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Sample records for adult dermacentor reticulatus

  1. Studies on survival and water balance of unfed adult Dermacentor marginatus and D. reticulatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Meyer-König, A; Zahler, M; Gothe, R

    2001-01-01

    The water content, the survival time at various relative humidities (r.h.) and the critical equilibrium activity of unfed adult Dermacentor marginatus and D. reticulatus ticks were investigated at a constant temperature of 20 degrees C. It was also examined whether these ticks use liquid water to compensate water loss. Both Dermacentor spp. showed no significant differences in water content in relation to body mass. The mean water content of D. marginatus and D. reticulatus was 54.6% and 54.7%, respectively, in females and 56.3% and 57.0%, respectively, in males. The survival time of unfed adults prolonged with decreasing saturation deficits. On average, males survived longer than females and D. marginatus ticks survived mostly longer than D. reticulatus ticks. The 50% mortality period ranged between 40 d at 33% r.h. and 420 d at 95% r.h. in D. marginatus, and between 43 d at 33 r.h. and 366 d at 95% r.h. in D. reticulatus. The critical equilibrium activity of unfed adults was estimated to be 0.84 for both species and was independent of sex. When dehydrated adult D. marginatus and D. reticulatus ticks were offered liquid water, only a few slightly gained weight while most further lost weight. Liquid water was not attractive for dehydrated or non-dehydrated ticks and drinking was not observed. After submerging in water for 2 d, most of the dehydrated ticks had gained weight. PMID:12465853

  2. Dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.

    PubMed

    Földvári, Gábor; Široký, Pavel; Szekeres, Sándor; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. It has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. Dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. It has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. Its high adaptiveness gives an edge to this tick species as shown by new data on the emergence and establishment of D. reticulatus populations throughout Europe. The tick has been the research focus of a growing number of scientists, physicians and veterinarians. Within the Web of Science database, more than a fifth of the over 700 items published on this species between 1897 and 2015 appeared in the last three years (2013-2015). Here we attempt to synthesize current knowledge on the systematics, ecology, geographical distribution and recent spread of the species and to highlight the great spectrum of possible veterinary and public health threats it poses. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is a severe leading canine vector-borne disease in many endemic areas. Although less frequently than Ixodes ricinus, D. reticulatus adults bite humans and transmit several Rickettsia spp., Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus or Tick-borne encephalitis virus. We have not solely collected and reviewed the latest and fundamental scientific papers available in primary databases but also widened our scope to books, theses, conference papers and specialists colleagues' experience where needed. Besides the dominant literature available in English, we also tried to access scientific literature in German, Russian and eastern European languages as well. We hope to inspire future research projects that are necessary to understand the basic life-cycle and ecology of this vector in order to understand and prevent disease threats. We

  3. Geographical distribution of Dermacentor marginatus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Franz; Brugger, Katharina; Pfeffer, Martin; Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Didyk, Yuliya M; Leverenz, Sandra; Dautel, Hans; Kahl, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to present up-to-date maps depicting the geographical distribution of Dermacentor species in Europe based on georeferenced sampling sites. Therefore, a dataset was compiled, resulting in 1286 D. marginatus (Sulzer, 1776) and 1209 D. reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) locations. Special emphasis is given to the region of the European Alps depicting a presumable climate barrier of the mountains and to overlaps in the distribution of both species as well as on the situation in eastern European countries. For the latter newly described Dermacentor findings comprise 59 locations in Romania and 62 locations in Ukraine. The geographical distributions of both species in Europe range from Portugal to Ukraine (and continue to the east of Kazakhstan). Although it is well known that D. marginatus is adapted to a warmer and drier climate at more southern latitudes and D. reticulatus to a moderately moist climate at more northern latitudes, the distribution limits of both species were not well known. Here, the northern and southern distribution limits for both species in Europe, as determined from the georeferenced database, were specified for D. marginatus by the belt of 33-51° N latitude and for D. reticulatus by the belt of 41-57° N latitude. Thus, overlapping species distributions were found between 41° N and 51° N. PMID:26552893

  4. [Range and ecology of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Mazuria focus. I. Defining current range].

    PubMed

    Bogdaszewska, Zofia

    2004-01-01

    During the vegetation periods of five subsequent years, ie. 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001, a field study aimed at defining, the current range of Dermacentor reticulatus in the so-called Mazuria focus was conducted on an area of about 24.000 km2 . The total of 68 sites covered by the study were located between the Great Mazurian Lakes District in the east and the lower Vistula valley in the west. The presence of adult forms of Dermacentor reticulatus was confirmed in 23 sites. The westernmost sites were discovered in the vicinity of Brodnica and Elblag. Both sites are located at longitude 19 degrees 20' East. PMID:16862808

  5. The transstadial persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata; Werszko, Joanna; Rychlik, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of reports regarding natural infection of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with TBE virus; however, the transmission mode of TBE virus in this tick population has not been investigated. This study was conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest, east Poland. Forty fully engorged nymphs of D. reticulatus were sampled from root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Ticks were kept until molting. All ticks were screened for the presence of TBE virus by nested RT-PCR. Three adult ticks were positive for infection with TBE virus. The present study for the first time demonstrates the possibility of transstadial mode of TBEV transmission in D. reticulatus ticks. PMID:26751892

  6. Experimental transmission of Anaplasma marginale by male Dermacentor reticulatus

    PubMed Central

    Zivkovic, Zorica; Nijhof, Ard M; de la Fuente, José; Kocan, Katherine M; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-01-01

    Background Bovine anaplasmosis has been reported in several European countries, but the vector competency of tick species for Anaplasma marginale from these localities has not been determined. Because of the wide distributional range of Dermacentor reticulatus within Europe and the major role of Dermacentor spp. as a vector of A. marginale in the United States, we tested the vector competency of D. reticulatus for A. marginale. Results Male D. reticulatus were allowed to feed for 7 days on a calf persistently infected with a Zaria isolate of A. marginale, after which they were removed and held off-host for 7 days. The ticks were then allowed to feed a second time for 7 days on a susceptible tick-naïve calf. Infection of calf No. 4291 was detected 20 days post exposure (p.i.) and confirmed by msp4 PCR. Thirty percent of the dissected acquisition fed ticks was infected. In addition, A. marginale colonies were detected by light microscopy in the salivary glands of the acquisition fed ticks. Transmission of A. marginale to calf No. 9191 was confirmed by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and msp4 PCR. Ticks were dissected after transmission feeding and presence of A. marginale was confirmed in 18.5% of the dissected ticks. Conclusion This study demonstrates that D. reticulatus males are competent vectors of A. marginale. Further studies are needed to confirm the vector competency of D. reticulatus for other A. marginale strains from geographic areas in Europe. PMID:18053123

  7. First report of Rickettsia raoultii in field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg G; Hodžić, Adnan; Weiler, Martin; Vaux, Alexander G C; Rudolf, Ivo; Sixl, Wolfdieter; Medlock, Jolyon M; Versteirt, Veerle; Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-07-01

    In a set of pooled field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, Rickettsia raoultii, the causative agent of Tick-borne lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy, was found for the first time in Austria. The coordinates of the positive locations for tick and pathogen abundance are given and shown in a map. PMID:26976704

  8. [The prevalence of Babesia canis canis in marsh ticks (Dermacentor reticulatus) in the Saarland].

    PubMed

    Beelitz, Pamela; Schumacher, Stefan; Marholdt, Fritz; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    An accumulation of autochthonous cases of canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis has been registered in a small animal clinic in the Saarland since the beginning of 2006, some cases with fatal outcome. This study aims to contribute to the explanation of strong focal occurrence of infections with B. canis in this region.Therefore, patient owners who had presented their dogs in the years 2006 and 2007 because of babesiosis and who had claimed not having left the Saarland with their dogs at least six months before the outbreak of Babesiosis, were asked for their dog walking habits. Accordingly, a selection often tick collection sites of various landscape structures was made.Tick sampling by flagging the vegetation took place every month from March to December 2008. The collected ticks were identified morphologically. In eight of ten collecting sites a total of 397 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected from March to December with the highest frequencies during the months of May, October and November. All collected specimens were examined by genus-specific conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia-DNA. In positive samples, the PCR-products were differentiated by sequencing. ten D. reticulatus (2.5%) ticks examined were found positive for DNA of B. canis canis originating from three out of eight collection sites. Consequently, an endemic distribution of D. reticulatus was confirmed and a natural PMID:22515037

  9. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  10. Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Nijhof, Ard M.; Jongejan, Frans; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. In an attempt to derive continuous Dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in The Netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. After several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a Rickettsia-like intracellular organism. Supernatant medium containing some D. reticulatus cells was inoculated into cultures of 2 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines, BME/CTVM2 and BME/CTVM23, where abundant growth of the bacteria occurred intracellularly on transfer to both cell lines. Bacterial growth was monitored by light (live, inverted microscope, Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears) and transmission electron microscopy revealing heavy infection with typical intracytoplasmic Rickettsia-like bacteria, not present in uninfected cultures. DNA was extracted from bacteria-infected and uninfected control cultures, and primers specific for Rickettsia 16S rRNA, ompB, and sca4 genes were used to generate PCR products that were subsequently sequenced. D. reticulatus primary cultures and both infected tick cell lines were positive for all 3 Rickettsia genes. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 99–100% identity with published Rickettsia raoultii sequences. The R. raoultii also grew abundantly in the D. nitens cell line ANE58, poorly in the D. albipictus cell line DALBE3, and not at all in the D. andersoni cell line DAE15. In conclusion, primary tick cell cultures and cell lines are useful systems for isolation and propagation of fastidious tick-borne microorganisms. In vitro isolation of R. raoultii from Dutch D. reticulatus confirms previous PCR-based detection in field ticks, and presence of the bacteria in the tick eggs used to initiate the primary cultures confirms that transovarial transmission of this

  11. Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia species in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Svehlová, Andrea; Berthová, Lenka; Sallay, Balázs; Boldiš, Vojtech; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Spitalská, Eva

    2014-09-01

    Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n=600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n=282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n=4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n=65) and 11.7% (n=33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n=11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n=1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks. PMID:24973275

  12. New foci of Haemaphysalis punctata and Dermacentor reticulatus in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hofmeester, Tim R; van der Lei, Pieter-Bas; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Sprong, Hein; van Wieren, Sipke E

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 Haemaphysalis punctata was found in several locations on the mainland of the Netherlands for the first time since 1897. In the same areas Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus were found. Haemaphysalis punctata and D. reticulatus were tested for presence of Babesia spp. and Rickettsia spp. by PCR. Babesia spp. and spotted fever Rickettsiae were not detected in any of the collected H. punctata, while several D. reticulatus (6%) collected from the same areas were found to be positive for R. raoultii, a causative agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy. We discuss the role of free-ranging domestic animals in maintaining H. punctata and D. reticulatus populations in dune areas in the Netherlands. PMID:26726807

  13. Genetic evidence against a morphologically suggestive conspecificity of Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus (Acari:Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Gothe, R; Rinder, H

    1995-12-01

    International Journal for Parasitology 25: 1413-1419. Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus exhibit overlapping phenotypes. The possibility of conspecificity was investigated on the nucleotide level by comparing DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS 2) of the rDNA gene. The inter-specific polymorphism was more than 20-times greater than the intra-specific polymorphism of 3 D. reticulatus strains of different geographic origins. Furthermore, the degree of polymorphisms between D. reticulatus and D. marginatus was found to be of the same order of magnitude as that between D. andersoni and D. variabilis, for which separate species status is accepted. These genomic findings do not support a possible conspecificity of D. reticulatus and D. marginatus. PMID:8719952

  14. [Endemic risk of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. An epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Gothe, R

    1997-11-01

    During the period of January 1995 to January 1997, Babesia canis infections were diagnosed in 127 dogs, 65 of them had stayed in foreign countries where Dermacentor reticulatus is endemic, namely France, Austria and Hungary, or in the area Offenburg/Kehl/Freiburg i. Breisgau (Germany). Two dogs being positive for Babesia never had left Germany before and had not been in the region Offenburg/Kehl/Freiburg i. Breisgau. Concurrent tick infestations were reported for all of the 67 dogs. For 10 dogs which had travelled to Hungary and France the ticks were diagnosed as D. reticulatus. In Germany, ecological conditions are suitable for D. reticulatus and Babesia canis. Therefore, as a consequence of the spreading of these parasites the emergence of new endemic foci has to be expected. PMID:9459834

  15. A Systems Biology Approach to the Characterization of Stress Response in Dermacentor reticulatus Tick Unfed Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Margarita; Popara, Marina; Ayllón, Nieves; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Galindo, Ruth C.; Manrique, Marina; Tobes, Raquel; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) is distributed in Europe and Asia where it infests and transmits disease-causing pathogens to humans, pets and other domestic and wild animals. However, despite its role as a vector of emerging or re-emerging diseases, very little information is available on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of D. reticulatus. Tick larvae are the first developmental stage to infest hosts, acquire infection and transmit pathogens that are transovarially transmitted and are exposed to extremely stressing conditions. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to get an insight into the mechanisms active in D. reticulatus unfed larvae, with special emphasis on stress response. Principal Findings The results support the use of paired end RNA sequencing and proteomics informed by transcriptomics (PIT) for the analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics data, particularly for organisms such as D. reticulatus with little sequence information available. The results showed that metabolic and cellular processes involved in protein synthesis were the most active in D. reticulatus unfed larvae, suggesting that ticks are very active during this life stage. The stress response was activated in D. reticulatus unfed larvae and a Rickettsia sp. similar to R. raoultii was identified in these ticks. Significance The activation of stress responses in D. reticulatus unfed larvae likely counteracts the negative effect of temperature and other stress conditions such as Rickettsia infection and favors tick adaptation to environmental conditions to increase tick survival. These results show mechanisms that have evolved in D. reticulatus ticks to survive under stress conditions and suggest that these mechanisms are conserved across hard tick species. Targeting some of these proteins by vaccination may increase tick susceptibility to natural stress conditions, which in turn reduce tick survival and reproduction, thus reducing tick populations and

  16. The occurrence of the Dermacentor reticulatus tick--its expansion to new areas and possible causes.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) can be found in the temperate zones of Eurasia. Its area of occurrence is divided into east and west distributions, although the area as a whole is expanding. The initial east-west division was most probably associated with the varied climatic profile of Europe, for example, the range of specific mean winter and summer temperatures: the region where D. reticulatus is absent is characterized by mean winter temperatures between 0 degree C and 5 degrees C and thin snow cover. The present expansion may be the effect of climate change. The mean temperatures in Europe have increased, the vegetation season has lengthened and positive trends in the number of wet days can be seen. Consequently, northern Europe has become warmer and wetter over the last century. Human activity can also influence the spread of D. reticulatus. The liquidation of habitats suitable for D. reticulatus and the eradication of their hosts can play a role, as can changes in agricultural land use, environmental protection and the spread of international tourism and trade. In summary, the expansion of D. reticulatus into new areas could be the synergistic effect of many favourable factors. PMID:24930245

  17. Host preferences of immature Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in a forest habitat in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Miriam; Littwin, Nina; Petney, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus is widespread throughout Europe and is expanding its range in several European countries. It is associated with a number of different pathogens. Its role in the transmission of disease to humans is currently small; however, it might play an important role in the maintenance of pathogens in enzootic cycles. The ecology of D. reticulatus, especially of the immatures, is not well known. In this study, ticks from small mammals, caught in a capture-mark-release study between May 2012 and October 2014 in a unique woodland area close to Karlsruhe, Germany, were collected. The main host species trapped were the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Small mammal populations showed high variability in their density between the study years, which is probably due to harsh winter conditions in 2012/2013 and missing mast leading to high winter mortality. Larvae and nymphs of D. reticulatus were predominantly found in July and August, respectively, and the infestation rates among the different small mammal species suggest a host preference of D. reticulatus for M. glareolus. PMID:25983104

  18. The first detection of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from the lowland European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus L.).

    PubMed

    Biernat, Beata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Stańczak, Joanna; Masny, Aleksander; Werszko, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a potentially fatal neurological infection. The disease is endemic in a large region in Eurasia, where is transmitted mainly by hard ticks: Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus. It is known that also Dermacentor reticulatus is involved in a circulation of TBEV, but the knowledge of its importance in the TBE epidemiology is still insufficient. The Białowieża Primeval Forest is located in eastern Poland and it is a well-known endemic focus of tick-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus), an important host of hard ticks in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. In the years 2008-2009, a total of 114 adult D. reticulatus ticks were collected from 7 European bison and examined individually for the presence of TBEV RNA using nested RT-PCR assay. Positive results were noted in 18.42% of ticks. This is the first record of TBEV infection in ticks collected from European bison. PMID:26751883

  19. Identification of salivary antigenic markers discriminating host exposition between two European ticks: Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Vu Hai, Vinh; Almeras, Lionel; Audebert, Stephane; Pophillat, Matthieu; Boulanger, Nathalie; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Pages, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    To succeed blood meal, ticks inject salivary proteins to mammalian hosts, eliciting an antibody response against these foreign antigens. Although this immune response has been proposed as a surrogate marker of exposure to tick bites, identification of the corresponding antigens remains elusive. For this aim, a comparison by immunoblots of the kinetic IgG responses to protein salivary gland extracts from two European tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus or Dermacentor reticulatus, in rabbits was performed. A singularity in the immune patterns was observed according to rabbit exposure status and depending on the antigen source. Six and five bands were found specifically associated to R. sanguineus and to D. reticulatus exposures, respectively. The identity of these salivary antigenic proteins was determined using an original immunoproteomic approach. The utilization of these tick salivary proteins as biomarker candidates to discriminate R. sanguineus and/or D. reticulatus tick exposure or to develop anti-tick vaccines is discussed. PMID:23040662

  20. Questing Dermacentor reticulatus harbouring Babesia canis DNA associated with outbreaks of canine babesiosis in the Swiss Midlands.

    PubMed

    Schaarschmidt, Daniel; Gilli, Urs; Gottstein, Bruno; Marreros, Nelson; Kuhnert, Peter; Daeppen, Jérôme A; Rosenberg, Gertrud; Hirt, Didier; Frey, Caroline F

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 and 2012, outbreaks of clinical canine babesiosis were observed in 2 areas of the Swiss Midlands that had no history of this disease so far. In one area, cases of canine babesiosis occurred over 2 consecutive tick seasons. The outbreaks involved 29 dogs, 4 of which died. All dogs were infected with large Babesia sp. as diagnosed in Giemsa-stained blood smears and/or PCR. These were identified as B. canis (formerly known as B. canis canis) by subsequent partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp. Interestingly, the sequence indicated either a genotype with heterogeneity in the ssrRNA gene copies or double infection with different B. canis isolates. None of the dogs had a recent travel history, but one had frequently travelled to Hungary and had suffered twice from clinical babesiosis 18 and 24 months prior to the outbreak in autumn 2011. Retrospective sequencing of a stored blood DNA sample of this dog revealed B. canis, with an identical sequence to the Babesia involved in the outbreaks. For the first time in Switzerland, the partial 18S rRNA gene of B. canis could be amplified from DNA isolated from 19 out of 23 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks flagged in the same area. The sequence was identical to that found in the dogs. Furthermore, one affected dog carried a female D. reticulatus tick harbouring B. canis DNA. Our findings illustrate that, under favourable biogeographic and climatic conditions, the life-cycle of B. canis can relatively rapidly establish itself in previously non-endemic areas. Canine babesiosis should therefore always be a differential diagnosis when dogs with typical clinical signs are presented, regardless of known endemic areas. PMID:23571114

  1. Salivary gland extracts of partially fed Dermacentor reticulatus ticks decrease natural killer cell activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kubes, M; Fuchsberger, N; Labuda, M; Zuffová, E; Nuttall, P A

    1994-01-01

    The salivary glands and saliva of ticks (Arachnida, Acari, Ixodida) play a vital role in blood feeding, including manipulation of the host's immune response to tick infestation. Furthermore, a diverse number of tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva. A factor synthesized in the salivary glands of feeding ticks potentiates the transmission of certain tick-borne viruses. We show that salivary gland extracts (SGE) derived from Dermacentor reticulatus female ticks fed for 6 days on laboratory mice (SGED6) induced a decrease in the natural killer (NK) activity of effector cells obtained from 16 healthy blood donors. The decreased activity ranged from 14 to 69% of NK activity observed with the respective untreated effector cells. Such a decrease was not observed after treatment of effector cells with SGE from unfed ticks. Ten-fold dilution of SGED6 significantly reduced the capacity to decrease NK activity and a further 10-fold dilution almost eliminated the effect. After addition of IFN-alpha 2, the SGED6-induced decrease in NK activity was restored to activity levels approaching those of untreated cells. The apparent reversibility of the inhibition indicates that the effect of SGED6 on NK activity was not due to cytotoxicity. The results demonstrate the presence of a factor(s) in the salivary gland products of feeding D. reticulatus female ticks that influences human NK activity in vitro. These data suggest a possible mechanism by which tick SGE potentiates the transmission of some tick-borne viruses through suppression of NK activity. PMID:8045588

  2. The effect of changes in agricultural practices on the density of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-07-30

    The impact of agricultural practices/ activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe due to the widespread exodus of inhabitants from rural areas. The associated abandonment of agricultural lands has enabled a wide range of wild animals to prosper in the countryside, including birds, ungulates and large carnivores. One consequence has been the increase in ticks and associated tick-borne diseases which now constitute a greater threat for public health than earlier. The aim of the present study was to compare tick densities in different habitats (pasture, meadow, fallow land, post-fire areas) to assess the impact of different agricultural practices on tick densities in vicinities close to human habitation. Between September 2011 and June 2014, 2985 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by conventional dragging, in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) and Warmińsko-Mazurskie (Masuria) regions of Poland. In each region, 3 study sites were selected, each situated near surface water sources (i.e., ponds or canals). At each site, three neighboring habitats of surface area 150-600 m(2) were dragged: one on a cattle/horse pasture; the second on meadow; the third on fallow land (abandoned field or meadow), at least twice during each spring and autumn. Additionally, four post-fire areas (one in 2013 and three in 2014) were identified in the Mazowieckie region, and dragging was conducted there in spring and autumn, including in each case a 'control area' comprising intact unburned fallow land situated in close vicinity to the burned areas. Eight hundred D. reticulatus ticks were collected and the densities were compared by multifactorial ANOVA. The highest tick densities were recorded on the fallow lands, and the lowest - on the grazed pastures. Tick densities were up to 10 × times higher on the control sites compared to neighboring post-fire sites. PMID:26073110

  3. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. PMID:24953751

  4. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; de Vos, Christa; Anderson, Andrew; Larsen, Diane L; Jeannin, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (AFX + MO) combination chewables (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) and AFX single-entity chewables (NexGard®, Merial) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated in dogs. Thirty dogs were assigned to blocks of three animals each based on pre-allocation tick counts and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: untreated (control), treated with a combination of AFX + MO chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX + MO (2.5 + 0.5 mg per kg body weight), and treated with a combination of NexGard® chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX (2.5 mg per kg body weight). Treatments were administered orally once on day 0. Starting 2 days before treatment administration, each dog was infested with approximately 50 ticks weekly for six consecutive weeks. Live ticks were counted at ∼48 h post-treatment (removal count) and at ∼48 h (in situ counts) and ∼72 h (removal counts) following each post-treatment infestation. Treatment with both AFX + MO and NexGard® chewables rapidly eliminated the existing tick infestations (100 % efficacy) within 2 days following treatment administration. Weekly re-infestations were controlled for a minimum of 5 weeks with the efficacy ranging from 92.2 to 99.7 % based on ∼48 h post-treatment in situ counts and between 99.0 and 100 % based on ∼72 h post-treatment removal counts (p < 0.0001 at each occasion). This study demonstrated a high efficacy of both AFX + MO chewable and NexGard® chewable treatments against infestations of dogs with D. reticulatus ticks for at least 5 weeks. In addition, this study indicated no interference between the two compounds with respect to the acaricidal activity provided by AFX. PMID:26815036

  5. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85. PMID:25716658

  6. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

    PubMed

    Kurilshikov, Alexander; Livanova, Natalya N; Fomenko, Nataliya V; Tupikin, Alexey E; Rar, Vera A; Kabilov, Marsel R; Livanov, Stanislav G; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species), Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus) and Francisella (D. reticulatus). B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002). Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I. persulcatus (p = 0

  7. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Kurilshikov, Alexander; Livanova, Natalya N.; Fomenko, Nataliya V.; Tupikin, Alexey E.; Rar, Vera A.; Kabilov, Marsel R.; Livanov, Stanislav G.; Tikunova, Nina V.

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species), Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus) and Francisella (D. reticulatus). B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002). Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I. persulcatus (p = 0

  8. Control of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick infestations in rabbits vaccinated with the Q38 Subolesin/Akirin chimera.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Marinela; de la Fuente, José

    2016-06-01

    Diseases transmitted by ticks greatly impact human and animal health and their control is important for the eradication of tick-borne diseases. Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Recent results have suggested that Subolesin/Akirin (SUB/AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here, we describe the effect of vaccination with the Q38 chimera containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick larval mortality, feeding and molting. We demonstrated that Q38 vaccination had an efficacy of 99.9% and 46.4% on the control of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae by considering the cumulative effect on reducing tick survival and molting. The effect of the Q38 vaccine on larval feeding and molting is essential to reduce tick infestations and supports that Q38 might be a candidate universal antigen for the control of multiple tick species that can infest the same host. PMID:27154388

  9. Sensitivity to permethrin in a Dermacentor reticulatus population from eastern Poland in laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The action of chemical compounds on the Palaearctic tick D. reticulatus (Fabricius) (Acari: Amblyomminae) has been poorly investigated so far. Therefore, the effects of application of permethrin on engorged D. reticulatus females have been assessed, and the survival rate for the different developmental stages of the tick species in its non-parasitic phase of the life cycle was determined upon application of the pyrethroid. Methods Each engorged D. reticulatus female, egg batch, unfed larvae (50 specimens), or unfed nymphs (10 specimens) were sprayed with 20 μl of 0.015625%- 0.250% solutions of a Coopex WP preparation, which corresponded to 0.78125- 12.5 μg of permethrin, respectively. The effect of permethrin in the preoviposition and oviposition periods was assessed based on the length of the egg development period, number of females capable of laying eggs, number and weight of eggs laid by the females, and indicators of female reproductive rate. Delayed effects of the action of the various permethrin doses were determined by quantitative and qualitative analysis of the course of embryonic development and larval hatch. The effect of permethrin on survival of the different tick stages was assessed at a temperature of 25°C and 90% RH 48 hours after application of permethrin to one to three day-old D. reticulatus eggs, seven to ten-day-old unfed larvae and nymphs. Results The investigations demonstrated that at the doses applied permethrin decreased the reproductive rate of females, but only at the dose of 6.25 μg/1 specimen was the mean number of laid eggs drastically reduced, which may result in a decrease in tick abundance already in the first generation. The embryonic development of the eggs laid by the females treated with 6.25 and 12.5 μg of permethrin/1 specimen was highly disturbed. Irrespective of the permethrin dose applied, all eggs died within 48 hours after application. 100% of unfed D. reticulatus larvae and nymphs died within 48

  10. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Genchi, Marco; Prati, Paola; Vicari, Nadia; Manfredini, Andrea; Sacchi, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Bandi, Claudio; Epis, Sara; Fabbi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Results Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents), that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view. PMID:26244842

  11. Study of the sustained speed of kill of the combination of fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the combination of imidacloprid/permethrin against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, J.J.; Beugnet, F.; Ollagnier, C.; Pollmeier, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The sustained speed of kill against Dermacentor reticulatus of two topical combinations, one containing fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the other, imidacloprid/permethrin, was evaluated in dogs. Two treated groups and one untreated control group of eight adult Beagle dogs each were randomly formed based on pre-infestation rates and bodyweight. Each treatment was administered topically once on Day 0, according to the recommended label dose and instructions for use. All dogs were infested with 50 adult unfed D. reticulatus starting on Day 1, then weekly, for a total of five weeks. While most studies determine tick efficacy at 48 hours (h), in this study, all remaining ticks were counted and categorized 24 h following each infestation. The numbers of ticks (living or dead) that remained attached on treated dogs were compared to those on the control animals. The percent reduction of attached ticks (disruption of attachment) at 24 h on dogs treated with fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene remained above 92% for four weeks. The reduction of attached ticks at 24 h on dogs treated with imidacloprid/permethrin did not reach 80% during the entire study. The number of ticks attached at 24 h was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the fipronil/ amitraz/(S)-methoprene group than in the imidacloprid/permethrin group in assessments on Days 2, 15, 22, 29 and 36. When assessing efficacy based upon live ticks on treated versus control dogs, fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene 24 h efficacy was above 95% for four weeks, decreasing to 77.8% at Day 36. The 24 h efficacy of imidacloprid/permethrin ranged from 56.2% to 86.7% through Day 29, never achieving 90% throughout the study. The 24-hour efficacy of fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than imidacloprid/permethrin at all time points, including Day 36. PMID:22091462

  12. Dispersion and sampling of adult dermacentor andersoni in rangeland in Western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-host populations of adult Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Stiles) were sampled by dragging at 13 locations in Alberta, Washington, and Oregon. A total of 222 samples were taken ranging in size from 86 – 250 10 sq. m. quadrats. Simulated quadrats ranging in size from 20 – 50 sq...

  13. [Dermacentor ticks in France and Germany. Molecular biological differences in species, ecology and epidemiological implications].

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Gothe, R; Rinder, H

    1996-06-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus, two ixodid tick species occurring in France and Germany, exhibit morphologically overlapping phenotypes. The results of sequence analyses of the hypervariable rDNA gene region ITS 2 do not support conspecifidity. As in France, D. reticulatus has to be characterized as an epidemiologically effective vector of Babesia canis in Germany as well, with the endemic area being located at Kehl/Offenburg/Lahr/Emmendingen/Freiburg in Breisgau. Ecological investigations indicate that a spreading of D. reticulatus and, as a possible consequence, that of B. canis in Germany has to be expected. PMID:8767177

  14. Indicators for elevated risk of human exposure to host-seeking adults of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis A; Eisen, Rebecca J; Piesman, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    The human-biting adult stage of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) can cause tick paralysis in humans and domestic animals and is the primary tick vector in the intermountain west of the pathogens causing Colorado tick fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and tularemia. We conducted drag sampling studies in Poudre Canyon and Rocky Mountain National Park of Larimer County, CO, to determine microhabitat use patterns by host-seeking D. andersoni adults and find environmental factors signaling elevated risk of tick exposure. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was found to serve as a general indicator of areas with elevated risk of exposure to host-seeking D. andersoni adults; this likely results from a shared climate tolerance of big sagebrush and D. andersoni. Grass was the favored substrate for host-seeking ticks. Drag sampling of open grass or grass bordering rock or shrub produced abundances of D. andersoni adults significantly higher than sampling of brush. Sampling sites in Rocky Mountain National Park, relative to Poudre Canyon, were characterized by more intense usage by elk (Cervus elaphus) but decreased brush coverage, smaller brush size, and lower abundances of host-seeking D. andersoni adults. There has been a tremendous increase in the population of elk in Rocky Mountain National Park over the last decades and we speculate that this has resulted in an ecological cascade where overgrazing of vegetation by elk is followed by suppression of rodent populations, decreased tick abundance, and, ultimately, reduced risk of human exposure to D. andersoni and its associated pathogens. PMID:18697314

  15. Potential Vertical Transmission of Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) from Moose (Alces americanus) Dams to Neonates.

    PubMed

    Severud, William J; DelGiudice, Glenn D

    2016-01-01

    North American moose (Alces americanus) frequently become infested with winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus). During capture of neonatal moose in northeastern Minnesota, US, in May-June 2013 and 2014, we recovered adult ticks from neonates, presumably vertically transferred from dams, heretofore, not documented. Infestations on neonates may have population-level implications. PMID:26555113

  16. Description of New Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) Species from Malaysia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Maria A; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2015-03-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, namely, Dermacentor limbooliati n. sp., is described. Adults of this species are similar to those of Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 and Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901, with which it was previously confused. Males of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: relatively broad conscutum with slightly straightened lateral sides, conscutum widest approximately at mid-length, oval shape of pseudoscutum, central brown patch in the center of pseudoscutum broad and diffused and not continuous with central patch in posteromedian area, conscutum posterior to pseudoscutum rugose, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxa I, numerous internal spurs on coxa IV and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Females of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: rounded shape of scutum, central brown patch broad and diffused in the center of scutum, relatively long alloscutum setae, genital aperture moderately narrow V-shaped with preatrial fold bulging, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxae I and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. D. limbooliati is known from Malaysia and Vietnam where the adults were collected from vegetation, Sus scrofa resting beds, a human, and clothing. The immature stages remain unknown. PMID:26336300

  17. Description of two new species of Dermacentor Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) from Oriental Asia.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Apanaskevich, Maria A

    2016-02-01

    Dermacentor tamokensis n. sp. and Dermacentor pseudocompactus n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) are described based on adults ex wild boar and vegetation from China, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam and males ex wild boar from Nepal, respectively. Adults of D. tamokensis n. sp. are similar to those of D. taiwanensis Sugimoto, 1935 and D. atrosignatus Neumann, 1906 but can be distinguished by the colour pattern of the conscutum and scutum, the size and density of punctations on the pseudoscutum and scutum, the width of the cornua, and the shape of female genital structures. Males of D. pseudocompactus n. sp. are most similar to those of D. compactus Neumann, 1901 but can be distinguished by the colour pattern, sculpture and punctations of the conscutum, and the shape and length of the coxal spurs. PMID:26790680

  18. Description of a New Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) Species from Thailand and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Apanaskevich, Maria A

    2015-09-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, namely, Dermacentor filippovae n. sp., is described. All stages of this species are similar to those of D. auratus Supino, 1897, D. compactus Neumann, 1901, and D. limbooliati Apanaskevich and Apanaskevich, 2015 with which it was previously confused. Males of D. filippovae may be distinguished from those of D. auratus, D. compactus, and D. limbooliati by the following suite of characters: conscutum broadly oval with convex lateral sides, widest posteriorly; trapezium-like shape of pseudoscutum; central brown patch on conscutum indistinct; coxa I with internal spur narrowly triangular with tapering apex and external spur fairly long, narrowly triangular with tapering apex; numerous internal spurs on coxa IV; and trochanter I with moderate, broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Females of D. filippovae may be distinguished from those of D. auratus, D. compactus, and D. limbooliati by the following suite of characters: central patch of scutum narrow, distinct line interrupted around midlength; more rounded shape of scutum; long and distinct alloscutal setae; moderately broad U-shaped genital aperture with preatrial fold bulging anteriorly and thereafter sharply sloping to flat surface posteriorly; coxa I with internal spur narrowly triangular with tapering apex and external spur fairly long, narrowly triangular with tapering apex; and trochanter I with moderate, broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Dermacentor filippovae is known from Thailand and Vietnam where the adults were collected from wild boar, Sus scrofa L., and vegetation. PMID:26336207

  19. [Distribution, density and size structure of Oreaster reticulatus and Luidia senegalensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in Cubagua Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Tagliafico, Alejandro; Rangel, María Salomé; Rago, Néstor

    2012-09-01

    There is limited biological information about the starfish Oreaster reticulatus and the nine-armed starfish Luidia senegalensis in Venezuelan waters. These species are currently considered threatened in many localities of the Caribbean, Brazil and Colombia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe their population density, size distribution and population structure in Cubagua Island. During 2008, 52 stations located around the island were evaluated using band transects of 50m2. Each organism was counted and measured (maximum radius), and its size was compared to the maturity length reported in the literature. The results for O. reticulatus include: 167.3ind./ha; 33% juveniles and 67% adults; average size of 10.7 +/- 5cm (range: 2.2-21cm); a wide distribution around the island, with higher densities in the Eastern and Southwest areas. The 50% of the specimens were found in seagrass beds, 25% in sand, 16% in areas covered by decomposed seaweeds, 9% in oyster beds and 1% coralline patches. The densities of O. reticulatus were higher than those reported in the Caribbean, Panama and Puerto Rico, but lower than Venezuelan National Parks: Mochima and Morrocoy; as well as in the Virgin Islands and Belize. For L. senegalensis we found an average density of 40ind./ha; 95% exceeded the reported size at maturity, with mean length of 12cm +/- 3.5cm (range: 3.5-22.3cm); they were found only in 15% of the stations of which 92.5% were sandy bottoms and the other 7.5% oyster beds. The degree of aggregation of L. senegalensis was greater than O. reticulatus, with an estimated k of 0.06. However, it was not possible to compare the densities of L. senegalensis with any other study. For both species is recommended to carry out reproductive studies and to monitor their population densities to infer temporal variations. PMID:23025086

  20. Range expansion of Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) near their northern distributional limits.

    PubMed

    Dergousoff, Shaun J; Galloway, Terry D; Lindsay, L Robbin; Curry, Philip S; Chilton, Neil B

    2013-05-01

    Distributional ranges of the ticks Dermacentor andersoni Stiles and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) in the Canadian Prairies were determined by passive surveillance and active collection. These findings were compared with historical records of both species, particularly in the province of Saskatchewan, where the northern distributional limits of both tick species occur. Before the 1960s, D. variabilis and D. andersoni were allopatric in Saskatchewan; however, since then, the distribution of D. variabilis has expanded westward and northward. Although the range of D. andersoni has remained relatively stable, range expansion of D. variabilis has resulted in a zone of sympatry at least 200 km wide. Twenty-nine species of mammals and three species of birds were identified as hosts for different life stages of these ticks. PMID:23802445

  1. Description of a new Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) species, a parasite of wild mammals in Central America.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Bermúdez, Sergio E

    2013-11-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, Dermacentor panamensis n. sp., is described. All stages of this species are similar to those of Dermacentor halli McIntosh, 1931, with which it was confused for a long time. Males of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those of D. halli by the following suite of characters: narrower conscutum, broader basis capituli, shorter dorsal cornua, narrower palpi, palpal segment III tapering to its apex, legs poorly ornate: ivory colored patches present only on dorsal aspects of leg segments (mostly on legs III and IV), and internal spur of coxae I narrower and more tapering. Females of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those of D. halli by the following suite of characters: narrower and less ornate scutum, broader basis capituli, shorter dorsal cornua, larger porose areas, narrower palpi, palpal segment III tapering to its apex, legs poorly ornate: ivory colored patches present only on dorsal aspects of leg segments (mostly on legs III and IV), and internal spur of coxae I narrower and more tapering. Nymphs of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those of D. halli by clear posterolateral projections of scutum and by absence of coxal "pore" on coxae I-IV, while larvae of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those ofD. halli by shorter and less sharp lateral projections of basis capituli dorsally and slightly sharp anterior angle of basis capituli. D. panamensis is known from highlands of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama where the adults were collected from porcupines and unidentified sloth and mouse while nymphs and larvae were found on various rodents and a bat. PMID:24843922

  2. Toxicity and QSAR of chlorophenols on Lebistes reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Guyod, J L; Andre, C; Taillandier, G; Rochat, J; Boucherle, A

    1984-06-01

    The 24-h toxicity of 20 substituted chlorophenols upon Lebistes reticulatus has been determined. The biological results have been tentatively connected with several of the following six parameters: logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P); index of molecular connectivity (1 chi v); molecular refraction (RM); perimeter of the efficient section of the molecule (sigma D); constants of HAMMET (sigma); and melting point (F). A correlation is achieved using sigma D and sigma D2 with a correlation coefficient of 0.943. PMID:6734500

  3. The bacterial microbiome of dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are of medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Al...

  4. Transovarial transmission of Francisella-like endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Scoles, Glen A; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Schloeder, Brian; Kurtti, Timothy J; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2009-05-01

    Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) is a North American tick that feeds on cervids and livestock. It is a suspected vector of anaplasmosis in cattle, but its microbial flora and vector potential remain underevaluated. We screened D. albipictus ticks collected from Minnesota white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for bacteria of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene amplification and sequence analyses. We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) in nymphal and adult ticks of both sexes at 45 and 94% prevalences, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and FLEs were transovarially transmitted to F1 larvae by individual ticks at efficiencies of 10-40 and 95-100%, respectively. The FLEs were transovarially transmitted to F2 larvae obtained as progeny of adults from F1 larval ticks reared to maturity on a calf, but A. phagocytophilum were not. Based on PCR and tissue culture inoculation assays, A. phagocytophilum and FLEs were not transmitted to the calf. The amplified FLE 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of an FLE detected in a D. albipictus from Texas, whereas those of the A. phagocytophilum were nearly identical to those of probable human-nonpathogenic A. phagocytophilum WI-1 and WI-2 variants detected in white-tailed deer from central Wisconsin. However, the D. albipictus A. phagocytophilum sequences differed from that of the nonpathogenic A. phagocytophilum variant-1 associated with Ixodes scapularis ticks and white-tailed deer as well as that of the human-pathogenic A. phagocytophilum ha variant associated with I. scapularis and the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. The transovarial transmission of A. phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor ticks suggests that maintenance of A. phagocytophilum in nature may not be solely dependent on horizontal transmission. PMID:19496436

  5. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  6. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk. PMID:26910233

  7. Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Masters, E J; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    2000-08-01

    A total of 3,235 Dermacentor variabilis (Say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 D. albipictus (Packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. Peak seasonal occurrence of adult D. variabilis was from May through July with a precipitous decrease in August. Nymphal D. variabilis populations peaked in June. Peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (September) and a second peak in winter or early spring. The raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.), was the principal host of adults followed by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rodents and the eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), were the primary hosts of nymphs. The marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), was the principal host of larvae followed by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte), and white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque). All stages of D. albipictus were found only on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Numbers of adult and nymphal D. albipictus peaked in November, whereas larvae peaked in September. PMID:11201355

  8. Responses of Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis to odorants that attract haematophagous insects.

    PubMed

    Carr, A L; Roe, R M; Arellano, C; Sonenshine, D E; Schal, C; Apperson, C S

    2013-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2) ), 1-octen-3-ol, acetone, ammonium hydroxide, L-lactic-acid, dimethyl trisulphide and isobutyric acid were tested as attractants for two tick species, Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae), in dose-response bioassays using Y-tube olfactometers. Only CO(2) , acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and ammonium hydroxide elicited significant preferences from adult A. americanum, and only CO(2) was attractive to adult D. variabilis. Acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and ammonium hydroxide were separately evaluated at three doses against CO(2) (from dry ice) at a field site supporting a natural population of A. americanum nymphs and adults. Carbon dioxide consistently attracted the highest number of host-seeking ticks. However, for the first time, acetone, 1-octen-3-ol and ammonium hydroxide were shown to attract high numbers of A. americanum. Further research is needed to determine the utility of these semiochemicals as attractants in tick surveillance and area-wide management programmes. PMID:22681499

  9. Effect of Dermacentor albipictus (Acari:Ixodidae) on blood composition, weight gain and hair coat of moose, Alces alces.

    PubMed

    Glines, M V; Samuel, W M

    1989-04-01

    The physiological effects of the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, on moose, Alces alces, were investigated. Blood composition, weight gain, food intake and change in the hair coat of moose calves, four infested with D. albipictus larvae, and eight uninfested, were monitored. Infested moose groomed extensively, apparently in response to feeding nymphal and adult ticks, and developed alopecia. Other clinical signs included: chronic weight loss, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and transient decreases in serum aspartate transaminase and calcium during the period of nymphal and adult female tick engorgement. Infested animals did not become anorexic. Two moose with severe hair loss had increases in gamma globulin shortly after the onset of female tick engorgement. Results suggest that alopecia is associated with tick resistance. Animals that groom and develop hair loss likely carry fewer ticks and therefore suffer less severely from blood loss. PMID:2714121

  10. Effect of diet on population growth of the psocids Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the suitability of 11 different diets as culture media for the psocids Lepinotus reticulatus and Liposcelis entomophila. Psocids were reared on six diets made of plain cereals, namely, wheat, corn, milo, barley, oats, and rice, and five artificial diets. We found that, with the excep...

  11. Population growth and development of the psocid Lepinotus reticulatus at constant temperatures and relative humidities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of temperature and relative humidity on population growth and development of the psocid Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein. Part of this study assessed the effects of marking psocids using methylene blue, chalk powder, and fluorescent powder to differentiate nymphal stages d...

  12. Reproductive Parameters of the Parthenogenetic Psocid Lepinotus reticulatus (Psocoptera: Trogiidae) at Constant Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the reproductive parameters of the parthenogenetic psocid Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein. The lowest fecundity (21) was at 35 degrees C and the highest (41) at 27.5 degrees C. At 22.5, 25, and 27.5 degrees C, peak oviposition rates (eggs/female/week) oc...

  13. Association of Different Genetic Types of Francisella-Like Organisms with the Rocky Mountain Wood Tick (Dermacentor andersoni) and the American Dog Tick (Dermacentor variabilis) in Localities Near Their Northern Distributional Limits

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Neil B.

    2012-01-01

    Dermacentor andersoni and Dermacentor variabilis from allopatric and sympatric populations near their northern distributional limits were examined for the presence of Francisella species using molecular techniques that targeted 373 bp of the 16S rRNA gene. Although there was no evidence for the presence of Francisella tularensis in any tick, Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) were common in D. andersoni and D. variabilis adults and immatures. A significantly greater proportion of female ticks contained FLEs compared to male ticks. In addition, significantly more D. variabilis adult individuals contained multiple FLE sequence types than did D. andersoni adults. Ten different types of FLEs were identified based on the sequence data, which has implications for diagnostic tests and epidemiological studies of F. tularensis in tick populations in Canada. The three most prevalent types of FLEs have been detected previously in D. andersoni or D. variabilis from other parts of their distributional ranges, whereas the other seven FLE types have not been reported previously. A comparison of the FLEs from both allopatric and sympatric populations of these two tick species provided insight into the relative host-specificity and the modes of transmission of these tick-borne bacteria. In general, each FLE type was specific for one tick species, suggesting vertical transmission of each bacterium. However, there were a few instances of potential cross-transfer of two FLE types to the other tick species at locations where D. andersoni and D. variabilis occurred in sympatry, suggesting that there may be occasional horizontal transmission of some FLEs. PMID:22179251

  14. Reinstatement of Dermacentor bellulus (Acari: Ixodidae) as a Valid Species Previously Confused with D. taiwanensis and Comparison of All Parasitic Stages

    PubMed Central

    Apanaskevich, Maria A.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    Re-examination of Dermacentor taiwanensis Sugimoto, 1935 specimens in the United States National Tick Collection revealed that two morphologically distinct Dermacentor species were identified under this name. One of them corresponds to Sugimoto’s description of D. taiwanensis, while another species is identical to Schulze’s Dermacentor bellulus (Schulze, 1935). The latter species has not been considered valid by recent workers. D. bellulus is reinstated here as a valid species and all its stages are redescribed. The adults of D. taiwanensis are also redescribed, and its immature stages are described for the first time. Males and females of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the conscutum and scutum, color pattern, genital structures, size of the palpi and cornua, and the spurs of coxa I. Nymphs of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the scutum, basis capituli, and the hypostomal dentition. Larvae of D. bellulus can be differentiated from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the basis capituli, and the degree of development of the auriculae and spur on palpal segment III ventrally. D. bellulus has been recorded from China, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars, bears, panda, dog, and human; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, ferret-badger, and bamboo-partridge. D. taiwanensis is found in China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, mustelids, and domestic dog. PMID:26335464

  15. Reinstatement of Dermacentor bellulus (Acari: Ixodidae) as a Valid Species Previously Confused with D. taiwanensis and Comparison of All Parasitic Stages.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Maria A; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2015-07-01

    Re-examination of Dermacentor taiwanensis Sugimoto, 1935 specimens in the United States National Tick Collection revealed that two morphologically distinct Dermacentor species were identified under this name. One of them corresponds to Sugimoto's description of D. taiwanensis, while another species is identical to Schulze's Dermacentor bellulus (Schulze, 1935). The latter species has not been considered valid by recent workers. D. bellulus is reinstated here as a valid species and all its stages are redescribed. The adults of D. taiwanensis are also redescribed, and its immature stages are described for the first time. Males and females of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the conscutum and scutum, color pattern, genital structures, size of the palpi and cornua, and the spurs of coxa I. Nymphs of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the scutum, basis capituli, and the hypostomal dentition. Larvae of D. bellulus can be differentiated from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the basis capituli, and the degree of development of the auriculae and spur on palpal segment III ventrally. D. bellulus has been recorded from China, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars, bears, panda, dog, and human; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, ferret-badger, and bamboo-partridge. D. taiwanensis is found in China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, mustelids, and domestic dog. PMID:26335464

  16. Laboratory development of Dermacentor marginatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) at two temperatures.

    PubMed

    Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia Ana; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Baciu, Horea; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Ştefănuţ, Cristina Laura; Lefkaditis, Menelaos; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-10-01

    The influence of two temperatures on the development of Dermacentor marginatus evolutive cycle was studied. Tests performed under controlled laboratory conditions at 21 °C, 80 % RH and 27 °C, RH 80 %, on ten fully engorged female ticks collected from naturally infested goats, in Cluj County, Romania. Hatched larvae were fed on white mice and the nymphs and adults on guinea pigs. The following parameters were evaluated: egg incubation; pre-feeding, feeding and pre-moulting for larvae and nymphs; pre-feeding, feeding, pre-oviposition and oviposition for females. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed in: egg incubation period (29.4 ± 1.07 at 21 °C; 5.9 ± 0.73 at 27 °C) and pre-moulting duration of larvae (18.9 ± 1.02 at 21 °C; 6.1 ± 0.58 at 27 °C) and nymphs (21.3 ± 0.87 at 21 °C; 19.9 ± 0.71 at 27 °C). The average duration of the developmental cycle was 133.9 days (range 122-154 days) at 21 °C, and 94.2 days (range 83-111 days) at 27 °C. PMID:26122968

  17. The bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Gall, Cory A; Reif, Kathryn E; Scoles, Glen A; Mason, Kathleen L; Mousel, Michelle; Noh, Susan M; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-08-01

    Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically different susceptibilities to A. marginale was characterized. In this study, the microbiome was disrupted and then ticks were exposed to A. marginale or Francisella novicida to determine whether the microbiome correlated with pathogen susceptibility. Our study showed that an increase in proportion and quantity of Rickettsia bellii in the microbiome was negatively correlated to A. marginale levels in ticks. Furthermore, a decrease in Francisella endosymbionts was associated with lower F. novicida infection levels, demonstrating a positive pathogen-endosymbiont relationship. We demonstrate that endosymbionts and pathogens have varying interactions, and suggest that microbiome manipulation may provide a possible method for biocontrol by decreasing pathogen susceptibility of ticks. PMID:26882265

  18. Short day-triggered quiescence promotes water conservation in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Rosendale, Andrew J; Benoit, Joshua B

    2016-04-01

    A short day-long day exposure comparison of water balance characteristics throughout the life history of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, was conducted to examine how this tick survives winter-associated dryness. Larvae, nymphs, and adults under potential diapause-inducing conditions (short day, 20 °C) have low water loss rates compared to long day exposed ticks. Above the critical equilibrium activity, these nonfed ticks show greater water gain from lower water vapor activities. In contrast to nonfed stages, eggs and blood-engorged stages (fed larva, fed nymph) were enhanced for water conservation independent of short day exposure and did not display reduced water loss rates under short day conditions. This short day-prompted response in nonfed ticks was distinguished from a genetically programmed diapause as noted in other arthropods by: (1) reduction in water loss was temporary and could be reversed quickly by transferring to long day for only a single day, then re-triggered by returning to short day conditions; (2) switch between low and high water loss rates could be induced multiple times and for multiple different stages; and (3) response by ticks was to the photoperiod they were under, not the condition that was experienced by previous fed stages or in the mother in the case of eggs. Furthermore, short day had no impact on altering body water content, dehydration tolerance limit, instar yields, or developmental stadia. We conclude that a short day-triggered quiescence reduces desiccation stress associated with overwintering in nonfed ticks. This effect on water conservation due to short day exposure is more pronounced for subadults and is likely due to their increased sensitivity to water loss as a result of their smaller size, which is critical to prevent dehydration during the dry winter periods. PMID:26694603

  19. The ecological niche of Dermacentor marginatus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Walter, Melanie; Brugger, Katharina; Rubel, Franz

    2016-06-01

    The ixodid tick Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer, 1776) is endemic throughout southern Europe in the range of 33-51 (°) N latitude. In Germany, however, D. marginatus was exclusively reported in the Rhine valley and adjacent areas. Its northern distribution limit near Giessen is located at the coordinates 8.32 (°) E/50.65 (°) N. Particularly with regard to the causative agents of rickettsioses, tularemia, and Q fever, the observed locations as well as the potential distribution of the vector D. marginatus in Germany are of special interest. Applying a dataset of 118 georeferenced tick locations, the ecological niche for D. marginatus was calculated. It is described by six climate parameters based on temperature and relative humidity and another six environmental parameters including land cover classes and altitude. The final ecological niche is determined by the frequency distributions of these 12 parameters at the tick locations. Main parameters are the mean annual temperature (frequency distribution characterized by the minimum, median, and maximum of 6.1, 9.9, and 12.2 (°)C), the mean annual relative humidity (73.7, 76.7, and 80.9 %), as well as the altitude (87, 240, 1108 m). The climate and environmental niche is used to estimate the habitat suitability of D. marginatus in Germany by applying the BIOCLIM model. Finally, the potential spatial distribution of D. marginatus was calculated and mapped by determining an optimal threshold value of the suitability index, i.e., the maximum of sensitivity and specificity (Youden index). The model performance is expressed by AUC = 0.91. PMID:26993325

  20. The characterization and manipulation of the bacterial microbiome of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In North America, ticks are the most economically impactful vectors of human and animal pathogens. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae), transmits Rickettsia rickettsii and Anaplasma marginale to humans and cattle, respectively. In recent years, studies h...

  1. Transovarial Transmission of Francisella-Like Endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) is a North American Ixodid tick that parasitizes deer species but also infests livestock. It is a suspected vector of the agent of anaplasmosis in cattle herds, Anaplasma marginale, but its microbial flora and emerging pathogen vector potential remain under-evaluated...

  2. The Dermacentor (Acari, Ixodida, Ixodidae) of Mexico: hosts, geographical distribution and new records

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Robbins, Richard G.; Guglielmone, Alberto A.; Montiel-Parra, Griselda; Rivas, Gerardo; Pérez, Tila María

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Distribution and host data from published literature and previously unpublished collection records are provided for all nine species of the Holarctic tick genus Dermacentor that are known to occur in Mexico, as well as two species that may occur there. Parasite-host and host-parasite lists are presented, together with a gazetteer of collection localities and their geographical coordinates. PMID:27110147

  3. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colarado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both ...

  4. The usefulness of a sediment bioassay with the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus in tributyltin monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Laranjeiro, Filipe; Pérez, Sara; Navarro, Patricia; Carrero, José Antonio; Beiras, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Despite the use of tributyltin (TBT) had been banned worldwide in 2008 there is still evidence of its deleterious presence in environment. We evaluate the usefulness of a 28days sediment bioassay with Nassarius reticulatus females to monitor TBT pollution, using imposex as endpoint. In addition, butyltins were determined in sediments and tissues, and, whenever posible, imposex was assessed in native N. reticulatus at the same sites where sediments were sampled. In the bioassay, a significant increase in imposex parameters was obtained with three sediments (Vi2, Vi3, and Vi4). No correlation was found between this and TBT concentrations in sediment although good correlations were obtained for TBT in tissues, putting in evidence TBT bioavailability in sediment. A significant decrease in imposex from 2008 to 2013 in native snails was only observed at sites that did not cause any effect in the bioassay. In contrast, imposex levels in 2013 were kept as high as 2008 in one of the sites where a significant imposex increase in the bioassay was observed. The bioassay proves thus to be a practical and ecological relevant tool, as: (i) it can be conducted in sites with no native populations of snails, (ii) it provides early identification of polluted sites, anticipating future imposex levels or early identification of recovering, and (iii) it yields information on the bioavailable fraction of the TBT in the sediment. Therefore, this tool can be of extreme usefulness under the scope of recent European legislative frameworks. PMID:26318117

  5. Reproducible and Quantitative Model of Infection of Dermacentor variabilis with the Live Vaccine Strain of Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Jenifer; Maier, Tamara; Casey, Monika; Padmore, Lavinia; Sato, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen life cycles in mammalian hosts have been studied extensively, but studies with arthropod vectors represent considerable challenges. In part this is due to the difficulty of delivering a reproducible dose of bacteria to follow arthropod-associated replication. We have established reproducible techniques to introduce known numbers of Francisella tularensis strain LVS from mice into Dermacentor variabilis nymphs. Using this model infection system, we performed dose-response infection experiments and followed bacterial replication through the molt to adults and at later time points. During development to adults, bacteria replicate to high numbers and can be found associated with the gut tissues, salivary glands, and hemolymph of adult ticks. Further, we can transmit a mutant of LVS (LVS ΔpurMCD) that cannot replicate in macrophages in vitro or in mice to nymphs. Our data show that the LVS ΔpurMCD mutant cannot be transstadially transmitted from nymphs to adult ticks. We then show that a plasmid-complemented strain of this mutant is recoverable in adult ticks and necessary for bacterial replication during the molt. In a mixed-infection assay (ΔpurMCD mutant versus ΔpurMCD complement), 98% of the recovered bacteria retained the plasmid marker. These data suggest that the ΔpurMCD mutation cannot be rescued by the presence a complemented strain in a mixed infection. Importantly, our infection model provides a platform to test specific mutants for their replication in ticks, perform competition studies, and use other genetic techniques to identify F. tularensis genes that are expressed or required in this unique environment. PMID:25362054

  6. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent reexamination of collection lots stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed adult specimens of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae) reared from field-collected nymphs, which allowed us to associate field-collected unidentified nymphs and larvae with this species. Nymphs of D. compactus can be easily distinguished from those of other congeneric species by the shape of the scutum and spiracular plate, the hypostome dentition, and the size of the spurs on the coxae. Larvae of this species can be distinguished by the shape and sculpture of the scutum, the shape of basis capituli, the absence of auriculae, and the size of the spurs on coxae II and III. Both nymphs and larvae feed mostly on various species of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Considerably fewer nymphs and larvae were found on murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae), domestic dogs (Carnivora: Canidae), and a snake (Squamata: Colubridae). PMID:27095664

  7. Construction and nanomechanical properties of the exoskeleton of the barnacle, Amphibalanus reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ravi

    2011-12-01

    Barnacles are some of the major inhabitants of intertidal zones and have calcite-based exoskeleton to anchor and armor their tissues. Structural characterization studies of the specie Ambhibalanus reticulatus were performed to understand the construction of the exoskeleton which forms a light-weight yet stiff structure. The parietal shell is constructed of six compartments to yield a truncated cone geometry, which is neatly fixed onto the basal shell that attaches the organism to the substrate surface. The connections among the different compartments happen through sutured edges and also have chemical interlocking to make the junctions impermeable. Also, the shell parts are furnished with hollow channels reducing the overall mass of the construction. The structure and functions of different parts of the exoskeleton are identified and outlined. Finally, the mechanical properties such as modulus, hardness and fracture toughness of the exoskeleton obtained by indentation techniques are discussed. PMID:21911065

  8. Effect of Rickettsia rickettsii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection on the Biological Parameters and Survival of Its Tick Vector-Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Lauren; Snellgrove, Alyssa; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a potentially fatal tick-borne disease spread from North America to Argentina. The major vectors of R. rickettsii in the United States are Dermacentor andersoni Stiles and Dermacentor variabilis (Say). It is generally believed that vector ticks serve as major reservoirs of R. rickettsii in nature; however, the ability of ticks to support the indefinite perpetuation of R. rickettsii has been challenged by reports of deleterious effects of rickettsial infection on D. andersoni. To better elucidate the relationship of the pathogen with D. variabilis, we assessed the effects of R. rickettsii on the survival, fertility, and fecundity of D. variabilis. We used an isolate of R. rickettsii (Di-6), originally acquired from an opossum caught in Virginia, and ticks from a laboratory colony established from adult D. variabilis also collected in Virginia. Overall, infection with R. rickettsii protracted the feeding periods of all life stages of ticks. Infected nymphal and adult ticks experienced a slight decrease in feeding success compared with the uninfected colony, but neither larval nor nymphal molting success was affected. Infected females reached smaller engorgement weights, were less efficient in conversion of bloodmeal into eggs, and produced smaller egg clutches with a lower proportion of eggs hatching. However, no sudden die-off was observed among infected ticks, and longevity was not decreased due to R. rickettsii infection in any stage. Although infection with the studied isolate of R. rickettsii caused slight decrease in fecundity in sympatric vector ticks, no obvious deleterious effects were observed. PMID:26494822

  9. First report on the occurrence of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor silvarum in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rickettsioses are among both the longest known and most recently recognized infectious diseases. Although new spotted fever group rickettsiae have been isolated in many parts of the world including China, Little is known about the epidemiology of Rickettsia pathogens in ticks from Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Methods In an attempt to assess the potential risk of rickettsial infection after exposure to ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, a total of 200 Dermacentor silvarum ticks collected in Xinyuan district were screened by polymerase chain reaction based on the outer membrane protein A gene. Results 22 of the 200 specimens (11%) were found to be positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of OmpA sequences identified two rickettsial species, Rickettsia raoultii (4.5%) and Rickettsia slovaca (6.5%). Conclusions This study has reported the occurrence of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia slovaca in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China and suggests that Dermacentor silvarum could be involved in the transmission of rickettsial agents in China. Further studies on the characterization and culture of rickettsial species found in Dermacentor silvarum should be performed to further clarify this. Additionally, the screening of human specimens for rickettsial disease in this region will define the incidence of infection. PMID:22257726

  10. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  11. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus).

    PubMed

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Mumpuni; Riyanto, Awal; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades), there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus) taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995) and repeat surveys (2015). Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself. PMID:27391138

  12. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Natusch, Daniel J. D.; Lyons, Jessica A.; Mumpuni; Riyanto, Awal; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades), there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus) taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995) and repeat surveys (2015). Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself. PMID:27391138

  13. Population dynamics of multiple symbionts in the hard tick, Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Limeng; Li, Lingxia; Liu, Jiannan; Yu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Jingze

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported that Coxiella-like, Rickettsia-like and Arsenophonus-like symbionts could simultaneously coexist in Dermacentor silvarum. In this study, we examined their burdens and population dynamics in a single host during the host life cycle using quantitative PCR. Our results showed that multiple symbionts exhibited different abundances and varying trends in the tick host. Coxiella-like and Rickettsia-like symbionts were found at high densities in large quantities that fluctuated with time. This may coincide with oogenesis and mating of the host. Our findings provide insight into symbiont-tick interactions that lay the foundation for future studies. PMID:26565930

  14. Prevalence of Rickettsia species in Dermacentor variabilis ticks from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wood, Heidi; Dillon, Liz; Patel, Samir N; Ralevski, Filip

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the prevalence of rickettsial species in Dermacentor ticks in eastern Canada. In this study, Dermacentor ticks from the province of Ontario, Canada, were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsial (SFGR) species, Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected in any ticks tested, but R. montanensis was detected at a prevalence of 2.2% in D. variabilis (17/778). Two other SFGR species, R. parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae, were detected individually in 2 Amblyomma maculatum ticks. Rickettsia peacockii, a non-pathogenic endosymbiont, was detected in two D. andersonii ticks. Given the highly abundant nature of D. variabilis, surveillance for human pathogens in this species of tick has important public health implications, but the lack of detection of known human pathogens indicates a low risk of infection via this tick species in Ontario. However, the detection of R. parkeri in an adventive A. maculatum tick indicates that health care providers should be aware of the possibility of spotted fever rickettsioses in individuals with a history of travel outside of Ontario and symptoms compatible with a spotted fever rickettsiosis. Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis, human pathogens also potentially transmitted by D. variabilis, were not detected in a subset of the ticks. PMID:27318438

  15. Evidence for competition between Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus feeding concurrently on white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Baer-Lehman, Marcie L; Light, Theo; Fuller, Nathan W; Barry-Landis, Katherine D; Kindlin, Craig M; Stewart, Richard L

    2012-11-01

    Competition among ticks, and among ectoparasites generally, has rarely been demonstrated. Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus are both hard ticks commonly found feeding on deer harvested at Letterkenny Army Depot, in south central Pennsylvania, USA. The two species have contrasting life histories resulting in D. albipictus spending notably more time on the shared host. We hypothesized that this would give D. albipictus an advantage in locating and occupying optimal attachment sites (highly vascularized areas like the head and ears). Ticks were collected from 224 hunter-killed deer in December 2005 and November 2006 to determine if there is evidence of competition for attachment sites when these two species concurrently infest deer. A timed sample (3 min per region) of representative ticks was collected from the head (ears, face and neck regions) and body (axillae regions). Ixodes scapularis was more abundant and prevalent overall than D. albipictus. Dermacentor albipictus was found almost exclusively on the head, whereas I. scapularis was more evenly distributed, but somewhat more abundant on the body than on the head. The proportion of I. scapularis on the head was reduced at high D. albipictus abundances, but I. scapularis abundance did not alter the distribution of D. albipictus. This study supports the hypothesis of competition for preferred attachment sites between these two species of ticks, and suggests that D. albipictus may be competitively dominant over I. scapularis on the head region of concurrently infested white-tailed deer. PMID:22644381

  16. Immunological response of tick-naive white-tailed deer to infestation with Dermacentor albipictus, a one host tick

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are competent alternative hosts for cattle fever ticks, and their abundance throughout south Texas is compromising efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP). We artificially infested white-tailed deer with a model one-host tick, Dermacentor albipictus (winter tic...

  17. Susceptibility of Four Tick Species Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) to Nootkatone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil nootkatone has shown acaricidal activity on ticks. The toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays using a vial coating technique against unfed nymphs of four Ixodid ticks: Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicepha...

  18. Genetic isolation by distance among populations of the netted dog whelk Nassarius reticulatus (L.) along the European Atlantic coastline.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Lucía; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Ruiz, José M; Sotka, Erik E

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of the average distances by which marine larvae disperse are generally poorly described, despite the central role that larval dispersal plays in the demographic connectivity of populations across geographic space. Here, we describe the population genetic structure and average dispersal distance of the netted dog whelk Nassarius reticulatus (L.) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Prosobranchia), a widespread member of European intertidal communities, using DNA sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). An analysis of 156 individuals from 6 locations spread across approximately 1700 km of the European Atlantic coastline revealed weak and nonsignificant population structure (overall Phi(ST) = 0.00013). However, pairwise Phi(ST) values revealed a slight but significant increase in genetic isolation with geographic distance (IBD), suggesting that populations are not panmictic across the sampled geographic range. If we assume that the isolation by distance is maintained by a stable, stepping stone model of gene flow, then the slope of the IBD is consistent with an average larval dispersal distance of approximately 70 km per generation. The spatial scale of larval dispersal in N. reticulatus is consistent with the life cycle of the species (planktotrophic veliger lasting 30-60 days before competent to settle). A mismatch analysis of the COI sequences revealed a signature of an ancient demographic expansion that began 61 500-160,000 years ago, well before the most recent Pleistocene glaciation event. The greatest levels of genetic diversity occur within the middle latitudes of the whelk's geographic range, consistent with the notion that historic populations of N. reticulatus might have expanded northward and southward from the centrally located Bay of Biscay. PMID:17728274

  19. Surgical management of maxillary and premaxillary osteomyelitis in a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    PubMed

    Latney, La'Toya V; McDermott, Colin; Scott, Gregory; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M; Beguesse, Kyla; Sánchez, Melissa D; Lewis, John R

    2016-05-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old reticulated python (Python reticulatus) was evaluated because of a 2-week history of wheezing and hissing. CLINICAL FINDINGS Rostral facial cellulitis and deep gingival pockets associated with missing rostral maxillary teeth were evident. Tissues of the nares were swollen, resulting in an audible wheeze during respiration. Multiple scars and superficial facial wounds attributed to biting by live prey were apparent. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral, focal, rostral maxillary osteomyelitis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Wound irrigation, antimicrobials, and anti-inflammatory drug treatment resulted in reduced cellulitis. A 3-week regimen that included empirical antimicrobial treatment and improved husbandry resulted in resolution of the respiratory sounds and partial healing of bite wounds, but radiographic evaluation revealed progressive maxillary osteomyelitis. Microbial culture of blood yielded scant gram-positive cocci and Bacillus spp, which were suspected sample contaminants. Bilateral partial maxillectomies were performed; microbial culture and histologic examination of resected bone confirmed osteomyelitis with gram-positive cocci. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was initiated on the basis of microbial susceptibility tests. Four months later, follow-up radiography revealed premaxillary osteomyelitis; surgery was declined, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reinstituted. Eight months after surgery, the patient was reevaluated because of recurrent clinical signs; premaxillectomy was performed, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed on the basis of microbial culture of bone and microbial susceptibility testing. Resolution of osteomyelitis was confirmed by CT 11 months after the initial surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Focal maxillectomies and premaxillectomy were successfully performed in a large python. Surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial treatment

  20. Dynamics, migration and growth of Nassarius reticulatus (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) colonizing saline Lake Grevelingen (SW Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeck, R. H. D.

    The marine snail Nassarius reticulatus colonized Lake Grevelingen after its creation in 1971. A population explosion took place in 1976. Dynamics, growth and biomass development were studied during 1976 and 1977. One generation a year was observed, with 1976 settlement around August 1. Densities at a 12 m deep station were mostly below 10 m -2, at two shallow (1 m) stations numbers increased to 40 to 60 m -2, as a result of immigration. Numbers at two 3 m stations, with peak values of 200 m -2, showed a cyclic pattern with a minimum in July 1977 due to migratory movements. Biomass increased over the period of investigation. A lowest maximum biomass was found at 12 m (0.16 g ADW m -2) and a highest of 5.0 g at a 3 m station. The lake average in April 1977 amounted to a value between 1.2 and 2.1 g ADW m -2. In this survey the dominant 1976 year class showed a gradual decline from ˜ 300 ind·m -2 between 2 and 3.5 m to ˜ 60 m -2 in water deeper than 10 m. Growth rates were also depth dependent. Within the range of 2 to 25 m juveniles born in 1976 showed a maximum mean size of 6.8 mm after one growing season at 5 to 6 m depth against only 3.6 mm in deep water. Highest mean values after 2 growing-seasons, viz. 16 mm, were reached at the 1 m deep stations, which figure might be inflated by size-dependent immigration. Growth was poor (8 mm) at the 12 m station. Growth rates are similar to Swedish observations, but were reached at 10 to 50 times higher densities in Lake Grevelingen.

  1. Interspecific differences between small mammals as hosts of immature Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and a model for detection of high risk areas of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kollars, T M

    1996-10-01

    Fourteen species of small mammals were captured from July 1990 through August 1991 in Tennessee, from which 1,217 immature Dermacentor variabilis and 1 Ixodes dentatus were collected. Mammal species were given scores of importance (TS) as hosts to immature D. variabilis based on mean intensity and prevalence. The rice rat ranked the highest, with a TS = 5, followed by the golden mouse TS = 4, white-footed mouse TS = 3, pine vole TS = 2, cotton rat TS = 1, with the Norway rat, house mouse, and short-tailed shrew all having a TS = 0. Assigning a TS allows a quantitative method for differentiating and ranking small mammals as hosts for immature D. variabilis. Relative abundance of a species can also be important in determining D. variabilis populations, even with a low TS. The potential of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSFP) to occur in an area was estimated using the total score of small mammal hosts in an area and multiplying the relative abundance of important host species. The RMSFP of a site, based only upon small mammal species composition and relative abundance of important host species, was an accurate estimate of adult D. variabilis infesting raccoons and opossums at that trap site (P < or = 0.001). A RMSFP of 1.61 is needed to produce an estimated 252 adults per ha (RMSF threshold) at 98% survival of engorged immature ticks (P < 0.001). PMID:8885876

  2. Defending the fort: a role for defensin-2 in limiting Rickettsia montanensis infection of Dermacentor variabilis

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R S; McClure, J C; Sears, K T; Chung, A; Rahman, M S; Ceraul, S M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of tick defensins is evidenced by their expression in a wide variety of tick tissues and prevalence across many tick genera. To date, the functional and biological significance of defensin-2 as a rickettsiastatic or rickettsiacidal antimicrobial peptide has not been addressed. In a previous study, defensin-2 transcription was shown to increase in Dermacentor variabilis ticks challenged with Rickettsia montanensis. In the present study, the hypothesis that defensin-2 is functional as a rickettsiastatic and/or rickettsiacidal antimicrobial peptide is tested. We show that defensin-2 plays a role in reducing burden after acquisition of Rickettsia montanensis through capillary feeding. Moreover, defensin-2 is shown to associate with R. montanensis in vitro and in vivo, causing cytoplasmic leakiness. PMID:24779891

  3. Screening and Identification of Antigenic Proteins from the Hard Tick Dermacentor silvarum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantian; Cui, Xuejiao; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Hui; Wu, Meng; Zeng, Hua; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingze; Hu, Yonghong

    2015-12-01

    In order to explore tick proteins as potential targets for further developing vaccine against ticks, the total proteins of unfed female Dermacentor silvarum were screened with anti-D. silvarum serum produced from rabbits. The results of western blot showed that 3 antigenic proteins of about 100, 68, and 52 kDa were detected by polyclonal antibodies, which means that they probably have immunogenicity. Then, unfed female tick proteins were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and target proteins (100, 68, and 52 kDa) were cut and analyzed by LC-MS/MS, respectively. The comparative results of peptide sequences showed that they might be vitellogenin (Vg), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), respectively. These data will lay the foundation for the further validation of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by D. silvarum. PMID:26797451

  4. Screening and Identification of Antigenic Proteins from the Hard Tick Dermacentor silvarum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiantian; Cui, Xuejiao; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Hui; Wu, Meng; Zeng, Hua; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingze; Hu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore tick proteins as potential targets for further developing vaccine against ticks, the total proteins of unfed female Dermacentor silvarum were screened with anti-D. silvarum serum produced from rabbits. The results of western blot showed that 3 antigenic proteins of about 100, 68, and 52 kDa were detected by polyclonal antibodies, which means that they probably have immunogenicity. Then, unfed female tick proteins were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and target proteins (100, 68, and 52 kDa) were cut and analyzed by LC-MS/MS, respectively. The comparative results of peptide sequences showed that they might be vitellogenin (Vg), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), respectively. These data will lay the foundation for the further validation of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by D. silvarum. PMID:26797451

  5. Genetic differentiation among populations of the beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae) in a fragmented and a continuous landscape.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, H; Rukke, B A; Jorde, P E; Ims, R A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic differentiation among local populations of the fungivorous beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied in two contrasting landscapes: one heavily fragmented with forest fragments of variable size surrounded by inhabitable agricultural fields, the other an old forest providing a continuous habitat. The genetic structure of the beetle within each of the two contrasting areas was investigated by means of protein electrophoresis, screening four polymorphic loci in 20 populations from each area. In both areas there were significant genetic differences among local populations, but on average differentiation in the fragmented area was three times greater than in the continuous one, strongly indicating a genetic isolation effect of habitat fragmentation. These genetic results are in accordance with previous studies on dispersal in this species. PMID:10886382

  6. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  7. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva.

    PubMed

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Turse, Joshua E; Scoles, Glen A; Purvine, Samuel O; Nicora, Carrie D; Clauss, Therese R W; Ueti, Massaro W; Brown, Wendy C; Brayton, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified. PMID:25110293

  8. Prevalence, Distribution, and Development of an Ecological Niche Model of Dermacentor variabilis Ticks Positive for Rickettsia montanensis.

    PubMed

    St John, Heidi K; Adams, Melissa L; Masuoka, Penny M; Flyer-Adams, Johanna G; Jiang, Ju; Rozmajzl, Patrick J; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Richards, Allen L

    2016-04-01

    Rickettsia montanensis has long been considered a nonpathogenic member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae. However, the infection potential of R. montanensis is being revisited in light of its recent association with a case of human infection in the United States and the possibility that additional cases may have been misdiagnosed as Rocky Mountain spotted fever. To this end, DNA was extracted from American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) removed from Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and their dependents at DoD medical treatment facilities (MTFs) during 2002-2012 (n = 4792). These 4792 samples were analyzed for the presence of R. montanensis (n =  36; 2.84%) and all vector DNA was confirmed to be of D. variabilis origin using a novel Dermacentor genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure, Derm, and a novel Dermacentor species multilocus sequence typing assay. To assess the risk of R. montanensis infection, the positive and negative samples were geographically mapped utilizing MTF site locations. Tick localities were imported into a geographical information systems (GIS) program, ArcGIS, for mapping and analysis. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) program, Maxent, was used to estimate the probability of tick presence in eastern United States using locations of both R. montanensis-positive and -negative ticks, climate, and elevation data. The ENM for R. montanensis-positive D. variabilis estimated high probabilities of the positive ticks occurring in two main areas, including the northern Midwest and mid-Atlantic portions of the northeastern regions of United States, whereas the R. montanensis-negative D. variabilis tick model showed a wider estimated range. The results suggest that R. montanensis-positive and -negative D. variabilis have different ranges where humans may be at risk and are influenced by similar and different factors. PMID:26900673

  9. First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V.; Khalil, Sayed M.; Roe, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction. This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef

  10. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Robert S.; Mun, Jeomhee; Peribáñez, Miguel A.; Fedorova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) is infected occasionally with the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of B. burgdorferi. The relationship of the pajahuello tick (Ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported. The primary bridging vector of both bacterial zoonotic agents to humans is the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus). Because of the spatial and temporal overlap of D. occidentalis and O. coriaceus populations with those of I. pacificus in natural foci of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in northwestern California, we conducted field and laboratory studies to determine if the Pacific Coast tick or the pajahuello tick potentially may serve as secondary vectors of either bacterium. Our findings reconfirmed that wild-caught D. occidentalis ticks are infected infrequently with B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum, but some adult ticks from dense woodlands or chaparral were found to contain 2 important veterinary pathogens for the first time (Anaplasma bovis, A. ovis). The high prevalence of A. bovis infection (4.3%, n=185 ticks) within chaparral-derived ticks suggests that D. occidentalis could be an efficient vector of this rickettsia. Experimental attempts to transmit borreliae or Anaplasma spp. that may have been present in >100 wild-caught D. occidentalis adults to naïve rabbits were unsuccessful. Anaplasma spp. were not detected in O. coriaceus, but one (4.3%) of 23 nymphs was infected with B. bissettii. This finding and an antecedent report of a B. burgdorferi-like spirochete from the same tick species demonstrate that O. coriaceus sometimes acquires and transstadially passes Lyme disease group spirochetes. I. pacificus nymphs inhabiting a woodland nidus of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum had a 5-fold higher prevalence of

  11. Nonrandom Distribution of Vector Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) Infected by Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Goethert, Heidi K.; Telford, Sam R.

    2009-01-01

    The island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of a sustained outbreak of tularemia due to Francisella tularensis tularensis. Dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, appear to be critical in the perpetuation of the agent there. Tularemia has long been characterized as an agent of natural focality, stably persisting in characteristic sites of transmission, but this suggestion has never been rigorously tested. Accordingly, we sought to identify a natural focus of transmission of the agent of tularemia by mapping the distribution of PCR-positive ticks. From 2004 to 2007, questing D. variabilis were collected from 85 individual waypoints along a 1.5 km transect in a field site on Martha's Vineyard. The positions of PCR-positive ticks were then mapped using ArcGIS. Cluster analysis identified an area approximately 290 meters in diameter, 9 waypoints, that was significantly more likely to yield PCR-positive ticks (relative risk 3.3, P = 0.001) than the rest of the field site. Genotyping of F. tularensis using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis on PCR-positive ticks yielded 13 different haplotypes, the vast majority of which was one dominant haplotype. Positive ticks collected in the cluster were 3.4 times (relative risk = 3.4, P<0.0001) more likely to have an uncommon haplotype than those collected elsewhere from the transect. We conclude that we have identified a microfocus where the agent of tularemia stably perpetuates and that this area is where genetic diversity is generated. PMID:19247435

  12. Gene cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the protective antigen subolesin in Dermacentor silvarum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yonghong; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Duo; Li, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantian; Yang, Shujie; Liu, Jingze

    2014-02-01

    Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens. PMID:24623890

  13. Gene Cloning, Expression and Immunogenicity of the Protective Antigen Subolesin in Dermacentor silvarum

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yonghong; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Duo; Li, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantian; Yang, Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens. PMID:24623890

  14. Review of the reticulated python (Python reticulatus Schneider, 1801) with the description of new subspecies from Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auliya, M.; Mausfeld, P.; Schmitz, A.; Böhme, W.

    2002-04-01

    The geographically widespread Python reticulatus, the world's longest snake, has been largely neglected by taxonomists. Dwarfed individuals from Tanahjampea Island, Indonesia, differ strikingly in morphology. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed using a 345-bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene for 12 specimens from different populations. Both genetic differences and morphological characters distinctly revealed two taxonomic subunits. The island populations of Tanahjampea and Selayar form two monophyletic lineages, supported by high bootstrap values, with distinct differences in color pattern and scalation. We consider these forms to represent two new subspecies. The Tanahjampea form is genetically related to populations of the Sunda Islands and mainland Southeast Asia, whereas the Selayar form is related to populations of Southwest Sulawesi. We conclude that, due to strong directional surface currents in this region, gene flow between Tanahjampea and Selayar is prevented. Sea-level changes during the Pleistocene probably contributed to the isolation of the two taxa described. Aspects of ecology and conservation status are briefly discussed. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0320-4.

  15. Heavy metals in Semarang`s urban streams: Spatial distribution and bioindication using the guppy (Lepistes reticulatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Widianarko, B.

    1996-12-31

    A field survey on cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc was performed in Semarang, the fifth largest city in Indonesia. Water, sediment, and fish samples were collected from 101 grids of 2 x 2 km. The objectives of the study were (1) to identify the spatial distribution of metals in the sediments of the greater Semarang area, (2) to estimate the background concentrations of the metals present in Semarang, (3) to provide a simple tool for deriving standards for metals in the sediment, and (4) to explore the potential use of the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus) as a bioindicator of urban metal pollution. To map the spatial distribution of the metals, concentrations of each metal in sediment were plotted against the corresponding city coordinate. On the basis of these plots, background concentrations of the metals were estimated. A combined pollution index can be derived thereafter by calculating the difference between metals concentrations from a particular grid and their respective background concentrations. Potential use of the guppy as a bioindicator is assessed, based on a comparison on several demographic parameters (i.e., size structure, sex ratio, reproductive success and energetic status) between unpolluted and heavily polluted populations. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Transmission of Babesia caballi by Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Is Restricted to One Generation in the Absense of Alimentary Reinfection on a Susceptible Equine Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, is the natural vector of Babesia caballi in the Americas; the distribution of this tick in the United States is limited to the southernmost parts of Florida and Texas. Babesia caballi, one of the etiologic agents of equine babesiosis, occurs widely throug...

  17. The prevention of attachment and the detachment effects of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis on dogs.

    PubMed

    Prullage, Joseph B; Hair, Jakie A; Everett, William R; Yoon, Stephen S; Cramer, Luiz G; Franke, Shawn; Cornelison, Katie; Hunter, James S

    2011-07-15

    A novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated for the prevention of attachment of ticks and its ability to cause detachment of ticks. For the two prevention of attachment studies, 20 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). Each dog was exposed to 50 adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis weekly starting 24h after treatment. In study 1 infestations with R. sanguineus were discontinued after Day 7 but continued to Day 28 for D. variabilis in both studies. Counts of ticks by species were made 2, 4 and 24h after exposure to ticks. Ticks not attaching to dogs were evaluated for viability. For the evaluation of detachment study, 16 purpose-bred beagles were allocated each to two equal groups based on pretreatment tick counts (treated and untreated). Each dog was infested with 50 unfed R. sanguineus and D. variabilis adults on Day -2. Ticks were thumb counted without removal on all dogs on Day -1, and at 4, 12, and 24h after treatment. Ticks were counted and removed at 48 h after treatment. Dogs treated with the novel combination had significantly (p<0.05) lower total numbers of attached R. sanguineus and D. variabilis than untreated controls at 4h through Day 7. For R. sanguineus, percent reduction of attachment at 24h after infestation through Day 29 ranged from 94.5% to 100%. For D. variabilis, the percent reduction of attachment at 24h through Day 22 was above 98.0%. These studies demonstrate that novel combination can disrupt attachment of R. sanguineus and D. variabilis for up to 28 days following treatment. Of those ticks that are exposed to the treatment, even if they do not attach to the dog and remain in the environment, greater than 90% (p<0.05) die within 24h for 2-3 weeks following treatment. Also, for those dogs infested with ticks at the time of treatment, the novel combination causes

  18. Deep mitochondrial DNA lineage divergences within Alberta populations of Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae) do not indicate distinct species.

    PubMed

    Leo, Sarah S T; Pybus, Margo J; Sperling, Felix A H

    2010-07-01

    The winter tick Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) has a single-host life cycle that allows it to reach severe infestation levels on ungulates, particularly moose. Genotypic variation within these and related ticks has been a source of taxonomic confusion, although the continuity in their morphology and life history has generally been interpreted as indicating the existence of a single species. To further investigate this variation, we sequenced regions of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes (COI and 16S rDNA),two nuclear genes (lysozyme and ITS-2), and two bacterial markers from Francisella-like endosymbionts found in these ticks (eubacterial mtDNA 16S rRNA and a homolog of Francisella tularensis [Dorofe'ev] 17-kDa lipoprotein). We sampled 42 D. albipictus individuals from whitetail and mule deer culled from three populations in east-central Alberta, as well as four D. albipictus and two Dermacentor variabilis (Say) from other locations. We then compared DNA sequence variation between the genes and related this to variation in the morphology of spiracle plates. Both mtDNA regions indicated two deeply diverged lineages (mean difference of 7.1% for COI and 4.5% for 16S) that would normally be considered diagnostic of distinct species in DNA barcoding studies. However, very little divergence was revealed by nuclear gene sequences, bacterial endosymbionts, and morphometric analyses, and any variation that did occur in these markers was not congruent with mtDNA divergences. We conclude that the sampled populations in Alberta represent a single species, D. albipictus, and reiterate the importance of integrative approaches in species delimitation. PMID:20695271

  19. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor raskemensis (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of pikas and other small mammals in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2013-09-01

    Dermacentor raskemensis Pomerantzev, 1946 is one of the rare Asian species in this genus. The immature stages of this species have never been described. Reexamination of D. raskemensis holdings stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed a collection lot containing reared nymphs and larvae of this species. This collection made it possible for us to find numerous nymphs and larvae of D. raskemensis among previously unidentified material collected in the field. Both immature stages of D. raskemensis are described here for the first time. Nymphs of D. raskemensis can be distinguished from those of other Dermacentor species in the region by small spiracular plate, relatively short and obtuse lateral projections of basis capituli dorsally, relatively short spurs on coxa I and the internal spur is characteristically very broadly rounded at its apex, and very small spur on coxa IV, whereas larvae of D. raskemensis can be distinguished from other Dermacentor by relatively short and obtuse lateral projections of basis capituli, approximately 6 denticles in the median files on hypostome, and relatively short, broad, and rounded spur on coxa I. The nymphs and larvae of D. raskemensis studied originate from Afghanistan, India, Iran, and Pakistan, where they were collected from pikas and other small mammals. PMID:24180099

  20. Developmental profile, isolation, and biochemical characterization of a novel lipoglycoheme-carrier protein from the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and observations on a similar protein in the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri (Acari: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Gudderra, N P; Neese, P A; Sonenshine, D E; Apperson, C S; Roe, R M

    2001-03-15

    A novel lipoglycoheme-carrier protein (CP) in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) has been purified and characterized. CP was purified by native-PAGE from partially fed virgin females. CP has a density of 1.25 g/ml with a molecular weight of 200 K by native-PAGE and 340 K by gel filtration chromatography. CP is comprised of two majour subunits, 98 K and 92 K in molecular weight by SDS-PAGE. Separate amino acid composition of the two subunits indicated high contents of As(x), Gl(x) and leucine. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the two subunits was only 13% identical. The lower molecular weight subunit showed 61% identity to artemocyanin (biliprotein) in fairy shrimps, 46% identity to minor vitellogenin in chickens and 13% identity to vitellin of the black-legged tick. No similarity match was found for the other subunit. CP is a lipoglycoheme-protein as indicated by selective staining of native-PAGE gel for lipids, carbohydrates and heme. Lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of cholesterol, phospholipids, monoacylglycerides, triacylglycerides and free fatty acids. Heme associated with purified CP demonstrated a lambda(max) of 397.5 nm while the lambda(max) of crude hemolymph plasma was 402.5 nm. The presence of CP in whole body homogenates of eggs, unfed and fed larvae and fed nymphs as well as in the plasma of unfed and fed adults including vitellogenic females was demonstrated by native-PAGE. Although a protein of analogous size was not found in the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri Cooley, a high molecular weight protein (500 K) is the predominant plasma protein in both unfed and fed male and female adults of that species as determined by native-PAGE. Also, CP appears to function as a biliprotein which sequesters heme. PMID:11222939

  1. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  2. Ixodid ticks: physiological and behavioral responses to gamma radiation, light and humidity. [Amblyomma americanum; Haemaphysalis leporispalustris; Dermacentor variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    In Part I, Effects of ''Gamma Radiation on Cytogenetics and Reproduction of Male Amblyomma americanum,'' male lone star ticks were exposed to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krads prior to feeding. Testicular squashes were made, and chromosomal aberrations were described. Timing of spermatogenesis was not affected; however, frequency of abnormal spermatocytes and rounded and elongated spermatids increased as radiation dosage increased. Untreated females mated to irradiated males remained attached to their hosts longer than control females did. Few of the females paired with treated males oviposited. Length of preoviposition period and numbers of eggs produced by individual females were not influenced by dosage levels of males. Percent hatch of eggs was decreased by irradiation of male parent. No hatch occurred at 2 krads or above. Weights of individual larvae appeared to increase with increasing dosage of male parents. Most eggs weighed 60-80 ..mu..g; larvae weighed 40-60..mu..g. Irradiation of ticks as a potential biological control measure was discussed. Part II, ''Orientation to Light and Humidity in Haemaphysalis leporispalustris and Dermacentor variabilis,'' compared behavioral preferences of a host-specific and a broad-host-species.

  3. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  4. An endosymbiotic conidial fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, protects the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, from desiccation imposed by an entomopathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L; Tank, Justin L; Zettler, Lawrence W

    2008-02-01

    The functional role of an endosymbiotic conidial fungus (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) prevalent within the integumental glands and hemocoel of the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) was investigated to explore the nature of this tick/fungus association. D. variabilis is normally highly resistant to Metarhizium anisopliae, a widely-distributed entomopathogenic fungus, but when mature female ticks harboring S. brevicaulis were fed a solution containing a mycotoxin (Amphotericin B) to purge this mycobiont internally, the ticks inoculated with M. anisopliae displayed classic signs of pathogenicity, as evidenced by recovery of M. anisopliae from ticks by internal fungus culture, greatly accelerated net transpiration water loss rates (nearly 3x faster than ticks containing S. brevicaulis naturally) and elevation of critical equilibrium humidity (CEH) closer to saturation, implying a reduced capacity to absorb water vapor and disruption of water balance (water gain not equal water loss) that resulted in tick death. The presence of S. brevicaulis within the tick was previously puzzling: the fungus is transmitted maternally and there is no apparent harm inflicted to either generation. This study suggests that S. brevicaulis provides protection to D. variabilis ticks against M. anisopliae. Thus, the S. brevicaulis/tick association appears to be mutualistic symbiosis. Given that both organisms are of medical-veterinary importance, disruption of this symbiosis has potential for generating novel tools for disease control. PMID:17880996

  5. Vasoconstriction induced by salivary gland extracts from ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Pekáriková, Danica; Rajská, Petra; Kazimírová, Mária; Pecháňová, Olga; Takáč, Peter; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2015-12-01

    In their quest for blood, most haematophagous parasites secrete vasodilators in their saliva to counter the host haemostatic response of vasoconstriction. Surprisingly, salivary gland extracts from adult female Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks induced constriction in a rat femoral artery model; males induced vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on the time of feeding. Based on comparative HPLC fractionation, the active compounds inducing vasoconstriction do not appear to be prostaglandins (which ticks normally use as vasodilators). Vasoconstriction may be unique to ixodid ticks, helping them control blood flow during their prolonged blood-feeding of up to 10 days or more. PMID:26432295

  6. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals.

    PubMed

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T; Meshnick, Steven R; Nicholson, William L; Apperson, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detectRickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) ofRickettsiaspp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11Rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherRickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA,gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11Rickettsiaspp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii." Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adultDermacentor variabilisticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detectedRickettsiaDNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species ofRickettsia The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species ofRickettsiain the ticks. "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii,"R. montanensis,R. felis, andR. belliiwere frequently identified species, along with some potentially novelRickettsiastrains that were closely related toR. belliiandR. conorii. PMID:26818674

  7. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Nicholson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detect Rickettsia spp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) of Rickettsia spp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11 Rickettsia species belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to other Rickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA, gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11 Rickettsia spp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.” Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adult Dermacentor variabilis ticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detected Rickettsia DNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species of Rickettsia. The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species of Rickettsia in the ticks. “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii,” R. montanensis, R. felis, and R. bellii were frequently identified species, along with some potentially novel Rickettsia strains that were closely related to R. bellii and R. conorii. PMID:26818674

  8. Virome Analysis of Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis Ticks Reveals Novel Highly Divergent Vertebrate and Invertebrate Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon Hedley; Sameroff, Stephen; Sanchez Leon, Maria; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A wide range of bacterial pathogens have been identified in ticks, yet the diversity of viruses in ticks is largely unexplored. In the United States, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis are among the principal tick species associated with pathogen transmission. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the viromes of these tick species and identified the presence of Powassan virus and eight novel viruses. These included the most divergent nairovirus described to date, two new clades of tick-borne phleboviruses, a mononegavirus, and viruses with similarity to plant and insect viruses. Our analysis revealed that ticks are reservoirs for a wide range of viruses and suggests that discovery and characterization of tick-borne viruses will have implications for viral taxonomy and may provide insight into tick-transmitted diseases. IMPORTANCE Ticks are implicated as vectors of a wide array of human and animal pathogens. To better understand the extent of tick-borne diseases, it is crucial to uncover the full range of microbial agents associated with ticks. Our current knowledge of the diversity of tick-associated viruses is limited, in part due to the lack of investigation of tick viromes. In this study, we examined the viromes of three tick species from the United States. We found that ticks are hosts to highly divergent viruses across several taxa, including ones previously associated with human disease. Our data underscore the diversity of tick-associated viruses and provide the foundation for further studies into viral etiology of tick-borne diseases. PMID:25056893

  9. [The occurrence of Coxiella burnetii in sheep and ticks of the genus Dermacentor in Baden-Wuerttemberg].

    PubMed

    Sting, R; Breitling, N; Oehme, R; Kimmig, P

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), the infectious agent of Q-fever, in sheep and sheep-ticks in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, as a possible source of infection in Q-fever outbreaks. Using PCR, we examined a total of 1066 Dermacentor ticks from 23 herds and 49 samples of tick excrement from 18 herds for C. burnetii. We found the infectious agent in one non-engorged tick and in one sample of tick excrement from the same herd, in Efringen-Kirchen (district Loerrach). Sequencing the PCR-products confirmed the amplifications as specific for C. burnetii. Further serological tests of random samples of the four districts of Baden-Wuerttemberg showed a seroprevalence from 0 to 1.4% using complement fixation test (CFT), as well as a 0.9 to 10.2% seroprevalence, using ELISA test. Serum samples from a Q-fever-suspicious herd resulted, however, in 6% (CFT) and 53% (ELISA) positive reactions. A comparison between CFT and ELISA showed both a correlation of the two test methods that increased with higher CFT titration levels and positive reactions using ELISA for 9.4% of the serums that had tested negative using CFT. The results of the present study reveal that ticks and their excrements are important vectors of transmission of Q-fever in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Investigations on C. burnetii using PCR as well as serological surveys of sheep are important instruments for diagnosis and disease control of Q-fever. PMID:15568636

  10. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

    PubMed

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology & PMID:19788032

  11. Ixodid tick species attaching to dogs in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Földvári, Gábor; Farkas, Róbert

    2005-04-20

    A survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic dogs in Hungary. Forty veterinary clinics from a wide geographical area were asked to collect hard ticks from dogs and to complete a questionnaire. In total, 25 veterinary clinics submitted 900 ticks from 310 dogs. Intensity of infestation ranged from one to 78 per dog. The most preferred sites of tick attachment in decreasing order were head, neck and legs. The majority of ticks (91.7%) were adults, which were identified to species level, the others were nymphs. Six species were found: Dermacentor reticulatus (48.9%), Ixodes ricinus (43.2%), Ixodes canisuga (5.6%), Haemaphysalis concinna (2%) and there was one specimen of both Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes hexagonus. Single species infestation with I. ricinus or D. reticulatus was found on 145 (46.8%) and 120 animals (38.7%), respectively. Mixed infestation caused by these two species was detected on 24 dogs (7.7%). I. canisuga and H. concinna were found on seven and five dogs, respectively. D. reticulatus and I. ricinus were collected almost throughout the year, except for a single month. The activity peaks were in spring and in autumn for both species. Based on clinical signs, canine babesiosis was diagnosed by the veterinarians in 66 (21.3%) tick infested dogs. These dogs were more frequently infested with D. reticulatus than the others. Our data contribute to the understanding of geographical and seasonal distribution of ixodid tick species infesting dogs in Hungary. The implication of these data, for the risk of canine tick borne diseases is discussed. PMID:15817212

  12. Comparative efficacy of BioUD to other commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis on cotton cloth.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, Brooke W; Zhu, Jiwei; Apperson, Charles S; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Watson, D Wesley; Roe, R Michael

    2009-10-01

    BioUD is an arthropod repellent that contains the active ingredient 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato plants. Repellency of BioUD was compared with five commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks Amblyomma americanum (L.) and Dermacentor variabilis Say in two-choice bioassays on treated versus untreated cotton cheesecloth. Overall mean percentage repellency against both species was greatest for and did not differ significantly between BioUD (7.75% 2-undecanone) and products containing 98.1% DEET, 19.6% IR3535, and 30% oil of lemon eucalyptus. Products containing 5% and 15% Picaridin and 0.5% permethrin were also repellent compared with untreated controls but to a lesser degree than BioUD. The four most active repellents at the same concentrations used before were directly compared in head-to-head bioassays on cotton cheesecloth. BioUD provided significantly greater overall mean percentage repellency than IR3535 for A. americanum and D. variabilis. BioUD was significantly more repellent than oil of lemon eucalyptus for A. americanum but did not differ significantly in repellency against D. variabilis. No statistically significant difference in overall mean percentage repellency was found between BioUD and DEET for A. americanum or D. variabilis. In a 7-week time course bioassay, BioUD applied to cotton cheesecloth and held at room temperature provided 5 weeks of > 90% repellency against A. americanum. PMID:19815887

  13. Long-Term Ecological Study of Host-Seeking Adults of Hyalomma lusitanicum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Meso-Mediterranean Climate.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Pé rez Sánchez, J L; Tercero Jaime; Olmeda, A S

    2016-01-01

    From January 2007 to December 2014, three representative meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic environment types were sampled monthly using blanket-dragging techniques to determine the tick abundance rate. Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, 1844 was the most prevalent species (96.58%) followed by Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer, 1776; Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, 1936; and Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1878. H. lusitanicum adults begin questing activity around March, numbers rising quickly reaching their peak in May–June and then diminishing until the end of the year, with a small increase in September–October. This pattern was clear and constant throughout the years, irrespective of the microclimate or biotope tested. PMID:26477051

  14. Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; de Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; da Silva Matos, Renata; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae. PMID:26346899

  15. [Redescription of Dermacentor raskemensis Pomerantzev, 1946 (Ixodidae)--a representative of the mountain fauna of the southern regions of the USSR and adjacent territories].

    PubMed

    Filippova, N A

    1983-01-01

    A redescription of female and male of the little-known species Dermacentor raskemensis Pomerantzev has been made on the holotype (male, West China, Sinkiang) and on collection material of Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and Institute of Zoology of Armenian SSR: three females and males from Armenia and western Pakistan. Despite a considerable remoteness of their distribution areas all studied specimens show stability of their specific characters and differ distinctly from the close species D. niveus Neumann and D. everestianus Hirst. The both sexes (especially female) of D. raskemensis differ in having peculiar, most complete (in the ranges of the genus) filing of the dorsal shield area with dense light pigment and by prevalence of very small punctation and the lack of contrast between it and larger punctation. Peritreme of D. raskemensis male has a long narrow dorsal process which is at the right angel to its longitudinal axis and slightly concave along the hind edge. The dorsal process of the female is well developed and is at the right or acute angles to the longitudinal axis. In addition the both sexes have a wide smooth thickening along the anterior edge of the process, the proportions of peritreme are specific in species. In close species the dorsal process of peritreme is at the blunt angle to its longitudinal axis, in D. everestianus the thickening along the anterior edge is missing. Female of D. raskemensis lacks wing-shaped appendages of the genital opening while in D. niveus they are distinct (the structure is not mentioned in the description of D everestianus). D. raskenmensis apparently inhabits highlands and meadow-steppe, steppe and mountain sparce forest zones most part of which is covered by rocks and screes. In Armenia it was recorded from Armenian mouflon and wild goat; in other countries (Iran, Afghanistan, western Pakistan, India and China) it occurs on sheep and goats from alpine pastures. Most collections were done

  16. Susceptibility of four tick species, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.

    PubMed

    Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Behle, Robert W; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. We determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. Nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with LC50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and LC90 values of 1.001, 0.644, 0.549, and 0.485 microg/cm2 for A. americanum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis, and R. sanguineus, respectively. The LC50 value for R. sanquineus was not significantly different from D. variabilis or I. scapularis. Other LC50 comparisons were significantly different. The LC90 for A. americanum was higher when compared with the three other tick species, which were not significantly different. Because nootkatone is volatile, we measured the amount of nootkatone recovered from duplicate-treated vials before tick exposure and from vials after tick exposure. Nootkatone recovered from vials before exposure ranged from 82 to 112% of the expected amounts. The nootkatone recovered after the 24-h exposure period ranged from 89% from vials coated with higher concentrations of nootkatone, down to 29% from vials coated with low nootkatone concentrations. Determination of the nootkatone residue after vial coating demonstrated loss of the active compound while verifying the levels of tick exposure. Toxicity of low concentrations of nootkatone to the active questing stage of ticks reported in this study provides a reference point for future formulation research to exploit nootkatone as a safe and environment-friendly tick control. PMID:21485368

  17. A tract-tracing study of the central projections of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus in the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus, teleostei), with some observations on the descending trigeminal tract.

    PubMed

    Pombal, M A; Alvarez-Otero, R; Rodicio, M C; Anadón, R

    1997-01-01

    We studied the central projections of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (MesV) in the guppy (Lebistes reticulatus), after application of horseradish peroxidase or fluorescein dextran amine into the eye orbit. A small number (1 to 13) of large mesencephalic trigeminal neurons were solid labeled in the ipsilateral rostral mesencephalon. At the level of the trigeminal nerve entrance, the united process of each mesencephalic trigeminal cell bifurcates, giving rise to a peripheral branch that exits in the trigeminal nerve and a descending branch that runs caudally in a medial bundle separated from the descending trigeminal tract. This bundle passes close to the visceromotor nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Descending processes give rise to short collaterals to the descending nucleus of the trigeminus and the ventrolateral reticular area. Most MesV descending fibres terminate in this ventrolateral field at the transition of the medulla to the spinal cord, but one or two fibres could be followed to the C6 level, where they give rise to collaterals to the dorsal funicular nucleus. No collaterals directed to the trigeminal motor nucleus, the cerebellum, or the mesencephalic tegmentum were observed. These projections were also compared with those of the descending trigeminal tract. PMID:8971415

  18. The role of particular tick developmental stages in the circulation of tick-borne pathogens affecting humans in Central Europe. 2. Tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Hard-bodied ticks transmit various pathogens, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and carry numerous other microorganisms with an unknown pathogenic potential. Among them, tick-borne encephalitis virus has great importance. In Central European conditions all developmental stages of ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of the TBE virus. According to pathogen and tick biology, the roles of larvae, nymphs and adults are different. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents and medium sized mammals; adults transfer the infection to ruminants and to next generations via transovarial transmission. All active developmental stages of I. ricinus can play role of the bridge vector, transmitting the infection to humans apart males which don't feed. The late summer peak of human infectivity is caused by the summer peak of I. ricinus nymphs' activity. The Dermacentor reticulatus tick attacks humans infrequently, but does participate in the circulation of the virus in the zoonotic foci; larvae and nymphs of the D. reticulatus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents, mainly Microtinae, while adults transmit the infection to ruminants. PMID:27262951

  19. Prevalence of Kemerovo virus in ixodid ticks from the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Dedkov, V G; Markelov, M L; Gridneva, K A; Bekova, M V; Gmyl, A P; Kozlovskaya, L I; Karganova, G G; Romanova, L Iu; Pogodina, V V; Yakimenko, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of Kemerovo virus in ixodid ticks collected in 2008-2012 from 11 regions of the Russian Federation was investigated by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The presence of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Dermacentor reticulatus was confirmed. Virus prevalence depended on the region and varied from zero to 10.1%. PMID:25073856

  20. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania. PMID:26507182

  1. [Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%. PMID:25549463

  2. Efficacy of spinosad against acaricide-resistant and -susceptible Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and acaricide-susceptible Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various acaricide-resistant strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, representative of the major resistance mechanisms found in Mexico and Brazil were exposed to spinosad using the FAO-Larval Packet Test and FAO-Adult Immersion Test (AIT). Larvae of all strains tested were found to be suscep...

  3. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    PubMed

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4%) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55% of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05%). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed. PMID:26443685

  4. First description of the immature stages and redescription of the adults of Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Acari: Ixodidae) with notes on its bionomics.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Walker, Jane B; Heyne, Heloise; Bezuidenhout, J Dürr; Horak, Ivan G

    2013-07-01

    Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768

  5. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ≤ 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  6. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  7. The role of particular tick developmental stages in the circulation of tick-borne pathogens affecting humans in Central Europe. 1. The general pattern.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens are common in the natural environment, but their occurrence has a focal character. They occur in the natural environment in the form of the enzootic sources of infection. The general components include the animal reservoir, amplifiers and the efficient vector. However, the particular role of components can differ depending on the pathogen, the host range and possible transmission routes. Animal reservoir of pathogen are vertebrate animals, being the hosts of pathogens. In Europe these are small or medium-sized mammals and sometimes birds that feed on the ground. The competence of an animal reservoir is determined by the ability to communicate the infection; long-term persistence of the pathogen in the host; long-duration of infectivity of the animal for ticks; a sufficient number of animals in the endemic region. Amplifiers for ticks are artiodactyls. They are hosts for nymphs and adult ticks, thereby making it possible for ticks to propagate and maintain the proper size of their population. Efficient vector for pathogen are ticks. The first characteristic feature of efficient vectors is feeding duration exceeding 24 hours; the high density of the tick population. The conditions necessary to consider ticks as efficient vectors are met in Central Europe by the Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus ticks. There are the general differences in biology between Ixodes persulcatus complex ticks and Dermacentor ticks, affecting their different role and ability in pathogens spreading - the range of hosts; the ability to inhabiting of various environments and resistance to unfavourable conditions; the duration of larvae and nymphs activity. The combination of tick's biology, pathogen ability to transmission, and mammal hosts' competence, determines the particular role of larvae, nymphs and adults in pathogen circulation in the natural environment, as well as transmission to new hosts. PMID:26878618

  8. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  9. [Babesiosis of dogs in Germany: epidemiologic case analysis].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Wegerdt, S

    1991-04-01

    Between January 1987 and February 1990 Babesia infections were detected in 320 dogs in Germany by means of microscopical and/or serological methods. It was found, that 316 dogs were infected with Babesia canis and 4 animals with Babesia gibsoni. Of the Babesia-canis-positive dogs 184 were abroad up to 4 months before diagnosis, mainly in France, Spain and Italy, but also in Hungary, Greece, Jugoslavia, Portugal, Morocco, Togo, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Turkey, Romania, Austria and the Netherlands. For further 36 dogs the possible place of infection for Babesia canis could not be clarified geographically. 5 dogs each were simultaneously infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus, respectively. The four dogs infected with Babesia gibsoni were previously in Sri Lanka (2), Brazil (1) or Algeria/Kenya (1). In 88 dogs from the Offenburg/Lahr/Freiburg area, which were not abroad, infections with Babesia canis were diagnosed from January to June as well as from September to December, however, most cases occurring in April and May. Of these dogs approximately 20% were found to be infested with Dermacentor reticulatus. These ticks were also collected on the vegetation in the Offenburg area. Therefore, an endemic focus of Babesia canis can be deduced in the area of Offenburg/Lahr/Freiburg and Dermacentor reticulatus as vector also in Germany. PMID:2068714

  10. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; Szymańska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases. PMID:21736280

  11. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  12. Ticks and associated pathogens collected from dogs and cats in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ixodes spp. are the most common ticks in North-Western Europe, recent reports indicated an expanding geographical distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus in Western Europe. Recently, the establishment of a D. reticulatus population in Belgium was described. D. reticulatus is an important vector of canine and equine babesiosis and can transmit several Rickettsia species, Coxiella burnetii and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), whilst Ixodes spp. are vectors of pathogens causing babesiosis, borreliosis, anaplasmosis, rickettsiosis and TBEV. Methods A survey was conducted in 2008-2009 to investigate the presence of different tick species and associated pathogens on dogs and cats in Belgium. Ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 75 veterinary practices, selected by stratified randomization. All collected ticks were morphologically determined and analysed for the presence of Babesia spp., Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia DNA. Results In total 2373 ticks were collected from 647 dogs and 506 cats. Ixodes ricinus (76.4%) and I. hexagonus (22.6%) were the predominant species. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.3%) and D. reticulatus (0.8%) were found in low numbers on dogs only. All dogs infested with R. sanguineus had a recent travel history, but D. reticulatus were collected from a dog without a history of travelling abroad. Of the collected Ixodes ticks, 19.5% were positive for A. phagocytophilum and 10.1% for Borrelia spp. (B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. lusitaniae, B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii). Rickettsia helvetica was found in 14.1% of Ixodes ticks. All Dermacentor ticks were negative for all the investigated pathogens, but one R. sanguineus tick was positive for Rickettsia massiliae. Conclusion D. reticulatus was confirmed to be present as an indigenous parasite in Belgium. B. lusitaniae and R. helvetica were detected in ticks in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23777784

  13. Anti-chemokine activities of ixodid ticks depend on tick species, developmental stage, and duration of feeding.

    PubMed

    Vancová, Iveta; Hajnická, Valeria; Slovák, Mirko; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2010-02-10

    Ixodid ticks require comparatively large bloodmeals for their development and survival. Blood-feeding elicits signaling events in the host leading to wound healing responses (hemostasis, inflammation, and tissue repair) and immunity. Bioactive molecules present in tick saliva sabotage these host responses at several levels. One of them is neutralization of cellular communication by binding of specific saliva molecules to cytokines that have important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Chemokines are a subset of cytokines having chemotactic activities. We show anti-chemokine activities in salivary gland extracts (SGE) of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks against human chemokines CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CCL11. At comparable protein concentrations, male Ixodes ricinus SGE showed activity against all the chemokines; SGE of female I. ricinus had comparatively lower levels of activity against all the chemokines but no detectable activity against CCL5 and CCL11. However, when the equivalent of a single pair of salivary glands was tested, male I. ricinus showed little or no activity against CCL3 and CCL5. No fundamental differences in activity were observed against mouse compared with human chemokines. A comparison with previously published data for Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma variegatum indicates that the level of anti-cytokine activity depends on the species, developmental stage (adult or nymph), and amount of SGE used, as well as on the number of days the tick has been feeding. PMID:19836889

  14. Tick survey for prevalent pathogens in peri-urban recreation sites in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany).

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Mehlhorn, Tim; Müller, Melanie; Vogt, Manfred; Rissland, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks are important vectors of human pathogens in Central Europe. Despite this fact, prevalence studies are scarce, especially with regard to much-frequented peri-urban recreation sites. In this pilot study, 4.014 larvae, nymphs and adult ticks sampled monthly during the active seasons in 2011 and 2012 from 14 distinct collection sites in two German states (Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate) were screened for Borrelia spp., Anaplasma spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Mean prevalence rates were 19.8 % for Borrelia spp., 1.9 % for Anaplasma spp. and 0.1 % for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), which are in accordance with those reported from other regions in Germany and neighbouring countries. Nevertheless, the detection of TBEV-infected ticks is the first positive result after several unsuccessful efforts over the previous years in official "TBE-risk" zones of Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate which supports the presumption of the origin of observed local infection. Besides ixodid ticks a non-engorged adult female tick of the invading species Dermacentor reticulatus has been found reflecting the appearance of another vector eventually jeopardising the health of host animals as well as humans. PMID:26646396

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  16. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be…

  17. CPR: Adult

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  18. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  19. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  1. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  2. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  3. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  4. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  5. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  6. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  7. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  8. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  9. Arizona Adult Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout…

  10. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  11. Efficacy of Spinosad in Layer-Treated Wheat Against Five Stored-Product Insect Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological insecticide spinosad was evaluated in laboratory bioassays as a surface treatment in wheat to control adult Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and three psocid species, Liposcelis paeta (Pearman), L. bostrychophila (Badonnel), and Lepinotus reticulatus (Enderlein). Spi...

  12. The role of domestic dogs and cats in the zoonotic cycles of ticks and pathogens. Preliminary studies in the Wrocław Agglomeration (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Król, Nina; Kiewra, Dorota; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Lonc, Elżbieta

    2015-11-30

    The collection of 729 tick specimens (Ixodes ricinus, 88.6%; Ixodes hexagonus, 9.2%; Dermacentor reticulatus, 2.2%) removed from 373 dogs and 78 cats, along with 201 ticks from vegetation (I. ricinus, 75.6%; D. reticulatus, 24.4%), allows one to say that pets play an important role in maintaining tick life cycles in different urban area. It shows the lack of statistical differences between tick intensity in high-impact anthropogenic areas (HIAA), low-impact anthropogenic areas (LIAA) and mixed areas designed, in an objective way, by GIS techniques. The comparable (statistically insignificant) level of infection with Borrelia spp. of I. ricinus from pets (22.5%) and vegetation (24.8%), shows that dogs and cats do not have zooprophylactic competence for Borrelia spp. in different urban areas. Moreover, Borrelia spp. was detected in I. hexagonues (1.5%) collected from pets, and in D. reticulatus (2%) obtained from vegetation. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Wrocław Agglomeration confirms its expansion and the distribution range in Poland. PMID:26464069

  13. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  14. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  15. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  16. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ACHA Search The futures of adults with congenital heart disease made brighter by their pasts Get Involved 2016 ... conference theme is "The Changing Landscape of Adult Congenital Heart Disease." Join Us Help us improve the quality of ...

  17. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  18. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  19. Aspects of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, Rajkumari

    This book presents an overview of and prescription for adult education in India. Following an introduction to the problem of illiteracy in India, the book's 14 chapters cover a broad spectrum of adult education issues. Topics discussed include adult education and national development; roles of voluntary organizations, universities, colleges, and…

  20. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  1. Kids Who Outwit Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

  2. Adult Learners in Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Janette, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

  3. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…

  4. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…

  5. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  6. Navajo Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.

    The objectives of this Special Experimental Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education for the Navajo were: (1) to raise the educational and social level of Navajo adult students who are unable to read, write, and speak English; (2) to assist the Navajo adult students to take advantage of occupational and vocational training programs; (3) to…

  7. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  8. Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeds, Andrew, Ed.

    Designed primarily for adult literacy teachers and tutors, this curriculum describes the content of what should be taught in numeracy programs in order to meet the individual needs of adults through the selection and teaching of skills appropriate to those adults' needs. An introduction describes national standards and qualifications, learners,…

  9. Adults and GNVQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Aidan

    1996-01-01

    This document is intended for further education colleges in the United Kingdom wishing to extend their General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) provision to adults, extend their adult students' options for accreditation, or review the suitability of different qualification routes for adults. It presents information about the development of…

  10. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  11. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  12. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  13. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  14. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  15. An Adult ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Literacy Resource Center, Columbia.

    This curriculum framework for adult literacy was written by 21 South Carolina adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructors, as submitted to the South Carolina Literacy Resource Center. It is based on current theories in the fields of adult education and second language acquisition and is designed to be flexible so that it may be adapted to…

  16. Safeguarding vulnerable adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    Nurses have a professional duty to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse under the provisions of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC) revised Code (2015). With adult abuse continuing to increase, all members of the nursing team are well placed to identify and take action to safeguard the vulnerable. This article sets out how the Care Act 2014 seeks to improve the safeguarding of vulnerable adults and the role of nurses in that process. PMID:26153813

  17. Alternative Programming for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.; Frey, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning is currently cataloguing alternative programming features that are most effective with adult students in a best practices inventory organized around a framework of high-level descriptive principles of effectiveness. This chapter identifies a few interesting features from a quick survey of this…

  18. Adult Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, John

    This study is limited essentially to adult education in West Germany, although the historical sections include references to earlier experiences and experiments in areas now Russian-occupied. The terms "adult edcuation" and "workers' education" are clarified. Both are presented as separate movements. Brief reference is made to political, social,…

  19. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

  20. Teachers of Adults Will...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankowski, Mary L.

    1975-01-01

    The article lists the 12 competencies of adult education teachers that are considered essential to assist adults in achieving instructional goals and objectives. Following the listing a brief justification and examples of ways to evaluate teacher competencies are discussed. (Author/BP)

  1. Recruiting Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Resources Network, Manhattan, KS.

    This document is the first nationwide compilation of successful recruiting techniques for students in adult basic education, literacy, General Educational Development classes, and adult high school degree programs. Information for the publication was gathered from a literature search and other sources, especially "Reaching the Least Educated," a…

  2. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

  3. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

  4. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  5. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

  6. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  7. Dialogue and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarule, Jill Mattuck

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the role of language and dialogue in adult learning looks at dialogue as epistemology and at talk as learning. It is proposed that the challenge in teaching and retaining adult learners is to create dialogue-rich classrooms, including many external speech opportunities, small-group discussion, and group projects. (MSE)

  8. Libraries and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

  9. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  10. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  11. Adult Education in Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    International Adult Literacy Survey data show the average adult education participation in Nordic countries is 14% higher than in other industrialized nations. Public support for participation of the disadvantaged, an active labor market policy, and popular education are key characteristics. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/JOW)

  12. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  13. Adult Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Labour, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    Danish adult vocational training activities take the form of specifically targeted initial and continued training for employed and unemployed adults. Planning, development, and adaptation of vocational training programs (AMU programs) are characterized by tripartite cooperation among public authorities and organizations of employers and employees.…

  14. Adult Counseling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.

    In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…

  15. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…

  16. Adult Vocational Teacher Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, F. Marvin

    As part of a larger study to investigate the backgrounds and professional inservice needs of part-time adult vocational teachers in Pennsylvania, research was conducted to identify and assess adult vocational teacher competencies. Following a literature review, a survey instrument was devised which listed thirty-four competencies (basically…

  17. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  18. Financing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

  19. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  20. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-03-28

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  1. Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. PMID:24035586

  2. Adult Education in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Adult Education Association, New Delhi.

    The proceedings of the 24th All India Adult Education Conference highlight two symposia, "Adult Education and Urban Development" and "Adult Education and Green Revolution." Commission Reports on the two symposia are given. (DB)

  3. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  4. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  5. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  6. Brainstem Glioma in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jethro; Western, Stephen; Kesari, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are not nearly as common in adults as they are in children. They are likely the final common consequence not of a single disease process but of several. They can be difficult to diagnose, and are challenging to treat. Clinical studies of this diagnosis are few and generally small. Because of these factors, our understanding of the biology of adult brainstem glioma is incomplete. However, the knowledge base is growing and progress is being made. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge for brainstem glioma in adults and identify key areas for which additional information is required. PMID:27556016

  7. A seventeen-year epidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in two provinces of northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Lourdes; Gegúndez, María Isabel; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Álamo, Rufino; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Nuncio, María Sofia; Saz, José Vicente

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179) from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation) bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients) Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%), Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%), Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88%) and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%). B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries. PMID:24487455

  8. High prevalence of Hepatozoon-infection among shepherd dogs in a region considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Tánczos, Balázs; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Farkas, Róbert

    2013-09-01

    Blood samples and ticks were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs in southern Hungary, in order to screen them for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. Out of 126 blood samples, 33 were positive (26%). Significantly more shepherd dogs (31%) were infected, than hunting (8%) and stray dogs (7%). Three genotypes of Hepatozoon canis were identified by sequencing, differing from each other in up to six nucleotides in the amplified portion of their 18S rRNA gene. In Dermacentor marginatus larvae/nymphs and Dermacentor reticulatus nymphs, H. canis was present only if they had been collected from PCR-positive dogs, and the genotypes were identical in the ticks and their hosts. However, two Haemaphysalis concinna nymphs removed from a PCR-negative dog were found positive for H. canis, and the genotype detected in specimens of this tick species differed from that in the blood of their respective hosts. These results indicate that canine hepatozoonosis may be highly prevalent in regions where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is considered to be non-endemic. In addition, H. canis was identified for the first time in Hungary, as well as in D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and Ha. concinna ticks. Canine hepatozoonosis was significantly more prevalent west of the Danube river (where higher densities of red fox and golden jackal populations occur), suggesting a role of wild carnivores in its epidemiology. PMID:23499483

  9. Older Adults and Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Generally, ... liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many medications, such as the ones ...

  10. The Colonial Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1975-01-01

    The adult evening schools of colonial America served a mixed clientele and provided instruction in a variety of subjects. Although most historians have described evening schoolmasters as incompetent frauds, research indicates that such descriptions are generally unjust and unfounded. (NHM)

  11. Motivation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  12. CPR - adult - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100219.htm CPR - adult - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics CPR A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  13. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  14. About BMI for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI Language: ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  15. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  16. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain. PMID:26747664

  17. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  18. Yoga and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Yoga and Older Adults Yoga is a mind and body practice that typically ... breathing exercises, and relaxation. Researchers are studying how yoga may help improve health and to learn more ...

  19. Pancreatoblastoma in an adult.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Tang, Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatoblastoma is a malignant pancreatic tumor that rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of an adult female with pancreatoblastoma. A mass was detected in the pancreatic head using computed tomography and ultrasonography. The clinical diagnosis was a solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas. However, after the operation, the final diagnosis was pancreatoblastoma, which showed two lines of differentiation: Acinar differentiation and squamoid corpuscles. The patient is currently in good condition. PMID:25673604

  20. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  1. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-05-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  2. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  3. Adult Education in Israel V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

    This fifth journal edition focuses on the didactics of adult education in Israel. Following a "Preface" (Meir Peretz) discussing the didactics of adult education, three major fields are examined: Learning for Adults; Hebrew Language and Culture for Immigrants; and Special Populations (adults with learning disabilities, senior citizens, and…

  4. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of identifying…

  5. The ABC's of Adult Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

  6. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  7. Adult Brainstem Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Botero, German; Mokhtari, Karima; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are uncommon in adults and account for only 1%–2% of intracranial gliomas. They represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ from those found in their pediatric counterparts. In adults, a low-grade phenotype predominates, which is a feature that likely explains their better prognosis compared to that in children. Because biopsies are rarely performed, classifications based on the radiological aspect of magnetic resonance imaging results have been proposed to establish treatment strategies and to determine outcomes: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade, (b) enhancing malignant glioma, (c) focal tectal gliomas, and (d) exophytic gliomas. Despite significant advances in neuroradiology techniques, a purely radiological classification remains imperfect in the absence of a histological diagnosis. Whereas a biopsy may often be reasonably avoided in the diffuse nonenhancing forms, obtaining histological proof seems necessary in many contrast-enhanced brainstem lesions because of the wide variety of differential diagnoses in adults. Conventional radiotherapy is the standard treatment for diffuse intrinsic low-grade brainstem gliomas in adults (the median survival is 5 years). In malignant brainstem gliomas, radiotherapy is the standard treatment. However, the possible benefit of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide or other agents) has not been thoroughly evaluated in adults. The role of anti-angiogenic therapies in brainstem gliomas remains to be defined. A better understanding of the biology of these tumors is of primary importance for identifying homogeneous subgroups and for improving therapy options and outcomes. PMID:22382458

  8. Babesia spp. in questing ticks from eastern Poland: prevalence and species diversity.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-08-01

    A total of 853 questing Ixodes ricinus males, females, and nymphs and of 582 questing Dermacentor reticulatus males and females were collected from vegetation on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The ticks were examined for the presence of Babesia by PCR detecting part of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and nuclear small subunit rRNA (SS-rDNA) for determining of Babesia spp. and Babesia microti, respectively. The overall incidence of Babesia strains in I. ricinus ticks was 4.6%. Three species of Babesia were identified. The prevalent species was B. microti which occurred in 2.8% of ticks, while Babesia venatorum, Babesia divergens, and unidentified Babesia species were found at the frequency of 1.2, 0.2, and 0.3%, respectively. Altogether, B. microti constituted 61.5% of the total strains detected in I. ricinus, B. venatorum-25.7%, B. divergens-5.1%, and unidentified Babesia species-7.7%. The prevalence of Babesia species in I. ricinus did not depend significantly on locality (χ(2) = 1.885, P = 0.390) nor on the tick stage (χ(2) = 4.874, P = 0.087). The incidence of Babesia strains in D. reticulatus ticks was 2.7%. Two species of Babesia were identified. Again, the prevalent species was B. microti which occurred in 2.1% of ticks, while B. canis was found in 0.7% of ticks. In one D. reticulatus female, B. canis and B. microti co-infection was found. Altogether, B. microti constituted 75% of the total strains detected in D. reticulatus while B. canis formed 25% of the total strains. The frequency of the occurrence of Babesia species in D. reticulatus did not depend significantly on locality (χ(2) = 0.463, P = 0.793). The difference between the prevalence of Babesia in males and females of D. reticulatus was insignificant (P = 0.0954); nymphs were not found. The dominance of B. microti in the species composition of tick-borne Babesia found in this study was typical for eastern Europe. In conclusion, the results

  9. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  10. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  11. Pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 medications, atomoxetine and the extended-release formulations of amphetamine salts and dexmethylphenidate, for the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different formulations of the same drugs, as well as other agents and cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been tested to determine efficacy in ADHD alone and in ADHD with comorbid substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. A deficit in research exists in regard to these comorbidities in adults with ADHD. PMID:19552859

  12. Tuberculosis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Shobita

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's most lethal infectious diseases. Preventive and control strategies among other high-risk groups, such as the elderly population, continues to be a challenge. Clinical features of TB in older adults may be atypical and confused with age-related diseases. Diagnosis and management of TB in the elderly person can be difficult; treatment can be associated with adverse drug reactions. This article reviews the current global epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management, and prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in community-dwelling and institutionalized aging adults. PMID:27394018

  13. Back pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R

    2013-06-01

    This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed. PMID:23668645

  14. The Adult Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Fred A.; Blocker, Clyde E.

    This study is concerned with the following topics on adult student attendance at Harrisburg Area Community College (HACC) during the 1969-70 academic year: student background, reason for attendance, enrollment in programs or courses, academic success, evidence of personal and occupational development. The report is based on the useable…

  15. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  16. Helping Adults to Spell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Catherine

    This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…

  17. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  18. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  19. For Adult Audiences Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallien, Kathryn J.

    1986-01-01

    Empire State College, a branch of the State University of New York, is a public institution designed for adults with 5,500 students at 40 locations. ESC's most successful student recruitment method is word of mouth. Suggestions on how to attract students are provided. (MLW)

  20. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…

  1. Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of…

  2. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  3. Individualized Adult Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, C. G.

    As the proceedings of a national seminar on individualized adult science education, a total of 13 articles is compiled in this volume concerning the theory and techniques of curriculum development and the individualization process in upgrading Canadian science courses. The topics include: The Characteristics and Formulation of Behavioral…

  4. Intelligence and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    "Understanding Adult Intelligence" (Robert Sternberg) focuses on the nature of intelligence. It explains Sternberg's triarchic theory, in which he posits three main aspects of intelligence: its relation to the internal or mental world of the learner, its relation to experience, and its relation to the surrounding world. "Strategies and Learning"…

  5. Adult Literacy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

    This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected Chronology of Literacy…

  6. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  7. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  8. Encyclopedia of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert, Ed.

    This encyclopedia contains 106 articles on adult development that were written by more than 75 specialists in such diverse fields as anthropology, communication, education, health sciences, history, and psychology. In a guide to related topics that is presented at the beginning of the encyclopedia, the 106 articles are grouped under the following…

  9. Dealing with Adult Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a recent study, "Adult Illiteracy in the United States: A Report to the Ford Foundation." Incidence of reading difficulties, effectiveness of literacy programs, and the relationship of reading ability to poverty are some of the topics discussed. New community-based literacy initiatives are recommended. (SJL)

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  11. Profiles of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Library, Springfield.

    Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…

  12. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  13. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    The forms of adult education in Sweden discussed in this review include the courses provided by the Labour Market Board, the folk high schools, the national and local educational schemes, the Commission for TV and Radio in Education (TRU), and the training courses arranged by the employee organizations. Brief mention is also made of the courses…

  14. Individualized Mathematics for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosko, Barbara J.

    Adults who have chosen to interrupt their educational careers often face the problem of rusty academic skills. The Veterans Upward Bound Program at Humboldt State University developed a ten-week college preparatory program designed to help these people make the transition to college life with appropriate academic skills. Two different mathematics…

  15. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  16. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  17. Adult Education. Annual Report, National Advisory Council on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    Recommendations of the President's National Advisory Council on Adult Education are the subject of this first annual report. The activities of the Council during its first year are listed. Recommendations for Action are: (1) a higher budget priority for adult education in Fiscal Year 1973, and the development of a Comprehensive Adult Education…

  18. Adult Development. What do Teachers of Adults Need To Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Susan; And Others

    The first part of this two-part paper provides a general review of adult development and is premised on an understanding of andragogy. Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn. It is based on the following four assumptions about adults: (1) as people mature they become less dependent and more self-directed; (2) experiences serve as…

  19. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  20. Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

  1. Adult Development and Adult Beginning Reading Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sally

    An ethnographic study investigated four adult beginning reading (ABR) classes in several adult learning centers in order to determine the effect of an adult's age and developmental phase on his or her behavior and attitudes in the learning-to-read process. For 9 months, a four-member research team conducted on-site observations, compiled extensive…

  2. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  3. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  4. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  5. Facts about Measles for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... as part of a combination vaccine, called the MMR vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. Which adults should get vaccinated against measles with MMR vaccine? Adults born in 1957 or later who do ...

  6. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  7. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  8. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... next medical appointment. Staying Up-to-date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  9. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  10. Strategies in Aboriginal Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Alan T.

    1973-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal practices render traditional adult education programs futile. Aboriginal adult education must be concerned with the growth and development of the total personality. Adopted strategies must motivate Aborigines as individuals and as members of the community. (AG)

  11. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  12. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  13. Act To Promote Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

  14. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  15. Philosophies of Adult Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a typology of philosophical traditions in environmental education for adults, based on five philosophical perspectives of adult education described by Elias and Merriam. These five traditions are liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanist, and radical adult environmental education, respectively. A summary of each philosophy's…

  16. Adult Education and Development, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education Programmes in Nigeria"…

  17. The Future of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

  18. Achieving Adult Literacy. Fastback 330.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Pamela J.

    Leaders in business and industry are demanding workers who not only can read and write but can think creatively and critically and solve problems. Federal- and state-funded programs and volunteer organizations are involved with adult literacy. Increasingly, corporations are funding adult literacy projects. Adults read for different reasons than…

  19. Policy Issues in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Leonard P.

    1983-01-01

    States that adult educators in the United States, unlike their counterparts abroad, have not been key actors in influencing policy with adult education overtones at the national, state, or local levels. Discusses how adult educators can become more influential by applying concepts used by Warren Bennis to describe organizational health: sense of…

  20. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    This book presents a theory of how adults learn by making meaning of their experiences. Chapter 1 gives an overview of an emerging transformation theory of adult learning, compares it with other theories of adult learning, and describes the dynamics of the process through which one makes meaning of one's experience. Chapter 2 examines the way…

  1. Visual Persistence and Adult Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Roberta L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Visual persistence was investigated in adults with and without dyslexia in order to determine whether dyslexic adults demonstrate problems similar to those found in childhood dyslexia. Results showed that sensitivity of dyslexic adults was impaired when parts of a test stimulus were presented to adjacent retinal areas, suggesting that under…

  2. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  3. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  4. Assessment Matters in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Jan; Napper, Rosemary

    This handbook was developed to give tutors of adult education information and ideas about assessing adult learning. It can be used as a reference for information about assessment and as a practical tool for tutors. Section 1, Introduction to Assessment in Adult Learning, includes information on these topics: what assessment is, how to assess, why…

  5. Literacy Proficiency of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kamp, Max; Boudard, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    As a supplement to the International Adult Literacy Survey, the Netherlands devoted special attention to the literacy proficiency of older adults. A close look at the literacy skills of older adults and their use in daily life is relevant because demographic developments, individualisation, the position of older employees in the labour market and…

  6. Assessment Tools for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra; Forlizzi, Lori

    The Assessment Tools for Adult Education project was designed to provide training and support to staff of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) funded programs to help them use assessment tools and procedures to document the learning gains of the adult students they serve. The following candidate assessment…

  7. Rural Adult Education: Current Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    "Context". The word pervades the literature on adult and continuing education. For adult education practitioners and researchers alike, understanding the beliefs and actions of their educational place continues to be of significant concern, and rightfully so. That adults wish to have their histories, experiences, and abilities appreciated and…

  8. Teachers as Adult Learners: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents the Adult Learning Model for Faculty Development of adult educators, which incorporates principles of adult learning and program planning concepts used in adult education. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  9. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  10. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  11. Rhinitis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Mathur, Sameer K.

    2013-01-01

    Rhinitis symptoms of rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, nasal/ocular pruritis, and postnasal drainage can significantly affect the quality of life for older adults. As the US population ages, it will be increasingly important for healthcare providers to effectively diagnose and manage rhinitis. Rhinitis is categorized broadly into allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Environmental changes and avoidance measures are a primary means of intervention. In addition, there are several topical therapies (nasal sprays) that can be effective for symptom control. PMID:23389558

  12. An Undergraduate Course in Adult Development: When the Virtual Adult Is an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…

  13. [Intraosseous infusion for adults].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Kirchhoff, C

    2008-04-01

    Intraosseous (IO) infusion methods have been common for emergency treatment in infants and children for years. The role of IO access in adults is however much less clear, but its importance in this patient group is increasing, and different devices are available today. Each device has strengths and weaknesses, but all achieve rapid vascular access even in challenging situations. The potential of IO access regarding both therapeutic and diagnostic options has been shown in several operational studies in and out of hospital. Insertion times require between 1 and 2 min in most cases, while insertion and handling of the IO access devices seem to be easy and reliable. The flow rates of IO access devices for adults are lower than those of large-bore peripheral intravenous catheters, but fluid resuscitation is possible in most cases at least with pressure bag infusion systems. Most drugs administered intravenously can be given intraosseously in equivalent dosages and with the same effects. Nevertheless the limitations and risks of IO access routes need to be considered for each application. Rapid IO access is now possible in all age groups, and the 2005 AHA Guidelines favor it over drug administration via the endotracheal tube. PMID:18250995

  14. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  15. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  16. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials Star Pupils ... Test for Adults Testing Near Vision and Distance Vision Prevent Blindness does NOT recommend that you ...

  17. Facts about Rubella for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  18. Facts about Mumps for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  19. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  20. Evaluation of Adult Education Programs. California Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    To assist adult educators in finding meaningful ways to measure the effectiveness of instruction, this monograph provides selected illustrations of specific methods used by adult education instructors to verify student learning. Obtained from teachers in the field, the examples are from programs in (1) dental assisting, (2) instrument pilot ground…

  1. Working with Young Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carol

    This document explains how adult educators and others in the United Kingdom can increase levels of participation and achievement in learning for young adults by providing informal learning opportunities for those young people who are least inclined to participate in formal education and training programs. The guide outlines a step-by-step approach…

  2. Literacy of Older Adults in America. Adult Literacy Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    As part of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) of 1992, the National Center for Education Statistics published a separate study that focuses on the literacy skills of older adults (aged 60 years and older) from a variety of perspectives, such as age, sex, amount of education, race or ethnic background, income, and geographic region. Some of…

  3. An Adult Education Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Jean; Damron, Imogene

    This curriculum guide is intended for use with mentally retarded adults who are enrolled in adult basic education classes. The curriculum provides guidelines to improve students' competencies in three main areas: general functioning skills and independence (transportation, interpersonal relationships, health and safety, goal setting, planning and…

  4. The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2012-01-01

    Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

  5. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  6. Adult Education in Australia: The Council of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley

    Liberal adult education in Victoria, Australia, takes its ideals, if not its form, from the pre-war university and Workers Education Association (WEA) partnerships: the university providing tutors and content, the WEA providing contact with unions and workers. Unique to Victoria is the level to which community-based adult education has been…

  7. Adults' conceptions of intelligence across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Berg, C A; Sternberg, R J

    1992-06-01

    To examine whether young, middle-aged, and older adults view the concept of intelligent person as similar or different during adulthood, 140 adults of various ages rated how likely it would be for individuals of average and exceptional intelligence at 30, 50, and 70 years of age to be engaged in behaviors previously identified by adults as characterizing adult intelligence. Adults perceived more similarity between exceptionally intelligent prototypes of closer ages (i.e., 30 and 50 and 50 and 70). Intelligence was perceived to consist of interest and ability to deal with novelty, everyday competence, and verbal competence--dimensions that were perceived to be differentially important for different-aged prototypes and by individuals of different ages. Participants' conceptions also included the idea that intelligence is malleable and that abilities differentially increase or decrease across the life span. PMID:1610512

  8. [Adult celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Cellier, C; Grosdidier, E

    2001-05-15

    Celiac disease is much common than previously thought with a prevalence of 1/300, but most of cases are poorly symptomatic or silent. Fewer of half of patients report diarrhoea as a presenting symptom. In adults, the diagnosis should be considered, in case of isolated iron deficiency anaemia, neurological symptoms (ataxia, epilepsy), osteoporosis and arthralgia, infertility, dermatitis herpetiformis and abnormalities in liver tests. Characteristic histological features are total or subtotal villous atrophy associated with an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes. The most sensitive and specific circulating antibodies for the diagnosis are endomysial and transglutaminase IgA antibodies. The treatment of celiac disease requires a strict gluten free diet, but the observance to this diet is often difficult. In patients refractory to a strict gluten free diet, serious complications such as intestinal lymphoma or refractory sprue should be considered. PMID:11458609

  9. Secondary hypertension in adults

    PubMed Central

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. PMID:27211205

  10. Extravasation Injuries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Benna, S.; O'Boyle, C.; Holley, J.

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of an intravascular catheter is one of the most common invasive procedures in hospitals worldwide. These intravascular lines are crucial in resuscitation, allow vital medication to be administered, and can be used to monitor the patients' real-time vital parameters. There is, however, growing recognition of potential risks to life and limb associated with their use. Medical literature is now replete with isolated case reports of complications succinctly described by Garden and Laussen (2004) as “An unending supply of “unusual” complications from central venous catheters.” This paper reviews complications of venous and arterial catheters and discusses treatment approaches and methods to prevent complications, based on current evidence and endeavours to provide information and guidance that will enable practitioners to prevent, recognise, and successfully treat extravasation injuries in adults. PMID:23738141

  11. Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Valley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Most organisms use their olfactory system to detect and analyze chemical cues from the external world to guide essential behaviors. From worms to vertebrates, chemicals are detected by odorant receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons, which in vertebrates send an axon to the primary processing center called the olfactory bulb (OB). Within the OB, sensory neurons form excitatory synapses with projection neurons and with inhibitory interneurons. Thus, because of complex synaptic interactions, the output of a given projection neuron is determined not only by the sensory input, but also by the activity of local inhibitory interneurons that are regenerated throughout life in the process of adult neurogenesis. Herein, we discuss how it is optimized and why. PMID:27235474

  12. The older adult driver.

    PubMed

    Carr, D B

    2000-01-01

    More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955

  13. Adult coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Marmouz, F

    2007-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an auto-immune inflammatory reaction characterized by a partial or total villi's atrophy of the proximal small intestine occuring after ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed patients. The classic form is much more frequent in children. Thereby there has been a misevaluation and improper treatment of coeliac disease in adults who suffer more from asymptomatica and atypical forms. Currently the only effective treatment is a strict gluten free diet for life. However recent researches brought a new light on the matter. Now oats as a causative factor is controvertial. The introduction of some moderate intestinal lesions (pre-atrophic with intra-epithelial hyperlymphocytosis qualified as "weak enteropathies") in the definition of coeliac disease might be possible. Moreover the way to diagnose has evolved as serological tests and markers are more used due to their efficiency. PMID:17375738

  14. Operation Bootstrap: Adult Education Program Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ella M.

    Adult educators need to ask themselves two basic questions: What are the problems which adults face today? What are the services which adult education can deliver to help adults individually, and collectively, resolve their problems? For many low-income adults, the problems of high death and unemployment rates, low life expectancy rates, limited…

  15. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  16. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  17. Recall in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walen, Susan R.

    1970-01-01

    The learning and retention performances of children and adults were compared on free and serialized reproductions of meaningful words. Although the children took longer than the adults to reach the learning criterion, and short-term retention was equivalent for both groups, the children displayed a superior serial recall at 7-day retention.…

  18. Participation Training for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevin, Paul; McKinley, John

    Participation Training for Adult Education serves as a manual, guide, and resource for leaders and participants interested in establishing a program of adult learning called group-participation training. Goals emphasize participants learning about themselves as learners, how they relate to and can help others, and exploring the dynamics of a…

  19. Gangsta Rap and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Talmadge C.

    2004-01-01

    Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip-hop generation, have little or no background, sensitivity, or understanding of the influence and significance of black popular culture and music for young African American and white adult learners. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  1. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  2. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  3. Understanding Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

  4. Predictive Modeling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

  5. Adult Academy Tutor Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isserlis, Janet; And Others

    This handbook is for volunteer tutors, student interns, and VISTA volunteers working with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners. The community-based handbook contains information about adult literacy and tutoring--what tutors do, who the learners are, and how the literacy learning process works. Introductory…

  6. Mass Media and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A., Ed.

    Some important developments affecting the use of the mass media in adult education are described in this collection of papers. A paper by Dr. George Gordon accuses educators of lacking imagination in their whole approach to adult education, especially in their use of the media. Dr. Robert Carlson's paper delineates the history of educational…

  7. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  8. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  9. Journey to International Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her journey to international adult education and shares some lessons learned from her journey. The author developed her interest in international adult education through the Scientific Research Institute of International and Comparative Education (SRIICE) at Beijing Normal University and discovered its…

  10. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  11. Economic Essays on Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Adult students are an important component of the current U.S education landscape. They account for over 40% of the degree-seeking fresh enrollees in the U.S. colleges and according to the U.S. Department of Education, their growth will soon outpace that of traditional students. Adult students have also received considerable attention in higher…

  12. Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and…

  13. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Art

    2016-01-01

    Art Ellison is longtime advocate for adult education, having managed numerous advocacy campaigns over the past forty years on the state and national levels. Prior to his employment in 1980 as the NH State Director of Adult Education he worked for many years as a high school teacher and as a community organizer. In this article, Ellison offers some…

  14. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  15. Recruiting and Retaining Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)

  16. Testing in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehringhaus, Carolyn

    1991-01-01

    Responses from 427 adult basic education teachers (51 percent response) indicated that (1) 84.8 percent use tests for placement; (2) the Tests of Adult Basic Education are overwhelmingly the most frequently used; and (3) 77.7 percent find their testing practices effective, although informal observation and assessment received the highest ranking.…

  17. Adult Education; State Demographic Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    In order to clearly identify the target population of Federal activities in adult education, the Research Committee gathered State-by-State demographic information from the 1970 U.S. Census. This compilation of over 3,700 separate figures provides a profile of adults relating to an eligible population for a Federal-State-Local partnership program.…

  18. Senior Adult Consumer Advisory Manual,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ater, E. Carolyn, Ed.

    This manual is intended for use by senior adult peer advisors (age 60 and over) engaged in helping relationships in providing consumer education to other senior adults. The advisory procedures are based on a problem solving approach which incorporates the development of a self-help concept. Chapter 1 provides information on consumer advising. It…

  19. Adult Educator in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    The role of adult education in developing countries is preparation of the people for accepting and inculcating change and helping to establish a pattern of social values enabling progress. Recommendations from the Asian Regional Seminar were a high degree of professionalism for adult educators and the establishing of a regional institute. (EA)

  20. Structuring an Adult Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Alan D.; Lindsey, William L.

    Mercy College in New York has devised a program that seeks to meet the special needs of returning adult students. To ease the restraints on the adult student's time and travel needs, the college holds classes in branches and extension centers throughout the urban area. It also offers eight-week courses that carry the same contact time requirements…

  1. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  2. Adult Functional Competency: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Div. of Extension.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project summary specifies the competencies which are functional to economic and educational success in society and describes devices developed for assessing those competencies. The APL theory of functional competency identifies adult needs in general knowledge areas (consumer economics, occupational knowledge,…

  3. Adult Education Research in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.; Johnson, Arthur A.

    Finnish research in adult education falls into three categories: philosophical, historical, and empirical. (Philosophical research involves the analysis of the concept of adult education and its relationship to other levels of education. Empirical research embraces the psychological and sociological study of students, teachers, institutions, and…

  4. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  5. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762

  6. Adult attachment and declining birthrates.

    PubMed

    Draper, Thomas W; Holman, Thomas B; White, Whitney; Grandy, Shannon

    2007-02-01

    Attachment scores for 658 young adults living in the U.S.A. were obtained using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale. The participants came from a subsample of the RELATE data set, who had also filled out the adult attachment measure. Those young adults living in Utah County, Utah, an area of the country with a higher than normal birthrate (88% members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), also had higher than average adult attachment scores. While the methodology was not sufficient to assess causal direction nor eliminate the possibility of unidentified influences, an undiscussed psychological factor, adult attachment, may play a role in the numerical declines observed among nonimmigrant communities in the USA and Europe. PMID:17450996

  7. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  8. Coaching as a Strategy for Helping Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Dorothy M.; Wertheim, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the use of coaching for adult learners, the specific characteristics adults bring to the learning environment, and strategies for dealing with the obstacles adult learners may face.

  9. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  10. General Information about Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  12. Stages of Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  14. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  15. Aspects of Adult Development. The Rossman Adult Learning Inventory: Creating Awareness of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederick; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Romero's overview of adult developmental theory stresses the work of Erikson, Havighurst, Loevinger, Perry, Kohlberg, and Cross. Rossman and Rossman discuss the development of their Adult Learning Inventory with an extensive source summary for its 4 factors and a 62-item bibliography. (SK)

  16. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

  17. [Prehospitale analgesia in adults].

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Björn; Holsträter, Susanne; Bernhard, Michael; Lampl, Lorenz; Helm, Matthias; Kulla, Martin

    2016-02-01

    After securing vital function, treatment of pain is an important aspect in emergency medical care. Irrespective of the underlying disease or injury, pain is an important warning symptom of the body and the most common reason for an emergency alert notification. A patient assesses quality of care and success of prehospital care using the criteria of the extent of pain relief he experiences. Since mild pain does not usually lead to an emergency alert, the criteria apply mainly to treatment of severe and very severe pain. Pain perception varies from individual to individual. Accordingly, assessment of pain intensity is the very first step in pain therapy. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable) is suitable for pain assessment in adult emergency patients. Above a grade of 4, therapeutic intervention should be initiated with the goal of reducing pain to reach a value of <4, or at least to achieve a reduction by 3 points. The choice of analgesics that can be meaningfully used in pre-hospital emergency medicine is limited. The emergency physician should be aware of available drugs and administration routes. PMID:26949902

  18. Adult health checkup

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Jane; Ischayek, Amanda; Dubey, Vinita; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe updates to the Preventive Care Checklist Form© to help family physicians stay up to date with current preventive health care recommendations. Quality of evidence The Ovid MEDLINE database was searched using specified key words and other terms relevant to the periodic health examination. Secondary sources, such as the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Trip database, and the Canadian Medical Association Infobase, were also searched. Recommendations for preventive health care for average-risk adults were reviewed. Strong and weak recommendations are presented on the form in bold and italic text, respectively. Main message Updates were made to the form based on the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations on screening for obesity (2015), cervical cancer (2013), depression (2013), osteoporosis (2013), hypertension (2012), diabetes (2012, 2013), and breast cancer (2011). Updates were made based on recommendations from other Canadian organizations on screening for HIV (2013), screening for sexually transmitted infections (2013), immunizations (2012 to 2014), screening for dyslipidemia (2012), fertility counseling for women (2011, 2012), and screening for colorectal cancer (2010). Some previous recommendations were removed and others lacking evidence were not included. Conclusion The Preventive Care Checklist Form has been updated with current recommendations to enable family physicians to provide comprehensive, evidence-based care to patients during periodic health examinations. PMID:27076540

  19. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  20. La lecture et les adultes (Reading and Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, Benigno

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods used to help adults improve their reading skills and read with more enjoyment. Particular attention is paid to the Reading Club method. An illustration is given of a particular exercise used at a center in Paris. (AMH)

  1. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  2. Adult Hirschprung disease: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Mindelzun, R E; Hicks, S M

    1986-09-01

    Hirschprung disease is usually diagnosed in infancy. Occasionally patients reach adulthood without diagnosis or treatment. Four cases of adult Hirschprung disease are described. The principal radiographic findings are a markedly dilated, feces-filled colon above the zone of transition; a narrowed rectum; a cone- or funnel-shaped zone of transition; and a mosaic colonic pattern caused by collapsed redundant mucosa after colonic cleansing. In an adult, identification on a barium enema examination of an abrupt, smooth transition zone in the rectum with proximal colonic dilatation, in conjunction with an appropriate clinical history, should suggest the diagnosis of adult Hirschprung disease. PMID:3737900

  3. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  4. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against four common tick species infesting dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Becskei, Csilla; Grace, Sarah; Strube, Christina; Doherty, Padraig; Liebenberg, Julian; Mahabir, Sean P; Slootmans, Nathalie; Lloyd, Anne; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of single oral treatment of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against four tick species known to commonly infest dogs in Europe. Eight laboratory studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 animals were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult Dermacentor reticulatus (two studies), Ixodes hexagonus (three studies), Ixodes ricinus (two studies) or Rhipicephalus sanguineus (one study) ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated orally with placebo or sarolaner tablets providing the minimum dose of 2.0mg/kg bodyweight and tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions in any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P≤0.0001) lower in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all time-points. A single oral administration of sarolaner resulted in 100% efficacy against existing infestations of all tick species except R. sanguineus, for which the efficacy was 99.7%, within 48h. Efficacy against weekly re-infestations was ≥97.5% for all tick species for 35 days. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2 mg/kg, resulted in ≥99.7% efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and in ≥97.5% efficacy against weekly re-infestations, for at least 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in Europe. PMID:27068640

  5. Inservice Instructors: Adult Educator Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Mary Beth Harper

    1983-01-01

    Describes how fourteen principles of adult education provide the conceptual framework for performance competencies to guide the daily practice of instructors in the centralized inservice department of a large acute-care hospital. (JOW)

  6. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  7. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  9. Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...

  10. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a widely underrecognized and undertreated medical illness. Depression often co-occurs with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Because many older adults face these illnesses as well as various social and ...

  11. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures if needed annual flu shots. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Many older adults living at home eat poorly. ... serious that a condition known as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) develops. Sometimes, PCM occurs after a long ...

  12. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  13. Adult-Onset Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit; Broderick, Gregory A; Carson, Culley C; Dobs, Adrian S; Faraday, Martha M; Goldstein, Irwin; Hakim, Lawrence S; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Kacker, Ravi; Köhler, Tobias S; Mills, Jesse N; Miner, Martin; Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Seftel, Allen D; Sharlip, Ira D; Winters, Stephen J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-07-01

    In August 2015, an expert colloquium commissioned by the Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) convened in Washington, DC, to discuss the common clinical scenario of men who present with low testosterone (T) and associated signs and symptoms accompanied by low or normal gonadotropin levels. This syndrome is not classical primary (testicular failure) or secondary (pituitary or hypothalamic failure) hypogonadism because it may have elements of both presentations. The panel designated this syndrome adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) because it occurs commonly in middle-age and older men. The SMSNA is a not-for-profit society established in 1994 to promote, encourage, and support the highest standards of practice, research, education, and ethics in the study of human sexual function and dysfunction. The panel consisted of 17 experts in men's health, sexual medicine, urology, endocrinology, and methodology. Participants declared potential conflicts of interest and were SMSNA members and nonmembers. The panel deliberated regarding a diagnostic process to document signs and symptoms of AOH, the rationale for T therapy, and a monitoring protocol for T-treated patients. The evaluation and management of hypogonadal syndromes have been addressed in recent publications (ie, the Endocrine Society, the American Urological Association, and the International Society for Sexual Medicine). The primary purpose of this document was to support health care professionals in the development of a deeper understanding of AOH, particularly in how it differs from classical primary and secondary hypogonadism, and to provide a conceptual framework to guide its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:27343020

  14. Asthma in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of adults have suffered an attack of asthma, and up to 5% of these have severe disease that responds poorly to treatment. Patients with severe disease have an increased risk of death, but patients with mild to moderate disease are also at risk of exacerbations. Most guidelines about the management of asthma follow stepwise protocols. This review does not endorse or follow any particular protocol, but presents the evidence about specific interventions. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 100 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: beta2 agonists (plus ipratropium bromide, pressured metered-dose inhalers, short-acting continuous nebulised, short-acting intermittent nebulised, short-acting iv, and inhaled formoterol); corticosteroids (inhaled); corticosteroids (single oral, combined inhaled, and short courses); education about acute asthma; generalist care; helium–oxygen mixture (heliox); magnesium sulphate (iv and adding isotonic nebulised magnesium to inhaled beta2 agonists); mechanical ventilation; oxygen supplementation (controlled 28% oxygen and controlled 100% oxygen); and specialist care. PMID:21463536

  15. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  16. [Epithelial hepatoblastomas in the adult].

    PubMed

    Mondragón Sánchez, R; Bernal Maldonado, R; Sada Navarro, L A; Hernández, A I; Hurtado Andrade, H; Cortés Espinoza, T; Sánchez Cisneros, R

    1994-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most frequent primary malignant liver neoplasm in childhood; in adults it is extremely rare and only 27 cases have been published. The prognosis of this neoplasm is poor because it is usually discovered late. Surgery, chemotherapy and liver transplantation have been tried with poor results. We present two adult patients who were diagnosed with an epithelial hepatoblastoma. The pathogenesis, histologic features and current management is reviewed. PMID:7716366

  17. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  18. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  19. Study Circle Guide: Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This study circle was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL). The study circle is part of NCSALL's efforts to help connect research and practice in the field of adult basic education and adult literacy. The Adult Student Persistence Study Circle is one of a series of study circles that NCSALL has…

  20. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  1. Adult Education in Israel, II-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Pinnes, Noy, Ed.

    This is the second booklet in English that deals with adult education in Israel. The following papers are included: "Editors' Notes" (Paul Kirmayer, Noy Pinnes); "Introduction" (Meir Peretz); "Defining 'Adult Education'" (Yehezkel Cohen); "Planning Study Programs for Adults" (Rachel Tokatli); "The Role of Adult Education: Changing the Individual…

  2. Adults' Event Recall: Is Context Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Hilary Horn; Padgett, Robert J.

    In studies of retention of verbal material adults have repeatedly remembered less than younger adults have. A study was conducted which asked older adults to remember an experienced event, retention of experiences being considered a better indicator of functioning ability than retention of word lists. In an initial study, older adults' recall was…

  3. Adult Education and Development, No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This serial issue contains a total of 26 articles grouped under five headings: "Adult Learning: A Key for the Twenty-First Century (Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Confintea V))"; "Trends in Adult Education Policy" (Belanger); "Adult Education in Modern Times" (Geissler); "From Criticism to Constructiveness" (Torres); "An…

  4. Competency-Based Adult Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    This resource guide for adult education personnel describes programs and publications on APL (Adult Performance Level) and Competency-Based Adult Education (CBAE). Includes: (1) Descriptions of APL examination programs developed by the American College Testing Program, (2) brief description of Missouri project on the identification of adult basic…

  5. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  6. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  7. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  8. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  9. Life Skills Curriculum for Senior Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

    This life skills curriculum helps adult basic educators meet the needs of senior adult learners. An introduction contains the following sections: purpose statement; description of the senior adult learner; tips to remember on teaching senior adults; physiology of aging; teaching the hearing impaired; and teaching the visually impaired. The life…

  10. Engaging the Adult Learner Generational Mix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke, Laura; Larson, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Educators and Trainers both focus on adult learning theory when teaching. In the workforce, as well as in higher education, current literature pertaining to adult learners tends to lump all adults into the same category. Scant research exists that reviews the adult learner through a generational lens. This paper examines the elements that engage…

  11. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on...

  12. Adult Learners: Pathways to Progression. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Sanders, John

    1997-01-01

    A study focused on facilitating progression for adults from nonvocational adult education to qualification-bearing courses in further education (FE) and studied their patterns of progression and which factors helped or hindered such progress. Information was collected from adult learners in 10 adult and FE organizations in Britain through a…

  13. Methods in Adult Education, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Barton; And Others

    The adult education textbook is intended for persons preparing to teach adults as well as those already on the job. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 is directed to the learning characteristics of adults. Chapter 3 focuses on steps of involving the potential participant in adult education programs, while Chapter 4 outlines various…

  14. Ecological studies of the psocids Liposcelis brunnea, L. rufa, L. pearmani, and Lepinotus reticulatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psocids (Psocoptera) are an emerging problem in grain storages, grain processing facilities, and product warehouses in the United States and many other countries. Development of effective pest management programs for psocids is dependent on having sound knowledge of their ecology. Given the limited ...

  15. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M.I.; Lledó, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267

  16. Adults with ADHD. An overview.

    PubMed

    Wender, P H; Wolf, L E; Wasserstein, J

    2001-06-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common, genetically transmitted neurological disorder, with onset in childhood, probably mediated by decreased brain dopaminergic functioning. The first author was one of the earliest to describe the persistence of symptoms into adulthood. Prevalence and natural history data suggest that of the 3 to 10% of children diagnosed with ADHD, one- to two-thirds (somewhere between 1 and 6% of the general population) continue to manifest appreciable ADHD symptoms into adult life. This paper describes how ADHD in adults can be readily diagnosed and treated, despite resembling or coexisting with other psychiatric disorders. The Wender Utah diagnostic criteria address adult characteristics of the disorder. Informant and patient interviews and rating scales are used to determine the psychiatric status of the patient as a child, make a retroactive diagnosis of childhood ADHD, and establish the current diagnosis of the adult. Stringent diagnosis is key to determining effective treatment. Dopamine agonist stimulant medications appear to be the most effective in treating ADHD. About 60% of patients receiving stimulant medication showed moderate-to-marked improvement, as compared with 10% of those receiving placebo. The core symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, mood lability, temper, disorganization, stress sensitivity, and impulsivity have been shown to respond to treatment with stimulant medications. Non-dopaminergic medications, such as the tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs have generally not been useful in adults with ADHD in the absence of depression or dysthymia. Pemoline is no longer approved for use in these patients, despite early favorable reports. Appropriate management of adult patients with ADHD is multimodal. Psychoeducation, counseling, supportive problem-directed therapy, behavioral intervention, coaching, cognitive remediation, and couples and family therapy are useful adjuncts to medication management

  17. Acute Psychiatric Hospital Admissions of Adults and Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the records of 240 inpatients with mental retardation and 7 with autism discharged from a university hospital indicated that elderly adults had more medical problems than did adults, more elderly adults were transferred to a state hospital, and the most common diagnosis in both adults and elderly adults was chronic schizophrenia,…

  18. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  19. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  20. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  1. [Adult hepatoblastoma. A case report].

    PubMed

    Goikoetxea Urdiain, A; Sánchez Acedo, P; Mateo Retuerta, J; Tarifa Castilla, A; Zazpe Ripa, C; Herrera Cabezón, J

    Adult hepatoblastoma is a rare pathology. Its pathogeny is not well understood and prognosis is very bad. We pre-sent a case of adult hepatoblastoma treated in our centre. A 65 year-old male, without previous hepatopathy, who consulted due to right hypochondrial pain with a subacute evolution. The pathological diagnosis was adult epithelial hepatoblastoma, with free surgical margins. The patient recei-ved a second surgical intervention 5 months later due to early recurrence and died 10 months after the diagnosis due to a new massive recurrence. His definitive diagnosis is histological. Radical surgery is the only treatment that increases survival, but recurrence is frequent. There are no well-defined patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy nor is there any trans-plant experience. PMID:27599957

  2. Prenatal Famine and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Lumey, L.H.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    We review human studies on the relation between acute exposures to prenatal famine and adult physical and mental health. These studies are observational and include exposures to a famine environment by natural or man-made causes or, more commonly, from the interplay between natural and human factors. These natural experiments provide an opportunity to examine long-term outcomes after famine exposures by comparing exposed and nonexposed individuals. The studies show consistent associations between prenatal famine and adult body size, diabetes, and schizophrenia. For other measures of adult health, findings are less robust. A relation between prenatal famine and some reported epigenetic changes may provide a potential mechanism to explain specific associations. Much progress can be made if current separate studies are further analyzed with comparable definitions of exposures and outcomes and using common analytic strategies. PMID:21219171

  3. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  4. Vaccinations for the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Gowrishankar; Biedenbender, Rex; Davidson, Harley Edward; Gravenstein, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Vaccine response declines with age, but currently recommended vaccines are safe and effective in reducing, if not preventing, disease altogether. Over the last decade, advancements in vaccine immunogenicity, either by increasing dose or conjugating vaccines to protein, have resulted in more immunogenic vaccines that also seem more effective in reducing clinical disease both for influenza and pneumococcus. Meanwhile, there is a resurgence in incident pertussis, exceeding prevalence from five decades ago, adding older adults to a recommended target vaccination group. This article discusses currently available vaccines, in the context of current epidemiology and recommendations, for older adults. PMID:27394026

  5. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  6. Adult Wilms tumor: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

  7. Adult Neurogenesis: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kempermann, Gerd

    2016-02-01

    When adult neurogenesis was discovered in the mammalian brain it was often considered an atavism and, even today, many people are convinced that there has been a "phylogenetic reduction" away from lifelong neurogenesis, favoring stability for complex brains. Adult neurogenesis is found throughout the animal kingdom but varies to a large extent. Mammals might have fewer neurogenic zones than, for example, fish, but within their remaining neurogenic zones, the new neurons are highly functional. Especially, humans have very substantial quantities of neurogenesis in their hippocampus. At least for the mammalian dentate gyrus, one can thus argue that there has been evolution toward neurogenesis-based plasticity rather than away from it. PMID:26684183

  8. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  9. [Etiology of adult insomnia].

    PubMed

    Dollander, M

    2002-01-01

    In the article, the author develops an analysis of external and intrapsychic factors related to adults' insomnia. First she undertakes a literature review to describe semiological, evolutive and etiological levels of insomnia. From a semiological point of view, it is usual to differenciate initial insomnia (associated to the first phase of sleeping), intermittent insomnia (related to frequent awakenings) and final insomnia (related to early morning awakenings). From an evolutive point of view, we can identify transitory insomnia (characterized by frequent awakenings) and chronic insomnia. On the other hand, we are allowed to distinguish organic insomnia (disorder where an organic cerebral injury is demonstrated or suspected) from insomnias related to psychiatric or somatic disease or idiopathic one. Then, the author makes a literary review to identify various insomnia causes and points out. Social factors: insomnia rates are higher by divorced, separated or widowed people. Percentages are higher when scholastic level is weak, domestic income is less then 915 O a month, or by unemployed people. Besides, sleep quality is deteriorated by ageing. Sleeping and waking rhythm is able to loose its synchronization. Complaints about insomnia occur far frequently from women than men. Environmental factors: working constraints increase sleep disorders. It is possible to make the same conclusion when we have to face overcharge of external events, deep intrapsychic conflicts (related to grief, unemployment, damage or hospitalization) or interpersonal conflicts' situations where we are confronted to stress related to socio-affective environment, lack of social support or conjugal difficulties. Medical and physiologic causes: legs impatience syndrome, recurrent limbs shakings syndrome, breathe stop during sleep, narcolepsy, excessive medicine or hypnotic drugs use, some central nervous system injuries, every nocturnal awakening (related to aches.), surgical operation

  10. The Adult Literacy League and the Center for Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, William Michael; Nelson, Floride

    Since its foundation in 1968, the Adult Literacy League of Orlando, Florida, has dedicated itself to eradicating the educational handicaps of more than 2,575 local residents. The League, which in 1975 became part of the Open Campus of Valencia Community College (VCC), offers two courses: (1) a Literacy Tutor Training Workshop, a 10-hour program to…

  11. Personal Health Maintenance for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, John H.

    1984-01-01

    The practice of adult medicine provides many opportunities to prolong life, prevent disease and disability and promote health. Essential steps in this process include establishing patient rapport, obtaining a comprehensive data base, providing periodic health examinations for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients and helping patients change unhealthy behavior. PMID:6395497

  12. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  13. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy. PMID:27297002

  14. New Directions in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRainey, D. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    How are educators moving museums' interpretive goals beyond exhibition galleries? How are programs creating new relationships between a museum and its adult audiences? As plans for physical transformation at the Chicago History Museum took form, the education department launched a parallel process of planning to redefine the "look and feel" for…

  15. Behavior Theory and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLagan, Patricia A.

    The paper proposes that when behavior change is the major target of an adult education program, the designer must consider three factors: (1) the four basic targets for behavior change efforts (behavior goals and plans, basic knowledge and skills needed for successful performance, physical environment, reinforcers of behavior); (2) individual…

  16. Rural Adult Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  17. The Economics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As the "Hamburg Declaration" makes clear, adult education (AE) is a key component of development strategies that seek to ensure the long-term well-being of nations. Yet, with few exceptions most countries systematically underinvest in AE. Of course, it is no easy task to achieve adequate investment levels that reflect an appropriate balance…

  18. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  19. Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian; Walshe, John

    Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

  20. TRICARE Young Adult. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-29

    This final rule implements Section 702 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended TRICARE Program coverage opportunity to most unmarried children under the age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TYA program is a premium-based program. PMID:23724426

  1. Adult Literacy Program Personnel Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metis Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    A study was conducted to find out about the people who conduct and work in adult literacy programs in New York City (NYC). Through a questionnaire distributed to NYC literacy practitioners working in programs operated by public libraries, the City University of New York, the New York City Board of Education, and community-based organizations, the…

  2. Group Access for Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Mark; Green, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of a project to improve higher education access for adults with disabilities found students preferred separate over integrated provision. In integrated programs they felt isolated by teachers' lack of understanding and other students' reactions. In discrete programs they experienced shared understanding of disability, support, and work…

  3. ADVANCED ADULT EDUCATION IN ISRAEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Culture, Jerusalem (Israel).

    ADULT EDUCATION IN ISRAEL IS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE CULTURAL DEPARTMENT, WHICH RECOMMENDS TEACHERS AND LECTURERS AND IS RESPONSIBLE FOR INSPECTION AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT. STUDENT FEES ARE COLLECTED LOCALLY. PREVIOUSLY DEVOTED TO JEWISH TOPICS AND HEBREW LANGUAGE, THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN EXPANDED TO INCLUDE FORMAL SECONDARY EDUCATION, HUMANITIES,…

  4. Computer Technology in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slider, Patty; Hodges, Kathy; Carter, Cea; White, Barbara

    This publication provides materials to help adult educators use computer technology in their teaching. Section 1, Computer Basics, contains activities and materials on these topics: increasing computer literacy, computer glossary, parts of a computer, keyboard, disk care, highlighting text, scrolling and wrap-around text, setting up text,…

  5. Native American Adult Reader III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful material based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for advanced reading ability (grade 7 and above). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  6. Native American Adult Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful materials based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for intermediate reading ability (grades 4-6). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  7. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning in the workplace. The first paper, "Measuring Critical Thinking: Is There a Single Instrument?" (Patricia K. Leitsch, Carol A. Lentz), examines two issues: the relationship between tests measuring critical thinking and those measuring readiness for self-directed learning and the…

  8. ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VERNER, COOLIE, ED.

    PREPARED UNDER THE SPECIAL EDITORSHIP OF COOLIE VERNER, THIS JOURNAL ISSUE REVIEWS THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT, TRACES THE GROWTH OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DURING THE PERIOD 1915-63, DISCUSSES RECENT TRENDS AND ACTIVITIES IN VOCATIONAL AND NONVOCATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL…

  9. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Topics Alcohol Use and Older Adults COPD Lung Cancer The information in this topic was provided by the National Cancer Institute Topic last reviewed: June 2014 For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older ...

  10. Death of an Adult Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  11. COPD: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multiple Health Problems Prevention Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z COPD Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... not a weakness or a normal part of aging. Most people feel better with ... help you can, so that your COPD does not prevent you from living your life ...

  12. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  13. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  14. Adult Students: A Priority Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugart, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Many practices in higher education evolved significantly from 1985 to 2005. The presence of adult degree completion programs in colleges and universities of all types proliferated, with satellite campuses for this purpose in metropolitan areas often far removed from the "home campus." MBA programs multiplied during this same time, as did online…

  15. The Child and the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalletti, Sofia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses young children's relationship with God and the place of religion in their lives, focusing on the role of adults in proclaiming the essential elements of Christianity to children. Argues that even very young children can understand the essence of religion. (MDM)

  16. Is Adult Learning Demanding Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a fascinating time for adult learning in the UK. With a plethora of reviews reaching report stage alongside ongoing discussion about funding, qualifications and quality and the review of post-16 planning and funding in Wales, there is a real sense that things are about to change after a decade of well-meant but often misfocused reform.…

  17. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  18. Seven Things Adult Learners Dislike.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strzalka, Agnieszka

    1998-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed to elicit what adult learners disliked most about learning English. Seven dislikes were identified, including the following: textbooks in English only, role plays, drills, textbooks with no reading material or with artificial texts, homework, inflexible teachers, and audiotapes. (Author/VWL)

  19. Morphological Processing in Adult Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Mark; Hagit, Even Zur

    2006-01-01

    This study employed the masked-priming paradigm [Forster and Davis (J Exp Psychol bearn Mem Cogn 10: 680-698, 1984).], along with traditional methods of evaluation of morphological awareness and phonological processing, to obtain a finer-grained picture of the relationship between morphological abilities and reading in adult dyslexic readers.…

  20. Essential English for Micronesian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Jo Ann; Reinecke, Hank

    This student workbook is designed to help Micronesian adults learn everyday English. Its ten chapters move from simple one-word picture labeling to more abstract ideas in a spiraled fashion, reiterating the essential elements of the English language in different, more complicated ways. Subjects covered include names for everyday objects and…

  1. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  2. An Experiment in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The Swarthmore Educational Settlement was founded in Leeds in 1909. Since then thousands of adult learners have benefited from its combinations of liberal, vocational and creative arts programmes, homely atmosphere and commitment to fellowship in learning. It has remained an independent centre, running its own affairs through its own council and…

  3. Boosting Adult Learning. Working Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, David

    Too many of Britain's workforce lack the skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. To remedy this will require the commitment, in time and resources, of individuals, employers, the education and training infrastructure and the state. Adults with the lowest qualifications have the least access to employer-funded training, especially in small…

  4. Socioeconomic Outcomes from Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)

  5. Informal Helping Relationships Among Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald; Mairi St. John

    An exploratory study examined the informal helping relationship between adults seeking assistance with problems and the persons they selected as helpers. Fifteen men and 15 women were interviewed with an open ended questionnaire listing 50 possible reasons for selecting a helper and 35 possible ways in which a helper assisted with the problems.…

  6. National Adult Physical Fitness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Newsletter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This report of a personal interview research survey conducted for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 1972 presents the following findings: (a) 45 percent of all adult Americans do not engage in any form of exercise; (b) walking is the most popular form of exercise, followed by bicycle riding, swimming, calisthenics, bowling,…

  7. Adult Learning. ARIS Information Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Australia, Melbourne (Victoria). Adult Education Resource and Information Service.

    Adults may seek out learning at different times in their lives, for different reasons, and for vastly different purposes. Some of the reasons are to achieve pre-determined goals; to fill education gaps; to explore options and make choices; to develop personally; to perform a job or role better; or to enhance employment prospects. Learning itself…

  8. Adult Education and Worldview Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Leon

    This book frames the higher purposes of adult education in terms of worldview construction. Building on the work of Martin Heidegger, the first of the book's eight chapters defines worldview in two ways: as a vantage point in time and culture that conditions a person's experience of the world and as a person's understanding of the world. Chapter 2…

  9. Where Now for Adult Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

  10. Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…

  11. Adult Education and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2008-01-01

    Due to the effects of global warming, writes Field, everyone now lives in times of plague, floods, and famine. While the UK government's track record on green issues is not all bad, still it is vulnerable to criticism. In this article, the author discusses what adult education has to offer to the environmental movement, despite existing…

  12. Adult Education and Development, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These two issues of a half-yearly journal for adult education cover Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Number 40 consists of 35 articles on 4 themes: Multicultural dimensions; environmental learning; cooperation and partnership with Eastern Europe; and women and training. Articles include: "It Is Time to Understand that the World Belongs to All of…

  13. The Older Adult and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger

    According to recent census figures, 10% of today's population are over 65 years old. It has often been stated that individual learning needs and capabilities decline with age. To challenge this idea, a study was conducted to gather information about older adults, their learning interests, activities, and obstacles. Four hypotheses were tested…

  14. Adult Learners' Week in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jermann, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The slogan of International Adult Learners Week in Switzerland is "one hour a day for learning." Four goals of the lifelong learning agenda are government policies to promote access, public awareness campaigns, creation of public learning places, and development of networks for real and virtual learning. (SK)

  15. Adult Braille Instruction in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkila, M.

    1990-01-01

    A program of the Finnish Central Federation of the Visually Handicapped is described. The program's aim is to provide and develop teaching materials and instructional methods to help persons who lost their eyesight as adults to learn braille. Discussed are personal tutoring, correspondence studying, regional courses, and program plans. (Author/JDD)

  16. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  17. Reading Activities of American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Amiel T.

    A reading activities survey as part of the Targeted Research and Development Reading Program was done by interviewing 3,504 adults, aged 16 years or older, selected by area probability sampling. Among the preliminary findings was that the most frequent type of reading is newspaper reading. Seven out of 10 people read or look at a newspaper during…

  18. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between HRD…

  19. Adult Literacy Issues in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Literacy issues are discussed that affect Canadians age 15 and older who are barely literate in any language. Topics include the following: definitions of literacy; policy overviews and surveys; the impact of literacy on Canadian institutions; access for literacy learners; adult learning and classroom practice; and the plain language movement. (76…

  20. Adult Reading Habits and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Rhee, Ock

    2001-01-01

    Examines the reading habits and patterns of White and Asian American adults. Hypothesizes that when grouped by demographic variables, participants' responses about their reading habits and patterns would not differ. Concludes that gender, race, and education were predictors for participants' reading habits; education and race were predictors for…

  1. Adult Literacy in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    The rural work force has lower basic skills to supply labor for new jobs with higher literacy demands. At all levels of education the rural population is at a disadvantage compared with the urban population. One out of five rural adults in Pennsylvania has not continued education past the eighth grade. Among the costs to businesses from employee…

  2. Counseling Needs of Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mildred B.

    This study was undertaken to determine the needs of adults who had decided to return to school for higher education, the basic hypothesis being that their needs (which are different from those of younger students) are not being met. A questionnaire was sent to more than 1,100 men and women over 26 years of age who were attempting to complete an…

  3. Adult Height and Childhood Disease

    PubMed Central

    BOZZOLI, CARLOS; DEATON, ANGUS; QUINTANA-DOMEQUE, CLIMENT

    2009-01-01

    Taller populations are typically richer populations, and taller individuals live longer and earn more. In consequence, adult height has recently become a focus in understanding the relationship between health and wealth. We investigate the childhood determinants of population adult height, focusing on the respective roles of income and of disease. Across a range of European countries and the United States, we find a strong inverse relationship between postneonatal (ages 1 month to 1 year) mortality, interpreted as a measure of the disease and nutritional burden in childhood, and the mean height of those children as adults. Consistent with these findings, we develop a model of selection and stunting in which the early-life burden of undernutrition and disease not only is responsible for mortality in childhood but also leaves a residue of long-term health risks for survivors, risks that express themselves in adult height and in late-life disease. The model predicts that at sufficiently high mortality levels, selection can dominate scarring, leaving a taller population of survivors. We find evidence of this effect in the poorest and highest-mortality countries of the world, supplementing recent findings on the effects of the Great Chinese Famine. PMID:20084823

  4. CPR - adult and child 9 years and older

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child 9 years and older; Rescue breathing ...

  5. Ixodes ricinus is the dominant questing tick in forest habitats in Romania: the results from a countrywide dragging campaign.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, A D; Gherman, C M; Magdaş, C; Dumitrache, M O; Györke, A; Sándor, A D; Domşa, C; Oltean, M; Mircean, V; Mărcuţan, D I; D'Amico, G; Păduraru, A O; Cozma, V

    2012-10-01

    In 2010 and 2011, questing ticks were collected from 188 forested locations in all the 41 counties of Romania using the dragging method. The total of 13,771 ticks collected belonged to eleven species: Ixodes ricinus (86.9 %), Dermacentor marginatus (9.5 %), Haemaphysalis punctata (2.6 %), H. concinna (0.6 %), H. sulcata (0.3 %), H. parva (0.1 %), Hyalomma marginatum (0.02 %), D. reticulatus (0.02 %), I. crenulatus (0.007 %), I. hexagonus (0.007 %) and I. laguri (0.007 %). Ixodes ricinus was present in 97.7 % (n = 180) of locations, occurring exclusively in 41.7 % of the locations, whereas it was the dominant species in 38.8 % of the other locations, accounting for over 70 % of the total tick community. The following most common questing ticks were D. marginatus, H. punctata and H. concinna. Ixodes ricinus co-occurred with one, two or three sympatric species. The occurrence of D. reticulatus in forested habitats from Romania was found to be accidental. PMID:22547023

  6. For a Socialising Type of Adult Education: Transforming Adult Education into an Autonomous System for the Continuous Resocialisation of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogard, Gerald

    This report sets out to establish the need for and to define a type of adult education for the socialization of adults. It arises from the meeting of a steering group responsible for the "Adult Education and Social Change" project, which studied educational practices relating to the long-term unemployed and older people. The key points listed…

  7. Screening for Hepatitis C Infections in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening: (1) Adults at high risk for ... C Virus Infection in Adults Potential Benefits and Harms of Screening and Treatment The Task Force reviewed ...

  8. Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Director Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology Volume 15 · Issue 6 · November/December 2005 Text ... adults who struggle to stand and walk. New technology includes knee units, shock-absorbing pylons, and other ...

  9. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  10. General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. General Information about Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  12. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  13. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Screening Pelvic Examination in Nonpregnant Adult Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening Pelvic Examination in Nonpregnant Adult Women: Recommendations From the American ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening Pelvic Examination in Adult Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline From ...

  15. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  16. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  17. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  18. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major ...

  19. Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meningococcal Disease Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults What is meningococcal ... risks associated with the vaccines. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, and ...

  20. Sexuality in Older Adults: A Deconstructionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstetler, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Societal myths argue against active expression of sexuality in older adults, but these prejudices are unfounded. Using a deconstructionist framework, this article addresses issues surrounding sexuality in older adults. Implications for clinical practice are given.

  1. Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery En Español What kinds of anesthesia are available for adults having eye surgery? A “general”, “local”, or “topical” anesthesia is necessary ...

  2. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  3. Essay Review: On the Instruction of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    1992-01-01

    Organizing instruction for adults should begin by clarifying the relationship between educator and learner. Proper matching of their roles based on the needs and preferences of content, learner, educator, and organization along a continuum underlies successful adult education. (SK)

  4. Liver involvement in adults with measles.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Aurélien; Fleuret, Victoire; Hanslik, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    We retrospectively collected the characteristics of 80 consecutive adult patients with biologically confirmed measles during a recent epidemic in France. We report on the frequency and severity of liver involvement in adult patients with measles. In our experience, measles in adults was not severe and hepatitis was not correlated with severe cases or bacterial infection. Therefore, hepatitis should be regarded as a usual symptom rather than a complication of measles infection in adults. PMID:23938044

  5. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice), were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures. PMID:22950642

  6. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education" (Fons van Wieringen);…

  7. Leading Online Learning Initiatives in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen-Tracey, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Adult learners often face barriers to participation in traditional classroom instruction. As technology access grows and adults naturally incorporate technology into their daily lives, adult education programs are finding innovative ways to blend technology with instruction through quality online learning opportunities. This article highlights the…

  8. Children's Representation of Child and Adult Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitneva, Stanka A.

    2010-01-01

    Do children think that adult knowledge subsumes or only partially overlaps child knowledge? Sixty-four 4- and 6-year-old children were asked either whether a child and an adult know the answers to questions tapping adult- and child-specific knowledge (Experiment 1) or to whom each question should be addressed (Experiment 2). Children were also…

  9. A European Vision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the European Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform European cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…

  10. Educational Counseling of Adults: Where It's At.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.

    "Counseling adults is the most impoverished, depressed, but developing area in the entire area of adult education." This is due to: (1) a lack of serious commitment by the educational community, (2) a lack of adequate literature, and (3) a lack of clear-cut role distinctions. The limited number of research studies on counseling adults conclude…

  11. Teaching the Adult of the "80"s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.

    Intended for reading specialists and adult education teachers, this paper assesses the current state of adult basic skills, the general education degree, and English as a second language teaching. The first part of the paper consists of a series of tables representing demographics of participants in adult education programs. The second part…

  12. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

  13. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  14. Adult Education School to Work. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Molly

    A project identified and established components related to adult basic education's role in school-to-work (STW) transition. It focused on developing a cognitive framework for competency-based adult employability classes, integrating adult basic and literacy education (ABLE)-funded programs into the Erie Area STW partnership, and establishing a…

  15. ILA: Individualized Learning for Adults. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    Individualized Learning for Adults (ILA), a program designed to meet the needs of adults enrolled in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes, is presented. The curriculum of the ILA program consists of two carefully constructed continuums sequenced along two dimensions: area and level. There are 257 performance objectives, or skills, in the…

  16. Adult learners: are they really different?

    PubMed

    Seubert, J E

    1982-01-01

    Some knowledge of adult learning is essential in establishing a meaningful learning/teaching experience that will meet the needs of our students, employees, and patients. Specific learning characteristics that pertain directly to the adult, such as fluid and crystallized intelligence, problem-solving ability, the role of experience, and physiologic changes, strongly indicate a uniqueness in the way adults learn. PMID:6927778

  17. Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

  18. Teaching Adult Students Mathematical Investigations-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angiama, R. O.

    Teaching Adult Students Mathematical Investigation is based on the continuing research work carried out for the last ten years of teaching on the Foundation Course in Mathematics at Goldsmiths, University of London. Teaching Mathematical Investigation to adult students is a very challenging and often rewarding experience for adult educators as…

  19. A Source Book on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, S. Y., Ed.

    Intended for policy planners, administrators, and scholars, this document contains summaries and excerpts of official government of India documents published since 1939 on adult education. The document is in three parts. The first part contains government documents that deal exclusively with adult education. Their subjects include adult education…

  20. Adult Skills Training Center: Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, John M.; Baratta, Anthony N.

    A 4-phase project, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a bilingual vocational skill training program for out-of-school youth and adults of the Perth Amboy Hispanic community. Sampled were 494 out-of-school youth and adults in the area. Findings include: (1) There is a significant need for an adult vocational skills training…