC risk factors. Overall PSC recurrence probabilities were 8.7% and 22.4% at 5 and 10 years after liver transplantation (LT), respectively. The risk of PSC recurrence was not significantly different for DDLT versus LDLT recipients (P = 0.36). For DDLT versus LDLT recipients, unadjusted 5- and 10-year PSC recurrence was 9.4% versus 9.5% and 36.9% versus 21.1%. Higher laboratory Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score at LT, onset of a biliary complication, cholangiocarcinoma, and higher donor age were associated with increased risks of PSC recurrence: for MELD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.10 per MELD point, P = 0.002); for biliary complication (HR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.28-6.25; P = 0.01); for cholangiocarcinoma (HR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.43-11.09; P = 0.008); for donor age (per 5-years donor age; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.35; P = 0.02). Factors not significantly associated with PSC recurrence included the following: first-degree relative donor (P = 0.11), post-LT cytomegalovirus infection (P = 0.38), and acute rejection (P = 0.22). Risk of recurrent PSC was not significantly different for DDLT and LDLT recipients. Biliary complications

  8. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-05-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007-2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers. PMID:25774919

  9. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007–2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers. PMID:25774919

  10. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua G. X.; Thein, Tun Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Pang, Junxiong; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188), and those without (n = 4,195). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization. Results On admission, female gender (p<0.001); temperature >38°C (p<0.001); nausea/vomiting (p = 0.009) and abdominal pain/tenderness (p = 0.005); lower systolic blood pressure (p<0.001); higher pulse rate (p<0.001); increased absolute neutrophil count (ANC; p<0.001); reduced absolute lymphocyte count (ALC; p<0.001), haematocrit percentage (p<0.001) and platelet count (p = 0.04), and increased prothrombin time (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with clinically significant bleeding on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that independent variables in the final model were female gender (aOR 2.85; 95% CI: 1.9–4.33); temperature >38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27–2.61), nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94–2.12), ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15–1.46), ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25–0.64), hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92–1.002) and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988–0.998). At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98). Conclusion Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant

  11. Is More Better? Combining Actuarial Risk Scales to Predict Recidivism among Adult Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether combining the results of multiple actuarial risk scales increases accuracy in predicting sex offender recidivism. Multiple methods of combining 4 validated actuarial risk scales--the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual…

  12. Receipt of clinical and prevention services, clinical outcomes, and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected young adults in care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Beer, Linda; Mattson, Christine L; Shouse, R Luke; Prejean, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We describe receipt of clinical and prevention services, clinical outcomes, and sexual risk behaviors among young adult HIV patients in the United States during 2009-2013, using a sample designed to produce nationally representative estimates. Compared with older HIV patients, proportionately more young adults received provider-delivered prevention services and reported sexual risk behaviors. Young adults had similar care patterns as older HIV patients, but were less likely to have or adhere to an antiretroviral therapy prescription and achieve viral suppression. These estimates establish a national baseline from which to monitor changes in clinical outcomes and transmission behaviors among young HIV-infected adults. PMID:27011102

  13. Adult attachment interviews of women from low-risk, poverty, and maltreatment risk samples: comparisons between the hostile/helpless and traditional AAI coding systems.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Costantino, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Elisa; Barone, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of a Hostile-Helpless (HH) state of mind among 67 women belonging to a community sample and two different at-risk samples matched on socio-economic indicators, including 20 women from low-SES population (poverty sample) and 15 women at risk for maltreatment being monitored by the social services for the protection of juveniles (maltreatment risk sample). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) protocols were reliably coded blind to the samples' group status. The rates of HH classification increased in relation to the risk status of the three samples, ranging from 9% for the low-risk sample to 60% for the maltreatment risk sample to 75% for mothers in the maltreatment risk sample who actually maltreated their infants. In terms of the traditional AAI classification system, 88% of the interviews from the maltreating mothers were classified Unresolved/Cannot Classify (38%) or Preoccupied (50%). Partial overlapping between the 2 AAI coding systems was found, and discussion concerns the relevant contributions of each AAI coding system to understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment. PMID:23724955

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251

  15. Multidimensional Measurement Within Adult Protective Services: Design and Initial Testing of the Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, David H.; Henderson, Linda B.; Snider, Marcy A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development, field utility, reliability, and validity of the multidimensional Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes (TRIO) for use in Adult Protective Services (APS). The TRIO is designed to facilitate consistent APS practice and collect data related to multiple dimensions of typical interactions with APS clients, including the investigation and assessment of risks, the provision of APS interventions, and associated health and safety outcomes. Initial tests of the TRIO indicated high field utility, social worker “relevance and buy-in,” and inter-rater reliability. TRIO concurrent validity was demonstrated via appropriate patterns of TRIO item differentiation based on the type of observed confirmed abuse or neglect; and predictive validity was demonstrated by prediction of the risk of actual APS recurrence. The TRIO is a promising new tool that can help meet the challenges of providing and documenting effective APS practices and identifying those at high risk for future APS recurrence. PMID:24848994

  16. Developing Methods of Repurposing Electronic Health Record Data for Identification of Older Adults at Risk of Unintentional Falls

    PubMed Central

    Baus, Adam; Zullig, Keith; Long, Dustin; Mullett, Charles; Pollard, Cecil; Taylor, Henry; Coben, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, nearly 40 percent of community-dwelling adults age 65 and older fall at least once a year, making unintentional falls the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries among this age group. Addressing this public health problem in primary care offers promise. However, challenges in incorporating fall risk screening into primary care result in a problem of missed opportunities for screening, counseling, intervention, and ultimately prevention. Given these barriers, this study examines the potential for the innovative use of routinely collected electronic health record data to provide enhanced clinical decision support in busy, often resource-thin primary care environments. Using de-identified data from a sample of West Virginia primary care centers, we find that it is both feasible and worthwhile to repurpose routinely collected data for the purpose of identification of older adults at risk of falls. Searching of both free-text and semistructured data was particularly valuable. PMID:27134607

  17. Polygenic risk for externalizing disorders: Gene-by-development and gene-by-environment effects in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Bucholz, Kathleen; Agrawal, Arpana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Hesselbrock, Michie; Bauer, Lance; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kramer, John; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we aimed to bring large-scale gene identification findings into a developmental psychopathology framework. Using a family-based sample, we tested whether polygenic scores for externalizing disorders—based on single nucleotide polymorphism weights derived from genome-wide association study results in adults (n = 1,249)—predicted externalizing disorders, subclinical externalizing behavior, and impulsivity-related traits adolescents (n = 248) and young adults (n = 207), and whether parenting and peer factors in adolescence moderated polygenic risk to predict externalizing disorders. Polygenic scores predicted externalizing disorders in adolescents and young adults, even after controlling for parental externalizing disorder history. Polygenic scores also predicted subclinical externalizing behavior and impulsivity traits in the adolescents and young adults. Adolescent parental monitoring and peer substance use moderated polygenic scores to predict externalizing disorders. This illustrates how state of the science genetics can be integrated with psychological science to identify how genetic risk contributes to the development of psychopathology. PMID:25821660

  18. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:25566425

  19. Predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among Canadian adults using modified Framingham Risk Score in association with dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J; Pahwa, Punam; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2015-10-01

    Initial risk assessment to estimate 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is completed by Framingham Risk Score (FRS). In 2012 2 modifications were added to FRS by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society: FRS is doubled in subjects aged 30-59 years who have CVD present in a first-degree relative before 55 years of age for men and 65 years of age for women; and cardiovascular age is calculated for each individual. Our aim was to implement these modifications and evaluate differences compared with traditional FRS. Further, we evaluated the association between dietary intake and 10-year risk. The Canadian Health Measures Survey data cycle 1 was used among participants aged 30-74 years (n = 2730). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using STATA SE 11. Using modified FRS for predicting 10-year risk of CVD significantly increased the estimated risk compared with the traditional approach, 8.66% ± 0.35% versus 6.06% ± 0.18%, respectively. Greater impact was observed with the "cardiovascular age" modification in men versus women. The distribution of Canadians in low- (<10%) and high-risk (≥20%) categories of CVD show a significant difference between modified and traditional FRS: 67.4% versus 79.6% (low risk) and 13.7% versus 4.5% (high risk), respectively. The odds of having risk ≥10% was significantly greater in low-educated, abdominally obese individuals or those with lower consumption of breakfast cereal and fruit and vegetable and greater potato and potato products consumption. In conclusion, the traditional FRS method significantly underestimates CVD risk in Canadians; thus, applying modified FRS is beneficial for screening. Additionally, fibre consumption from fruit and vegetable or breakfast cereals might be beneficial in reducing CVD risks. PMID:26417841

  20. Cancer Risk in Adult Residents near Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - A Cohort Study of 1992-2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong Min

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated cancer risk for adult residents near Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Korea through a valid prospective cohort study during 1992-2010. The study cohort was composed of 11,367 adults living within a five km radius from the NPPs for the exposed and 24,809 adults for the non-exposed or reference cohort set at two different levels of proximity; 5-30 km radius and more than 30 km radius away from NPPs. In 303,542.5 person-years of follow-up, a total of 2,298 cancer cases of all sites, or 1,377 radio-inducible cancers diagnosed during 1992-2008 were ascertained. Multiple adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. There were no epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer due to radiation from NPPs. Radiological study results or surveillance data of radiation doses around NPPs could be well documented for risk estimation of radio-inducible cancers, instead of epidemiological study results of the long-time required. Continuous surveillance of quantitative measures of dose levels around NPPs and radiation exposures to the residents is warranted. PMID:22969244

  1. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  2. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; P<0.001), with a similar association shown for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for baseline resting blood pressure and clinical parameters, each 5‐mm Hg increments in exercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (P<0.001) and 30% (P<0.001) increased risk for the development of hypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  3. Violent Crime Victimization Increases the Risk of Nursing Home Placement in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachs, Mark; Bachman, Ronet; Williams, Christianna S.; Kossack, Alice; Bove, Carolyn; O'Leary, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We estimate the independent contribution of crime victimization to nursing home placement in a cohort of older adults who were community dwelling at baseline. Design and Methods: The data come from an observational cohort study of 2,321 community-residing older adults who were members of the New Haven Established Populations for…

  4. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  5. Suicidality and Associated Risk Factors among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Compared to Heterosexual Austrian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…

  6. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155

  7. Validity of self-reported fat distribution in young adults: the CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Bild, D E; Sholinsky, P D; Schreiner, P J; Hilner, J E; Swanson, C A

    1998-05-01

    To determine the validity of self-reported information on body fat distribution, relationships between reported location of weight gain and measured waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting insulin were analyzed in 5115 black and white men and women aged 18-30 years. In black men, WHR adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) ranged from 0.833 among those reporting upper and central weight gain to 0.812 among those reporting lower body weight gain (trend across five reported fat distribution categories, P = 0.0004). Corresponding values were, for white men, 0.852 to 0.831; for black women, 0.777 to 0.721; and for white women, 0.772 to 0.701 (each P < 0.0001). Reported fat distribution was associated with HDL-C in women, but not in men, and with fasting insulin in all groups. While these associations were somewhat weaker than with measured WHR, self-reported fat distribution does provide valid information about body fat distribution in young adults, particularly women. PMID:9619968

  8. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status. PMID:26242431

  9. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: differences in risk factors and their implications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, most have failed to show differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. This study was designed to identify differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among HIV-infected adults in Seoul. A face-to-face survey of 457 HIV-infected adults was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Among 422 participants, 44% had suicidal ideation, and 11% had suicide attempts. The independent risk factors for suicidal ideation were young and middle age, living with someone, history of AIDS-defining opportunistic disease, history of treatment for depression, lower social support, and psychological status. Beneficiaries of National Medical Aid, economic barriers to treatment, history of treatment for depression, and lower psychological status were independently associated with suicide attempts. Patients with HIV in Korea were treated without cost in some centers. Thus, experiencing an economic barrier to treatment might be due in part to ignorance of HIV care policies. Our findings indicate that suicide attempts are associated with socioeconomic factors and information inequality regarding medical care. In conclusion, suicidal ideation closely associated with the psychosocial factors, whereas suicide attempt demonstrates a stronger association with socioeconomic factors. Suicide prevention measures should be implemented to provide information to help HIV-infected patients. PMID:26444525

  10. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  11. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  12. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  13. Sexual risk behaviour and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Christine L.; Freedman, Mark; Fagan, Jennifer L.; Frazier, Emma L.; Beer, Linda; Huang, Ping; Valverde, Eduardo E.; Johnson, Christopher; Sanders, Catherine; McNaghten, A.D.; Sullivan, Patrick; Lansky, Amy; Mermin, Jonathan; Heffelfinger, James; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence and association of sexual risk behaviours and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of weighted data from a probability sample of HIV-infected adults receiving outpatient medical care. The facility and patient response rates were 76 and 51%, respectively. Methods: We analysed 2009 interview and medical record data. Sexual behaviours were self-reported in the past 12 months. Viral suppression was defined as all viral load measurements in the medical record during the past 12 months less than 200 copies/ml. Results: An estimated 98 022 (24%) HIV-infected adults engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex; 50 953 (12%) engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex with at least one partner of negative or unknown HIV status; 23 933 (6%) did so while not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in vaginal or anal sex [prevalence ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82–0.93]; unprotected vaginal or anal sex (prevalence ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73–0.98); and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a partner of negative or unknown HIV status (prevalence ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.99). Conclusion: The majority of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the U.S. did not engage in sexual risk behaviours that have the potential to transmit HIV, and of the 12% who did, approximately half were not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in sexual risk behaviours. PMID:25000558

  14. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    children. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment based on Hazard Indices showed cause for concern mainly for children, as well as in rare cases for adults. Although phthalate exposure seems to have decreased in previous years, the wide distribution and existing exceedances of acceptable levels indicate that phthalate exposure should be further monitored in order to identify exposure sources and enable appropriate minimisation measures. PMID:25959523

  15. Markers of Resilience and Risk: Adult Lives in a Vulnerable Population

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Stuart T.; Stott, Cori; Billings, Rebecca L.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we drew on data from an ongoing longitudinal study that began in 1978 (Hauser, Powers, Noam, Jacobson, Weiss, & Folansbee, 1984). Focusing on late, young-adult life among individuals who were psychiatrically hospitalized during adolescence, we examined markers of resilience empirically defined in terms of adult success and well-being. The study includes a demographically similar group recruited from a public high school. Major goals were to (a) develop preliminary models of adaptive functioning among adults in their 30s, (b) examine the extent to which adults with histories of serious mental disorders can be characterized by these models, and (c) explore predictors of successful adult lives from indicators of individuals' psychosocial adjustment at age 25. Results showed significant cohort effects on indexes of adaptive functioning, especially for men. Findings suggest that social relations as well as self-views of competence and relatedness play important roles in characterizing adjustment during the adult years. In addition, indexes of psychosocial adjustment as well as symptoms of psychiatric distress and hard drug use at age 25 made a difference in adult social functioning and well-being, providing hints of possible mechanisms likely to facilitate the ability to “bounce back” after a difficult adolescence. PMID:16951709

  16. Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of weight, adiposity measures or cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are limited data available on the longitudinal relationship between candy consumption by children on weight and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in young adults. The present study investigated whether candy consumption in children was predictive of weight and CVRF in young adults. A lo...

  17. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing a Mobile Cancer Prevention App: The mCPA Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid growth of mobile technologies has resulted in a proliferation of lifestyle-oriented mobile phone apps. However, most do not have a theoretical framework and few have been developed using a community-based participatory research approach. A community academic team will develop a theory-based, culturally tailored, mobile-enabled, Web-based app—the Mobile Cancer Prevention App (mCPA)—to promote adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines. Objective The aim of this study is to develop mCPA content with input from breast cancer survivors. Methods Members of SISTAAH (Survivors Involving Supporters to Take Action in Advancing Health) Talk (N=12), treated for Stages I-IIIc breast cancer for less than 1 year, 75 years of age or younger, and English-speaking and writing, will be recruited to participate in the study. To develop the app content, breast cancer survivors will engage with researchers in videotaped and audiotaped sessions, including (1) didactic instructions with goals for, benefits of, and strategies to enhance dietary intake and physical activity, (2) guided discussions for setting individualized goals, monitoring progress, and providing or receiving feedback, (3) experiential nutrition education through cooking demonstrations, and (4) interactive physical activity focused on walking, yoga, and strength training. Qualitative (focus group discussions and key informant interviews) and quantitative (sensory evaluation) methods will be used to evaluate the participatory process and outcomes. Results Investigators and participants anticipate development of an acceptable (frequency and duration of usage) feasible (structure, ease of use, features), and accessible mobile app available for intervention testing in early 2017. Conclusions Depending on the availability of research funding, mCPA testing, which will be initiated in Miami, will be extended to Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. PMID:26935995

  18. Universal family-focused intervention with young adolescents: effects on health-risking sexual behaviors and STDs among young adults.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard; Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns = 238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6% to 46% for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278

  19. Access to healthcare and financial risk protection for older adults in Mexico: secondary data analysis of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Reich, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While the benefits of Seguro Popular health insurance in Mexico relative to no insurance have been widely documented, little has been reported on its effects relative to the pre-existing Social Security health insurance. We analyse the effects of Social Security and Seguro Popular health insurances in Mexico on access to healthcare of older adults, and on financial risk protection to their households, compared with older adults without health insurance. Setting Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2012 Mexican Survey of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT). Participants The study population comprised 18 847 older adults and 13 180 households that have an elderly member. Outcome measures The dependent variables were access to healthcare given the reported need, the financial burden imposed by health expenditures measured through catastrophic health-related expenditures, and using savings for health-related expenditures. Separate propensity score matching analyses were conducted for each comparison. The analysis for access was performed at the individual level, and the analysis for financial burden at the household level. In each case, matching on a wide set of relevant characteristics was achieved. Results Seguro Popular showed a protective effect against lack of access to healthcare for older adults compared with those with no insurance. The average treatment effect on the treated (ATET) was ascertained through using the nearest-neighbour matching (−8.1%, t-stat −2.305) analysis. However, Seguro Popular did not show a protective effect against catastrophic expenditures in a household where an older adult lived. Social Security showed increased access to healthcare (ATET −11.3%, t-stat −3.138), and protective effect against catastrophic expenditures for households with an elderly member (ATET −1.9%, t-stat −2.178). Conclusions Seguro Popular increased access to healthcare for Mexican older adults. Social Security showed a significant

  20. Recent HIV Testing Prevalence, Determinants, and Disparities Among US Older Adult Respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Godette, Dionne C.; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Gaines, Tommi L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during health care visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50–64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among US adults in the 3 categories of older adulthood (50–54, 55–59, and 60–64 years) for which routine HIV testing is recommended. Method This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from US older adult respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated prevalence (proportions) of HIV testing by age category and race/ethnicity. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with recent HIV testing within and across age categories, by race/ethnicity and controlling for covariates. Results HIV testing prevalence was low (<5%), varied by race/ethnicity, and decreased with age. Within and across age categories, the odds of testing were highest among blacks (odds ratio [OR], 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.82–4.25) and higher among Latinos (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.50–2.84) and the oldest and youngest categories of American Indians/Alaska Natives (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.11–5.55; OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.49–5.95) than among whites. Those reporting a recent doctor visit (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.92–2.74) or HIV risk behaviors (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.67–4.59) had higher odds of HIV testing. Conclusion Regardless of risk, the oldest older adults, whites, and older women may forego HIV testing. Doctor visits may facilitate HIV testing. Additional research is needed to understand why eligible older adults seen by providers may not be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26165428