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Sample records for adult dogs fed

  1. Digestibility and metabolizable energy of raw soybeans manufactured with different processing treatments and fed to adult dogs and puppies.

    PubMed

    Félix, A P; Zanatta, C P; Brito, C B M; Sá Fortes, C M L; Oliveira, S G; Maiorka, A

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), ME, and fecal characteristics of adult dogs and puppies fed raw soybeans (RSB) and their by-products. Six treatments were evaluated: 1 reference diet (REF), based on a maize-poultry by-product meal, and 5 extruded diets containing 70% of the ingredients of the REF diet and 30% of a soybean processed product [defatted soybean meal (DSM), micronized soybeans (MSB), soybean meal (SBM), RSB, or toasted soybeans (TSB)]. Six adult dogs (5.8 yr old) and 6 puppies (5.1 mo old) were used in a study with a double Latin square design (6 × 6). Urease was reduced in all diets after extrusion, but trypsin inhibitor was reduced only in the diets containing SBM, DSM, and RSB. The ATTD of CP in DSM, SBM, MSB, TSB, and RSB were 85.1%, 85.2%, 88.4%, 84.7%, and 78.9%, respectively, for adult dogs. Soybean meal and DSM had the lowest ATTD of acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF; 84.3% for both ingredients in adult dogs). The ATTD of DM and AHF in DSM and AHF in all soybean products were greater in puppies than adult dogs (P < 0.05). The ME content was greatest in MSB (21.39 MJ/kg) and least in DSM (15.23 MJ/kg). The feces of dogs fed soybean products were softer and had a lower pH (average of 5.91 vs. 6.05 for adult dogs fed soybean products and REF diets, respectively) and ammonia content (average of 3.82 vs. 4.32 g/kg for adult dogs fed soybean products and REF diets, respectively), except those fed RSB, which had similar fecal pH and ammonia values, compared with those fed the REF diet. Soybean products are good protein sources for both adult and growing dogs, provided they are heat treated before diet extrusion.

  2. Histidine, an essential amino acid for adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciaruso, B; Jones, M R; Kopple, J D

    1981-06-01

    Twenty-seven adult female mongrel dogs were studied to evaluate whether histidine is an essential amino acid. Dogs were tube-fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous amino acid diets which provided either no histidine or 67 mg histidine/kg body weight/day. The histidine-free diet was fed to 10 dogs for 5.6 +/- 3.6 (SD) days and to six dogs for 59.2 +/- 6.0 days. In the short-term studies, there were no differences between the responses of the dogs fed the histidine-free and histidine-replete diets. In the long-term studies, dogs fed the histidine-free diet developed a significant decrease in plasma and muscle histidine, muscle carnosine, body weight, hematocrit and serum albumin. The dogs fed the histidine-free diet tried to avoid the feedings, and after several weeks, they often manifested reduced activity and listlessness. One dog died on the 72nd day. None of these manifestations occurred in the dogs fed the histidine-replete diet in the long-term studies. Plasma zinc and copper were not different in the two groups of dogs. However, at the end of the long-term studies, the dogs fed the histidine-free diet had significantly lower final whole blood zinc and copper concentrations as compared to the histidine-replete dogs. These findings indicate that histidine is an essential amino acid in adult female dogs. The syndrome associated with histidine-deficiency tends to develop slowly over many days to several weeks.

  3. Fecal microbial communities of healthy adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extracts as assessed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Dowd, Scot E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Duclos, Laura; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extract (YCW) on fecal microbial communities of dogs using 454 pyrosequencing. Six healthy female adult beagles (5.5 ± 0.5 years; 8.5 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to six test diets using a Latin square design: (1) beef control; (2) beef + 1.4% inulin; (3) beef + 1.4% YCW; (4) chicken control; (5) chicken + 1.4% inulin; and (6) chicken + 1.4% YCW. Following 14 days of adaptation, fresh fecal samples were collected on day 15 or day 16 of each period. Fecal genomic DNA was extracted and used to create 16S rRNA gene amplicons, which were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR. Predominant fecal bacterial phyla included Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Beef-based diets increased (P < 0.05) Escherichia, but decreased (P < 0.05) Anaerobiospirillum vs. chicken-based diets. Inulin decreased (P < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae. Inulin increased (P < 0.05) Megamonas vs. control. Inulin also decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia vs. YCW. qPCR data showed that YCW increased (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium vs. inulin and control and inulin increased (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus vs. YCW. Although a few changes in fecal microbiota were observed with inulin or YCW consumption, a strong prebiotic effect was not observed.

  4. ENCHONDROMATOSIS IN AN ADULT DOG.

    PubMed

    Movilla, Rebeca; Dominguez, Elisabet; Novellas, Rosa; Martinez, Jorge; Mesa, Ignacio; Roura, Xavier

    2017-02-24

    A 7-year-old crossbreed dog presented for lameness with diffuse soft tissue swelling in the right fore limb. Radiographs identified increased opacity of medullary cavity involving the radius and ulna. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed mineral attenuation in the medullary cavity of multiple bones. Histopathology of the right distal tibia showed a fibrocartilaginous matrix occupying intertrabecular spaces. The final diagnosis was enchondromatosis. Long-term favorable progression of the dog's clinical condition further supported the benign histopathologic classification. This is the fifth case of canine enchondromatosis reported so far and the first documentation of further characterization with CT.

  5. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets.

    PubMed

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1-7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs were observed in either group. Five of the 7 dogs shed the same serotypes as those recovered from food samples used for feeding. Results showed the same serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern in 2 of the 7 shedders. Dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets can shed salmonellae and may, therefore, be a source of environmental contamination potentially leading to human or animal illness.

  6. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  7. Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily

    PubMed Central

    Brambillasca, Sebastián; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, José L.; Cajarville, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P < 0.001). The feeding schedule had no effect on plasma glucose and urea. Neither feeding frequency nor food × frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied. PMID:20440906

  8. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  9. Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

    2006-06-01

    Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control.

  10. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  11. Fatal Canid herpesvirus 1 infection in an adult dog.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Barbie J; Maes, Roger K; Wise, Annabel G; Kiupel, Matti; Langohr, Ingeborg M

    2012-05-01

    Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) is a well-known cause of fatal hepatic and renal necrosis in neonatal puppies. In adult dogs infected with CaHV-1, papulovesicular genital lesions may be observed. CaHV-1 infection during pregnancy can lead to embryonic resorption, abortion, and stillbirth. In high-density dog populations, CaHV-1 can also contribute to kennel cough. Furthermore, recent literature has clearly documented that CaHV-1 can induce ocular disease in immature and adult dogs. The current study describes a case of fatal CaHV-1 infection in a 9-year-old spayed female Bichon Frise dog. Following a history of vomiting and diarrhea, the dog deteriorated and subsequently died. The main lesions were multifocal areas of necrosis with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the liver, adrenal gland, and small intestine, similar to the lesions observed in CaHV-1-infected puppies. Infection with CaHV-1 was confirmed on samples of liver by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. There was no indication of immunosuppression in this dog. Based on the results presented herein, CaHV-1 should be included in the list of differential diagnoses of hepatic necrosis in adult dogs.

  12. Discrimination learning in adult bobwhite quail fed paraquat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Bunck, T.J.; Sileo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed a diet containing 0, 25 or 100 ppm paraquat dichloride. After 60 d on treated diets, discrimination learning was evaluated with acquisition and reversal tests. The three groups performed similarly on these tests. Dose-related histopathological lesions were not found in liver, kidney or lung tissues

  13. Oral Tolerance Induction in Hemophilia B Dogs Fed with Transplastomic Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Roland W; Nichols, Timothy C; Su, Jin; Zhang, Bei; Sherman, Alexandra; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Raymer, Robin; Perrin, George Q; Häger, Mattias; Wiinberg, Bo; Daniell, Henry

    2017-02-01

    Anti-drug antibodies in hemophilia patients substantially complicate treatment. Their elimination through immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols poses enormous costs, and ITI is often ineffective for factor IX (FIX) inhibitors. Moreover, there is no prophylactic ITI protocol to prevent anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. Using general immune suppression is problematic. To address this urgent unmet medical need, we delivered antigen bioencapsulated in plant cells to hemophilia B dogs. Commercial-scale production of CTB-FIX fusion expressed in lettuce chloroplasts was done in a hydroponic facility. CTB-FIX (∼1 mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds, and pentamer assembly after 30-month storage at ambient temperature. Robust suppression of immunoglobulin G (IgG)/inhibitor and IgE formation against intravenous FIX was observed in three of four hemophilia B dogs fed with lyophilized lettuce cells expressing CTB-FIX. No side effects were detected after feeding CTB-FIX-lyophilized plant cells for >300 days. Coagulation times were markedly shortened by intravenous FIX in orally tolerized treated dogs, in contrast to control dogs that formed high-titer antibodies to FIX. Commercial-scale production, stability, prolonged storage of lyophilized cells, and efficacy in tolerance induction in a large, non-rodent model of human disease offer a novel concept for oral tolerance and low-cost production and delivery of biopharmaceuticals.

  14. Evaluation of fermentable oligosaccharides in diets fed to dogs in comparison to fiber standards.

    PubMed

    Middelbos, I S; Fastinger, N D; Fahey, G C

    2007-11-01

    Blends of fermentable oligosaccharides in combination with nonfermentable fiber, cellulose, were evaluated for their ability to serve as dietary fibers in dog foods. Using a 6 x 6 Latin square design, 6 diets were evaluated that contained either no supplemental fiber, beet pulp, cellulose, or blends of cellulose, fructooligosaccharides, and yeast cell wall added at 2.5% of the diet. Six ileal-cannulated dogs were fed 175 g of their assigned diet twice daily. Chromic oxide served as a digestibility marker. Nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial populations, fermentative end products, and immunological indices were measured. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lowest (P < 0.05) for the cellulose treatment. Crude protein digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) for the treatments containing carbohydrate blends. The cellulose treatment had the lowest (P < 0.05) concentration of bacteria, and all diets containing fermentable fiber had greater (P < 0.05) fecal bifidobacteria concentrations compared with the diets without supplemental fermentable fiber. Lactobacilli concentrations tended to be greater (P < 0.08) in treatments containing fermentable fiber compared with the cellulose treatment. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli concentrations were similar for the beet pulp treatment compared with the fermentable oligosaccharide blends. Total fecal short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater for the beet pulp treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the control and cellulose treatments. The treatments containing fermentable fiber had greater (P < 0.05) fecal butyrate concentrations compared with cellulose and control treatments. Immune indices were not affected by treatment. Our results suggest that dog foods containing blends of fermentable and nonfermentable carbohydrates produce similar physiological results as dog food containing beet pulp as a fiber source. Therefore, blends of these carbohydrates could be useful substitutes for beet pulp in dog foods.

  15. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dillitzer, N; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2016-10-01

    A post hoc analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet dogs from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (Years 2007-2011) was carried out to identify if current ME recommendations are suitable for pet dogs. Data on 586 adult dogs were available (median age 5.5, median deviation from ideal weight 0.0), 55 of them were healthy; the others had various diseases. For ration calculation, a standardized questionnaire and the software diet-check Munich(™) was used. ME was predicted according to NRC (2006). Data were evaluated for the factors disease, breed, size, age, gender and type of feeding. The mean ME intake of all adult dogs amounted to 0.410 ± 0.121 MJ/kg metabolic body weight (BW(0.75) ) (n = 586). There was no effect of size and disease. Overweight dogs ate 0.360 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) , and underweight dogs ate 0.494 ± 0.159 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . Older dogs (>7 years, n = 149, 0.389 ± 0.105 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ) had a lower ME intake than younger ones (n = 313, 0.419 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ), and intact males had a higher ME intake than the others (p < 0.001). Some breeds were above average: Jack Russell Terrier, Dalmatian, small Munsterlander and Magyar Viszla, Bearded Collies, Sight Hounds, German Boxers, English foxhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks and Flat-Coated Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.473 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The following breeds were below average: Dachshunds, Bichons, West highland White Terrier, Collies except Bearded Collies, Airedale Terriers, American Staffordshire terriers and Golden Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.343 ± 0.096 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The mean maintenance energy requirements of pet dogs are similar to that of kennel dogs which do not exercise very much. These results suggest that opportunity and stimulus to exercise provided for pet dogs are lower than for kennel dogs. Lower activity in pet dogs may reduce part of potential effects of breed, medical history and age

  16. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    PubMed

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected.

  17. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  18. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  19. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  20. Models for experimental infection of dogs fed with tissue from fetuses and neonatal cattle naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Cedillo, C J R; Martínez, M J J; Santacruz, A M; Banda, R V M; Morales, S E

    2008-06-14

    Three models were designed to investigate the development and enteroepithelial phase of Neospora caninum in dogs, and to induce oocyst production by the parasite. In the first model, three dogs were fed raw fetal bovine tissue on two occasions. The bovine fetal tissue had been stored at 4 degrees C for 14 days and 16 days, respectively, and had tested positive for neosporosis using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In the second model, nine dogs from the beginning of the experiment until euthanasia were fed portions of tissue from bovine fetuses that been stored at 4 degrees C for between 1 and 2 days. Three fetuses had tested positive for neosporosis using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In the third model, three dogs were fed pieces of raw tissue from two neonatal calves that had not received colostrum, and which had tested positive for antibodies against N. caninum. The brains of these calves were positive for neosporosis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In all three models, none of the dogs excreted oocysts of N. caninum, developed intestinal parasites or seroconverted.

  1. Faecal bacterial profile, nitrogen excretion and mineral absorption in healthy dogs fed supplemental oligofructose.

    PubMed

    Beynen, A C; Baas, J C; Hoekemeijer, P E; Kappert, H J; Bakker, M H; Koopman, J P; Lemmens, A G

    2002-10-01

    In a cross-over trial, five healthy dogs were fed a dry food without or with 1% (w/w) oligofructose to assess any oligofructose-induced effects on the faecal bacterial profile, nitrogen excretion and mineral absorption. The diets were given for a period of 3 weeks. Oligofructose feeding significantly raised the number of Bifidobacteria, Streptococci and Clostridia in faeces. The numbers of faecal anaerobic and aerobic bacteria were raised after ingestion of oligofructose. The faecal pH was unchanged. There was no effect of oligofructose feeding on the route of nitrogen excretion which was associated with a lack of effect on faecal ammonium and urinary urea excretion. It is suggested that the absence or presence of an effect of oligofructose on urinary and faecal nitrogen excretion depends on the background composition of the diet, in particular the content of non-digestible, fermentable carbohydrates. In the diets used, the content of non-digestible, fermentable carbohydrates was not measured. Both apparent magnesium and calcium absorption were significantly raised by oligofructose feeding, but phosphorus absorption was unaffected. The data presented may contribute to the qualification of the use of oligofructose in dog foods.

  2. Hematological and metabolic responses to training in racing sled dogs fed diets containing medium, low, or zero carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Kronfeld, D S; Hammel, E P; Ramberg, C F; Dunlap, H L

    1977-03-01

    In a 28 week study, 18 racing sled dogs were trained to maximal fitness in 12 weeks, sustained through a racing season of 12 weeks, followed by gradual of training of 4 weeks. The dogs were fed a predominantly cereal diet prior to the study; experimental diets containing more chicken and meat by products were introduced from the 2nd to the 4th week of training. On an energy basis, the diets contained protein, fat, and carbohydrate in the proportions of 39:61:0 (diet A), 32:45:23 (diet B), and 28:34:38 (diet C). Blood samples were taken at rest just before the start of training, at 6, 12,24 and 28 weeks; 33 variables were measured on most samples. The results were subjected to analysis of variance. No adverse effects were observed in dogs fed the extreme diet A. Significant relationships to training were shown by serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, creatinine, packed cell volume, calcium, hemoglobin, and globulin. Serum cholesterol concentration increased with the introduction of the higher protein-fat diets; the high concentrations attenuated with time but rose again when training was abated. Dogs on diet A maintained higher serum concentrations of albumin, calcium, magnesium, and free fatty acids during the racing season than did dogs fed diets B or C. They also exhibited the greatest increases in red cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume during training. High values of red cell indices were not sustained through the racing season in dogs fed diet C. In addition to attributes already widely appreciated, viz. a higher energy density an digestibility, the carbohydrate-free, high-fat diet A appeared to confer advantages for prolonged strenuous running in terms of certain metabolic responses to training.

  3. Mortality of adult Stomoxys calcitrans fed isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Selinger, L B

    2012-10-01

    We examined the ability of five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to cause mortality in adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Isolates Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi 4L3 (serotype 9), Bacillus thuringiensis darmstadiensis 4M1 (serotype 10a10b), Bacillus thuringiensis thompsoni 401 (serotype 12), Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis HD2 (serotype 1), and Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD945 (serotype 3a3b3c) were administered to adult flies in diets containing blood only, sugar only, and both sugar and blood combined. B. t. tolworthi 4L3 had no effect on adult mortality regardless of the feeding substrate. The remaining isolates tended to cause the greatest mortality when administered in blood alone. B. t. thompsoni 401 was the only isolate that consistently caused adult mortality when fed in blood at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 50.0 microg of protein per ml of blood. This isolate also caused mortality when applied topically. The time to 50% mortality declined with dose and reached a lower asymptote at approximately equal to 1.3 d at an oral dose of 8.75 microg/ml and at a topical dose of 0.14 microg per fly.

  4. Urinary excretion of N-nitroso compounds in rats fed sodium nitrite and/or hot dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M; Zahid, Muhammad; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2014-10-20

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1-4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1-4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40-60% hot dogs contained 12-13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11-17 or 23-48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds.

  5. Uncommon acute neurologic presentation of canine distemper in 4 adult dogs

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Alba; Gamito, Araceli; Carletti, Beatrice E.; Guisado, Alicia; de las Mulas, Juana Martín; Pérez, José; Martín, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Four uncommon cases of canine distemper (CD) were diagnosed in vaccinated adult dogs. All dogs had acute onset of neurologic signs, including seizures, abnormal mentation, ataxia, and proprioceptive deficits. Polymerase chain reaction for CD virus was positive on cerebrospinal fluid in 2 cases. Due to rapid deterioration the dogs were euthanized and CD was confirmed by postmortem examination. PMID:24688139

  6. Uncommon acute neurologic presentation of canine distemper in 4 adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Galán, Alba; Gamito, Araceli; Carletti, Beatrice E; Guisado, Alicia; de las Mulas, Juana Martín; Pérez, José; Martín, Eva M

    2014-04-01

    Four uncommon cases of canine distemper (CD) were diagnosed in vaccinated adult dogs. All dogs had acute onset of neurologic signs, including seizures, abnormal mentation, ataxia, and proprioceptive deficits. Polymerase chain reaction for CD virus was positive on cerebrospinal fluid in 2 cases. Due to rapid deterioration the dogs were euthanized and CD was confirmed by postmortem examination.

  7. Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult Trichuris vulpis infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Annette; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schroeder, Iris; Charles, Samuel; Cruthers, Larry; Kok, Dawid J; Kraemer, Friederike; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports on the efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult whipworms (Trichuris vulpis) at the proposed minimum dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight in dogs. Three randomised, blinded and controlled laboratory studies with naturally or experimentally infected dogs were performed. The first study was conducted as a dose determination study in experimentally infected dogs using three different dose levels, i.e., 0.5x, 1x and 2x the minimum therapeutic dose. Two further studies confirmed the efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets against mature and immature adult T. vulpis at the recommended minimum dose. In all three studies, the efficacy against mature and immature adult T. vulpis was >99%. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that the emodepside plus praziquantel tablet is an effective and safe treatment against mature and immature adult stages of T. vulpis in dogs.

  8. Efficacy of the Bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, D; Bechara, G H; Machado, R Z; Andrade, G M; Del Vecchio, R E M; Pedroso, M S; Hernández, M V; Farnós, O

    2010-02-10

    The Bm86 antigen has been used to control ticks of the Boophilus genera in integrated programs that also include the use of acaricides. Because of recent phylogenetic studies have lead to the inclusion of all Boophilus species within the Rhipicephalus genera, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Bm86 antigen on the biotic potential of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Domestic dogs were vaccinated with Bm86 and challenged with the three instars of R. sanguineus. Male and female mongrel dogs were divided into two groups of four animals each, comprising non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals. Immunized dogs were given two doses of an experimental formulation containing 50mug of recombinant Bm86, at 21 days interval while the other group was given placebo, consisting of the same preparation without Bm86. Each dog was challenged 21 days after the last dose with 250 larvae, 100 nymphs and 55 adults (25 females and 30 males) released inside feeding chambers (one per instar) glued to their shaved flank. The effect of the vaccination was evaluated by determining biological parameters of ticks including the yield rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females. Adult females engorged weight, egg mass weight, efficiency rate of conversion to eggs (ERCE) and hatchability. In addition, sera were collected from dogs at 0, 21, 36, 45 and 75 days after the vaccination and used for the detection of specific antibodies by ELISA. Collection rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females fed on vaccinated dogs were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 38%, 29% and 31%, respectively, as compared with non-vaccinated controls. Significant reductions were also observed in weight of engorged females and egg mass, in ERCE, but not in the hatch rate of ticks fed on immunized dogs. ELISA data revealed a marked and significant increase in optical densities of sera from vaccinated animals after the second dose of Bm86. We concluded that the Bm86 antigen used as a vaccine for dogs reduced the viability and

  9. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC.

  10. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  11. Role of dietary antioxidants to protect against DNA damage in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Paul R; Reed, Catrina F; Mann, Sarah J; Ransley, Raymond; Stevenson, Joy; Charlton, Chris J; Smith, Brigitte H E; Harper, E Jean; Rawlings, John M

    2002-06-01

    We studied the effects of feeding an antioxidant blend of vitamins, minerals and carotenoids to a mixed adult dog population (n = 40, mean 4.4 +/- 1.85 y) for a 16-wk period. Compared to the control group of dogs (n = 20), the antioxidant (AOX)-supplemented group of dogs (n = 20) demonstrated significant increases in plasma levels of vitamin E and taurine by 4 wk of supplementation (P < 0.01) and total antioxidant activity (as measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) by 8 wk of supplementation (P < 0.05). Following 8 wk of supplementation, the AOX-supplemented dogs also showed significant reductions in both endogenous and exogenous DNA damage (P < 0.005) compared to that of the control dogs, as measured by the comet assay. Over an 8-wk rabies vaccination course that started at 8 wk supplementation, the AOX-supplemented dogs also demonstrated significantly higher vaccine-specific virus-neutralizing antibody levels at 2, 4 and 6 wk postvaccination (P < 0.05) and a tendency toward establishing a vaccine-specific antibody response quicker than did the control group of dogs. These findings in dogs suggest that antioxidant supplementation can achieve sustained increases in circulating levels of antioxidants that exert a protective effect by a decrease in DNA damage, leading to improved immunological performance. These findings also have implications in a wider context where free-radical damage has been associated with a variety of degenerative disorders and the aging process in general.

  12. Experimental reactivation of latent canine herpesvirus-1 and induction of recurrent ocular disease in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Kim, Sung G; Dubovi, Edward J; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2009-07-02

    Latent canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection is common in domestic dogs, but recrudescent CHV-1 diseases are poorly characterized. To determine if administration of an immunosuppressive dosage of prednisolone to adult dogs latently infected with CHV-1 results in recurrent ocular disease, adult beagles with and without experimentally induced CHV-1 latent infection were divided into groups: group 1 latently infected and administered prednisolone, group 2 latently infected and administered placebo, and group 3 not latently infected and administered prednisolone. Prednisolone (3.0 mg/kg/day) was administered to dogs in groups 1 and 3 for seven consecutive days beginning on study day 1. Samples for CHV-1 polymerase chain reaction and serum neutralization (SN) assays were collected, and physical, ophthalmologic, and in vivo ocular confocal microscopic examinations were performed at intervals for 42 days. Bilateral ocular disease (i.e., conjunctivitis or keratitis) was detected in 83% of group 1 dogs between study days 3 and 18. In vivo confocal microscopic abnormalities included conjunctival leukocyte infiltration and corneal leukocyte infiltration, abnormal epithelial cell morphology, and Langerhans cell infiltration. Ocular viral shedding was detected in 50% of group 1 dogs on study days 10 and 13. Fourfold elevations in CHV-1 SN titers were detected in 100% of group 1 dogs by study day 14. Dogs in control groups did not develop clinical ocular disease (P<0.05), CHV-1 titer elevations (P<0.005), or viral shedding. Administration of an immunosuppressive dosage of systemic prednisolone to adult dogs latently infected with CHV-1 may result in viral reactivation and ocular disease recrudescence.

  13. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy People Health Benefits of Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses ... Sharks Help Wounded Warriors Heal Loving Your Special Cat Parrots Make Friends for Life Tracking the Mysterious ...

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Ayres, L.

    1992-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans.

  15. Cystoisospora canis Nemeséri, 1959 (syn. Isospora canis), infections in dogs: clinical signs, pathogenesis, and reproducible clinical disease in beagle dogs fed oocysts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Zajac, Anne M; Charles, Sam; Duncan, Robert B; Lindsay, David S

    2007-04-01

    Canine intestinal coccidiosis is a cause of diarrhea in young dogs and dogs that are immunocompromised. Reports in the literature indicate that experimental reproduction of clinical coccidiosis with Cystoisospora canis (syn. Isospora canis) is difficult, and few studies have been done with C. canis. Experimental oral infections were attempted in 22, 6- to 8-wk-old female beagles with 5 x 10(4) (n = 2) or 1 x 10(5) (n = 20) sporulated C. canis oocysts. Diarrhea was observed in all inoculated dogs. Diarrhea began 2-3 days before oocyst excretion. Five of the 22 dogs were given an anticoccidial (sulfadimethoxine) because of their clinical signs. The mean prepatent period was 9.8 days (range, 9-11 days, n = 22 dogs), and the patent period was 8.9 days (range, 7-18 days, n = 20 dogs). Two dogs exhibiting clinical coccidiosis were examined at necropsy 10 days after infection. Developmental stages of C. canis were present in cells in the lamina propria throughout the entire small intestine in both dogs. Microscopic lesions observed in both of these dogs were villous atrophy, dilation of lacteals, and hyperplasia of lymph nodes in Peyer's patches. Results of bacterial and viral examinations of these 2 dogs were negative, indicating that intestinal coccidiosis was the cause of the diarrhea. Our study indicates that C. canis can be a primary cause of diarrhea in young dogs.

  16. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05).

  17. Duodenal bulb control of the flow rate of digesta in the fasted and fed dog.

    PubMed Central

    Malbert, C H; Ruckebusch, Y

    1989-01-01

    1. Continuous measurement of the flow of digesta near the pylorus, and 5 cm aborally, was assessed in the conscious dog using a chronically implanted flowmeter. The patterns of flow were related to motor activity of the gastroduodenal junction. 2. Electromagnetic measurement of the flow was calibrated in vitro by means of a pulsatile pump. Validation was obtained in vivo by direct evaluation of the amount of chyme collected from an open duodenal cannula and indirectly by a dye-dilution technique. 3. After a 12 h fast, only small amounts of gastric contents were delivered into the duodenum. This transfer occurred during periods of irregular motor activity recorded along the gastroduodenal junction, which occupied less than 25% of the recording time. The patterns of flow near the pylorus and beyond the duodenal bulb were correlated to antral and duodenal contractions respectively. 4. After a meal, gastric emptying occurred intermittently and was related to enhanced antral motor activity beyond the duodenal bulb; digesta flowed in clusters of gushes which were related to the duodenal contractions. 5. It is concluded that the mechanical role of the duodenal bulb is to change the intermittent juxtapyloric flow of digesta into a uniform flow at the duodenal level. PMID:2585295

  18. Blood vitamin concentrations in privately owned dogs fed non-standardized commercial diets and after intake of diets with specified vitamin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tran, J L; Horvath, C; Krammer, S; Höller, U; Zentek, J

    2007-02-01

    The objective was to investigate in a survey study the blood vitamin concentrations in healthy dogs fed non-specified commercial complete diets and in an intervention study to determine the effects of defined dietary vitamin intakes on blood vitamin levels and hair and skin condition. Sixty-four privately owned dogs, aged from 1 to 8 years, without history of skin or coat problems were included. All animals were fed commercial complete diets with uncertain vitamin concentrations before enrolment. The animals were assigned, according to weight and gender, to four groups with graded vitamin intakes. The blood vitamin levels and skin and coat quality of the dogs were investigated at days 0 and day 122. Coat and hair condition was not influenced by the experimental diets. The retinol concentrations were reduced at the end of the experiment compared with the baseline levels, retinyl esters were not influenced. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol decreased in all groups, alpha-tocopherol was constant or tended to decrease. Ascorbic acid, thiamine pyrophosphate and riboflavin concentrations were not affected by treatment, flavin adenine dinucleotide and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate were partially reduced on day 122. Cobalamin, pantothenate and biotin concentrations increased with higher dietary intakes, folate levels in tendency. In conclusion, this study gives a survey of blood vitamin concentrations in healthy dogs and provides a data base for the evaluation of the vitamin status in health and disease.

  19. Modulation of the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs by inclusion of potato fibre in the diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Kerr, Katherine R; Dilger, Ryan N; Fahey, George C; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Lynch, Gary L; Wils, Daniel; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steer, Jörg M; Dowd, Scot E; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-14

    Inclusion of fermentable fibres in the diet can have an impact on the hindgut microbiome and provide numerous health benefits to the host. Potato fibre (PF), a co-product of potato starch isolation, has a favourable chemical composition of pectins, resistant and digestible starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary PF concentrations on the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs. Fresh faecal samples were collected from ten female dogs with hound bloodlines (6·13 (SEM 0·17) years; 22·0 (SEM 2·1) kg) fed five test diets containing graded concentrations of PF (0, 1·5, 3, 4·5 or 6% as-fed; Roquette Frères) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4-V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) against a curated GreenGenes database. Inclusion of PF increased (P< 0·05) the faecal proportions of Firmicutes, while those of Fusobacteria decreased (P< 0·05). Similar shifts were observed at the genus level and were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. With increasing concentrations of PF, faecal proportions of Faecalibacterium increased (P< 0·05). Post hoc Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive (P< 0·05) correlations with Bifidobacterium spp. and butyrate production and Lactobacillus spp. concentrations. Overall, increases in the proportion of Faecalibacterium (not Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, as confirmed by qPCR analysis) and faecal SCFA concentrations with increasing dietary PF concentrations suggest that PF is a possible prebiotic fibre.

  20. Old Dogs, Children, and Watermelon Wine: Focus on the Older Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    1978-01-01

    Three significant elements should be considered in offering educational programs for the older learner: acceptance (old dogs); support (God bless little children while they're too young to hate); and dependability (watermelon wine). Guidelines are offered for the teacher entering the classroom composed of adult learners. (KC)

  1. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  2. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Ana Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  3. Development of the Endocrine Pancreas in the Beagle Dog: From Fetal to Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Pechberty, Severine; Reynaud, Karine; Maenhoudt, Cindy; José Lecomte, Marie; Ravassard, Philippe; Czernichow, Paul

    2017-03-14

    Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out. At 55 days pc, large beta cell aggregates were seen. At weaning, the islets were similar to those in adults, with limited alpha cells intermingled with numerous beta cells. Quantification of the Alpha to Beta cells ratio has shown a gradual increase of beta cells proportion throughout development. Similar findings were obtained in the 2 other breeds. In conclusion, in the fetal Beagle dog beta cells emerge from the pancreatic bud at midgestation, but the endocrine structure is mature only in early postnatal life. The ontogenesis of the endocrine pancreas demonstrated in dogs resembles that reported in rats and mice. In contrast, human beta cells appear earlier, at the beginning of the second trimester of gestation. Our study provides a detailed morphological description of pancreatic development in dogs but supplies no information on alpha- or beta-cell function during fetal life. The morphological data reported here provide a foundation for building physiological studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Why do adult dogs (Canis familiaris) commit the A-not-B search error?

    PubMed

    Sümegi, Zsófia; Kis, Anna; Miklósi, Ádám; Topál, József

    2014-02-01

    It has been recently reported that adult domestic dogs, like human infants, tend to commit perseverative search errors; that is, they select the previously rewarded empty location in Piagetian A-not-B search task because of the experimenter's ostensive communicative cues. There is, however, an ongoing debate over whether these findings reveal that dogs can use the human ostensive referential communication as a source of information or the phenomenon can be accounted for by "more simple" explanations like insufficient attention and learning based on local enhancement. In 2 experiments the authors systematically manipulated the type of human cueing (communicative or noncommunicative) adjacent to the A hiding place during both the A and B trials. Results highlight 3 important aspects of the dogs' A-not-B error: (a) search errors are influenced to a certain extent by dogs' motivation to retrieve the toy object; (b) human communicative and noncommunicative signals have different error-inducing effects; and (3) communicative signals presented at the A hiding place during the B trials but not during the A trials play a crucial role in inducing the A-not-B error and it can be induced even without demonstrating repeated hiding events at location A. These findings further confirm the notion that perseverative search error, at least partially, reflects a "ready-to-obey" attitude in the dog rather than insufficient attention and/or working memory.

  5. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  6. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  7. Comparison of the lipid and apolipoprotein composition of skeletal muscle and peripheral lymph in control dogs and in dogs fed a high fat, high cholesterol, hypothyroid-inducing diet.

    PubMed

    Sloop, C H; Castle, C K; Lefevre, M; Wong, L

    1993-08-11

    Most studies of peripheral interstitial fluid lipoprotein composition have been made on interstitial fluid-derived from skin and connective tissue. We developed techniques which allowed simultaneous comparison of lymph (a model of interstitial fluid) from skeletal muscle and skin in control (C) and cholesterol-fed (CF) dogs. Lipoprotein fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation. Skeletal muscle interstitial fluid HDL concentrations were approximately twice those of skin. However, the concentration of VLDL-LDL particles was similar in both interstitial spaces. HDL particles from both microvascular beds showed evidence of extensive remodelling when compared to plasma HDL from the same animal. Relative to apo A-I, skeletal muscle HDL was enriched in free cholesterol and apo E (C and CF dogs) and apo A-IV (CF dogs). Skin-derived HDL was consistently enriched in free cholesterol, apo E and A-IV in both C and CF dogs. These studies indicate that similar remodeling of plasma HDL occurs in widely different tissues which together constitute approximately 70% of the total interstitial space. The relatively high concentration of plasma-derived and remodeled HDL within the interstitial space of skeletal muscle is consistent with that tissue's importance in reverse cholesterol transport.

  8. Glycoconjugates in the mandibular salivary gland of adult dogs revealed by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pedini, V; Ceccarelli, P; Gargiulo, A M

    1994-11-01

    The glycosidic residues in the mandibular glands of five adult dogs were studied by using seven different lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates. In some cases a treatment with sialidase preceded the lectin staining. The mucous acinar cells contained oligosaccharides with alpha- and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and fucose residues, whereas the demilunar cells contained glycoconjugates rich in sialic acid linked to the penultimate disaccharide galactosyl-(beta 1-->3) N-acetylgalactosamine.

  9. Identification of multipotent stem cells from adult dog periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Lin, Bi-Chen; Yang, Jie; Ge, Li-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Periodontal diseases, which are characterized by destruction of the connective tissues responsible for restraining the teeth within the jaw, are the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontal regeneration mediated by human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) may offer an alternative strategy for the treatment of periodontal disease. Dogs are a widely used large-animal model for the study of periodontal-disease progression, tissue regeneration, and dental implants, but little attention has been paid to the identification of the cells involved in this species. This study aimed to characterize stem cells isolated from canine periodontal ligament (cPDLSCs). The cPDLSCs, like hPDLSCs, showed clonogenic capability and expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO-1, CD146, and CD105, but not CD34. After induction of osteogenesis, cPDLSCs showed calcium accumulation in vitro. Moreover, cPDLSCs also showed both adipogenic and chondrogenic potential. Compared with cell-free controls, more cementum/periodontal ligament-like structures were observed in CB-17/SCID mice into which cPDLSCs had been transplanted. These results suggest that cPDLSCs are clonogenic, highly proliferative, and have multidifferentiation potential, and that they could be used as a new cellular therapeutic approach to facilitate successful and more predictable regeneration of periodontal tissue using a canine model of periodontal disease.

  10. N-nitroso compounds in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and in the feces of mice with induced colitis or fed hot dogs or beef.

    PubMed

    Mirvish, Sidney S; Haorah, James; Zhou, Lin; Hartman, Melissa; Morris, Chantey R; Clapper, Marge L

    2003-03-01

    Because colonic N-nitroso compounds (NOC) may be a cause of colon cancer, we determined total NOC levels by Walters' method in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of rodents: (i) feces of C57BL mice fed chow and semi-purified diets contained 3.2 +/- 0.4 and 0.46 +/- 0.06 NOC/g, respectively (P < 0.01, mean +/- SD). (ii) NOC levels for gastrointestinal contents of three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats fed chow diet were 0.9 +/- 0.05 (diet), 0.2 +/- 0 (stomach), 0.3-0.4 (small intestine), 0.7-1.6 (cecum and colon) and 2.6 +/- 0.6 (feces) nmol/g. NOC precursor (NOCP) levels (measured as NOC after mild nitrosation) for two rat groups fed chow diet showed a 16-fold increase from stomach to proximal small intestine (mean, 6.2 micromol/g), and a 1.7-fold increase from distal colon to feces (mean, 11.6 micromol/g). (iii) Eight Min and five C57BL/6J mice received 4% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water on days 1-4 to induce acute colitis. This increased fecal NOC levels 1.9-fold on day 5 in both strains (P < or = 0.04), probably due to NO synthase-derived nitrosating agents in the colon. (iv) Following studies on humans fed beef [Hughes et al. (2001) Carcinogenesis, 22, 199], Swiss mice received semi-purified diets mixed with 18% of beef plus pork hot dogs or sautéed beef for 7 days. On day 7, individual 24-h fecal NOC outputs were determined. In three hot dog and two beef groups with 5 mice/group, mean fecal NOC output/day was 3.7-5.0 (hot dog) and 2.0-2.9 (beef) times that for control groups fed semi-purified diet alone (P < 0.002 for each of combined groups). These groups showed little change in fecal NOCP output. (v) Initial purification of rat fecal NOCP by adsorption-desorption and HPLC is described. Results should help evaluate the view that colonic NOC causes colon cancer associated with colitis and ingestion of red and nitrite-preserved meat.

  11. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  12. Comparison of expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord between young adult and aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hwan; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Yan, Bing Chun; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Jang, Sang-Hun; Lee, Myoung Hyo; Hwang, In Koo; Moon, Seung Myung; Lee, Bonghee; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Kim, Jin Sang; Won, Moo-Ho

    2013-07-01

    Aging is an inevitable process that occurs in the whole body system accompanying with many functional and morphological changes. Inflammation is known as one of age-related factors, and inflammatory changes could enhance mortality risk. In this study, we compared immunoreactivities of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2 (a pro-inflammatory cytokine), its receptor (IL-2R), IL-4 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine), and its receptor (IL-4R) in the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of young adult (2-3 years old) and aged (10-12 years old) beagle dogs using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. IL-2 and IL-2R-immunoreactive nerve cells were found throughout the gray matter of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of young adult and aged dogs. In the spinal cord neurons of the aged dog, immunoreactivity and protein levels were apparently increased compared with those in the young adult dog. Change patterns of IL-4- and IL-4R-immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were also similar to those in IL-2 and IL-2R; however, IL-4 and IL-4R immunoreactivity in the periphery of the neuronal cytoplasm in the aged dog was much stronger than that in the young adult dog. These results indicate that the increase of inflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the aged spinal cord might be related to maintaining a balance of inflammatory reaction in the spinal cord during normal aging.

  13. Adult-onset nemaline myopathy in a dog presenting with persistent atrial standstill and primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, R K; Russell, N J; Shelton, G D

    2012-06-01

    A nine-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog presented for evaluation following a five-day history of lethargy, inappetence, weakness, abdominal distension and generalised muscle atrophy. Persistent vatrial standstill with a junctional rhythm was identified on electrocardiogram. Echocardiogram identified moderate dilation of all cardiac chambers and mild thickening of the mitral and tricuspid valves. Serology was negative for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Permanent pacemaker implantation was performed in addition to endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies. Cryosections from the biceps femoris muscle showed numerous nemaline rod bodies while endomyocardial biopsies were possibly consistent with end-stage myocarditis. Rod bodies have rarely been reported in the veterinary literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of adult-onset nemaline rod myopathy and hypothyroidism with concurrent cardiac disease in a dog.

  14. Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Annette; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schroeder, Iris; Charles, Samuel; Cruthers, Larry; Ketzis, Jennifer; Kok, Dawid J; Kraemer, Friederike; McCall, John W; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala) in dogs. The tablets were used at the minimum recommended dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight. Four randomised, blinded and controlled laboratory studies demonstrated >95% efficacy against mature and immature adult stages of U. stenocephala and four randomised, blinded and controlled laboratory studies demonstrated >98% efficacy against mature and immature adult stages of A. caninum. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that the emodepside plus praziquantel tablet is an effective and safe treatment against mature and immature hookworms.

  15. The predictive value of early behavioural assessments in pet dogs--a longitudinal study from neonates to adults.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Studies on behavioural development in domestic dogs are of relevance for matching puppies with the right families, identifying predispositions for behavioural problems at an early stage, and predicting suitability for service dog work, police or military service. The literature is, however, inconsistent regarding the predictive value of tests performed during the socialisation period. Additionally, some practitioners use tests with neonates to complement later assessments for selecting puppies as working dogs, but these have not been validated. We here present longitudinal data on a cohort of Border collies, followed up from neonate age until adulthood. A neonate test was conducted with 99 Border collie puppies aged 2-10 days to assess activity, vocalisations when isolated and sucking force. At the age of 40-50 days, 134 puppies (including 93 tested as neonates) were tested in a puppy test at their breeders' homes. All dogs were adopted as pet dogs and 50 of them participated in a behavioural test at the age of 1.5 to 2 years with their owners. Linear mixed models found little correspondence between individuals' behaviour in the neonate, puppy and adult test. Exploratory activity was the only behaviour that was significantly correlated between the puppy and the adult test. We conclude that the predictive validity of early tests for predicting specific behavioural traits in adult pet dogs is limited.

  16. The Predictive Value of Early Behavioural Assessments in Pet Dogs – A Longitudinal Study from Neonates to Adults

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Studies on behavioural development in domestic dogs are of relevance for matching puppies with the right families, identifying predispositions for behavioural problems at an early stage, and predicting suitability for service dog work, police or military service. The literature is, however, inconsistent regarding the predictive value of tests performed during the socialisation period. Additionally, some practitioners use tests with neonates to complement later assessments for selecting puppies as working dogs, but these have not been validated. We here present longitudinal data on a cohort of Border collies, followed up from neonate age until adulthood. A neonate test was conducted with 99 Border collie puppies aged 2–10 days to assess activity, vocalisations when isolated and sucking force. At the age of 40–50 days, 134 puppies (including 93 tested as neonates) were tested in a puppy test at their breeders' homes. All dogs were adopted as pet dogs and 50 of them participated in a behavioural test at the age of 1.5 to 2 years with their owners. Linear mixed models found little correspondence between individuals' behaviour in the neonate, puppy and adult test. Exploratory activity was the only behaviour that was significantly correlated between the puppy and the adult test. We conclude that the predictive validity of early tests for predicting specific behavioural traits in adult pet dogs is limited. PMID:25003341

  17. Pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with aortopulmonary collaterals in an adult dog.

    PubMed

    Tou, Sandra P; Keene, Bruce W; Barker, Piers C A

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) was diagnosed in a 2-year-old castrated male Terrier mix. Transthoracic echocardiography identified a large ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta and severe right ventricular hypertrophy. A main pulmonary artery could not be identified, consistent with pulmonary atresia or persistent truncus arteriosus. Transesophageal echocardiography and angiography confirmed PA-VSD with aortopulmonary collateral circulation arising from the descending thoracic aorta. This case report describes the antemortem diagnosis of the rare congenital defect PA-VSD in an adult dog.

  18. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide Supplementation affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of mannose, xylose, and glucose oligosaccharides. Adult dogs assigned to a 6x6 Latin square design were fed six diets, ea...

  19. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    PubMed

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  20. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  1. Soybean oil and beef tallow in dry extruded diets for adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Marx, Fábio Ritter; Trevizan, Luciano; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Kessler, Alexandre de Mello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of two different fat sources (soybean oil (SO) and beef tallow (BT)) in dry extruded dog diets on the intake of food and metabolizable energy (ME), on faecal characteristics and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. Ten adult dogs of different breeds were used in a Latin square design. Five experimental diets were designed from a basal diet. A Control diet was coated with 1% SO and four other diets were obtained by coating the basal diet with 6.5% and 13% of SO or BT. The Control, 6.5% and 13% coated diets contained approximately 8.5%, 15% and 20% fat, respectively. The dogs had similar dry matter (DM) intakes and, consequently, higher ME intakes with an increased fat content for both sources (p < 0.05). Fat digestibility was highest for Diet SO13% (p < 0.05). The ATTD of DM and organic matter was highest (p < 0.05) for Diets SO13% and BT13%. Fat coating improved the faecal score, especially for Diet BT13%. The dietary ratios of protein:fat:carbohydrate [% of ME] were close to AAFCO's estimates. For SO a higher ATTD (99.1%) and ME content (38.88 MJ/kg) was estimated than for BT (ATTD 92.9% and 36.37 MJ ME/kg). Both SO and BT can comprise up to 13% of the diet. However, SO was more susceptible to leaking from the kibbles with the coating method applied.

  2. Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in digestibility studies with dogs, blue foxes and mink fed diets containing different protein sources.

    PubMed

    Vhile, S G; Skrede, A; Ahlstrøm, O; Hove, K

    2007-10-01

    The study evaluated the use of yttrium oxide (Y(2)O(3)) as an inert marker in studies of apparent total tract digestibility in dogs, blue foxes and mink. Comparison was made with total faecal collection, and use of chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) as marker respectively. Four experimental diets were added 0.1 g/kg yttrium oxide and 10 g/kg chromic oxide and fed to four animals of each species. Faecal recovery of yttrium oxide was 94.4% (SEM +/- 1.0), and of chromic oxide 105.8% (SEM +/- 1.5). The digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, starch and total carbohydrates obtained by total collection and yttrium oxide as marker showed close similarity, and in most cases not significant differences, independent of species and diets. In dogs, overall digestibilities of main nutrients with chromic oxide as marker were not significantly different from overall means obtained with yttrium oxide (p > 0.05). Overall digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and total carbohydrates in blue foxes and mink was significantly higher with chromic oxide than with yttrium oxide (p < 0.05). In dogs and blue foxes, digestibilities of individual amino acids determined by use of yttrium oxide were not different from values obtained using total collection of faeces, both within diets and for overall mean (p > 0.05). Overall amino acid digestibilities in dogs determined with chromic oxide as marker were similar to corresponding figures for yttrium oxide, whereas use of chromic oxide resulted in significantly higher digestibilites for a number of amino acids compared with yttrium oxide in foxes and mink (p < 0.05). The digestibilities of most main nutrients and amino acids revealed no interaction between diet and method (p > 0.05). The study showed that yttrium oxide can be used in low concentration in the feed, and allows high accuracy of analyses and thereby precise digestibility determination. It is concluded that yttrium oxide is an alternative inert marker to chromic oxide in

  3. Growth and hematologic characteristics of cloned dogs derived from adult somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Kyu; Kang, Jung Taek; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hong, So Gun; Kim, Dae Young; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2010-04-01

    Three viable female dogs, which have the same genotype, have been successfully produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT); however, data on the growth pattern of cloned dogs are lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was (1) to assess growth parameters among those cloned dogs with measurement of body weight, height, and radiographic analysis of skull size and bone plate, and (2) to compare hematologic characteristics among the donor dog, cloned dogs, and age-matched control dogs. The cloned dogs were kept in the same environmental conditions. The body weight increased from 0.52, 0.46, and 0.52 kg at birth to 21.9, 22.9, and 20.4 kg at 68 weeks of age for individual cloned dogs, respectively. The withers height increased from 34.5, 32.6, and 35.2 cm at 8 weeks of age to 67.1 cm at 68 weeks of age in the three clones. The radiographic data demonstrated that patterns of bone growth were similar among cloned dogs, and all measured parameters of matured cloned dogs were similar with that of the fully grown donor dog. An age-specific pattern was identified on hematologic and serum biochemical measurements in both cloned dogs and age-matched controls. The parameters examined were within the normal reference ranges for healthy dogs. In conclusion, three genetically identical cloned dogs showed similar growth characteristics and had normal hematological and serum biochemical parameters.

  4. Safe and bodywide muscle transduction in young adult Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs with adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yongping; Pan, Xiufang; Hakim, Chady H; Kodippili, Kasun; Zhang, Keqing; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yang, Hsiao T; McDonald, Thomas; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-10-15

    The ultimate goal of muscular dystrophy gene therapy is to treat all muscles in the body. Global gene delivery was demonstrated in dystrophic mice more than a decade ago using adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, translation to affected large mammals has been challenging. The only reported attempt was performed in newborn Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) dogs. Unfortunately, AAV injection resulted in growth delay, muscle atrophy and contracture. Here we report safe and bodywide AAV delivery in juvenile DMD dogs. Three ∼2-m-old affected dogs received intravenous injection of a tyrosine-engineered AAV-9 reporter or micro-dystrophin (μDys) vector at the doses of 1.92-6.24 × 10(14) viral genome particles/kg under transient or sustained immune suppression. DMD dogs tolerated injection well and their growth was not altered. Hematology and blood biochemistry were unremarkable. No adverse reactions were observed. Widespread muscle transduction was seen in skeletal muscle, the diaphragm and heart for at least 4 months (the end of the study). Nominal expression was detected in internal organs. Improvement in muscle histology was observed in μDys-treated dogs. In summary, systemic AAV gene transfer is safe and efficient in young adult dystrophic large mammals. This may translate to bodywide gene therapy in pediatric patients in the future.

  5. Determination of selenium in plasma, urine and tissues, of standard diet-fed rats and dogs by ETA-atomic absorption spectroscopy with Zeeman background correction.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, C; Assandri, A; Testa, B; Lombardini, E; Zanolo, G

    1996-09-01

    The method described was developed to be applied in determination of selenium in biological matrices (plasma, urine and tissues) using ETA-AAS with Zeeman background correction. These matrices were obtained from non-fasting S.D. rats and Beagle dogs of both sexes in order to acquire data on the endogenous levels of selenium in these laboratory animals when fed with standard diets. For tissue digestion, a simple procedure using the strong organic base, Soluene 350, was adopted. Precision assays were carried out monitoring Se(IV) levels in spiked matrices (range from 25 to 200 ng) and obtaining relative standard deviations (RSD%) in the range from 3.2% to 14.5% (intra-day) and from 7.6% to 15.9% (inter-day). Accuracy assays gave relative errors (RE%) in the range from -6.5 to 4.2% (intra-day) and from -5.5% to 5.7% (inter-day). The validity of the method was checked on reference material (NBS SRM 1577 bovine liver) and the values obtained correlated with the certified ones. The detection limit assumed was 0.9 ng/ml, whereas the quantitation limit of selenium in matrices ranged from 2 to 5 ng/ml (or g), depending on the kind of sample.

  6. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  7. Blood values of adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented beef or whole rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Stagegaard, J; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated nutrient intake and relevant blood parameters of 14 captive cheetahs, randomly assigned to a meat-only diet (supplemented beef, SB) or a whole prey diet (whole rabbit, WR) for 4 weeks each. Despite a higher food intake, daily metabolizable energy intake was lower when fed WR (308 kJ BW(-1) ) compared with SB (347 kJ BW(-1) ) (P = 0.002). The ratio of protein to fat was markedly lower for WR (2.3:1) compared with SB (8.8:1), which was reflected in higher serum urea levels when fed SB (P = 0.033), and a tendency for elevated cholesterol levels when fed WR (P = 0.055). Taurine intake of cheetahs fed WR was low (0.06% on DM basis); however, analytical error during taurine analysis cannot be ruled out. Feeding WR resulted in a well-balanced mineral intake, in contrast to SB. The latter provided a low calcium:phosphorus ratio (1:2.3), thereby increasing the risk of metabolic bone disease. The high zinc content of SB (200 mg/kg DM), compared with WR (94 mg/kg DM), was reflected in higher serum zinc concentrations (P = 0.011). Feeding WR resulted in an increase in serum vitamin A (P = 0.011). Therefore, the risk of hypervitaminosis A in captive cheetahs when fed WR exclusively on a long-term basis should be evaluated. Our findings suggest that neither diet is likely to provide appropriate nutrition to captive cheetahs when fed exclusively.

  8. Spontaneous Pathology and Routine Clinical Pathology Parameters in Aging Beagle Dogs: A Comparison With Adolescent and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J; Cotton, P; Robinson, S; Jacobsen, M

    2016-03-01

    AstraZeneca ran a bespoke study to generate age-matched clinical pathology and histopathology data from a cohort of Beagle dogs aged between 25 and 37 months to support the use of these older animals in routine preclinical toxicology studies. As the upper age range of Beagle dogs routinely used in toxicology studies does not normally exceed 24 months, there is an absence of appropriate age-matched historical control data. The generation of such data was crucial to understand whether age-related differences in spontaneous findings might confound the interpretation of toxicology study data. While the majority of the histopathology findings in all the older dogs occurred at a similar prevalence as those expected in young adult dogs (<24 months), a number of differences were observed in the thymus (involution), bone marrow (increased adiposity), testes (degenerative changes), and lung (fibrosis, pigment and alveolar hyperplasia) that could be misinterpreted as a test article effect. Minor differences in some clinical pathology values (hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, absolute reticulocytes) were of a small magnitude and considered unlikely to affect the interpretation of study data.

  9. No evidence for zoonotic transmission of H3N8 canine influenza virus among US adults occupationally exposed to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The zoonotic potential of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) has not been previously examined; yet considering the popularity of dogs as a companion animal and the zoonotic capabilities of other influenza viruses, the public health implications are great. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against CIV among a US cohort. Design A cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Setting Recruitments primarily occurred in Iowa and Florida. Participants were enrolled at dog shows, or at their home or place of employment. Sample Three hundred and four adults occupationally exposed to dogs and 101 non-canine-exposed participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Main outcome measures Microneutralization and neuraminidase inhibition assays were performed to detect human sera antibodies against A/Canine/Iowa/13628/2005(H3N8). An enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) was adapted to detect antibodies against a recombinant N8 neuraminidase protein from A/Equine/Pennsylvania/1/2007(H3N8). Results For all assays, no significant difference in detectable antibodies was observed when comparing the canine-exposed subjects to the non-canine-exposed subjects. Conclusion While these results do not provide evidence for cross-species CIV transmission, influenza is predictably unpredictable. People frequently exposed to ill dogs should continually be monitored for novel zoonotic CIV infections. PMID:24237615

  10. The Effect of a Therapy Dog on the Communication Skills of an Adult with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Caroline; Garcia, Linda J.; Labreche, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    Little evidence-based research has been published within the field of communication disorders on the role of dogs as catalysts for human communication. This single participant study, a point of entry into this realm of research, explores the effects of a therapy dog on the communication skills of a patient with aphasia receiving intensive speech…

  11. Excessive energy intake does not modify fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Adéchian, Solange; Giardina, Silvana; Rémond, Didier; Papet, Isabelle; Buonocore, Daniela; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Marzatico, Fulvio; Mosoni, Laurent

    2009-07-01

    The impact of chronic excessive energy intake on protein metabolism is still controversial. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum during 5 weeks with either a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HF: n = 9) containing 45% of total energy as lipids (protein 14%; carbohydrate 40% with 83.5% sucrose) or a standard diet (controls: n = 10). Energy intake and body weight were recorded. At the end of the experiment, we measured body composition, metabolic parameters (plasma amino acid, lipid, insulin, and glucose levels), inflammatory parameter (plasma alpha2-macroglobulin), oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant enzyme activities, lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl content in liver and muscle), and in vivo fed-state fractional protein synthesis rates (FSRs) in muscle and liver. Energy intake was significantly higher in HF compared with control rats (+28%). There were significant increases in body weight (+8%), body fat (+21%), renal (+41%), and epidydimal (+28%) fat pads in HF compared with control rats. No effect was observed in other tissue weights (liver, muscle, spleen, kidneys, intestine). Liver and muscle FSRs, plasma levels of lipids, glucose, insulin and alpha2-macroglobulin, soleus and liver glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities, MnSOD activity, LPO, and protein carbonyl content were not altered by the HF diet. Only soleus muscle and liver Cu/ZnSOD activity and soleus muscle catalase activities were reduced in HF rats compared with control rats. Thus, chronic excessive energy intake and increased adiposity, in the absence of other metabolic alterations, do not stimulate fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates.

  12. Epihyoid bone fracture associated with tongue deviation in an adult dog

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Marcelo; Kani, Yukitaka; Mieres, Marcelo; Mansilla, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An 8-month-old male Rhodesian ridgeback dog was evaluated for right lingual deviation, mild dysphagia, and inability to retract the tongue. Transverse and three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images revealed a transverse fracture of the left epihyoid bone. After 4 months of conservative management, that included assisted feeding of a semi-liquid diet or small volumes of food and analgesics, the dog recovered. PMID:27587884

  13. Does the A-not-B error in adult pet dogs indicate sensitivity to human communication?

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Topál, József; Gácsi, Márta; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Miklósi, Adám; Virányi, Zsófia

    2012-07-01

    Recent dog-infant comparisons have indicated that the experimenter's communicative signals in object hide-and-search tasks increase the probability of perseverative (A-not-B) errors in both species (Topál et al. 2009). These behaviourally similar results, however, might reflect different mechanisms in dogs and in children. Similar errors may occur if the motor response of retrieving the object during the A trials cannot be inhibited in the B trials or if the experimenter's movements and signals toward the A hiding place in the B trials ('sham-baiting') distract the dogs' attention. In order to test these hypotheses, we tested dogs similarly to Topál et al. (2009) but eliminated the motor search in the A trials and 'sham-baiting' in the B trials. We found that neither an inability to inhibit previously rewarded motor response nor insufficiencies in their working memory and/or attention skills can explain dogs' erroneous choices. Further, we replicated the finding that dogs have a strong tendency to commit the A-not-B error after ostensive-communicative hiding and demonstrated the crucial effect of socio-communicative cues as the A-not-B error diminishes when location B is ostensively enhanced. These findings further support the hypothesis that the dogs' A-not-B error may reflect a special sensitivity to human communicative cues. Such object-hiding and search tasks provide a typical case for how susceptibility to human social signals could (mis)lead domestic dogs.

  14. Serological responses of adult dogs to revaccination against distemper, parvovirus and rabies.

    PubMed

    Ottiger, H-P; Neimeier-Förster, M; Stärk, K D C; Duchow, K; Bruckner, L

    2006-07-01

    Serum antibody titres to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and rabies were measured in dogs that had not been revaccinated annually and compared with the titres in a control group of regularly vaccinated animals; 83 per cent (171 of 207) of the dogs vaccinated against CDV one or more years earlier had serum neutralising antibody titres equal to or greater than 16; 64 per cent (136 of 213) of the dogs vaccinated against CPV one or more years earlier had haemagglutination inhibiting titres equal to or greater than 80; and 59 per cent (46 of 78) of the dogs vaccinated against rabies two or more years earlier had serum neutralising antibody titres equal to or greater than 0.5 iu/ml. Three weeks after a single booster vaccination the dogs' antibody titres against CDV had increased above the threshold level in 94 per cent of the dogs, against CPV in 68 per cent, and against rabies in 100 per cent.

  15. The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Guido; Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam; Holst, Jens J; van der Poel, Antonius F B; Janssens, Geert P J; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2009-07-01

    Depending on type and inclusion level, dietary fibre may increase and maintain satiety and postpone the onset of hunger. This 7-week study evaluated the effect of fibre fermentability on physiological satiety-related metabolites and voluntary food intake (VFI) in dogs. Sixteen healthy adult dogs were fed a low-fermentable fibre (LFF) diet containing 8.5 % cellulose or a high-fermentable fibre (HFF) diet containing 8.5 % sugarbeet pulp and 2 % inulin. Large intestinal fibre degradation was evaluated by apparent faecal digestibility of nutrients and faecal SCFA and NH3 concentrations. Postprandial blood samples were obtained to determine postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, total peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total ghrelin concentrations. At the end of the study, the dogs were given a single meal of a dry dog food to determine VFI. Dogs fed the HFF diet had a significantly higher large intestinal fibre degradation and production of SCFA compared with the dogs fed the LFF diet. The HFF-fed dogs tended (P = 0.058) to show a lower VFI at the end of the study. No treatment effects were found for postprandial plasma glucose, PYY, GLP-1 and ghrelin responses. The concentrations of these metabolites could not be related to the observed difference in VFI. The inclusion of fermentable fibre in canine diets may contribute to the prevention or mitigation of obesity through its effects on satiety. The underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

  16. Acute primary canine herpesvirus-1 dendritic ulcerative keratitis in an adult dog.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Kristen J; Pirie, Christopher G; Ledbetter, Eric C; Pizzirani, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    We present a report of dendritic ulcerative keratitis in a 4-year old locally immunosuppressed dog suspected to result from acute primary canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection. The dog was presented for evaluation of mild blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia in the right eye (OD) shortly after attending a public boarding facility. For approximately 3 months, the dog had been receiving topical prednisolone acetate 1.0% and tacrolimus 0.02% in both eyes (OU) q12h for treatment of follicular conjunctivitis. Ophthalmic examination revealed three regions of corneal fluorescein retention OD. The lesions had a dendritic pattern, were approximately 2-3 mm in length, and were located at the dorsomedial, lateral, and ventromedial aspects of the cornea. No additional abnormalities were noted on complete ophthalmic and physical examinations. CHV-1 was identified in conjunctival samples OD by polymerase chain reaction, and paired CHV-1 serum virus neutralization antibody titers were positive and consistent with acute infection. Topical prednisolone acetate and tacrolimus were discontinued. The dog was treated with cidofovir 0.5% OU q12h for a period of 4 weeks, with resolution of corneal disease noted within 1 week of treatment. In conjunction with previous studies, this case report supports a central role for alterations in host immune status in the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of CHV-1 ocular disease in dogs.

  17. The effects of metabolizable energy intake on body fat depots of adult Pelibuey ewes fed roughage diets under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Chay-Canul, A J; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Ku-Vera, J C; Magaña-Monforte, J G; Tedeschi, L O

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on changes in fat depots of adult Pelibuey ewes fed roughage diets under tropical conditions. Eighteen 3-year-old Pelibuey ewes with similar body weight (BW) of 37.6 ± 4.0 kg and body condition score (BCS) of 2.5 ± 0.20 were randomly assigned to three groups of six ewes each in a completely randomized design. Ewes were housed in metabolic crates and fed three levels of MEI: low (L), medium (M), and high (H) for 65 days to achieve different BW and BCS. At the end of the experiment, the ewes were slaughtered. Data recorded at slaughter were: weights of viscera and carcass. Internal fat (IF, internal adipose tissue) was dissected, weighed, and grouped as pelvic (around kidneys and pelvic region), omental, and mesenteric regions. Carcass was split at the dorsal midline in two equal halves, weighed, and chilled at 6°C during 24 h. After refrigeration, the left half of the carcass was completely dissected into subcutaneous and intermuscular fat (carcass fat). Dissected carcass fat (CF) of the left carcass was adjusted as whole carcass. At low levels of MEI, proportion of IF and CF was approximately 50%; however, as the MEI was increased, the proportion of IF was increased up to 57% and 60% for M and H, respectively. Omental and pelvic fat depots were those which increased in a larger proportion with respect to the mesenteric fat depot. Regression equations between the weight of each body fat depot and BW had a coefficient of determination (r (2)) that ranged between 0.37 for mesenteric fat and 0.87 for CF. The regression with BCS had a r (2) that ranged between 0.57 for mesenteric and 0.71 for TBF. BW was the best predictor for TBF, CF, omental fat, and pelvic fat; whereas, BCS was better than BW in predicting IF and mesenteric fat. Inclusion of both BW and BCS in multiple regressions improved the prediction for all fat depots, except for pelvic fat, which was best

  18. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-06-16

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  19. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  20. Adult-onset lymphoplasmacytic orchitis in a Labrador retriever stud dog.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Autumn P; von Dehn, Benita J; Schlafer, Donald H

    2015-03-01

    A formerly fertile 5-year-old 45-kg Labrador retriever was evaluated for azoospermia noted during routine semen collection for an artificial insemination. Over the past 3 years, the dog had sired 4 litters of anticipated size for the breed out of 5 breedings, the most recent a litter of 10 conceived and whelped 2 months previously. Physical examination findings were normal with the exception of bilaterally small and soft testes. An open excisional wedge biopsy of the right testis was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathology findings supported an immunologic, autoimmune pathogenesis that had resulted in infertility over the previous 4 months.

  1. [The hemodynamic effect of thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade in the anesthetized adult mongrel dogs].

    PubMed

    Yamagami, H

    1994-03-01

    Hemodynamic alterations with the thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade were elucidated in the anesthetized open-chest dogs, under controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen and receiving fentanyl, pentobarbital and pancuronium administration, and the effect of blockade was assessed by increase in skin-surface temperature at the specific regions of the upper extremity. All dogs with thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade revealed the increased skin temperature in blocked extremities and decreased skin temperature in the contralateral side with simultaneous compensatory vasoconstriction ("Borrowing-Lending phenomenon"). Four groups were classified according to the side and range of blockade: A-group (right Th7.8 ganglion, N = 17), B-group (left-Th7.8 ganglion, N = 8), C-group (right Th2.3 ganglion, N = 13) and D-group (left-Th2.3 ganglion, N = 10). The hemodynamic variables after the middle thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade showed no remarkable changes but heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output decreased significantly with the upper right-side thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade, and the inhibited circulatory state lasted twenty minutes after blockade. No significant skin temperature changes were observed after blockade among four groups. The results suggest that the patient after upper thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade should be cared with these circulatory changes in mind.

  2. When the Black Dog Barks: An Autoethnography of Adult Learning in and on Clinical Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. government's National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates that in any given year, 14.8 million American adults (about 6.7 percent of the adult population) suffer from clinical depression or major depressive disorder, as it is sometimes called (NIMH, n.d.). In Canada, a recent study projected the estimate of sufferers much higher…

  3. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light (< 5 kg) group than in the Medium (10 to 19.9 kg) and Heavy (> 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers.

  4. Clostridium perfringens type A netF and netE positive and Clostridium difficile co-infection in two adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Amanda Nádia; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Oliveira Junior, Carlos Augusto; Pierezan, Felipe; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report two cases of Clostridium perfringens type A and Clostridium difficile co-infection in adult dogs. Both animals were positive for A/B toxin. Toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens type A positive for NetE and NetF-encoding genes were isolated. This report reinforces the necessity of studying a possible synergism of C. difficile and C. perfringens in enteric disorders.

  5. Hypoadrenocorticism in a kindred of Pomeranian dogs.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Erin T; Hammond, Tara N; Mahony, Orla M

    2015-01-01

    Three adult Pomeranian dogs, full siblings from 2 litters, were diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism following onset of hypoadrenal crisis. Review of the family history revealed the dogs' maternal grandmother also had hypoadrenocorticism. All 4 dogs were pedigree-certified by the American Kennel Club. An inherited basis for hypoadrenocorticism is proposed in these Pomeranian dogs.

  6. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.

  7. Efficacy of a single dose of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel combination tablets, Milpro(®), against adult Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and both adult and immature E. multilocularis in young cats.

    PubMed

    Cvejic, Dejan; Schneider, Claudia; Fourie, Josephus; de Vos, Christa; Bonneau, Stephane; Bernachon, Natalia; Hellmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two single-site, laboratory, negatively controlled, masked, randomised dose confirmation studies were performed: one in dogs, the other in cats. After a period of acclimatisation, both the dogs and cats were orally infected with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. In the dog study, 10 dogs received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 18 days post-infection and 10 dogs received no treatment. In the cat study, 10 cats received a single dose of Milpro® tablets at a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg praziquantel 7 days post-infection, 10 cats received a single dose of the treatment 18 days post-infection and 10 cats remained untreated. In both studies, intestinal worm counts were performed 23 days post-infection at necropsy. No worms were retrieved from any of the 30 treated animals. Nine of 10 control dogs had multiple worms (geometric mean 91, arithmetic mean 304) and all 10 control cats had multiple worms (geometric mean 216, arithmetic mean 481). The difference in worm counts between all three treated groups and their controls was highly significant (ANOVA p values of log transformed data <0.0001). Efficacy of 100 % was demonstrated for the elimination of adult E. multilocularis in dogs and cats as well as for elimination of immature E. multilocularis in cats as evidenced by the effectiveness of treatment 7 days post-infection. The treatments were well accepted and tolerated, and there were no adverse drug reactions observed.

  8. Kicking the digital dog: a longitudinal investigation of young adults' victimization and cyber-displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2012-09-01

    Using the general strain theory as a theoretical framework, the present longitudinal study investigated both face-to-face and cyber victimization in relation to cyber-displaced aggression. Longitudinal data were collected from 130 (70 women) young adults who completed measures assessing their victimization (face-to-face and cyber), cyber aggression, and both face-to-face and cyber-displaced aggression. Findings indicated that victimization in both social contexts (face-to-face and cyber) contributed to cyber-displaced aggression 6 months later (Time 2), after controlling for gender, cyber aggression, face-to-face displaced aggression, and cyber-displaced aggression at Time 1. A significant two-way interaction revealed that Time 1 cyber victimization was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber-displaced aggression when young adults had higher levels of face-to-face victimization at Time 1. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as a call for more research investigating displaced aggression in the cyber context.

  9. Adult offspring of high-fat diet-fed dams can have normal glucose tolerance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Platt, K M; Charnigo, R J; Pearson, K J

    2014-06-01

    Maternal high-fat diet consumption and obesity have been shown to program long-term obesity and lead to impaired glucose tolerance in offspring. Many rodent studies, however, use non-purified, cereal-based diets as the control for purified high-fat diets. In this study, primiparous ICR mice were fed purified control diet (10-11 kcal% from fat of lard or butter origin) and lard (45 or 60 kcal% fat) or butter (32 or 60 kcal% fat)-based high-fat diets for 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and for 2 weeks of nursing. Before mating, female mice fed the 32 and 60% butter-based high-fat diets exhibited impaired glucose tolerance but those females fed the lard-based diets showed normal glucose disposal following a glucose challenge. High-fat diet consumption by female mice of all groups decreased lean to fat mass ratios during the 4th week of diet treatment compared with those mice consuming the 10-11% fat diets. All females were bred to male mice and pregnancy and offspring outcomes were monitored. The body weight of pups born to 45% lard-fed dams was significantly increased before weaning, but only female offspring born to 32% butter-fed dams exhibited long-term body weight increases. Offspring glucose tolerance and body composition were measured for at least 1 year. Minimal, if any, differences were observed in the offspring parameters. These results suggest that many variables should be considered when designing future high-fat diet feeding and maternal obesity studies in mice.

  10. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation.

  11. Effect of peripheral kisspeptin administration on adiponectin, leptin, and resistin secretion under fed and fasting conditions in the adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wahab, F; Bano, R; Jabeen, S; Irfan, S; Shahab, M

    2010-07-01

    In the last few years, kisspeptin-KISS1R signaling has appeared as a major regulator of the reproductive function in several vertebrate species. However, KISS1(encoding kisspeptin) and its putative receptor, KISS1R, are expressed in several other tissues. Adipose tissue, which secretes many peptides with diverse functions in normal physiology, expresses KISS1, which is modulated by gonadal steroids as well as by body nutritional status. Similarly, KISS1Rexpression is also found in adipose tissue, but the local role of kisspeptin in adipocyte function is currently unknown. Therefore, in the present study the effects of exogenous human kisspeptin-10 (KP10) were studied on three important adipokines, namely, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in a set of four chair-restraint habituated intact adult male rhesus monkeys under; 1) normal fed conditions, 2) 24-h fasting conditions, and 3) 48-h fasting conditions. Plasma resistin and leptin levels decreased (p<0.01), whereas adiponectin levels increased (p<0.05) in fasted monkeys. Kisspeptin administration significantly increased (p<0.05) mean plasma adiponectin levels under fed and 24-h fasting conditions as compared to pretreatment or vehicle-treatment levels. A stimulatory effect was also observed on the 48-h fasting stimulated plasma adiponectin levels, but it lacked statistical significance. In contrast, no effect of kisspeptin was observed on mean plasma leptin and resistin levels. Thus, the present study demonstrated a stimulatory effect of peripheral kisspeptin administration on the plasma adiponectin levels under fed and 24-h fasting conditions in the adult male rhesus monkey. These findings, therefore, assign a novel role to kisspeptin, a regulator of adipocyte function in higher primate.

  12. Quantitative PCR-based parasite burden estimation of Babesia gibsoni in the vector tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae), fed on an experimentally infected dog.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Takeshi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Islam, Khyrul; Alim, M Abdul; Anisuzzaman; Yamaji, Kayoko; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2013-01-31

    Most causative agents of babesiosis, Babesia parasites, are transmitted transovarially in ixodid ticks. In this study, B. gibsoni, the causative agent of canine babesiosis which has transovarial transmission, was detected in tissues of the vector tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis using a modified quantitative PCR assay. Conventional PCR results showed that the newly designed primer set, which amplifies a 143-bp fragment of rhoptry-associated protein-1 (BgRAP-1) gene in B. gibsoni, was 100 times more sensitive than primers targeting P18 gene encoding 18 kDa protein of B. gibsoni, which was recently renamed as thrombospondin related adhesive protein (BgTRAP) gene, in an artificially generated sample solution containing metagenomic DNA (B. gibsoni DNA extracted from infected dog blood mixed with tick DNA). The TaqMan probe-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) for BgRAP-1 could also detect infected RBCs (iRBCs) at levels of 3.5 × 10(5) to 3.5 × 10(1)/μl, a range that is broader than that of a past SYBR Green-based qPCR method for P18/BgTRAP, which had a detection limit of 3.5 × 10(3) iRBCs/μl. Using this qPCR assay, we attempted to quantify the B. gibsoni burden in tick ovaries and embryonated eggs. Levels of infection were normalized to the copy number of tick's genomic DNA fragment of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) for the standardization. According to this, low levels of parasite burden were quantified in ovaries and eggs. This detection system is sensitive and is recommended as a tool for elucidating the biological interactions between the vector tick H. longicornis and the parasite, B. gibsoni.

  13. Maternal Dietary Vitamin D Does Not Program Systemic Inflammation and Bone Health in Adult Female Mice Fed an Obesogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Christopher R.; Chen, Jianmin; Wen, Bijun; Sacco, Sandra M.; Taibi, Amel; Ward, Wendy E.; Comelli, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with systemic inflammation and impaired bone health. Vitamin D regulates bone metabolism, and has anti-inflammatory properties and epigenetic effects. We showed that exposure to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation beneficially programs serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bone structure in male offspring fed an obesogenic diet. Here we assessed if this effect is also apparent in females. C57BL/6J dams were fed AIN93G diet with high (5000 IU/kg diet) or low (25 IU/kg diet) vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, female offspring remained on their respective vitamin D level or were switched and fed a high fat and sucrose diet (44.2% fat, 19.8% sucrose) until age seven months when glucose response, adiposity, serum LPS, and bone mineral, trabecular and cortical structure, and biomechanical strength properties of femur and vertebra were assessed. There was no evidence for a programming effect of vitamin D for any outcomes. However, females exposed to a high vitamin D diet post-weaning had higher bone mineral content (p = 0.037) and density (p = 0.015) of lumbar vertebra. This post-weaning benefit suggests that in females, bone mineral accrual but not bone structure is compromised with low vitamin D status in utero until weaning in an obesogenic context. PMID:27792161

  14. Increased Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress and Salt-Loading in Adult Male Offspring of Fat Fed Non-Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J.; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  15. Capromorelin increases food consumption, body weight, growth hormone, and sustained insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations when administered to healthy adult Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zollers, B; Rhodes, L; Smith, R G

    2017-04-01

    This study's objective was to determine the effects in dogs of oral capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist, at different doses for 7 days on food consumption, body weight and serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cortisol. Adult Beagles (n = 6) were dosed with placebo BID, capromorelin at 3.0 mg/kg SID, 4.5 mg/kg SID, or 3.0 mg/kg BID. Food consumption, body weight, serum capromorelin, GH, IGF-1, and cortisol were measured at intervals on days 1, 4, 7, and 9. Capromorelin increased food consumption and body weight compared to placebo and caused increased serum GH, which returned to the baseline by 8 h postdose. The magnitude of the GH increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. IGF-1 concentrations increased on Day 1 in capromorelin-treated dogs and this increase was sustained through Day 7. Serum cortisol increased postdosing and returned to the baseline concentrations by 8 h. The magnitude of the increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. A dose of 3 mg/kg was chosen for further study in dogs based on this dose causing increased food consumption and sustained IGF-1 serum concentrations that may increase lean muscle mass when administered over extended periods.

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor expression in the pituitary gland of adult dogs in healthy condition and with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Ochi, H; Harada, Y; Yogo, T; Kanno, N; Hara, Y

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor I (BMPRI) and BMPRII, in the pituitary gland of healthy adult dogs and in those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the BMP4 messenger RNA expression level in the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma samples was significantly lower than that in the normal pituitary gland samples (P = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant differences between samples with respect to the messenger RNA expression levels of the receptors BMPRIA, BMPRIB, and BMPRII. Double-immunofluorescence analysis of the normal canine pituitary showed that BMP4 was localized in the thyrotroph (51.3 ± 7.3%) and not the corticotroph cells. By contrast, BMPRII was widely expressed in the thyrotroph (19.9 ± 5.2%) and somatotroph cells (94.7 ± 3.6%) but not in the corticotroph cells (P < 0.001, thyrotroph cells vs somatotroph cells). Similarly, in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, BMP4 and BMPRII were not expressed in the corticotroph cells. Moreover, the percentage of BMP4-positive cells was also significantly reduced in the thyrotroph cells of the surrounding normal pituitary tissue obtained from the resected ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (8.3 ± 7.9%) compared with that in normal canine pituitary (P < 0.001). BMP4 has been reported to be expressed in corticotroph cells in the human pituitary gland. Therefore, the results of this study reveal a difference in the cellular pattern of BMP4-positive staining in the pituitary gland between humans and dogs and further revealed the pattern of BMPRII-positive staining in the dog pituitary gland. These species-specific differences regarding BMP4 should be considered when using dogs as an animal model for Cushing's disease.

  17. The efficacy of a topically applied imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 2.5 % formulation (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bayer) against Immature and Adult Spirocerca lupi worms in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Austin, Clinton M; Kok, Dawie J; Crafford, Dionne; Schaper, Roland

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10 %/moxidectin 2.5 % spot-on combination (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bayer) against immature and mature stages of Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs. 24 dogs were allocated to 3 groups and infected with approximately 10 L3 larvae of S. lupi orally on study day (SD) +2, +14, +28 and +42. Group 1 remained as untreated control group. Group 2 dogs were treated on SD –28, 0, and thereafter monthly until Day 280 (12 treatments). Group 3 dogs were treated weekly on 19 occasions starting on SD +170. The dosage for all treatments was the licensed dose of 10–25 mg imidacloprid/2.5–6.25 mg moxidectin per kg body weight. All dogs were examined on SD +169 or +176 by endoscopy. Group 3 dogs were additionally examined approximately every two weeks up to Day 296. On Day +308 or +310, all dogs were necropsied to recover S. lupi worms and to quantify lesions in the thoracic aorta and oesophagus. Dogs in the control group were adequately infected with S. lupi, demonstrated by the extensive damage to the thoracic aorta, the nodules in the oesophagus and the large numbers of worms recovered. In total 144 worms were collected (geometric mean of 16.8 worms per dog). Dogs in group 2 had no or very slight damage to the thoracic aorta and no nodules or worms in the oesophagus, indicating 100 % efficacy of the monthly treatments. Dogs in group 3 were also adequately infected, showing nodules in the oesophagus before initiation of weekly treatment, and at necropsy extensive damage was seen in the thoracic aorta. After treatment, three dogs of 8 still had a few nodules and in total three worms (GM of 0.25 per dog) were recovered, demonstrating an efficacy of 98.5 % against adult S. lupi. All dogs tolerated the treatment well and no treatment- related adverse events occurred.

  18. Nitrogen excretion of adult sheep fed silages made of a mixed sward or of pure unfertilised grass alone and in combination with barley.

    PubMed

    Seip, Katharina; Breves, Gerhard; Isselstein, Johannes; Abel, Hansjörg

    2011-08-01

    Four adult rumen-fistulated wether sheep were fed silages combined with barley. The silages consisted of 48% grasses, 28% legumes and 24% other forbs (GCF) or of pure grass (G). The swards received no mineral fertiliser. The dry matter (DM) and fibre contents were lower in GCF than in G. Crude protein content of DM in GCF and G were 145 g/kg and 102 g/kg respectively. DM content as ash, lipids and non-fibrous carbohydrates were rather similar in both silages. About 40g DM were offered per kg BW0.75 and day either as silage alone or as a mixture of silage and barley (60:40). Faecal N excretion was greater with GCF than with G. The proportion of faecal bacterial and endogenous debris N reached 75 and 73% when GCF or G was fed, respectively. Undigested dietary N represented about 20%, and water soluble N accounted for 5-6% of faecal N. GCF caused more urinary N than G. Barley reduced urinary N excretion when supplemented to GCF. No dietary influence on urinary non-urea nitrogenous compounds was shown. GCF caused higher urinary urea N excretion than G and barley reduced this fraction when replacing part of GCF. Based on the urinary urea N proportions, it is concluded that N intake exceeded N requirement for any of the four diets fed. Dietary supplementation of ruminally fermentable carbohydrates can reduce urinary N excretion and this improves the efficiency of utilisation of N in N-unfertilised biodiverse grassland/ruminant farming systems.

  19. Care of dogs and attitudes of dog owners in Port-au-Prince, the Republic of Haiti.

    PubMed

    Fielding, William J; Gall, Melanie; Green, Dick; Eller, Warren S

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the first known study on dogs in Port-au-Prince. Interviews with 1,290 residents provided information on 1,804 dogs. More than 57.7% of homes kept dogs. Not all the dogs received vaccinations for rabies (41.6%), even though 28.2% of households had had a household member bitten by a dog. Although the "owned" dog population had decreased as a result of the earthquake in January 2010, the number of roaming dogs appeared to have been uninfluenced by the disaster. Given that 64.8% of dogs probably had access to the street and only 6.0% of the females were spayed, to humanely contain the dog population will require both confinement and neutering. Although roaming dogs were considered a nuisance by 63.3% of respondents, 42.6% of households fed dogs they did not own.

  20. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-MULTIMODALITY FINDINGS IN AN ADULT DOG WITH PRIMARY SARCOMA OF THE PULMONARY ARTERY AND MYOCARDIAL METASTASES.

    PubMed

    Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Bottorff, Bryan; Sisson, David; Löhr, Christiane V

    2016-07-01

    Intravascular pulmonary artery sarcomas in combination with myocardial metastasis are rare in dogs. We describe the radiographic, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic-gated (ECG-gated) computed tomographic angiography (CTA) findings in a dog with pulmonary artery sarcoma. All imaging studies demonstrated severe main pulmonary artery enlargement. Echocardiography and ECG-gated CTA revealed a mass occluding the lumen of the right pulmonary artery. In addition, CTA revealed focal left ventricular myocardial contrast enhancement and parenchymal lung changes. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of a large thrombus associated with arteriosclerosis and an intravascular sarcoma in the right pulmonary artery with metastases to the myocardium, lungs and brain.

  1. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  2. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  3. Assessment of the onset of action of afoxolaner against existing adult flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, Bruce N; Drag, Marlene D; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The speed of kill of afoxolaner against experimental infestations by Ctenocephalides felis was evaluated after oral administration of afoxolaner in a soft chew (NEXGARD(®)) at a dose to achieve 2.5mg/kg bodyweight. Forty beagles were allocated to two treatment groups. Dogs in Treatment Group 1 were untreated controls. Dogs in Treatment Group 2 were treated on Day-0 with afoxolaner, according to their pre-treatment bodyweight. All dogs were infested with approximately 100 C. felis on Day-1. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 5 time points after treatment (i.e., 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24h after treatment). For each time point, counts were performed on 4 dogs from each of the treated and the untreated groups. Early curative flea killing efficacy was evaluated with respect to the untreated control group. The afoxolaner treated group had significantly fewer fleas than the untreated control group at 8, 12, and 24h (p<0.001). The percent efficacies of orally administered afoxolaner were 15.0%, 87.8%, 99.5%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h, respectively. In this study, afoxolaner began killing fleas by 2h after treatment with increasing efficacy at subsequent time points and had >99.5% efficacy at 8, 12, and 24h after treatment demonstrating an early onset of action.

  4. The effect of a limit-fed diet and slow-feed hay nets on morphometric measurements and postprandial metabolite and hormone patterns in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Glunk, E C; Hathaway, M R; Grev, A M; Lamprecht, E D; Maher, M C; Martinson, K L

    2015-08-01

    Modern horse management systems tend to limit a horse's opportunity to forage, rely on meal feeding, and may contribute to the increase in equine obesity. The use of slow-feed hay nets represents an opportunity to extend foraging time while feeding a restricted diet. The objectives of this study were to determine if limit feeding combined with a slow-feed hay net would affect morphometric measurements and postprandial metabolite and hormone patterns in overweight adult horses. Eight adult Quarter horses (BW 563 kg ± 4.6 kg; BCS 7.2 ± 0.3) were used in a randomized complete block design, with 4 horses assigned to feeding hay off the stall floor (FLOOR) and 4 horses assigned to feeding from a slow-feed hay net (NET). Horses were fed in individual stalls at 1% BW each day, split evenly between 2 meals at 0700 and 1600 h. Body weight, BCS, neck and girth circumference, cresty neck score, and ultrasound measurements of average rump fat, longissimus dorsi (LD) depth, and LD thickness were taken on d 0, 14, and 28. Three 24-h blood samplings were conducted on d 0, 14, and 28 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, cortisol, and leptin concentrations. Samplings occurred every 30 min for 3 h postfeeding, with hourly samples occurring between feedings. Horses feeding from the FLOOR took less time to consume their hay meal compared with horses feeding from the NET ( < 0.001). All horses lost weight over the 28-d period ( < 0.0001); however, no difference was observed between treatments. There was no difference in BCS, neck and girth circumference, cresty neck score, rump fat, or LD depth between days or treatments ( ≥ 0.25). There was an effect of day on LD thickness in horses feeding from the NET. Longissimus dorsi thickness was lower on d 28 compared with that on d 0 ( = 0.0257). Only time to peak insulin and peak cortisol were affected by treatment ( ≤ 0.037), with horses feeding from the NET having lower values than horses feeding from the FLOOR. Average glucose

  5. First isolation of Hammondia heydorni from dogs in China.

    PubMed

    Jie, Hu Jun; Yu, Meng; Fen, Yang Yan; Mei, Guo Yan; Yan, Yang; Esch, G W; QingTuan, Fu

    2013-10-18

    Fecal samples of 945 dogs were examined microscopically in 2 refuge facilities in China from March 2010 to November 2011. In 8 dogs, oocysts, 9-14 μm in size, were found. Their morphology was similar to those of Hammondia heydorni and Neospora caninum. Sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts were fed to 2 dogs, 2 gerbils, 2 guinea pigs, and 2 KM mice; tissues from these inoculated animals were then fed to coccidia-free dogs to determine species susceptibility to these oocysts. Oocysts were not excreted in the feces of dogs or rodents inoculated with oocysts. However, the dogs fed the tissues of gerbils or guinea pigs that were inoculated orally with oocysts excreted fresh oocysts. Dogs fed tissues from guinea pigs inoculated with brain and muscular homogenate from guinea pigs that were fed sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts did not excrete oocysts. These findings indicated that the oocysts from naturally infected dogs had an obligatory 2-host life cycle, with gerbils and guinea pigs as intermediate hosts. DNA isolated from these oocysts could not be amplified using N. caninum- and Toxoplasma gondii-specific primers. However, positive amplification with the H. heydorni-specific primers confirmed the presence of H. heydorni DNA in the samples. A comparison of the intron 1 sequence of the alpha tubulin gene with those from H. heydorni from dogs and H. triffittae from foxes showed that dog-derived oocysts possessed a different alpha tubulin gene. Both our dog-derived sequence and 2 previous alpha tubulin gene sequences from H. triffittae from foxes contained a 9-bp insertion relative to 3 sequences of H. heydorni from dogs. However, when the 9-bp insertion from H. triffittae sequences were compared, the 9-bp insertion in our dog-derived sequence had a nucleotide substitution. The present study, therefore, provides new evidence of genetic diversity among isolates from dogs. This is the first survey for H. heydorni in dogs from China.

  6. Assessment of the efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) against egg laying and adult emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Lebon, Wilfried; Liebenberg, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevention of egg laying and the inhibition of the emergence of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) resulting from the application of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, Merial) on dogs. Sixteen healthy dogs were included after pre-treatment live flea counts and randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs served as untreated controls and 8 dogs were treated on Day 0 and Day 30 with topical application of fipronil/permethrin at the minimum dose of 6.76 mg/kg fipronil and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. On days −2, 7, 21, 28, 42 and 56, each dog was infested with 100 fleas. Flea eggs were collected from each dog in individual trays from 12 to 36 h after treatment or each flea re-infestation. All fleas were removed by combing and counted 36 h after treatment or infestations. The collected eggs were counted and incubated for 28 days for larval development and adult emergence assessment. The curative efficacy of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® against adult fleas 36 h after treatment was 95.3% and the efficacy remained 100% after subsequent flea infestations for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the treatment reduced egg laying by 84.5% within 36 h after first treatment and was 99.9%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% on collection days 7, 21, 29, 43 and 57, respectively. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® reduced by 28.7% the emergence of new adult fleas from eggs laid during the 48 h of pre-treatment infestation. The inhibition of adult emergence from incubated flea eggs could not be assessed after flea re-infestation in the treated group as no eggs were collected. PMID:27991415

  7. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    PubMed

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners.

  8. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family.

  9. Sugared water consumption by adult offspring of mothers fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity: the second hit effect.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-Gómez, M; Cuevas, E; Nicolás, L; Castelán, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, J

    2014-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. This predisposition is modified by various postnatal factors. We hypothesised that coupled to the initial effects of developmental programming due to a maternal low-protein diet, a second hit resulting from increased offspring postnatal sugar consumption would lead to additional changes in metabolism and adipose tissue function. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of sugared water consumption (5% sucrose in the drinking-water) on adult offspring adiposity as a 'second hit' following exposure to maternal protein restriction during pregnancy. We studied four offspring groups: (1) offspring of mothers fed the control diet (C); (2) offspring of mothers fed the restricted protein diet (R); (3) offspring of control mothers that drank sugared water (C-S); (4) offspring of restricted mothers that drank sugared water (R-S). Maternal diet in pregnancy was considered the first factor and sugared water consumption as the second factor - the second hit. Body weight and total energy consumption, before and after sugared water consumption, were similar in all the groups. Sugared water consumption increased TAG, insulin and cholesterol concentrations in both the sexes of the C-S and R-S offspring. Sugared water consumption increased leptin concentrations in the R-S females and males but not in the R offspring. There was also an interaction between sugared water and maternal diet in males. Sugared water consumption increased adipocyte size and adiposity index in both females and males, but the interaction with maternal diet was observed only in females. Adiposity index and plasma leptin concentrations were positively correlated in both the sexes. The present study shows that a second hit during adulthood can amplify the effects of higher adiposity arising due to poor maternal pregnancy diet in an offspring sex dependent fashion.

  10. Dietary fat and carbohydrate have different effects on body weight, energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis and behaviour in adult cats fed to energy requirement.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Margaret A; Atkinson, Jim L; Duncan, Ian J H; Niel, Lee; Shoveller, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary carbohydrate and fat on feline health are not well understood. The effects of feeding diets moderately high in fat (HF; n 10; 30 % fat, 26 % carbohydrate as fed) or carbohydrate (HC; n 10; 11 % fat, 47 % carbohydrate), for 84 d, were investigated in healthy, adult cats (3·5 (sd 0·5) years). Data on indirect calorimetry, blood biomarkers, activity, play and cognition were collected at baseline, and at intervals throughout the study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and on day 85. There were no significant main effects of diet on body weight and composition. When data were analysed over study day within diet, cats fed HF diets experienced a significant increase in body fat (P = 0·001) and body weight (P = 0·043) in contrast to cats consuming the HC diet that experienced no change in body fat or body weight (P = 0·762) throughout the study. Overall, energy expenditure was similar between diets (P = 0·356 (fasted), P = 0·086 (postprandial)) and respiratory quotient declined with exposure to the HF diet and increased with exposure to the HC diet (P < 0·001; fasted and postprandial). There was no difference in insulin sensitivity as an overall effect of diet (P = 0·266). Activity declined from baseline with exposure to both diets (HC: P = 0·002; HF: P = 0·01) but was not different between diets (P = 0·247). There was no effect of diet on play (P = 0·387) and cats consuming either the HF or HC diet did not successfully learn the cognitive test. Overall, cats adapt to dietary macronutrient content, and the implications of feeding HC and HF diets on risk for adiposity as driven by metabolic and behavioural mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone: a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Prashant; Agrawal, Yadvendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods:This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 h, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 min. A single oral dose (100 mg) of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0−t) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0−∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80–125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results:For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference), AUC0−t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL) and AUC0−∞ was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference) were 93.0–102.0% for Cmax, 96.7–103.2% for AUC0−t and 96.1–103.5% for AUC0−∞. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion:Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the extent of absorption of trazodone under fed condition. PMID:26483693

  12. Characterization of Adult Transcriptomes from the Omnivorous Lady Beetle Coleomegilla maculata Fed Pollen or Insect Egg Diet

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Margaret Louise

    2015-01-01

    Diet, nutrition, and obesity are important topics of current research. While many insect genome and/or transcriptome models are based on dietary specialists, the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata, a common New World species, is highly omnivorous. C. maculata feeds on plants, fungi, insects and other arthropods; its diet frequently includes conspecific cannibalism. This study reports and discusses the first nutritionally based C. maculata transcriptomes. These transcriptomes were prepared from highly inbred specimens provided limited diets, after adult eclosion, of either pollen only or eggs of a soft bodied hemipteran insect only. Selected sequences from the transcriptomes were compared to verify basic genetic similarity of the sampled individuals. Differentially expressed genes associated with these diets were identified to aid with studies of omnivore diet and nutrition. Selected transcriptome sequences described herein are filed with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank Bioproject PRJNA236444. PMID:25628762

  13. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway to prevent programmed hypertension in maternal fructose-fed male adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Four groups of male offspring were studied: control, HF, HF+AUDA and HF+15dPGJ2. In HF+AUDA group, mother rats received AUDA 25 mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the HF+15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension is associated with increased renal protein level of SEH and oxidative stress, which early AUDA therapy prevents. Comparison of AUDA and 15dPGJ2 treatments demonstrated that AUDA was more effective in preventing HF-induced programmed hypertension. AUDA therapy increases angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein levels and PGE2 levels in adult offspring kidney exposed to maternal HF. 15dPGJ2 therapy increases plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and decreases L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway, especially inhibition of SEH, on renal programming may aid in developing reprogramming strategy to prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to antenatal HF intake.

  14. Effect of weight loss on the rate of muscle protein synthesis during fasted and fed conditions in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Dennis T; Smith, Gordon I; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2012-09-01

    Although weight loss ameliorates many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, there has been reluctance to prescribe weight loss in obese, older individuals because of the fear that it will cause debilitating loss of muscle mass and impair physical function. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for the weight loss-induced changes in muscle mass, we measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis (by using stable isotope labeled tracer methodology) during basal, postabsorptive conditions and during mixed meal ingestion in eight obese, older adults: (i) before weight loss therapy, (ii) ~3 months after starting the weight loss intervention (i.e., during the active weight loss phase), when subjects had lost ~7% of their initial body weight, and (iii) after they had lost ~10% of their body weight and maintained this new body weight for ~6 months (~12 months after starting the weight loss intervention). The basal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was not affected by weight loss. Mixed meal ingestion stimulated the rate of muscle protein synthesis, and the anabolic response (i.e., increase in the protein synthesis rate above basal values) was greater (P < 0.05) during negative energy balance and active weight loss at 3 months (0.033 ± 0.012%·per hour, mean ± s.e.m.) than during weight maintenance before and at 12 months of weight loss therapy (0.003 ± 0.003 and 0.008 ± 0.012%·per hour, respectively). We conclude that during dietary calorie restriction and weight loss in older adults, the rate of muscle protein synthesis is not impaired. Thus, the loss of muscle mass must be mediated predominately by adverse effects of dietary calorie restriction on muscle proteolysis.

  15. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Juan A; Busso, Dolores; Ramírez, Gigliola; Campos, Marlys; Rigotti, Attilio; Eugenín, Jaime; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine, the most important neuroteratogen of tobacco smoke, can reproduce brain and cognitive disturbances per se when administered prenatally. However, it is still unknown if paracrine signaling among brain cells participates in prenatal nicotine-induced brain impairment of adult offspring. Paracrine signaling is partly mediated by unopposed channels formed by connexins hemichannels (HCs) and pannexins serving as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small signaling molecules, allowing exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieus. Our aim was to address whether prenatal nicotine exposure changes the activity of those channels in adult mice offspring under control conditions or subjected to a second challenge during young ages: high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet. To induce prenatal exposure to nicotine, osmotic minipumps were implanted in CF1 pregnant mice at gestational day 5 to deliver nicotine bitartrate or saline (control) solutions. After weaning, offspring of nicotine-treated or untreated pregnant mice were fed ad libitum with chow or HFC diets for 8 weeks. The functional state of connexin 43 (Cx43) and pannexin 1 (Panx1) unopposed channels was evaluated by dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices from 11-week-old mice. We found that prenatal nicotine increased the opening of Cx43 HCs in astrocytes, and Panx1 channels in microglia and neurons only if offspring mice were fed with HFC diet. Blockade of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP1), ionotropic ATP receptor type 7 (P2X7) and NMDA receptors, showed differential inhibition of prenatal nicotine-induced channel opening in glial cells and neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the above mentioned enzymes and receptors, or blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels greatly reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutamate release from hippocampal slices of prenatally nicotine-exposed offspring. We propose that unregulated gliotransmitter

  16. Reversible effects of long-term treatment with D-Trp6-LH-RH-microcapsules on pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis and prostate morphology in adolescent and adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Cavitte, J C; Lahlou, N; Mialot, J P; Mondain-Monval, M; Mialot, M; Nahoul, K; Morel, C; Roger, M; Schally, A V

    1988-01-01

    The effect of long term treatment with D-Trp6-LH-RH in microcapsules (GnRH-A) on pituitary gonadal axis was studied in a adolescent and adult Fox-terrier dogs. They received intramuscularly 50 micrograms/GnRH-A/kg, on day 1 and 21 and every 4 weeks thereafter. Three adult dogs received 4 injections. cLH, cFSH and T levels were undetectable on day 7. Detectable then normal levels occurred 60 and 90 days respectively after the last injection on day 77. Testis thickness was respectively 22.1 +/- 0.8 mm and 16.3 +/- 0.8 mm on days 0 and 77; initial values were observed 90 days later. Spermatozoa disappeared from the ejaculate on day 21 in 2 dogs; reappearance and complete recovery were observed on days 161-175 and 252 respectively. Histological findings showed on day 91 atrophic lesions of testis and prostate and spermatogonia were present in all seminiferous tubules. After recovery a normal histological appearance was noticed. Three adolescent 29 weeks old dogs received 14 injections, the last one on day 357. cLH, cFSH and T levels were undetectable only from day 105. Testis thickness were respectively 15.8 +/- 0.7 mm, 18.1 +/- 0.7 mm, 12.5 +/- 0.3 mm and 21.4 +/- 0.7 mm on day 0, 21, 357 and 490. Initially, no spermatozoa were present in the ejaculates, they appeared in 2 dogs after 2 months for 20 to 40 days then disappeared until day 449. Normal semen characteristics were observed in all three dogs on day 581. Histological findings on day 371 were comparable to those observed in the adult dogs. This study demonstrates that longterm treatment with D-Trp6-LH-RH in microcapsules leads to a reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis in dogs. The delayed response in adolescent dogs might be due to a transient resistance to therapy related to.

  17. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes.

  18. Growth response and expression of muscle growth-related candidate genes in adult zebrafish fed plant and fishmeal protein-based diets.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Peña, Andrea A; Lizama, Carla D; Araneda, Cristian; Iturra, Patricia; Neira, Roberto; Medrano, Juan F

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of a plant protein- vs. fishmeal-based diet on growth response in a population of 24 families, as well as expression of growth-related genes in the muscle of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Each family was split to create two fish populations with similar genetic backgrounds, and the fish were fed either fishmeal (FM diet) or plant protein (PP diet) as the unique protein source in their diets from 35 to 98 days postfertilization (dpf). To understand the effect of the PP diet on gene expression, individuals from three families, representative of the mean weight in both populations, were selected. To understand the effect of familiar variation on gene expression, the same families were evaluated separately. At 98 dpf, growth-related genes Igf1a, Igf2a, mTOR, Pld1a, Mrf4, Myod, Myogenin, and Myostatin1b were evaluated. In males, Myogenin, Mrf4, and Igf2a showed changes attributable to the PP diet. In females, the effect of the PP diet did not modulate the expression in any of the eight genes studied. The effect of familiar variation on gene expression was observed among families. This study shows that PP diet and family variation have effects on gene expression in fish muscle.

  19. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Maria D.; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I.; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers. PMID:26697137

  20. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Maria D; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

  1. Midge-transmitted bluetongue in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A L; El Harrak, M

    2011-09-01

    The role of domestic dogs in the long-distance spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) remains unproven. It is currently known that dogs are capable of being infected with BTV, can mount an antibody response to the virus and in some cases die showing severe clinical signs of disease. Infection of dogs is currently thought to be by oral ingestion of infected meat or meat products rather than through vector feeding. In this study we show that a high percentage of domestic dogs in Morocco (21%) were seropositive for BTV and, as these dogs were fed tinned commercial food only, and had no access to other meat products, the most likely source of infection was through Culicoides midges. This finding increases the chances of dogs being infected with BTV during an outbreak but their role in the onward transmission of BTV remains unproven.

  2. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    PubMed

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P <0.01). Risk factors such as bending over the dog, putting the face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs.

  3. A new technique for feeding dogs with a congenital cleft palate for surgical research.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Casado-Gómez, Inmaculada; Martín, Concepción; López-Gordillo, Yamila; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; Paradas, Irene; González-Meli, Beatriz; Maldonado, Estela; Maestro, Carmen; Prados, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2011-04-01

    In humans, cleft palate (CP) is one of the most common malformations. Although surgeons use palatoplasty to close CP defects in children, its consequences for subsequent facial growth have prompted investigations into other novel surgical alternatives. The animal models of CP used to evaluate new surgical treatments are frequently obtained by creating surgically induced clefts in adult dogs. This procedure has been ethically criticized due to its severity and questionable value as an animal model for human CP. Dogs born with a congenital CP would be much better for this purpose, provided they developed CP at a sufficient rate and could be fed. Up until now, feeding these pups carried the risk of aspiration pneumonia, while impeding normal suckling and chewing, and thus compromising orofacial growth. We developed a technique for feeding dog pups with CP from birth to the time of surgery using two old Spanish pointer dog pups bearing a complete CP. This dog strain develops CP in 15-20% of the offspring spontaneously. Custom-made feeding teats and palatal prostheses adapted to the pups' palates were made from thermoplastic plates. This feeding technique allowed lactation, eating and drinking in the pups with CP, with only sporadic rhinitis. To determine whether the use of this palatal prosthesis interferes with palatal growth, the palates of three littermate German shorthaired pointer pups without CP, either wearing or not wearing (controls) the prosthesis, were measured. The results showed that the permanent use of this prosthesis does not impede palatal growth in the pups.

  4. The nutritional requirements of exercising dogs.

    PubMed

    Hill, R C

    1998-12-01

    The nutrient requirements of canine athletes are unique. Dogs have a greater capacity for fat oxidation than humans both at rest and during exercise. In dogs undertaking endurance exercise, such as sled dogs, high fat (>50% of energy) diets increase stamina and maximize energy production, and high protein (>30% of energy) diets prevent training-induced anemia. Nutrient requirements differ, however, for sprint racing dogs, such as greyhounds. Greyhounds run faster when fed moderately increased dietary fat but run more slowly when dietary protein is increased. Sled dogs have similar energy requirements to other breeds at rest in a thermoneutral environment ( approximately 550W0.75 kJ/d where W is body weight in kg) but may require as much as 4200W0.75 kJ/d during a race. The energy requirement of greyhounds in training, however, is only approximately 600W0.75 kJ/d. There is little information, however, concerning the vitamin, mineral or other nutrient requirements of athletic dogs; most sled dogs and greyhounds are fed "homemade" recipes. These recipes usually include raw meat and represent a health risk. More studies are required to improve the health and performance of working and racing dogs.

  5. Can an old dog learn (and want to experience) new tricks? Cognitive training increases openness to experience in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua J.; Hill, Patrick L.; Payne, Brennan R.; Roberts, Brent W.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether an intervention aimed to increase cognitive ability in older adults also changes the personality trait of openness to experience. Older adults completed a 16-week program in inductive reasoning training supplemented by weekly crossword and Sudoku puzzles. Changes in openness to experience were modeled across four assessments over 30 weeks using latent growth curve models. Results indicate that participants in the intervention condition increased in the trait of openness compared to a waitlist control group. The study is one of the first to demonstrate that personality traits can change through non-psychopharmocological interventions. PMID:22251379

  6. Can an old dog learn (and want to experience) new tricks? Cognitive training increases openness to experience in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joshua J; Hill, Patrick L; Payne, Brennan R; Roberts, Brent W; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated whether an intervention aimed to increase cognitive ability in older adults also changes the personality trait of openness to experience. Older adults completed a 16-week program in inductive reasoning training supplemented by weekly crossword and Sudoku puzzles. Changes in openness to experience were modeled across four assessments over 30 weeks using latent growth curve models. Results indicate that participants in the intervention condition increased in the trait of openness compared with a waitlist control group. The study is one of the first to demonstrate that personality traits can change through nonpsychopharmocological interventions.

  7. Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the oral efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose limiting parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott

    2012-03-23

    Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given orally to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100

  8. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-31

    ehrlichiosis. The potential of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus as a reservoir of Ehrlichia canis was investigated. R. sanguineus adults...harbored and efficiently transmitted E. canis to susceptible dogs for as long as 155 days after detachment as engorged nymphs from a dog experiencing...acute ehrlichiosis. Two modifications of the original tissue culture technique for the propagation of E. canis were developed to study the effect of

  9. Fermentable dietary fiber increases GLP-1 secretion and improves glucose homeostasis despite increased intestinal glucose transport capacity in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Massimino, S P; McBurney, M I; Field, C J; Thomson, A B; Keelan, M; Hayek, M G; Sunvold, G D

    1998-10-01

    Ileal proglucagon gene expression and postprandial plasma concentrations of proglucagon-derived peptides are reported to change with the type and quantity of dietary fiber ingested by rats. Within the intestine, proglucagon encodes several proglucagon-derived peptides known to modulate intestinal absorption capacity and pancreatic insulin secretion. To determine whether the chronic ingestion of fermentable dietary fiber regulates the expression and synthesis of proglucagon-derived peptides in the distal intestine to modulate glucose homeostasis, the following study was conducted: 16 adult dogs (23 +/- 2 kg) were fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing a mixture of high fermentable dietary fibers (HFF) or low fermentable (LFF) wood cellulose for 14 d in a randomized cross-over design. Food was withheld for 16 h before an oral glucose tolerance test was conducted supplying 2 g of glucose/kg body wt, and peripheral blood was collected via a hind-leg catheter at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min for plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)NH2 (GLP-1) analyses. Intestinal samples were collected after the second dietary treatment. Ileal proglucagon mRNA, intestinal (GLP-1) concentrations and the integrated area under the curves (AUC) for plasma GLP-1 and insulin were greater and plasma glucose AUC was reduced when dogs were fed the HFF diet compared to the LFF diet (P < 0.05). Intestinal villi heights, brush border and basolateral glucose transporter protein abundance and jejunal transport capacities were significantly greater when dogs were fed the HFF diet than when fed the LFF diet. In conclusion, improvements in glucose homeostasis are observed in healthy dogs when they ingest fermentable fibers.

  10. Immunogenic potential of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus aquaporin 1 against Rhipicephalus sanguineus in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Évora, Patricia Martinez; Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Guerrero, Felix David; León, Adalberto Pérez de; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2017-02-16

    This study evaluated a recombinant aquaporin 1 protein of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (RmAQP1) as antigen in a vaccine against R. sanguineus. Five dogs were immunized with RmAQP1 (10 µg) + adjuvant (Montanide) (G1), and five were inoculated with adjuvant only (G2), three times. Twenty-one days after the last immunization, animals of both groups were challenged with R. sanguineus larvae, nymphs and adults, and their biotic potential was compared. Blood samples were collected before each immunization and every 28 days after the last immunization for 10 weeks. Serum antibody titers (IgG) were assessed by ELISA. We observed that: engorgement period of adult females from G1 was 12% shorter than G2; larvae from G1 had 8.7% longer engorgement period than G2 and weighed 7.2% less; nymphs from G1 had 4.5% shorter engorgement period than G2 and weighed 3.6% less; although the antibody titers increased following the second immunization, they rapidly decreased after the third immunization. Results indicated low immunoprotection of RmAQP1 against adult R. sanguineus ticks, and possible efficacy on larvae and nymphs fed on immunized dogs. Further studies should be performed for a full evaluation of the immunoprotection of RmAQP1 against R. sanguineus infestations in dogs.

  11. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  12. The Experience of Living with and Using a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Rachel Joy-Taub

    2001-01-01

    A study of eight adults who use dog guides found four themes that described the experience of using a dog guide: increased confidence, increased independence, changed public interactions, and additional responsibilities or inconveniences. Most participants described their dogs as social "ice breakers" that led to increased interaction…

  13. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    Ehrlichia canis was investigated. R. sanguineus adults harbored and efficiently transmitted E. canis to susceptible dogs for as long as 155 days after...propagation of E. canis were developed to study the effect of serum and macrophages from infected dogs on growth and development of E. canis and to provide continuous production of large quantities of E. canis antigen.

  14. Comparative fate of organohalogen contaminants in two top carnivores in Greenland: captive sledge dogs and wild polar bears.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Jonathan; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Gebbink, Wouter A; Shahmiri, Soheila; Letcher, Robert J

    2008-04-01

    The limited knowledge and/or the inability to control physiological condition parameters that influence the fate of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) has been the foremost confounding aspect in monitoring programs and health risk assessments of wild top predators in the Arctic such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). In the present comparative study, we used a potential surrogate Canoidea species for the East Greenland polar bear, the captive sledge dog (Canis familiaris), to investigate some factors that may influence the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of major chlorinated and brominated OHCs in adipose tissue and blood (plasma) of control (fed commercial pork fat) and exposed (fed West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber) adult female sledge dogs. Furthermore, we compared the patterns and concentrations of OHCs and their known or suggested hydroxylated (OH) metabolites (e.g., OH-PCBs) in sledge dogs with those in adipose tissue and blood (plasma) of East Greenland adult female polar bears, and blubber of their main prey species, the ringed seal (Pusa hispida). The two-year feeding regime conducted with sledge dogs led to marked differences in overall adipose tissue (and plasma) OHC residue accumulation between the control and exposed groups. Characteristic prey-to-predator OHC bioaccumulation dynamics for major PCB and PBDE congeners (patterns and concentrations) and biotransformation capacity with respect to PCB metabolite formation and OH-PCB retention distinguished, to some extent, captive sledge dogs and wild polar bears. Based on the present findings, we conclude that the use of surrogate species in toxicological investigations for species in the Canoidea family should be done with great caution, although they remain essential in the context of contaminants research with sensitive arctic top carnivore species such as the polar bear.

  15. Dog obesity: owner attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bland, I M; Guthrie-Jones, A; Taylor, R D; Hill, J

    2009-12-01

    Animal (dog) factors that contribute to obesity are classified into three broad categories: genetic pre-disposition, reproductive management and dietary/exercise (human) management. This paper examined the latter-dietary/exercise (human) management. A quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses from dog owners and veterinarians was used to determine the routine care and obesity management strategies for dogs. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to dog owners in Victoria, Australia. Owners were asked to score the body condition of their animal by comparison with photographic images of animals with condition score ranging from 2 to 5. The management routines of 219 dog owners were received, including data on 302 dogs. There were 168 households with normal weight animals (BCS 2 and 3) and 51 with obese animals (BCS 4 and 5). The mean number of people per household (normally involved with caring for the animal(s)) with normal weight dogs was significantly lower than that of households with dogs categorised as overweight or obese (Kruskal-Wallis, Chi; chi(2)=6.28; 2.2 (s=0.79) vs. 2.5 (s=1.66); d.f.=2, P<0.05). Dog owners identified a preference for main meal feeding of 'twice a day' (60%), followed by 'once daily' (33%), 'greater than or equal to three times daily' (2%), and 'always feed available' (5%). There was a significant difference (Chi; chi(2)=6.30; d.f.=1; P<0.05) in the frequency of main meal feeding between households. Normal weight animals had food divided into two portions, whereas obese animals or animals from mixed households were more often fed their meal in either one or three-plus portions. Almost all owners fed treats (99%) in the daily feed. Households with normal weight dogs gave treats significantly less frequently than households with obese or mixed weight dogs (Chi; chi(2)=31.81; d.f.=6; P<0.001). The frequency of exercise differed between households (Chi; chi(2)=9.9; d.f.=1; P<0.01), with normal weight dogs being exercised daily

  16. Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-11-08

    A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis.

  17. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  18. K9 Buddies: A Program of Guide Dogs for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Today, exceptional dogs that have been specially bred and socialized are paired with children who are blind or visually impaired. These dogs, called "K9 Buddies," are from Guide Dogs for the Blind, a national nonprofit organization with a mission to offer skilled mobility dogs and training free-of-charge to adults with visual impairments…

  19. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  20. Mechanical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by dogs.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Butler, J M; Blagburn, B L

    1997-12-15

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if dogs could mechanically transmit Toxoplasma gondii after ingesting cat feces or by rolling in cat feces containing oocysts. In the first experiment, two dogs were fed sporulated T. gondii oocysts; viable sporulated oocysts were present in dog feces for up to 2 days postinoculation (PI). Both dogs seroconverted to T. gondii but did not develop clinical signs of toxoplasmosis. In the second experiment, nonsporulated oocysts were placed on dog skin and fur, and fur clippings were bioassayed for T. gondii in mice. Oocysts did not sporulate on dog fur. The results of this study support the hypothesis that dogs may be involved in the mechanical transmission of T. gondii to humans.

  1. Preferences of owners of overweight dogs when buying commercial pet food.

    PubMed

    Suarez, L; Peña, C; Carretón, E; Juste, M C; Bautista-Castaño, I; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2012-08-01

    Most pet dogs in developed countries are fed commercial diets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preferences of owners of overweight dogs when buying commercial pet food. The study was a descriptive observational multi-centre study on a group of 198 owners of urban household dogs. Personal interviews were conducted to examine the owners' opinions with questions rating the importance of certain qualities of prepared dog food. Bivariate analyses for comparisons of absolute means between groups of owners of dogs with excess weight (n = 137) and owners of normal weight dogs (n = 61) were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test. A low price (p < 0.001) and special offers (p = 0.008) of commercial dog food were more important for owners of dogs with excess weight than for owners of normal weight dogs. The quality of ingredients (p = 0.007) and the nutritional composition (p < 0.001) were more important for owners of normal weight dogs than for owners of dogs with excess weight. The veterinarian was the most important source of information on dog nutrition for both groups (83.6% for owners of normal weight dogs and 83.2% for owners of dogs with excess weight) (p = 0.88). The owners of dogs with excess weight had less interest in corrected dog nutrition than owners of normal weight dogs (p < 0.001).

  2. Reproduction in mallards fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Weller, D.M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 1, 5, 10, 25 or 100 ppm selenium as sodium selenite, a diet containing 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine or a control diet. There were no effects of 1, 5 or 10 ppm selenium as sodium selenite on either weight or survival of adults or on reproductive success, and there did not appear to be a dose-response relationship at these lower levels. The 100 ppm selenium diet killed 11 of 12 adults; one adult male fed 25 ppm selenium died. Selenium at 25 and 100 ppm caused weight loss in adults. Females fed 25 ppm selenium took longer to begin laying eggs and intervals between eggs were longer than in females in other treatment groups. Hatching success appeared to be reduced in birds fed 10 ppm selenium at selenomethionine, but the reduction was not statistically significant. The survival of ducklings and the mean number of 21-d-old ducklings produced per female were reduced in the 25 ppm selenium as sodium selenite group and the 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine group. Egg weights were not affected by any selenium treatment, but 25 ppm selenium lowered the Ratcliffe Index. Duckling weights at hatching and at 21 d of age were reduced 28 and 36%, respectively, in birds fed 25 ppm selenium, as compared with controls. Body weights measured on day 21 were lower for ducklings fed 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine than in some other groups. Selenium in concentrations of 10 and 25 ppm as sodium selenite caused mainly embryotoxic effects, whereas 10 ppm as selenomethionine was more teratogenic, causing hydrocephaly, bill defects, eye defects (microphthalmia and anophthalmia) and foot and toe defects, including ectrodactyly. Selenomethionine was much more readily taken up by mallards and passed into their eggs than was sodium selenite, and a greater proportion of the selenium in the eggs ended up in the white when selenomethionine was fed. Adult males accumulated more selenium than did females, probably because of the

  3. Application of a dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for evaluation of the immune status to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in adult dogs before revaccination.

    PubMed

    Waner, Trevor; Mazar, Shlomit; Keren-Kornblatt, Ephraim

    2006-05-01

    A growing body of literature has been published indicating that the current practice of annual vaccination of dogs may not be beneficial and in some cases may even be harmful. A number of publications have proposed assessing the immune status of dogs before annual revaccination. In this study the usefulness of a commercially available dot-ELISA kit was evaluated to determine the duration IgG antibody titers to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) in 158 dogs vaccinated at least one year ago. Overall, the percentage of dogs with protective antibody titers to both CPV and CDV was 84%. The percentage of dogs with borderline antibody titers was 11% for CPV and 10% for CDV. Four percent of the dogs had no detectable antibody to CPV and 6% had no antibody to CDV. The results reported here are in good agreement with other studies measuring IgG antibody levels. It is concluded that the kit offers veterinarians the opportunity of determining antibody titers and revaccinating only those pets whose antibody titers to specific diseases have waned.

  4. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/l). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the "diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  5. An experimental meat-free diet maintained haematological characteristics in sprint-racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R

    2009-11-01

    A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs.

  6. Dog bites: how big a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, J. J.; Kresnow, M.; Houston, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the dog bite problem in the US. METHODS: Data on dog bites were gathered as part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: The weighted total number of dog bites was 4,494,083 (estimated incidence = 18/1,000 population); of these, 756,701 persons sustained bites necessitating medical attention (incidence rate = 3/1,000). Children had 3.2 times higher medically attended bite rates than adults (6.4/1,000 children v 2/1,000 adults). CONCLUSIONS: More attention and research needs to be devoted to the prevention of dog bites. Potential prevention strategies include: educational programs on canine behavior, especially directed at children; laws for regulating dangerous or vicious dogs; enhanced animal control programs; and educational programs regarding responsible dog ownership and training. Unfortunately, the relative or absolute effectiveness of any of these strategies has not been assessed. Continuing surveillance for dog bites will be needed if we are to better understand how to reduce the incidence of dog bites and evaluate prevention efforts. Images PMID:9346056

  7. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  8. Effects of concurrent drug therapy and of feeding on plasma chloramphenicol levels after oral administration of chloramphenicol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D

    1977-01-01

    On separate occasions, five fasted adult greyhounds were dosed orally with 50 mg chloramphenicol/kg, both alone and in conjunction with other drugs. The same five dogs were later given 50 mg chloramphenicol/kg when fed ad lib. Chloramphenicol levels in plasma were determined at intervals after dosing. The intial plasma chloramphenicol levels were higher when the drug was administered concurrently with calcium lactate tablets (50 mg/kg) or a proprietary enteric mixture containing kaolin, pectin, aluminium hydroxide and belladonna extract. Lower plasma levels resulted when the antibiotic was given with dry extract of belladonna (20 mg/dog) or intravenous chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg). There was no significant effect with coated ferrous gluconate tablets (30 mg/kg). Feeding ad lib increased the initial chloramphenicol levels, but produced lower levels subsequently.

  9. Key bacterial families (Clostridiaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Bacteroidaceae) are related to the digestion of protein and energy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Paul; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Young, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Background Much of the recent research in companion animal nutrition has focussed on understanding the role of diet on faecal microbiota composition. To date, diet-induced changes in faecal microbiota observed in humans and rodents have been extrapolated to pets in spite of their very different dietary and metabolic requirements. This lack of direct evidence means that the mechanisms by which microbiota influences health in dogs are poorly understood. We hypothesised that changes in faecal microbiota correlate with physiological parameters including apparent macronutrient digestibility. Methods Fifteen adult dogs were assigned to two diet groups, exclusively fed either a premium kibbled diet (kibble; K; n = 8) or a raw red meat diet (meat; M; n = 7) for nine weeks. Apparent digestibility of macronutrients (protein, fat, gross energy and dry matter), faecal weight, faecal health scores, faecal VFA concentrations and faecal microbial composition were determined. Datasets were integrated using mixOmics in R. Results Faecal weight and VFA levels were lower and the apparent digestibility of protein and energy were higher in dogs on the meat diet. Diet significantly affected 27 microbial families and 53 genera in the faeces. In particular, the abundances of Bacteriodes, Prevotella, Peptostreptococcus and Faecalibacterium were lower in dogs fed the meat diet, whereas Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus and Clostridium were all more abundant. Discussion Our results show clear associations of specific microbial taxa with diet composition. For example, Clostridiaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Bacteroidaceae were highly correlated to parameters such as protein and fat digestibility in the dog. By understanding the relationship between faecal microbiota and physiological parameters we will gain better insights into the effects of diet on the nutrition of our pets. PMID:28265505

  10. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  11. Reproduction and health of mallards fed endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Hulse, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of 0, 1 and 3 ppm endrin in dry duck mash were fed to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) starting in December, and health and reproduction were measured the following spring and summer. One male fed 3 ppm endrin died with 2.0 ppm endrin (wet weight), a diagnostically lethal level, in its brain. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin reproduced as well as, if not better than, controls. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin had significantly greater hatching success of fertile eggs than did those fed 0 or 3 ppm, and their clutches hatched significantly earlier than did those of birds fed 3 ppm. Mallards fed 3 ppm endrin appeared to reproduce more poorly than controls, but this finding must be regarded with caution because the results of statistical tests often were not significant. Endrin accumulated in eggs to a mean of 1.1 and 2.9 ppm (wet weight) when fed to hens at 1 and 3 ppm. The concentration of endrin in the cacasses of adults was similar to that in eggs, but the concentration in the fat of adults was about 4 to 7 times higher than in eggs.

  12. Altered avoidance behavior of young black ducks fed cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 4 or 40 ppm cadmium as cadmium chloride. One-week-old ducklings that had been fed thc same dietary concentrations of cadmium as had their parents were tested for avoidance of a fright stimulus. Ducklings fed 4 ppm cadmium ran significantly farther from the stimulus than did controls or ducklings fed 40 ppm cadmium. Such an alteration in behavior could have harmful effects on wild birds.

  13. Odds of Getting Adequate Physical Activity by Dog Walking

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N.; Owens, Chantelle J.; Brown, David R.; Lankford, Tina J.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Caspersen, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the likelihood that adult dog owners who walk their dogs will achieve a healthy level of moderate-intensity (MI) physical activity (PA), defined as at least 150 mins/wk. Methods We conducted a systematic search of 6 databases with data from 1990–2012 on dog owners’ PA, to identify those who achieved MIPA. To compare dog-walkers’ performance with non–dog walkers, we used a random effects model to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We retrieved 9 studies that met our inclusion criterion and allowed OR calculations. These yielded data on 6980 dog owners aged 18 to 81 years (41% men). Among them, 4463 (63.9%) walked their dogs. Based on total weekly PA, 2710 (60.7%) dog walkers, and 950 (37.7%) non–dog walkers achieved at least MIPA. The estimated OR was 2.74 (95% CI 2.09–3.60). Conclusion Across 9 published studies, almost 2 in 3 dog owners reported walking their dogs, and the walkers are more than 2.5 times more likely to achieve at least MIPA. These findings suggest that dog walking may be a viable strategy for dog owners to help achieve levels of PA that may enhance their health. PMID:24733365

  14. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity.

  15. Understanding dog owners' increased levels of physical activity: results from RESIDE.

    PubMed

    Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Bull, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of dog ownership on physical activity, independent of demographic, intrapersonal, and perceived environmental factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 1813 adults. Although only 23% of the dog owners walked their dogs 5 or more times per week, the adjusted odds of achieving sufficient physical activity and walking were 57% to 77% higher among dog owners compared with those not owning dogs (P< .05). Dog ownership was independently associated with physical activity and walking. Actively encouraging more dog walking may increase community physical activity levels.

  16. Dog Bite Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  17. Fatal dog maulings associated with infant swings.

    PubMed

    Chu, Albert Y; Ripple, Mary G; Allan, Carol H; Thogmartin, Jon R; Fowler, David R

    2006-03-01

    We present three cases of fatal dog maulings of infants placed in mobile infant swings, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. In each case, the victim was left in a mobile swing, unsupervised by an adult, and the attacking dog was a family pet. Case 1 involved an 18-day-old male infant attacked by a pit bull; Case 2 involved a 3-month-old male infant attacked by a Chow Chow and/or a Dachshund, and Case 3 involved an 18-day-old female infant attacked by a Labrador-pit bull mix. These cases not only underscore the importance of not leaving young children unattended in the presence of pet dogs, but also raise the possibility that mobile swings may trigger a predatory response in dogs and thus may represent an additional risk factor for dog attack.

  18. Intervention Mapping to Develop a Print Resource for Dog-Walking Promotion in Canada.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Dwyer, John J M; Coe, Jason B

    2016-10-25

    Promoting dog walking among dog owners is consistent with One Health, which focuses on the mutual health benefits of the human-animal relationship for people and animals. In this study, we used intervention mapping (a framework to develop programs and resources for health promotion) to develop a clearer understanding of the determinants of dog walking to develop curricular and educational resources for promoting regular dog walking among dog owners. Twenty-six adult dog owners in Ontario participated in a semi-structured interview about dog walking in 2014. Thematic analysis entailing open, axial, and selective coding was conducted. Among the reasons why the participating dog owners walk their dog were the obligation to the dog, the motivation from the dog, self-efficacy, the dog's health, the owner's health, socialization, a well-behaved dog, and having a routine. The main barriers to dog walking were weather, lack of time, the dog's behavior while walking, and feeling unsafe. We compared interview results to findings in previous studies of dog walking to create a list of determinants of dog walking that we used to create a matrix of change objectives. Based on these results, we developed a print resource to promote regular dog walking among dog owners. The findings can be used by veterinary educators to inform course content that specifically educates veterinary students on the promotion of dog walking among dog owners and the benefits to both humans and animals. The study also offers veterinarians a further understanding upon which to initiate a conversation and develop educational resources for promoting regular dog walking among dog-owning clients.

  19. Temporal gene expression profiles of pre blood-fed adult females Immediately following eclosion in the southern house mosquito culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to iden...

  20. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs.

  1. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Reid, William R.; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to identify genes that may be necessary for both taking of the blood meal, and processing of the blood meal in adult female mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus. We examined temporal expression of genes for the periods of post eclosion and prior to the female freely taking a blood meal. We further evaluated the temporal expression of certain genes for the periods after the taking of a blood meal to identify genes that may be necessary for both the taking of the blood meal, and the processing of the blood meal. We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal. We hypothesized that gene expression signatures were altered in the mosquitoes before blood feeding in preparation for the acquisition of the blood meal through changes in multiple gene expression. To identify the genes involved in the acquisition of blood feeding, we quantified the gene expression levels of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus using RNA Seq throughout a pre-blooding period from 2 to 72 h post eclosion at 12 h intervals. A total of 325 genes were determined to be differentially-expressed throughout the pre-blooding period, with the majority of differentially-expressed genes occurring between the 2 h and 12 h post-eclosion time points. Among the up-regulated genes were salivary proteins, cytochrome P450s, odorant-binding proteins, and proteases, while the majority of the down-regulated genes were hypothetical or cuticular genes. In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48h and 60h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are

  2. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner’s-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner’s-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  3. Safety and Immunomodulatory Effects of Three Probiotic Strains Isolated from the Feces of Breast-Fed Infants in Healthy Adults: SETOPROB Study

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Matencio, Esther; Ortuño, Inmaculada; Martínez-Silla, Rosario; Gomez-Gallego, Carlos; Periago, Maria Jesús; Ros, Gaspar; Chenoll, Empar; Genovés, Salvador; Casinos, Beatriz; Silva, Ángela; Corella, Dolores; Portolés, Olga; Romero, Fernando; Ramón, Daniel; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers’ feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543 PMID:24205115

  4. Effects of margarine compared with those of butter on blood lipid profiles related to cardiovascular disease risk factors in normolipemic adults fed controlled diets.

    PubMed

    Judd, J T; Baer, D J; Clevidence, B A; Muesing, R A; Chen, S C; Weststrate, J A; Meijer, G W; Wittes, J; Lichtenstein, A H; Vilella-Bach, M; Schaefer, E J

    1998-10-01

    Effects of butter and 2 types of margarine on blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were compared in a controlled diet study with 23 men and 23 women. Table spreads, added to a common basal diet, provided 8.3% of energy as fat. Diets averaged 34.6% of energy as fat and 15.5% as protein. Each diet was fed for 5 wk in a 3 x 3 Latin-square design. One margarine (TFA-M) approximated the average trans monoene content of trans fatty acid-containing margarines in the United States (17% trans fatty acids by dry wt). The other margarine (PUFA-M) was free of trans unsaturated fatty acids; it contained approximately twice the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of TFA-M (49% compared with 27% polyunsaturated fatty acids). The tub-type margarines had similar physical properties at ambient temperature. Fasting blood lipids and lipoproteins were determined in 2 samples taken from the subjects during the fifth week of each dietary treatment. Compared with butter, total cholesterol was 3.5% lower (P=0.009) after consumption of TFA-M and 5.4% lower (P< 0.001) after consumption of PUFA-M. Similarly, LDL cholesterol was 4.9% lower (P=0.005) and 6.7% lower (P< 0.001) after consumption of TFA-M and PUFA-M, respectively. Neither margarine differed from butter in its effect on HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerols. Thus, consumption of TFA-M or PUFA-M improved blood lipid profiles for the major lipoproteins associated with cardiovascular risk when compared with butter, with a greater improvement with PUFA-M than with TFA-M.

  5. How dogs know when communication is intended for them.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of two opaque cups by either pointing to it or gazing at it. We varied whether the communicator made eye contact with the dog in association with the gesture (or whether her back was turned or her eyes were directed at another recipient) and whether the communicator called the dog's name (or the name of another recipient). Results demonstrated the importance of eye contact in human-dog communication, and, to a lesser extent, the calling of the dog's name--with no difference between adult dogs and young puppies--which are precisely the communicative cues used by human infants for identifying communicative intent. Unlike human children, however, dogs did not seem to comprehend the human's communicative gesture when it was directed to another human, perhaps because dogs view all human communicative acts as directives for the recipient.

  6. Evaluation of a transcutaneous method to assess canine liver function by indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate in healthy adult Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Grobelna, A P; Honkavaara, J; Restitutti, F; Huuskonen, V; Sakka, S G; Spillmann, T

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, transcutaneous method using near infrared spectroscopy to assess indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) in healthy dogs subjected to different conditions was evaluated in eight healthy purpose-bred Beagles under isoflurane-anaesthesia (Trial 1) and when they had initially recovered from anaesthesia (Trial 2). Plasma ICG concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 30 min after rapid ICG injection (0.5 mg/kg) into a peripheral vein were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in parallel with transcutaneous measurements. ICG clearance (mL/min/kg) and retention rate after 15 min (R15, %) were calculated from plasma concentrations to be 3.09 ± 0.83 (mean ± SD) and 30.6 ± 8.3 in anaesthetised dogs and 3.63 ± 0.88 and 28.1 ± 7.3 in recovering dogs, respectively. ICG-PDR (%/min) and R15 (%) obtained using the transcutaneous method were 7.11 ± 3.18 and 34.6 ± 12.4 (Trial 1) and 7.79 ± 3.33 and 32.3 ± 9.2 (Trial 2). The coefficients of determination (r(2)) for ICG clearance and ICG-PDR were 0.14 (Trial 1) and 0.81 (Trial 2) and 0.47 (Trial 1) and 0.29 (Trial 2) for R15, respectively. The mean bias (lower, upper limit of agreement) for R15 were 5.6 (-12.3, 23.5) (Trial 1) and 3.9 (-12.4, 20.1) (Trial 2). The results suggest good agreement between the two methods in dogs recovering from isoflurane-anaesthesia and the transcutaneous method might be useful in real-time assessment of liver function in conscious dogs.

  7. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Lauricella, M A; Cardinal, M V; Kitron, U; Cohen, J E

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41-42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats.

  8. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    GÜRTLER, R. E.; CECERE, M. C.; LAURICELLA, M. A.; CARDINAL, M. V.; KITRON, U.; COHEN, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41–42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8·2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats. PMID:17032467

  9. Net release or uptake of histidine and carnosine in kidney of dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciaruso, B; Fukuda, S; Jones, M R; Kopple, J D

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies are equivocal as to whether the dog kidney produces histidine. Because one possible source of renal histidine is carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), we investigated net renal production (release) or utilization (uptake) (Qmet) of histidine and carnosine in 19 female dogs after they were fed histidine-free (9 dogs) or histidine-containing diets (10 dogs). Diets were fed in short-(2-11 days) or long-term (52-57 days) studies. Dogs were infused with half-normal saline for 120 min followed by an infusion of half-normal saline containing carnosine, 50 mumol/min. Renal Qmet histidine, calculated from either plasma or whole blood values, was positive during infusion of half-normal saline. During carnosine infusion, Qmet histidine increased markedly, and there was net renal uptake of carnosine. The Qmet histidine and carnosine were not different in the dogs fed histidine-free vs. histidine-containing diets. Thus there is net renal release of histidine in female dogs that increases when carnosine is administered. Qmet histidine or carnosine do not change adaptively when dogs are fed histidine-free diets.

  10. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B.; Carr, Anthony P.; Gaunt, M. Casey

    2016-01-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea. PMID:27587889

  11. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs.

  12. Suggestive evidence for the induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice fed sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Zahid, Muhammad; Anwar, Muhammad M; Pennington, Karen L; Cohen, Samuel M; Wisecarver, James L; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2016-01-01

    A reported linkage between processed (nitrite-treated) meat products and the incidence of colon cancer could be due to sodium nitrite (NaNO2) itself or to N-nitroso compounds produced from the nitrite. Exposure to nitrite occurs due to residual nitrite in processed meat and to salivary nitrite arising by reduction of nitrate in vegetables and drinking water. Here we tested whether NaNO2 could induce colonic aberrant crypts (ABC) or ABC foci (ACF), which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We fed NaNO2 in drinking water for 20-25 wk to groups of 8-20 adult female mice. After sacrifice, ABC and ACF were counted in 2-cm distal colonic segments. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in ABC/ACF induction were seen between groups of 13-14 A/J mice fed 0, 0.5, or 1.0 g NaNO2/l drinking water. NaNO2 also did not affect fasting blood glucose levels. In Experiment 2, we fed 0, 1.0, 1.25, or 1.5 g NaNO2/l water to groups of 15 CF-1 mice. Five of the mice fed 1.5 g NaNO2/l showed ABC, whereas all other groups showed only 0-2 ABC/group, including 0 ABC for the group fed 1.25 g NaNO2/l. Overall statistical analysis indicated a dose-response p trends of 0.04. Pairwise comparison of ABC between groups fed 1.25 and 1.5 g NaNO2/l showed p 0.02 for both ABC and ACF, but a similar comparison between the untreated and 1.5 g/l groups showed no significant effects. In Experiment 3, hot dogs (18% of diet), which were fed to CF-1 mice previously treated with azoxymethane, inhibited ABC and ACF induction, but this effect was not significant (P = 0.10-0.12). In conclusion, these results support the view that NaNO2 may be a risk factor for colon carcinogenesis.

  13. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    PubMed

    Losey, Robert J; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  14. Craniomandibular Trauma and Tooth Loss in Northern Dogs and Wolves: Implications for the Archaeological Study of Dog Husbandry and Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma. PMID:24941003

  15. Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Lavely, James A

    2014-03-01

    Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient.

  16. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  17. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  18. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning.

  19. Relationships Between Dog Ownership and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Howard, Barbara V.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Methods Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5 yrs), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9 yrs) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150 min/wk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10–1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8 hr/day (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5 MET-hr/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07). Conclusions Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. PMID:25449694

  20. An investigation of the association between socio-demographic factors, dog-exercise requirements, and the amount of walking dogs receive.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Burton, Lindsay; McCormack, Gavin R

    2012-07-01

    Risk factors associated with canine obesity include the amount of walking a dog receives. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between canine exercise requirements, socio-demographic factors, and dog-walking behaviors in winter in Calgary. Dog owners, from a cross-sectional study which included a random sample of adults, were asked their household income, domicile type, gender, age, education level, number and breed(s) of dog(s) owned, and frequency and time spent dog-walking in a usual week. Canine exercise requirements were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) positively associated with the minutes pet dogs were walked, as was the owner being a female. Moreover, dog walking frequency, but not minutes of dog walking, was significantly associated with residing in attached housing (i.e., apartments). Different types of dogs have different exercise requirements to maintain optimal health. Understanding the role of socio-demographic factors and dog-related characteristics such as exercise requirements on dog-walking behaviors is essential for helping veterinarians and owners develop effective strategies to prevent and manage canine obesity. Furthermore, encouraging regular dog-walking has the potential to improve the health of pet dogs, and that of their owners.

  1. Influence of owners' attachment style and personality on their dogs' (Canis familiaris) separation-related disorder.

    PubMed

    Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss.

  2. Spontaneous Crenosoma vulpis infection in 10 dogs: laboratory, radiographic and endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Unterer, S; Deplazes, P; Arnold, P; Flückiger, M; Reusch, C E; Glaus, T M

    2002-04-01

    Crenosoma (C.) vulpis infection was diagnosed in 10 dogs aged between 0.5 and 12 years (median 4 years) during a 4-year period. The predominant clinical sign in all dogs was coughing which lasted from 1 day to > 4 months. Hematological abnormalities included eosinophilia in 5/9 dogs, basophilia in 3/9 dogs, and mild monocytosis in 6/9 dogs. Thoracic radiographs (n = 9) were normal in 1 dog, showed a mild bronchial or interstitial pattern in 4 dogs, and moderate to marked changes (bronchial-interstitial to alveolar) in 4 dogs. Endoscopic findings (n = 9) varied from mild erythematous bronchitis (n = 3) to marked bronchitis with accumulation of large amounts of mucus (n = 2), irregular nodular mucosal surface (n = 2), accumulation of pus (n = 1), and bronchial hemorrhage (n = 1). Adult worms were observed in 2 dogs. Bronchial lavage cytology revealed inflammation with predominance of eosinophils in 7/10 dogs, eosinophils and neutrophils in 2/10 dogs, and neutrophils in 1/10 dogs. C. vulpis larvae were identified in the BAL of 5/10 dogs. Fecal examinations with the Baermann technique was the most sensitive method and positive in all 10 dogs. C. vulpis infection has to be considered in the differential diagnosis in dogs of all ages presenting with acute or chronic cough.

  3. Acute hepatopathy associated with mitotane administration in a dog.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig B; Twedt, David C

    2006-01-01

    An adult dog with a persistent elevation in alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity was started on mitotane for suspected hyperadrenocorticism. One month later, the dog was presented for intermittent anorexia and acute icterus. The dog's liver enzyme activities and total bilirubin were markedly elevated, prothrombin time was prolonged, and blood urea nitrogen and glucose were low. Histopathology revealed marked, centrilobular, hepatocellular loss. After discontinuation of the mitotane, the dog recovered with supportive care and was normal 3 months later, which was consistent with mitotane-associated hepatic failure.

  4. A seizure response dog: video recording of reacting behaviour during repetitive prolonged seizures.

    PubMed

    Di Vito, Lidia; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Tinuper, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Seizure response and alerting behaviour may spontaneously develop in dogs living with children or adults with epilepsy. Some dogs can also be reliably trained to respond and anticipate seizures. We describe the case of a dog, not previously trained for assistance work, showing complex seizure response behaviour. This is the first release of a home video recording of a dog reacting to its owner's seizure.

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of monthly oral administration of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial) in the prevention of adult Spirocerca lupi establishment in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Crafford, Dionne; de Vos, Christa; Kok, Dawid; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-08-15

    The nematode Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1809) is widely distributed but mostly occurs sporadically with stable populations only in certain geographic areas. This helminth mainly infects dogs and wild canids. Primary pathology relates to migration of third stage larvae (L3) damaging the thoracic aorta and establishment of adults in nodules in the oesophagus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime in combination with afoxolaner (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial), administered monthly, in preventing establishment of adult worms after experimental infection. Two groups consisting of eight animals each were experimentally infected with 15 L3 on Days -28, -14 and -2, respectively (45 L3 per animal in total). Group 1 dogs served as untreated (negative) control, whereas animals in group 2 were treated with NexGard Spectra(®) at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg milbemycin oxime on Day 0 and from then onwards every 28 days up to Day 140 (six treatment occasions). Endoscopy was performed on Day 112 and for some animals also Day 140. Necropsy for worm recovery and nodule/lesion scoring was performed on Day 168. All eight animals in the control group (group 1) presented with 1-3 nodules and worm counts ranging from 9 to 41. Six animals in the NexGard Spectra(®) group presented with 1-4 nodules and worm counts ranging from 1 to 5. Significantly (p<0.05) fewer worms were collected from treated animals in the treated group (geometric mean 1.7) versus the negative control group (geometric mean 22.0) with 92.3% efficacy calculated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between groups with reference to number of nodules in the oesophagus. However, nodules in the control group were significantly (p<0.05) larger than those in the treated group. Number and size of lesions in the dorsal aorta did not differ statistically between groups 1 and 2. Because NexGard Spectra(®) was administered 28 days after onset of inoculation, migrating and

  6. Dog Bite Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive action. Your veterinarian can examine your dog to ... or one they know. Some owners actually promote aggression in their dogs or allow aggression to go ...

  7. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Development of gastroscopic food sensitivity testing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guilford, W G; Strombeck, D R; Rogers, Q; Frick, O L; Lawoko, C

    1994-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a gastroscopic food sensitivity testing (GFST) technique for clinical use in dogs and to determine if the results of GFST were influenced by the feeding of a hypoallergenic diet immediately before the testing period ("unmasking"). The technical requirements for GFST were devised during a total of eight endoscopies performed in four healthy dogs. GFST was performed in anesthetized dogs in sternal recumbency. Food extracts were dripped onto the dependent aspect of the body of the stomach via plastic tubing passed through the endoscope. Changes were observed within 2 to 3 minutes of application, and included localized mucosal swelling and erythema, generalized mucosal erythema, and hyperperistalsis. The influence of "unmasking" was then examined in 6 atopic and 2 healthy dogs, which underwent GFST on three occasions, 4 weeks apart. Before the first and third testing periods, the dogs consumed a commercial dry dog food. For 5 days before the second testing period the dogs were fed a hypoallergenic elemental diet. Oral challenges were performed to identify which of the dogs had clinically overt immediate food sensitivity. Localized swelling was most frequently correlated with positive challenge PO. No positive reactions occurred in response to the negative control extract (lamb). The number of positive GFST results increased after feeding the hypoallergenic diet. In conclusion, these preliminary results indicate that GFST holds substantial promise for the diagnosis of immediate food sensitivities affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The sensitivity of the procedure appears to be enhanced by preceding testing with a hypoallergenic diet.

  9. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Jennifer; Joffe, Daniel; Kauffman, Michael; Zhang, Yifan; LeJeune, Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    This study explored the impact of feeding raw meat to dogs on the fecal prevalence of several enteric bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 1/42 (2.6%) raw meat-fed dogs. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 2/40 (5%) of the raw meat feeds, 6/42 (14%) raw meat-fed dog feces, none of the dogs that did not receive raw meat (P = 0.001), 4/38 (10.5%) of the vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was fed, and 2/44 (4.5%) of vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was not fed to dogs (P = 0.41). Responses to a questionnaire probing practices and beliefs regarding raw meat feeding that was administered to dog owners demonstrated that dog owners may either not be aware or refuse to acknowledge the risks associated with raw meat-feeding; thus, they may neglect to conduct adequate intervention strategies to prevent zoonoses among themselves and their families.

  10. Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical-chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Andersen, Steen; Møller, Per; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Jensen, Asger L

    2008-03-01

    Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50-200 g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their five pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma and urine clinical-chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the control and exposed cohorts. Based on existing reference intervals, Arctic mammals may have blood clinical-chemical endpoint levels that differ from comparable species at lower latitudes. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, protein:creatinine ratio, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and inorganic phosphate were significantly highest (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the pup generation. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase were significantly higher (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the control group, while glucose was significantly highest (ANCOVA: p<0.05) in the exposed group. Furthermore, the blood cholesterol levels indicate that exposure via the diet to marine mammal blubber has a preventive effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore suggest that the consumption of contaminated Arctic marine blubber impacted liver and kidney function in adult and pup sledge dogs.

  11. Improved production of Neospora caninum oocysts, cyclical oral transmission between dogs and cattle, and in vitro isolation from oocysts.

    PubMed

    Gondim, L F P; Gao, L; McAllister, M M

    2002-12-01

    Scarce information is available about Neospora caninum oocysts and sporozoites, in part because only small numbers of oocysts have typically been produced by experimentally infected dogs. We hypothesized that I reason for low experimental production of oocysts is that dogs have been fed tissues from experimentally infected mice instead of tissues from cattle (which are natural intermediate hosts of N. caninum). In this study, 9 dogs were fed tissues from N. caninum-infected calves, and oocyst production was compared with 6 dogs that were fed infected mouse carcasses. The number of oocysts produced by dogs that ingested infected calf tissues (mean = 160,700) was significantly greater (P = 0.03) than the number of oocysts shed by dogs that ingested infected mice (mean = 5,400). The second goal of our experiment was to demonstrate cyclical oral transmission of N. caninum between dogs and cattle. As few as 300 oocysts were used to successfully infect calves, and tissues from these calves induced patent infections in 2 of 3 dogs; oocysts from I of these dogs were administered to another calf, and tissues from this calf subsequently induced a third dog to shed oocysts. Oocysts were confirmed to be N. caninum using a species-specific polymerase chain reaction technique. In addition, sporulated oocysts were used to recover N. caninum in vitro after digestion in an acid-pepsin solution and inoculation of cell monolayers.

  12. Heterogeneity of hunting ability and nutritional status among domestic dogs in lowland Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy M; Tankersley, Kenneth B

    2012-02-21

    In past and modern human societies, dogs have played an important role as hunting companions. Given considerable ethnographic evidence that dogs vary in their hunting abilities, this paper addresses the effects of key demographic variables, namely age and sex, on the amount of harvested game that dogs contribute in an indigenous Nicaraguan community. Controlling for variation in the time spent potentially hunting, male dogs and older dogs are significantly associated with greater harvests. These results may account for documented preferences for males in both archaeological and ethnographic contexts. Among societies in which dogs are used both as hunting companions and sources of food, the age-related delay in peak hunting ability also suggests a tradeoff that might explain the consumption of dogs shortly after they have reached adult size. Informant rankings of two cohorts of dogs indicate that residents of the community exhibit high agreement about the relative abilities of the dogs, and the rankings indicate that dogs from the same household exhibit comparable skill. There is little evidence that talented, highly-ranked dogs are provided a more nutritious diet, as measured by nitrogen-based and carbon-based isotopic analysis of hair samples. Overall, although dogs can be quite advantageous as hunting companions, this research suggests that the heterogeneity of hunting ability combines with the high mortality of dogs to impose risks on households that depend on dogs as a source of harvested meat.

  13. Digestibility of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P

    1991-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the digestibility of a cassava (gari) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs. Three groups of dogs were fed on diets with rice (control), cassava (gari), and rice + cyanide respectively as the carbohydrate source. Each diet contained 130 g crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25)/kg, was supplemented with vitamins and minerals, and was fed for 14 weeks. Variables measured were body-weight gain, bone growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) activity, total serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and some plasma free amino acids. The apparent digestibilities of dry matter, protein and fat were not significantly different in the three groups, but the digestibility of gari fibre was significantly lower than the digestibility of rice fibre when fed to dogs (P less than 0.05). Proximate analysis of the faeces showed that the group of dogs fed on the gari diet had faeces which had a significantly higher moisture content than the faeces of the other groups (P less than 0.05), and also a significantly higher fibre content (P less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in body-weight gain and bone growth between the control and gari-fed groups of dogs, but these variables were significantly lower in the dogs fed on the rice + cyanide diet (P less than 0.05). At the end of the 14-week experimental period total serum T3 and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity were not significantly different between the control group of dogs and the gari-fed group, but were significantly lower in the rice + cyanide group. Plasma free methionine, leucine, isoleucine and valine concentrations were higher in the rice + cyanide group of dogs than in the control group and the gari group, indicating that these amino acids were accumulating and not being utilized for protein synthesis and growth to the same extent in the rice + cyanide group of dogs as in the other groups. It was concluded that the digestibilities of cassava starch and rice starch

  14. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  15. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  16. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended.

  17. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs.

  18. Rabies and dog bites cases in lagos state Nigeria: a prevalence and retrospective studies (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2013-10-27

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rabies antigen in brain of dogs slaughtered for consumption and those that died in veterinary clinics as well as to obtain a 6-year retrospective data on dog bites/suspected dog rabies cases in Lagos State. Dog brain samples were collected from dog slaughter slabs and veterinary clinics (for dogs that died in clinics) across the Lagos state while data for retrospective studies (2006-2011) of dog bite/suspected rabies cases were collected from public (government owned) and private veterinary clinics across the state. Out of the 444 brain samples collected and tested for presence of rabies antigen using the direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT) only 7 (1.58%) were positive for the rabies antigen. A total of 196 dog bites/suspected rabies cases were encountered between January 2006 and December, 2011 in the veterinary clinics with adults been the major (55.61%) victims. Majority (96.43%) of the offending dogs were not quarantined at the time of bite and only one out of the quarantined dogs died and was confirmed positive for rabies antigen. The result of this study indicates that rabies antigen is present among dogs slaughtered in Lagos State and may pose a threat to public health. Though, available records showed that provocation of dogs was the major cause of dog bites and both children and adults fell victim of dog bites, there was a poor record keeping practice in the veterinary clinics across the state.

  19. Dispelling dog dogma: an investigation of heterochrony in dogs using 3D geometric morphometric analysis of skull shape.

    PubMed

    Drake, Abby Grace

    2011-01-01

    Heterochrony is an evolutionary mechanism that generates diversity via perturbations of the rate or timing of development that requires very little genetic innovation. As such, heterochrony is thought to be a common evolutionary mechanism in the generation of diversity. Previous research has suggested that dogs evolved via heterochrony and are paedomorphic wolves. This study uses three-dimensional landmark-based coordinate data to investigate heterochronic patterns within the skull morphology of the domestic dog. A total of 677 adult dogs representing 106 different breeds were measured and compared with an ontogenetic series of 401 wolves. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals that the cranial shape of none of the modern breeds of dogs resembles the cranial shapes of adult or juvenile wolves. In addition, investigations of regional heterochrony in the face and neurocranium also reject the hypothesis of heterochrony. Throughout wolf cranial development the position of the face and the neurocranium remain in the same plane. Dogs, however, have a de novo cranial flexion in which the palate is tilted dorsally in brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds or tilted ventrally in dolichocephalic and down-face breeds. Dogs have evolved very rapidly into an incredibly morphologically diverse species with very little genetic variation. However, the genetic alterations to dog cranial development that have produced this vast range of phylogenetically novel skull shapes do not coincide with the expectations of the heterochronic model. Dogs are not paedomorphic wolves.

  20. Lifetime carcinogenicity study of 1- and 2-naphthylamine in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, I. F.; Kalinowski, A. E.; Ishmael, J.; Wilson, J.; Gore, C. W.; Chart, I. S.

    1981-01-01

    Groups of male and female beagle dogs were given daily doses of 400 mg of various mixtures of naphthylamines for up to 109 months. Survivors were killed at 128 months. A variety of pathological conditions was diagnosed, but the only effect related to treatment was the induction of bladder neoplasms. All dogs which received pure 2-naphthylamine developed transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder within 34 months. Two of 8 dogs receiving 6% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed early carcinoma and 2/8 dogs receiving 0.5% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed haemangioma of the bladder. Some of the dogs receiving 1-naphthylamine (total dose 950 g) and the controls had focal cystitis or hyperplasia, but no neoplasia of the bladder. These results confirm the carcinogenicity of 2-naphthylamine to dogs. No carcinogenic effect of 1-naphthylamine was observed, indicating that it is at least 200 times less potent as a carcinogen than 2-naphthylamine. The incidence of bladder cancer in dogs fed mixtures of both naphthylamines explains why previous experimental and epidemiological studies of impure 1-naphthylamine have revealed carcinogenicity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7326199

  1. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature.

  2. The proportions of muscle, bone and fat in two different types of dog.

    PubMed

    Gunn, H M

    1978-05-01

    This study compares the proportions of muscle, bone and fat (obtained by gross dissection) in greyhounds--a breed selected for high speed running--and other dogs, both at maturity and during growth. In adults the proportion of muscle is significantly greater in the 'athletic' greyhound. The proportion of muscle decreases but not significantly with detraining. Adult greyhounds have less fat (even when detrained) than other dogs, but the skeleton provides a similar proportion of liveweight in both types of dog when adult. The greater growth rate of muscle in athletes explains the difference in adult proportions.

  3. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the dog ill. Dead rodents, wildlife or birds may present an irresistible temptation for many dogs, ... your care has been exposed to a toxin, call the owner and a veterinarian immediately. Dog walking ...

  4. Effects of dietary protein on glomerular mesangial area and basement membrane thickness in aged uninephrectomized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, R A; Steffens, W L; Brown, C A; Brown, S A; Ard, M; Finco, D R

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of diets containing 18% or 34% protein on glomerular mesangial area (GMA) and basement membrane thickness (GBMT) in uninephrectomized aged dogs. A secondary objective was to determine the combined effects of aging and uninephrectomy on GMA and GBMT in dogs. Ten clinically healthy, pure-bred dogs were unilaterally nephrectomized at about 8 y of age. After 2 mo, 5 dogs were fed an 18% protein diet and 5 dogs were fed a 34% protein diet for 48 mo. At month 48, the dogs were euthanized and the remaining kidney was collected. Samples of kidney from both times of collection were used to measure GMA and GBMT using electron microscopy. The effects of diet on GMA and GBMT were analyzed (student's t-test) using necropsy/nephrectomy score ratios. The effects of time-nephrectomy were determined by comparing nephrectomy values for GMA and GBMT with necropsy values (paired t-test). Dogs fed 34% dietary protein did not have a significant increase in GMA and GBM thickness when compared to dogs fed the 18% protein diet. A significant increase in GMA and GBMT occurred with time-nephrectomy (P = 0.011 and 0.018, respectively). Although dietary protein intake was not a significant factor in causing structural changes to glomeruli in uninephrectomized aged dogs, the power to detect a difference was low. However, significant effects of aging and nephrectomy were detected despite the low power of the study. These results suggest that the increases in GMA and GBMT that occur over time are not markedly influenced by dietary protein intake. However, subtle protein effects cannot be eliminated as a possibility based on this study. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:11346257

  5. Birth mass is the key to understanding the negative correlation between lifespan and body size in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Olbricht, Gayla; Baker, Xavior; Hou, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Larger dog breeds live shorter than the smaller ones, opposite of the mass-lifespan relationship observed across mammalian species. Here we use data from 90 dog breeds and a theoretical model based on the first principles of energy conservation and life history tradeoffs to explain the negative correlation between longevity and body size in dogs. We found that the birth/adult mass ratio of dogs scales negatively with adult size, which is different than the weak interspecific scaling in mammals. Using the model, we show that this ratio, as an index of energy required for growth, is the key to understanding why the lifespan of dogs scales negatively with body size. The model also predicts that the difference in mass-specific lifetime metabolic energy usage between dog breeds is proportional to the difference in birth/adult mass ratio. Empirical data on lifespan, body mass, and metabolic scaling law of dogs strongly supports this prediction. PMID:27956710

  6. Birth mass is the key to understanding the negative correlation between lifespan and body size in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Olbricht, Gayla; Baker, Xavior; Hou, Chen

    2016-12-08

    Larger dog breeds live shorter than the smaller ones, opposite of the mass-lifespan relationship observed across mammalian species. Here we use data from 90 dog breeds and a theoretical model based on the first principles of energy conservation and life history tradeoffs to explain the negative correlation between longevity and body size in dogs. We found that the birth/adult mass ratio of dogs scales negatively with adult size, which is different than the weak interspecific scaling in mammals. Using the model, we show that this ratio, as an index of energy required for growth, is the key to understanding why the lifespan of dogs scales negatively with body size. The model also predicts that the difference in mass-specific lifetime metabolic energy usage between dog breeds is proportional to the difference in birth/adult mass ratio. Empirical data on lifespan, body mass, and metabolic scaling law of dogs strongly supports this prediction.

  7. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (<18 years). However, there was no significant difference in cumulative incidence of dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and

  8. Diet of Racing Sled Dogs Affects Erythrocyte Depression by Stress

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, T. O.; Kronfeld, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  9. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    PubMed

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2017-02-12

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from <21 to 11,900 mg/kg, in same brand, super-premium dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  10. Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations in normal and diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Day, M J; Penhale, W J

    1988-11-01

    The normal level of serum IgA in Western Australian dogs was defined by single radial immunodiffusion using sera from 100 healthy randomly selected adult crossbred animals. Serum IgA values of 185 animals from six breeds were also determined. The mean and variance of serum IgA of these groups were similar to the crossbred dogs with the exception of German shepherd dogs where these values were statistically greater. In addition, 210 dogs with a range of chronic diseases (autoimmune, hypersensitivity, pyoderma, neoplasia, demodecosis, disseminated aspergillosis) were assayed and low values recorded in five cases. In all disease groups the mean serum IgA value was significantly greater than in the crossbred group and the variance significantly greater in most of these groups. The German shepherd group were the only normal dogs with a mean and variance similar to those of the clinical series suggesting that this breed may have a primary defect in IgA metabolism.

  11. Experimental acute toxicity of xylitol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Z; He, Y; Yu, J

    2009-10-01

    The Cases of xylitol poisoning in dogs are increasing as a result of ingestion of xylitol-containing products. Eighteen adult, clinically normal Pekingese dogs were orally dosed with 1 or 4 g/kg xylitol in aqueous solution. Blood samples were collected before and after dosing. Plasma insulin concentrations of both treated groups rose sharply from 20 min after xylitol dosing, peaking at 40 min. Hypoglycemia followed the increase in insulin concentration, with blood glucose values started to decrease 30 min after dosing. Other plasma biochemistry changes associated with xylitol administration were increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypercalcemia. Plasma sodium and chloride concentrations remained normal. This study established a biochemical basis for diagnosis and treatment of xylitol poisoning in dogs.

  12. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  13. Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor modulates fatty acid composition and reduces obesity-induced inflammation in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bourgeois, H; Vandermeulen, E; Vlaeminck, B; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Hesta, M

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitor (sPLA2i) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory function by blocking the production of inflammatory mediators. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sPLA2i on inflammation, oxidative stress and serum fatty acid profile in dogs. Seven obese and seven lean Beagle dogs were used in a 28-day double blind cross-over design. Dogs were fed a control diet without supplemental sPLA2i or an sPLA2i supplemented diet. The sPLA2i diet decreased plasma fibrinogen levels and increased the protein:fibrinogen ratio in obese dogs to levels similar to those of lean dogs fed the same diet. Obese dogs had a higher plasma concentration of the lipophilic vitamin A with potential antioxidative capacity and a lower ratio of retinol binding protein 4:vitamin A compared to lean dogs, independent of the diets. A higher proportion of myristic acid (C14:0) and a lower proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) were observed in the dogs fed with the sPLA2i diet compared to dogs fed with the control diet. Furthermore, a higher ratio of n-6 to n-3, a lower proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower omega-3 index were observed in obese compared to lean dogs. The results indicate that obese dogs are characterized by a more 'proinflammatory' serum fatty acid profile and that diet inclusion of sPLA2i may reduce inflammation and alter fatty acid profile.

  14. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  15. Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-08-01

    For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

  16. Free-Roaming Dogs in Nepal: Demographics, Health and Public Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices.

    PubMed

    Massei, G; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L; Callaby, R; Sharma, K; Dhakal, I P; Dahal, U

    2017-02-01

    In Nepal, most dogs are free to roam and may transmit diseases to humans and animals. These dogs often suffer from malnutrition and lack basic health care. Minimal information is available about their demographics and about public attitudes concerning dogs and diseases. We carried out a study in Chitwan District (central Nepal), to collect baseline data on free-roaming owned dog demographics, assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of dog owners concerning dogs and rabies, evaluate rabies vaccination coverage and anthelmintic treatment of dogs, measure dogs' response to rabies vaccination and assess dog health through body condition scores and parasites. We conducted household interviews with owners of free-roaming female dogs (n = 60) and administered dogs with rabies vaccination and anthelmintics. Dog owners regularly fed free-roaming dogs but provided minimal health care; 42% of respondents did not claim ownership of the dog for which they provided care. We collected skin, faecal and blood samples for parasite identification and for measuring rabies virus-specific antibodies. Ninety-two per cent of dog owners were aware of the routes of rabies virus transmission, but only 35% described the correct post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following a dog bite. Twenty-seven per cent of the dogs had measurable rabies virus-specific antibody titres and 14% had received anthelmintics in the previous year. Following rabies vaccination, 97% of dogs maintained an adequate antibody titre for ≥6 months. Most dogs appeared healthy, although haemoprotozoans, endoparasites and ectoparasites were identified in 12%, 73% and 40% of the dogs, respectively. Poor skin condition and parasite load were associated. Seventy-four per cent of the females had litters in 1 year (mean litter size = 4.5). Births occurred between September and February; we estimated 60% mortality in puppies. We concluded that vaccination coverage, PEP awareness and anthelmintic treatment should be

  17. Muscle plasticity of Inuit sled dogs in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Nadine; Sum, Steffen; Jackson, Sue; Starck, J Matthias

    2009-04-01

    This study examined flexible adjustments of skeletal muscle size, fiber structure, and capillarization in Inuit sled dogs responding to seasonal changes in temperature, exercise and food supply. Inuit dogs pull sleds in winter and are fed regularly throughout this working season. In summer, they remain chained to rocks without exercise, receiving food intermittently and often fasting for several days. We studied two dog teams in Northern Greenland (Qaanaaq) where dogs are still draught animals vital to Inuit hunters, and one dog team in Western Greenland (Qeqertarsuaq) where this traditional role has been lost. Northern Greenland dogs receive more and higher quality food than those in Western Greenland. We used ultrasonography for repeated muscle size measurements on the same individuals, and transmission electron microscopy on micro-biopsies for summer-winter comparisons of muscle histology, also within individuals. At both study sites, dogs' muscles were significantly thinner in summer than in winter - atrophy attributable to reduced fiber diameter. Sarcomeres from West Greenland dogs showed serious myofilament depletion and expansion of the sarcoplasmatic space between myofibrils during summer. At both study sites, summer samples showed fewer interfibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria, and fewer lipid droplets between myofibrils, than did winter samples. In summer, capillary density was higher and inter-capillary distance smaller than in winter, but the capillary-to-fiber-ratio and number of capillaries associated with single myofibers were constant. Increased capillary density was probably a by-product of differential tissue responses to condition changes rather than a functional adaptation, because thinning of muscle fibers in summer was not accompanied by reduction in the capillary network. Thus, skeletal muscle of Inuit dogs responds flexibly to changes in functional demands. This flexibility is based on differential changes in functional components

  18. Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Federico; Nitzschner, Marie; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-06-22

    Domestic dogs are particularly skilled at using human visual signals to locate hidden food. This is, to our knowledge, the first series of studies that investigates the ability of dogs to use only auditory communicative acts to locate hidden food. In a first study, from behind a barrier, a human expressed excitement towards a baited box on either the right or left side, while sitting closer to the unbaited box. Dogs were successful in following the human's voice direction and locating the food. In the two following control studies, we excluded the possibility that dogs could locate the box containing food just by relying on smell, and we showed that they would interpret a human's voice direction in a referential manner only when they could locate a possible referent (i.e. one of the boxes) in the environment. Finally, in a fourth study, we tested 8-14-week-old puppies in the main experimental test and found that those with a reasonable amount of human experience performed overall even better than the adult dogs. These results suggest that domestic dogs' skills in comprehending human communication are not based on visual cues alone, but are instead multi-modal and highly flexible. Moreover, the similarity between young and adult dogs' performances has important implications for the domestication hypothesis.

  19. Molecular genetics: DNA analysis of a putative dog clone.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G; Kruglyak, Leonid; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2006-03-09

    In August 2005, Lee et al. reported the first cloning of a domestic dog from adult somatic cells. This putative dog clone was the result of somatic-cell nuclear transfer from a fibroblast cell of a three-year-old male Afghan hound into a donor oocyte provided by a dog of mixed breed. In light of recent concerns regarding the creation of cloned human cell lines from the same institution, we have undertaken an independent test to determine the validity of the claims made by Lee et al..

  20. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  1. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Bowen, Jonathan; Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (p<0.0001); male gender of the owner (OR = 32.36), high school level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 0.052), university level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 8.652), and owner Cantril's score (OR = 0.807). The results obtained from this convenience sample demonstrate that different patterns of dog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  2. Owned and unowned dog population estimation, dog management and dog bites to inform rabies prevention and response on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur.

  3. Owned and Unowned Dog Population Estimation, Dog Management and Dog Bites to Inform Rabies Prevention and Response on Lombok Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I. Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  4. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners

    PubMed Central

    Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril’s ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (p<0.0001); male gender of the owner (OR = 32.36), high school level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 0.052), university level of maximum educational attainment (OR = 8.652), and owner Cantril’s score (OR = 0.807). The results obtained from this convenience sample demonstrate that different patterns of dog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership. PMID:28033397

  5. Computed tomographic characteristics of eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Fina, Caroline; Vignoli, Massimo; Terragni, Rossella; Rossi, Federica; Wisner, Erik; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-01-01

    Canine pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis is a rare inflammatory pulmonary disease characterized by formation of eosinophilic granulomas that tend to obliterate the normal pulmonary architecture. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the CT characteristics of confirmed idiopathic pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis in a group of dogs. Five dogs met inclusion criteria. All patients were young adult dogs of variable breeds. No dog had concurrent occult heartworm disease. Computed tomographic characteristics most commonly included pulmonary masses and nodules of variable size, and lesions were most commonly located in the caudal lung lobes. Four dogs had large pulmonary masses with or without additional nodules and one dog had nodular lesions disseminated throughout the entire lung parenchyma. All large eosinophilic granulomas were smoothly margined, heterogeneous pulmonary masses displaying heterogeneous contrast enhancement. A honeycomb-like enhancement pattern was observed in all but one mass and consisted of multiple hyperattenuating rims delineating central hypoattenuating areas, suggestive of bronchiectatic lung with peripheral enhancing airway walls and fluid-filled, necrotic bronchial lumen. One dog had evidence of tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy. Findings indicated that canine eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs with CT characteristics of multiple pulmonary masses and/or nodules in caudal lung lobes, and a honeycomb-like enhancement pattern in masses after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast medium.

  6. Speed of Dog Adoption: Impact of Online Photo Traits.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Rachel; Witte, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has radically changed how dogs are advertised for adoption in the United States. This study was used to investigate how different characteristics in dogs' photos presented online affected the speed of their adoptions, as a proof of concept to encourage more research in this field. The study analyzed the 1st images of 468 adopted young and adult black dogs identified as Labrador Retriever mixed breeds across the United States. A subjective global measure of photo quality had the largest impact on time to adoption. Other photo traits that positively impacted adoption speed included direct canine eye contact with the camera, the dog standing up, the photo being appropriately sized, an outdoor photo location, and a nonblurry image. Photos taken in a cage, dogs wearing a bandana, dogs having a visible tongue, and some other traits had no effect on how fast the dogs were adopted. Improving the quality of online photos of dogs presented for adoption may speed up and possibly increase the number of adoptions, thereby providing a cheap and easy way to help fight the homeless companion animal population problem.

  7. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  8. Head Tilting Elicited by Head Turning in Three Dogs with Hypoplastic Cerebellar Nodulus and Ventral Uvula

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Uemura, Takashi; Tamura, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU) of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called “positioning head tilt” was observed in these dogs. The dogs were able to turn freely in any direction at will. The head was in a level position when static or when the dog walked in a straight line. However, the head was tilted to the opposite side when the dog turned. Veterinary clinicians should be aware of this neurological sign that has not been reported previously, and its application in lesion localization in dogs. PMID:27933300

  9. Principal intestinal parasites of dogs in Tirana, Albania.

    PubMed

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-02-01

    , there was no indication for lungworm infection; however, two adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were found in the right ventricle of one dog.

  10. Influence of dietary protein on renal function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bovée, K C

    1991-11-01

    Two previously published studies in dogs with reduced renal function are reviewed. In the first study, renal function and biochemical responses to dietary changes were studied in four dogs with stable chronic renal failure. The objective was to determine if dogs with moderate stable failure adjust to diets with varied protein and electrolyte content. These dogs were found to have the capacity to adapt to a wide range of dietary protein and electrolyte intake. The only exception was found in dogs fed a reduced-protein diet, which failed to appropriately adjust renal tubular excretion of sodium and phosphate. The only advantage of reduced dietary protein in this study was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Disadvantages of reduced-protein diets were reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow. In the second study, the hypothesis that large amounts of dietary protein sustain renal hyperfunction and produce progressive glomerulosclerosis in dogs as previously reported in rats was tested. Results failed to find a pattern of deterioration of renal function over 4 y. Light microscopic changes and electron microscopy also failed to find glomerular injury similar to that reported in rodents. These results do not support the hypothesis that feeding a high protein diet had a significant adverse effect on renal function or morphology.

  11. Experimental infection of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, using experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luiz H; Pinter, Adriano; Pacheco, Richard C; Cançado, Paulo H D; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated if Rickettsia rickettsii-experimentally infected dogs could serve as amplifier hosts for hipicephalus sanguineus ticks. In addition, we checked if Rh. sanguineus ticks that acquired Ri. rickettsii from dogs could transmit the bacterium to susceptible hosts (vector competence), and if these ticks could maintain the bacterium by transstadial and transovarial transmissions. Uninfected larvae, nymphs, and adults of Rh. sanguineus were allowed to feed upon three groups of dogs: groups 1 (G1) and 2 (G2) composed of Ri. rickettsii-infected dogs, infected intraperitoneally and via tick bites, respectively, and group 3 composed of uninfected dogs. After larval and nymphal feeding on rickettsemic dogs, 7.1-15.2% and 35.8-37.9% of the molted nymphs and adults, respectively, were shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be infected by Ri. rickettsii, confirming that both G1 and G2 dogs were efficient sources of rickettsial infection (amplifier host), resulting in transstadial transmission of the agent. These infected nymphs and adults successfully transmitted Ri. rickettsii to guinea pigs, confirming vector competence after acquisition of the infection from rickettsemic dogs. Transovarial transmission of Ri. rickettsii was observed in engorged females that had been infected as nymphs by feeding on both G1 and G2 dogs, but not in engorged females that acquired the infection during adult feeding on these same dogs. In the first case, filial infection rates were generally <50%. No tick exposed to G3 dogs was infected by rickettsiae in this study. No substantial mortality difference was observed between Ri. rickettsii-infected tick groups (G1 and G2) and uninfected tick group (G3). Our results indicate that dogs can be amplifier hosts of Ri. rickettsii for Rh. sanguineus, although only a minority of immature ticks (<45%) should become infected. It appears that Rh. sanguineus, in the absence of horizontal transmission, would not maintain Ri. rickettsii through

  12. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  13. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans.

  14. Effectiveness of an enzymatic rawhide dental chew to reduce plaque in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Hennet, P

    2001-06-01

    Tooth brushing is considered a superior technique for reducing plaque accumulation. Other methods of maintaining oral hygiene have been investigated since many owners may not be willing or able to brush their dog's teeth. Following a professional teeth cleaning procedure, 11 dogs were offered a rawhide dental chew BID for 7-days, while 11 other dogs were fed the same diet without receiving the chew device. Dogs in the treatment group had significantly less plaque formation during the trial period compared with dogs in the control group. The rawhide dental chew provided in the study reported here decreases plaque formation in the short-term and may be beneficial in the prevention of progressive periodontal disease associated with attachment loss if provided on a long-term basis.

  15. Nematode infections in dog breeding kennels in The Netherlands, with special reference to Toxocara.

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, P A; Boersema, J H

    1998-01-01

    Faecal samples from 286 adult dogs and 159 pups and dust and soil samples from 32 dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands were examined for nematode eggs. Dogs that shed nematode eggs were found in 41% of the kennels. The kennel prevalence of nematode infection of adult dogs was 33%. The kennel prevalence for infection of adult dogs and pups with nematode species was 21% and 48% for Toxocara canis, respectively, 29% and 0% for Trichuris vulpis, and 20% and 0% for Toxascaris leonina. Kennels with more than two litters per year and with regular import of new animals had a significantly higher prevalence of T. canis (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). T. vulpis infections in adult dogs occurred significantly more often in kennels that used deworming products other than benzimidazoles (p < 0.05). Embryonated T. canis ova were recovered from 20% of the house and kennel dust samples and from 50% of the soil samples. This survey shows that the nematode infection rate in dog breeding kennels is high. Better deworming strategies should be used to improve the health status of the dogs and to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection in humans.

  16. Influence of lifetime food restriction on physiological variables in Labrador retriever dogs.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Dennis F; Ballam, Joan M; Meadows, Richard; Larson, Brian T; Li, Qinghong; Stowe, Howard D; Kealy, Richard D

    2007-03-01

    Effects of lifetime food restriction on erythrocytes and numerous clinical chemistry, thyroid, parathyroid, and acid-base variables are reported from a paired-feeding study of 25% diet restriction in dogs. The 48 dogs were paired by gender and weaning weight within litter, and 1 dog in each pair was fed 25% less than its pair mate, from age 8 weeks until death. Erythrocyte and serum biochemistry profiles were evaluated by annual sampling intervals and longitudinally. Erythrocyte variables were slightly higher among control-fed dogs, a possible reflection of the need to support both higher body fat mass and lean mass that uses energy less efficiently. Among serum biochemistry variables, glucose and triglyceride were lower among diet-restricted dogs, while creatinine was slightly higher in the absence of renal disease or failure, over the life spans of the dogs. Glucose outcomes reflect improved glucose tolerance that has been demonstrated with diet restriction protocols in several species, while triglyceride data may reflect the difference in total body fat cells between feeding groups. Creatinine outcomes may reflect lean mass responses to diet restriction or more efficient function of the intracellular proteasome. Serum triiodothyronine levels were lower among diet-restricted dogs. Other clinical chemistry and thyroid variables, parathyroid variables, and acid-base variables were not strongly influenced by diet restriction but revealed age-related effects.

  17. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  18. Do domestic dogs interpret pointing as a command?

    PubMed

    Scheider, Linda; Kaminski, Juliane; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication flexibly, particularly the pointing gesture. Here, we examine whether dogs interpret pointing informatively, that is, as simply providing information, or rather as a command, for example, ordering them to move to a particular location. In the first study a human pointed toward an empty cup. In one manipulation, the dog either knew or did not know that the designated cup was empty (and that the other cup actually contained the food). In another manipulation, the human (as authority) either did or did not remain in the room after pointing. Dogs ignored the human's gesture if they had better information, irrespective of the authority's presence. In the second study, we varied the level of authority of the person pointing. Sometimes this person was an adult, and sometimes a young child. Dogs followed children's pointing just as frequently as they followed adults' pointing (and ignored the dishonest pointing of both), suggesting that the level of authority did not affect their behavior. Taken together these studies suggest that dogs do not see pointing as an imperative command ordering them to a particular location. It is still not totally clear, however, if they interpret it as informative or in some other way.

  19. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  20. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  1. Ophthalmic corticosteroid therapy: systemic effects in the dog.

    PubMed

    Glaze, M B; Crawford, M A; Nachreiner, R F; Casey, H W; Nafe, L A; Kearney, M T

    1988-01-01

    Degenerative myopathy suggestive of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy was diagnosed in a 10-year-old female Poodle X Pekingese dog with a history of progressive lameness. Electromyography revealed bizarre high-frequency discharges. Evidence of adrenal suppression was obtained in response to exogenous ACTH. The predominant source of corticosteroid was an ophthalmic preparation used in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Considering the apparent adverse effects of the corticosteroid in this case, a study was undertaken to determine the systemic effects, if any, induced by long-term ophthalmic administration of 0.1% dexamethasone suspension in healthy adult dogs. Dogs in one group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 8 weeks, and dogs in another group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 16 weeks. All dogs remained healthy throughout the study, but dexamethasone-treated dogs developed marked adrenal suppression, beginning the second week of treatment and intensifying throughout the treatment period. Histopathologic changes in the liver of dexamethasone-treated dogs included scattered foci of vacuolated hepatocytes, increased hepatocytic glycogen content, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Muscle specimens were histologically, histochemically, and electromyographically normal.

  2. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongbin; Hu, Weilie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bangqi; Zhang, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans.

  3. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  4. Fungal rhinitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrzeszewicz, M; Sapierzyński, R

    2015-01-01

    Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in dogs are quite common reasons of chronic nasal discharge and rhinoscopy in such cases is commonly suggested. Forty three dogs were examined using rhinoscopy because of the presence of chronic airway symptoms. Clinical examination, routine hematology and serum biochemistry profiles, nasal and frontal sinus radiographs were made in all animals. Additionally, computed tomography in one dog was performed. Samples for histopathology were taken from 9 patients during rhinoscopy, additionally, from 8 of these patients samples for cytopathology were collected by blind nasal swab technique. In 9 of 43 dogs (20,5%), all males aged 1 to 13 years, examinations led to a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis. In 2 cases a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis was obtained based solely on cytopathology, while in 7 cases - mycosis of nasal mucosa was confirmed by histopathology. The present study revealed that cytopathological examination of nasal swabs has a low diagnostic value in the case of nasal infections in dogs. Although, in some dogs cytopathology, together with other widely available diagnostic techniques was sufficient to reliably diagnose fungal rhinitis, histopathology of samples collected during rhinoscopy is still the gold standard in such cases.

  5. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  6. Familial anthropophobia in pointer dogs?

    PubMed

    Dykman, R A; Murphree, O D; Reese, W G

    1979-08-01

    This article assesses a dog model in terms of a proposed cross-species definition of phobia, the model referring to a strain of unstable dogs that has been produced by selection and inbreeding. The unstable dogs are contrasted with a strain of stable dogs. New findings are presented on approach and activity behavior toward three stimulus objects (man, another dog, and a sheet-covered chair) in a naturalistic setting. The fear response of unstable dogs to objects other than man habituates gradually, whereas the fear response to the sight of man is far more enduring, suggesting a relatively specific fear of man.

  7. An Investigation of the Effect of Body Mass on Resting Heart Rate in Dogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhead, Vanessa; Reiss, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A student project that investigated the relationship between resting heart beat frequency and body mass of adult dogs is described. The results are compared to those of other mammals and birds. The procedure and results are included. (KR)

  8. Effect of service dogs on salivary cortisol secretion in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Viau, Robert; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fecteau, Stéphanie; Champagne, Noël; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Lupien, Sonia

    2010-09-01

    Children with Autism Syndrome Disorders (ASDs) exhibit social, communicative, and behavioral deficits. We know that human interaction with dogs, which is thought to serve as a social catalyst, results in a decrease of cortisol levels in healthy adults. Introducing service dogs to children with ASD is an attractive idea that has received growing attention in recent decades. However, no study has measured the physiological impact of service dogs on these children. Therefore, the goal of our study was to assess the effects of service dogs on the basal salivary cortisol secretion of children with ASD. We measured the salivary cortisol levels of 42 children with ASD in three experimental conditions; prior to and during the introduction of a service dog to their family, and after a short period during which the dog was removed from their family. We compared average cortisol levels and Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) before and during the introduction of the dog to the family and after its withdrawal. We found that the introduction of service dogs translated into a statistically significant diminished CAR. Before the introduction of service dogs, we measured a 58% increase in morning cortisol after awakening, which diminished to 10% when service dogs were present. The increase in morning cortisol jumped back to 48% once the dogs were removed from the families (p<0.05). However, service dogs did not have an effect on the children's average diurnal cortisol levels. These results show that the CAR of children with ASD is sensitive to the presence of service dogs, which lends support to the potential behavioral benefits of service dogs for children with autism.

  9. Development of a non-invasive polysomnography technique for dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Szakadát, Sára; Kovács, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-05-10

    Recently dogs (Canis familiaris) have been demonstrated to be a promising model species for studying human behavior as they have adapted to the human niche and developed human-like socio-cognitive skills. Research on dog behavior, however, has so far almost exclusively focused on awake functioning. Here we present a self-developed non-invasive canine polysomnography method that can easily be applied to naive pet dogs. N=22 adult pet dogs (with their owners present) and N=12 adult humans participated in Study I. From these subjects, N=7 dogs returned on two more occasions for Study II. In Study I, we give a descriptive analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram of the dog and compare it to human data. In order to validate our canine polysomnography method in Study II, we compare the sleep macrostructure and the EEG spectrum of dogs after a behaviorally active day without sleep versus passive day with sleep. In Study I, we found that dogs' sleep EEG resembled that of human subjects and was generally in accordance with previous literature using invasive technology. In Study II, we show that similarly to previous results on humans daytime load of novel experiences and sleep deprivation affects the macrostructural and spectral aspects of subsequent sleep. Our results validate the family dog as a model species for studying the effects of pre-sleep activities on the EEG pattern under natural conditions and, thus, broaden the perspectives of the rapidly growing fields of canine cognition and sleep research.

  10. Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature infections with Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina in dogs.

    PubMed

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Schimmel, Annette; Schroeder, Iris; Bach, Thomas; Charles, Samuel; Kok, Dawid J; Kraemer, Friederike; Wolken, Sonja; Young, David; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature adult, immature adult and larval stages of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina was evaluated in ten randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled dose confirmation studies in naturally or experimentally infected dogs. The tablets were used at the proposed minimum dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy. Five studies demonstrated >99% efficacy against mature adult, >92% efficacy against immature adult, >98% efficacy against L4 and >94% efficacy against L3 larval stages of T. canis. Another five studies demonstrated >99% efficacy against mature and immature adult and >95% efficacy against L4 larval stages of T. leonina. No side effects of the treatment were observed. Emodepside plus praziquantel tablets thus provide a comprehensive new treatment option for ascarid infections in the dog.

  11. Surgical treatment and radiation therapy of frontal lobe meningiomas in 7 dogs.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, Ane; Moissonnier, Pierre; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Devauchelle, Patrick; Blot, Stéphane

    2011-07-01

    The cases of 7 adult dogs with generalized seizures managed by surgical excision and radiation therapy for frontal lobe meningiomas were reviewed. The neurological examination was unremarkable in 6 of the 7 dogs. Five dogs were operated on using a bilateral transfrontal sinus approach and 2 using a unilateral sinotemporal approach to the frontal lobe. One dog was euthanized 14 d after surgery; radiation therapy was initiated 3 wk after surgery in the remaining 6 dogs. Long-term follow-up consisted of neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) scan after radiation therapy. The mean survival time for dogs that had surgery and radiation therapy was 18 mo after surgery. Frontal lobe meningiomas have been associated with poor prognosis. However, the surgical approaches used in these cases, combined with radiation therapy, allow a survival rate for frontal lobe meningiomas similar to that for meningiomas located over the cerebral convexities.

  12. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Abigail E; Blackburn, Judith M; Markwell, Peter J; Robertson, William G

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient intake and urine composition were analyzed in calcium oxalate (CaOx)stone-forming and healthy control dogs to identify factors that contribute to CaOx urolithiasis. Stone-forming dogs had significantly lower intake of sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus and significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS). Feeding a diet used in the treatment of canine lower urinary tract disease for 1 month was associated with increased intake of moisture, sodium, and fat; reduced intake of potassium and calcium; and decreased urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx RSS. No clinical signs of disease recurrence were observed in the stone-forming dogs when the diet was fed for an additional 11 months. The results suggest that hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths in dogs and show that dietary modifications can alter this process.

  13. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  14. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide supplementation affects nutrient digestibility, fermentation end-product production, and large bowel microbiota of the dog.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Hopkins, A C; Middelbos, I S; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2011-01-01

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained increased concentrations of oligosaccharides containing mannose, xylose, and glucose, with the mannose component accounting for 35% of DM. Adult dogs assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design were fed 6 diets, each containing a different concentration of supplemental GGMO (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8%) that replaced dietary cellulose. Total tract DM and OM apparent digestibilities increased (P < 0.001) linearly, whereas total tract CP apparent digestibility decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acids increased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly, whereas butyrate concentration decreased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly with increasing dietary concentrations of GGMO. Fecal pH decreased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased, whereas fecal score increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.001). Fecal phenol (P ≤ 0.05) and indole (P ≤ 0.01) concentrations decreased linearly with GGMO supplementation. Fecal biogenic amine concentrations were not different among treatments except for phenylethylamine, which decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal microbial concentrations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., and Clostridium perfringens were not different among treatments. A quadratic increase (P ≤ 0.01) was noted for Bifidobacterium spp. as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. The data suggest positive nutritional properties of supplemental GGMO when incorporated in a good-quality dog food.

  15. Immunological responses to polyvalent canine vaccines in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Taura, Y; Une, S; Yoshitake, M; Nakama, S; Watanabe, S

    1995-04-01

    The immunological responses to commercially available polyvalent vaccines in dogs were examined. There was a tendency in decreased lymphocyte counts on day 7 in the puppy and adult dogs. There was a significant increase in the blastogenesis of lymphocytes on day 7 and 21 in puppies, whereas no significant changes were seen in the adult dogs. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and canine parvo-virus (CPV) vaccine monitored 0, 3, 8 weeks after vaccination produced strong reactions, in particular those to CPV vaccine rose significantly after vaccination and maintained the higher responses for at least 2 months. Therefore, it is considered that vaccination is immunomodulative rather than immunosuppressive and that DTH responses to PHA and CPV vaccine are helpful to monitor non-specific and specific immune functions in vivo.

  16. Generalized calcinosis cutis associated with probable leptospirosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Bergen, David J; Roe, Wendi D

    2005-12-01

    A 6.5-year-old male German Shepherd acutely developed renal and hepatic disease. Serology revealed high concentrations of antibodies against Leptospira copenhageni, and a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis was made. The dog was successfully treated with antibiotics and supportive care over a 12-day period. Sixty-two days after the initial presentation, alopecia predominantly involving the dorsum and perineal areas developed. The skin lesions expanded over a 20-day period. Histology revealed generalized calcinosis cutis with follicular atrophy. An injection of 0.01 mg kg-1 dexamethasone suppressed serum cortisol concentrations. No treatment was given and lesions resolved over the following 30 days. This is the third case of generalized calcinosis cutis that has developed in an adult dog after severe systemic disease. Both previous cases developed calcinosis cutis in association with blastomycosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of generalized calcinosis cutis in an adult dog in association with a presumptive bacterial infection.

  17. Domestication has not affected the understanding of means-end connections in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Möslinger, Helene; Virányi, Zs

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that dogs often perform well in cognitive tasks in the social domain, but rather poorly in the physical domain. This dichotomy has led to the hypothesis that the domestication process might have enhanced the social cognitive skills of dogs (Hare et al. in Science 298:1634–1636, 2002; Miklósi et al. in Curr Biol 13:763–766, 2003) but at the same time had a detrimental effect on their physical cognition (Frank in Z Tierpsychol 5:389–399, 1980). Despite the recent interest in dog cognition and especially the effects of domestication, the latter hypothesis has hardly been tested and we lack detailed knowledge of the physical understanding of wolves in comparison with dogs. Here, we set out to examine whether adult wolves and dogs rely on means-end connections using the string-pulling task, to test the prediction that wolves would perform better than dogs in such a task of physical cognition. We found that at the group level, dogs were more prone to commit the proximity error, while the wolves showed a stronger side bias. Neither wolves nor dogs showed an instantaneous understanding of means-end connection, but made different mistakes. Thus, the performance of the wolves and dogs in this string-pulling task did not confirm that domestication has affected the physical cognition of dogs. PMID:22460629

  18. Prevalence of owner-reported behaviours in dogs separated from the litter at two different ages.

    PubMed

    Pierantoni, L; Albertini, M; Pirrone, F

    2011-10-29

    The present study examined the prevalence of behaviours in dogs separated from the litter for adoption at different ages. Seventy adult dogs separated from their dam and littermates and adopted between the ages of 30 and 40 days were compared with 70 adult dogs that had been taken from the litter for adoption at two months. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire eliciting information on whether their dog exhibited potentially problematic behaviours when in its usual environment. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the age at which the dog was separated from the litter might predispose it to developing undesirable behaviours. The odds of displaying destructiveness, excessive barking, fearfulness on walks, reactivity to noises, toy possessiveness, food possessiveness and attention-seeking were significantly greater for the dogs that had been removed from the litter earlier during the socialisation period. In addition, dogs purchased from a pet shop at 30 to 40 days of age were reported to exhibit some of the listed behaviours with a significantly higher frequency than dogs purchased from a pet shop at two months. No significant differences were observed with dogs obtained from other types of sources. The dogs in the youngest age group (18 to 36 months) had a higher probability of displaying destructiveness and tail chasing. These findings indicate that, compared with dogs that remained with their social group for 60 days, dogs that had been separated from the litter earlier were more likely to exhibit potentially problematic behaviours, especially if they came from a pet shop.

  19. Survey of Migraine Sufferers with Dogs to Evaluate for Canine Migraine-Alerting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Amrita

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Anecdotal reports suggest that changes in dog behavior might be used to predict impending migraine episodes. This survey was designed to investigate how companion dogs react to migraines that occur in their owners. Design Online survey was available from January 4–31, 2012. Settings/location Survey was conducted through SurveyMonkey, with links to the survey posted at Migraine.com and promoted through social media. Subjects Adults ≥18 years old who experience migraine episodes and live with a dog were eligible to participate. Interventions and outcome measures Participants completed an 18-question online survey that asked about participant demographics, migraines, and their dog's behavior before or during migraine episodes. Results The survey was completed by 1029 adult migraineurs (94.9% women), with migraines typically occurring ≤8 days per month in 63.4% of participants. A recognized change in the dog's behavior prior to or during the initial phase of migraine was endorsed by 552 participants (53.7%), most commonly unusual attentiveness to the owner (39.9%). Among the 466 participants providing details about their dog's behavior with their migraines, 57.3% were able to identify dog alerting behavior before symptoms of a migraine attack would typically begin, with changes usually noticed within 2 hours before the onset of initial migraine symptoms. The dog's behavior was considered to be often or usually linked with the development of a migraine for 59.2% of migraineurs, and 35.8% of migraineurs endorsed beginning migraine treatments after the dog's behavior was recognized and before migraine symptoms had started. Participant demographics, migraine frequency, and breed of dog in the home were similar between the 470 participants with no alerting behavior endorsed and the 466 participants providing detailed alerting information. Conclusions About one in four migraineurs living with a companion dog endorsed recognizing a change in their

  20. Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R A; Pugh, R N

    2002-06-01

    Dogs are the source of a wide range of zoonotic infections that pose a significant threat to human health. This is particularly the case for immunocompromised people, although there are few robust studies that determine immunosuppression as a risk factor for transmission of zoonoses from dogs to humans. An increasing proportion of human society is immunodeficient, principally through the advent of HIV infection and through more people, particularly the expanding elderly group, being subjected to immunosuppressive agents. This is happening at a time when more such people are capitalizing on the acknowledged benefits of dog ownership, making for a potentially dangerous mix. Enteric pathogens (for example, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium species, that may be canine derived) are a frequent risk to the health of immunocompromised persons. Veterinarians and physicians can be criticised for not communicating with each other, and for not providing adequate risk assessment to pet owners. There is scope for voluntary groups to provide information and support for the immunosuppressed who wish to keep their dogs. Key recommendations are to maintain a clean personal environment and intact mucocutaneous barriers. Public health professionals could help rectify the current communications gap between veterinary and medical staff and so facilitate in the appropriate management of dog-owning immunocompromised people.

  1. Bartonella quintana Endocarditis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maggi, Ricardo; Sontakke, Sushama; Keene, Bruce; Hunter, Stuart; Lepidi, Hubert; Breitschwerdt, Kyle T.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis. PMID:17326937

  2. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  3. The Fed's Year of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  4. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  5. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  6. Rabies and Dog Bites Cases in Lagos State Nigeria: A Prevalence and Retrospective Studies (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K. P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rabies antigen in brain of dogs slaughtered for consumption and those that died in veterinary clinics as well as to obtain a 6-year retrospective data on dog bites/suspected dog rabies cases in Lagos State. Dog brain samples were collected from dog slaughter slabs and veterinary clinics (for dogs that died in clinics) across the Lagos state while data for retrospective studies (2006-2011) of dog bite/suspected rabies cases were collected from public (government owned) and private veterinary clinics across the state. Out of the 444 brain samples collected and tested for presence of rabies antigen using the direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT) only 7 (1.58%) were positive for the rabies antigen. A total of 196 dog bites/suspected rabies cases were encountered between January 2006 and December, 2011 in the veterinary clinics with adults been the major (55.61%) victims. Majority (96.43%) of the offending dogs were not quarantined at the time of bite and only one out of the quarantined dogs died and was confirmed positive for rabies antigen. The result of this study indicates that rabies antigen is present among dogs slaughtered in Lagos State and may pose a threat to public health. Though, available records showed that provocation of dogs was the major cause of dog bites and both children and adults fell victim of dog bites, there was a poor record keeping practice in the veterinary clinics across the state. PMID:24373270

  7. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  8. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  9. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals.

  10. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin topical solution for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofiloria immitis) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Arther, R G; Bowman, D D; Slone, R L; Travis, L E

    2005-10-01

    A topically applied formulation containing 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (Advocate/Advantage multi) has been developed for monthly application to dogs for the prevention of canine heartworm (HW) disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis; and for the treatment and control of flea infestations, mite infestations, and intestinal nematode infections. The efficacy of this formulation to prevent canine HW disease was confirmed at three study locations which included the use of 88 purpose-bred beagles 6-8 months of age. Two of these studies also evaluated the effects of post-treatment water exposure or shampooing on product performance. Each dog was infected with 50 third-stage D. immitis larvae on test days -30 to -45. Dogs were blocked according to gender and body weight on test day -1. Topically applied test articles were administered once on test day 0 as follows: 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin (52 dogs); 2.5% moxidectin mono solution (eight dogs); 10% imidacloprid mono solution (16 dogs); and placebo solution (12 dogs). Treatment dosages were applied to provide a minimum of 10 mg/kg imidacloprid and/or 2.5 mg/kg moxidectin. Subgroups of dogs were exposed to water to simulate swimming/rain exposure at designated post-treatment intervals. Additional dogs were shampooed at 90 min, 4 h, or 24 h post-treatment. All dogs were necropsied 110-119 days post-treatment for recovery of adult D. immitis. No adult D. immitis were recovered at necropsy from any of the dogs receiving 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin or 2.5% moxidectin mono solution, demonstrating 100% efficacy for prevention of D. immitis infection. A total of 701 adult D. immitis were recovered at necropsy from dogs receiving 10% imidacloprid mono solution or placebo (range of 11-40 D. immitis/dog). The efficacy of 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin treatment for the prevention of HW disease was not decreased when dogs were shampooed as early as 90 min post-treatment, or when dogs immersed in water 5 times post

  11. Identification of canine papillomavirus by PCR in Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    Anis, Eman A.; Frank, Linda A.; Francisco, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Background Corns are hard protuberances that occur on the digital footpads of Greyhound dogs. The cause of these lesions is unknown and there is little information about them in the veterinary literature. We received anecdotal examples of dog to dog spread of corns suggesting an infectious cause. The aim of this study was to determine if papillomavirus (PV) is associated with Greyhound corns. Methods We examined four corns from two unrelated adult Greyhound dogs that resided in Florida and Washington, respectively, for PV by PCR. The samples were obtained by owner coring of two lesions from one dog and laser removal of two lesions from the other dog. Total nucleic acid was extracted and DNA was amplified using two PCR primer sets that have been shown to amplify a broad range of PVs from humans and animals: FAP59/ FAP64 and MY11/ MY09. The DNA sequences were compared with all sequences in GenBank. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from the footpads of four dogs with other inflammatory dermatoses were also examined. Results PV DNA was amplified from all four corn lesions, while no PV DNA was amplified from other tissues. Comparison of the 444-bp sequences amplified by the MY11/ MY09 primers identified two different PVs. One showed 96% nucleotide sequence similarity with the L1 gene of canine PV type 12. The other showed 78% similarity to canine PV type 16 and, therefore, represents a novel PV. In one of the corns, infection by two of the identified PVs was found. Discussion These results suggest PV infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of corns in Greyhound dogs. PMID:27957392

  12. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    PubMed

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  13. Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source for dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Hussein, H S; Brent, J L

    1999-04-01

    In Exp. 1, soybean hull samples were obtained from nine sources across the United States and analyzed for nutrient content to determine their suitability for inclusion in dog diets. Compositional data revealed variation in both the amount of total dietary fiber (TDF; 63.8 to 81.2%) in the soybean hulls and the ratio of insoluble:soluble fiber (5.0:1 to 15.4:1). Crude protein content varied widely among sources, ranging from 9.2 to 18.7%. An in vivo trial (Exp. 2) was conducted using a premium dog diet containing 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis). There was a negative linear effect (P < .05) of soybean hull inclusion in the diet on DM, OM, TDF, and GE total-tract digestibilities, as well as on calculated ME. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. Based on these results, ileally cannulated dogs were fed diets containing 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis) in addition to diets containing either 0% supplemental fiber or 7.5% beet pulp (Exp. 3). Nutrient digestion at the ileum was unaffected by inclusion of supplemental fiber. Total tract digestion of DM, OM, and GE was lower ( P < .05) for diets containing supplemental fiber when compared with the diet containing 0% fiber. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility between those diets containing soybean hulls and a diet containing beet pulp. Soybean hull inclusion in the diet resulted in a negative linear effect (P < .05) on calculated ME, in addition to lowering ME (P < .05) when compared with the 0% fiber control diet. Calculated ME for dogs fed a 7.5% beet pulp-containing diet was lower (P < .05) than that for dogs fed the soybean hull-containing diets. Results indicate that soybean hulls can be an effective dietary fiber source in dog diets.

  14. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  15. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  16. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  17. Protothecosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vince, Andrew R; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T; Tan, Emmeline O; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2014-10-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes.

  18. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  19. Chewing rates among domestic dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Geoffrey E.; Cooper, Meghan; Helvie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian masticatory rhythm is produced by a brainstem timing network. The rhythm is relatively fixed within individual animals but scales allometrically with body mass (Mb) across species. It has been hypothesized that sensory feedback and feed-forward adjust the rhythm to match the jaw's natural resonance frequency, with allometric scaling being an observable consequence. However, studies performed with adult animals show that the rhythm is not affected by jaw mass manipulations, indicating that either developmental or evolutionary mechanisms are required for allometry to become manifest. The present study was performed to tease out the relative effects of development versus natural selection on chewing rate allometry. Thirty-one dog breeds and 31 mass-matched non-domestic mammalian species with a range in Mb from ∼2 kg to 50 kg were studied. Results demonstrated that the chewing rhythm did not scale with Mb among dog breeds (R=0.299, P>0.10) or with jaw length (Lj) (R=0.328, P>0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the chewing rhythm and Mb among the non-domestic mammals (R=0.634, P<0.001). These results indicate that scaling is not necessary in the adult animal. We conclude that the central timing network and related sensorimotor systems may be necessary for rhythm generation but they do not explain the 1/3rd to 1/4th allometric scaling observed among adult mammals. The rhythm of the timing network is either adjusted to the physical parameters of the jaw system during early development only, is genetically determined independently of the jaw system or is uniquely hard-wired among dogs and laboratory rodents. PMID:20543125

  20. Epidemiology of Dog and Cat Abandonment in Spain (2008–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Fatjó, Jaume; Bowen, Jonathan; García, Elena; Calvo, Paula; Rueda, Silvia; Amblás, Silvia; Lalanza, Jaume F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In this paper we wanted to estimate the incidence of abandonment, as well as the general profile of dogs and cats entering animal shelters in our country. Also, we wanted to test the impact of identification on the recovery of dogs that had entered animal shelters. More than 100,000 dogs and more than 30,000 cats enter animal shelters annually in Spain. We observed a seasonal effect in the number of admissions in cats. A considerable percentage remained at the shelter or was euthanized. We found that identification of dogs with a microchip increased by 3-fold the likelihood of them being returned to the owner. Abstract Millions of pets are abandoned worldwide every year, which is an important animal welfare and financial problem. This paper was divided into three studies. Our first two studies were designed as a national survey of animal shelters to profile the population of stray dogs and cats, as well as to gather information on both relinquishment and adoption. The aim of our third study was to test the impact of identification on the recovery of dogs entering animal shelters. Studies one and two indicate that more than 100,000 dogs and more than 30,000 cats enter animal shelters annually in Spain. We observed a seasonal effect in the number of admissions in cats. Two-thirds of dogs and cats entering shelters were found as strays, while the rest were relinquished directly to the shelter. Most pets admitted to animal shelters were adult, non-purebred, and without a microchip, with the majority of dogs being medium sized. Adult dogs spent significantly more time in shelters than puppies. While most animals were either adopted or recovered by their owner, a considerable percentage remained at the shelter or was euthanized. The identification of dogs with a microchip increased by 3-fold the likelihood of them being returned to the owner. PMID:26479243

  1. Ecology and Demography of Free-Roaming Domestic Dogs in Rural Villages near Serengeti National Park in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joel S.; Bigambo, Machunde A.; Whelan, Christopher J.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Santymire, Rachel M.; Lankester, Felix J.; Faust, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign. We examined the effects of body condition, sex, age and village on survivorship and reproduction. Furthermore, we compared sources of mortality among villages. We found that adult dogs (>12mos) had higher survival than puppies in all villages. We observed a male-biased sex ratio across all age classes. Overall survival in one non-vaccination village was lower than in the other three villages, all of which had similar survival probabilities. In all villages, dogs in poor body condition had lower survival than dogs in ideal body condition. Sickness and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) predation were the two main causes of dog death. Within vaccination villages, vaccinated dogs had higher survivorship than unvaccinated dogs. Dog population growth, however, was similar in all the villages suggesting village characteristics and ownership practices likely have a greater impact on overall dog population dynamics than vaccination. Free-roaming domestic dogs in rural communities exist in the context of their human owners as well as the surrounding wildlife. Our results did not reveal a clear effect of vaccination programs on domestic dog population dynamics. An investigation of the role of dogs and their care within these communities could provide additional insight for planning and implementing rabies control measures such as mass dog vaccination. PMID:27893866

  2. Fluoxetine combined with clorazepate dipotassium and behaviour modification for treatment of anxiety-related disorders in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pineda, S; Anzola, B; Olivares, A; Ibáñez, M

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of clorazepate dipotassium combined with fluoxetine and a behaviour modification programme for the treatment of anxiety disorders in dogs was investigated. Forty dogs with anxiety disorders were initially enrolled and 36 dogs completed the trial. Dogs were classified into two behavioural categories (anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression) according to their presenting complaints, and were also subdivided into males, females, juveniles and adults. The dog owners were provided with a behaviour modification plan for their dogs to be commenced in the first week of therapy. Clorazepate dipotassium was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 4 weeks, and fluoxetine was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 10 weeks. Therapy with both drugs was initiated simultaneously. Improvement was reported in 25/36 dogs. Significant differences in treatment effects were observed between anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression (P<0.05). Positive correlations between owner compliance with the treatment plan and reported improvement achieved during three periods of study were also noted.

  3. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  4. Digestive sensitivity varies according to size of dogs: a review.

    PubMed

    Weber, M P; Biourge, V C; Nguyen, P G

    2017-02-01

    Field observations on food tolerance have repeatedly shown that when fed an identical diet, large breed (>25 kg) dogs present softer and moister faeces than small breed ones (<15 kg). The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings of four PhD theses, carried out between 1998 and 2013, whose objectives were to investigate the anatomical and physiological peculiarities that would explain, at least in part, this observation, as well as their nutritional implication. This work showed that large breed dogs, in contrast with smaller breeds, present a highly developed caecum and colon, which could explain the relatively longer colonic transit time. A prolonged colonic transit time could explain higher colonic fermentative activity, as supported by higher faecal concentrations of fermentative by-products. This effect would be reinforced by increased intestinal permeability and reduced sodium net-absorption. Taken together, these elements could be a possible cause of higher digestive sensitivity in large breed dogs. When prescribing a diet to a small or large breed dog, several aspects of the formulation must be taken into account. For a large breed dog, the general goal is to limit any ingredient that could increase the level of fermentable undigested residues and, in fine, exacerbate colonic fermentation. Highly digestible sources of proteins and starches are therefore strongly recommended to maintain an optimal digestive tolerance. Fermentable fibre sources (i.e. beet pulp and FOS) must also be used in limited quantity in their diet. Conversely, the incorporation of non-fermentable fibre (i.e. cellulose) appears useful to increase their stool quality. For a small breed dog, the general objective is to minimize any ingredient that could excessively limit colonic fermentation and induce in fine constipation. Purified starches and cellulose are therefore not really suitable for them. In contrast, cereals flours as well as non-fermentable fibre provided by cereals

  5. Electrogenic bicarbonate secretion by prairie dog gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Moser, A James; Gangopadhyay, A; Bradbury, N A; Peters, K W; Frizzell, R A; Bridges, R J

    2007-06-01

    Pathological rates of gallbladder salt and water transport may promote the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Because prairie dogs are widely used as a model of this event, we characterized gallbladder ion transport in animals fed control chow by using electrophysiology, ion substitution, pharmacology, isotopic fluxes, impedance analysis, and molecular biology. In contrast to the electroneutral properties of rabbit and Necturus gallbladders, prairie dog gallbladders generated significant short-circuit current (I(sc); 171 +/- 21 microA/cm(2)) and lumen-negative potential difference (-10.1 +/- 1.2 mV) under basal conditions. Unidirectional radioisotopic fluxes demonstrated electroneutral NaCl absorption, whereas the residual net ion flux corresponded to I(sc). In response to 2 microM forskolin, I(sc) exceeded 270 microA/cm(2), and impedance estimates of the apical membrane resistance decreased from 200 Omega.cm(2) to 13 Omega.cm(2). The forskolin-induced I(sc) was dependent on extracellular HCO(3)(-) and was blocked by serosal 4,4'-dinitrostilben-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS) and acetazolamide, whereas serosal bumetanide and Cl(-) ion substitution had little effect. Serosal trans-6-cyano-4-(N-ethylsulfonyl-N-methylamino)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-chroman and Ba(2+) reduced I(sc), consistent with the inhibition of cAMP-dependent K(+) channels. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy localized cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) to the apical membrane and subapical vesicles. Consistent with serosal DNDS sensitivity, pancreatic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter protein pNBC1 expression was localized to the basolateral membrane. We conclude that prairie dog gallbladders secrete bicarbonate through cAMP-dependent apical CFTR anion channels. Basolateral HCO(3)(-) entry is mediated by DNDS-sensitive pNBC1, and the driving force for apical anion secretion is provided by K(+) channel activation.

  6. The dog factor in brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations in and near human dwellings.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor; Ioffe-Uspensky, Inna

    2002-06-01

    Three cases of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus infiltration in or near human dwellings caused by dogs, and their influence on epidemiological features of human habitats have been investigated. (a) The observation of dogs kept indoors proved that single tick females could engorge and oviposit inside apartments followed by the development of subadults. (b) Abundant micropopulations of ticks were formed in small yards or gardens near the dwellings where dogs lived in kennels. (c) A huge field population of R. sanguineus was observed on a farm where watchdogs constantly patrolled along the farm perimeter. Tick abundance near the kennels and in the permanent resting sites of the dogs reached more than 30 adults per 10 min of collecting, while the number of adults on a dog reached 100. Unfed adult females under conditions of constant dog availability had a larger scutal index than females collected in the control field site. On the basis of circumstantial evidence it is possible to conclude that under the above conditions tick development may change from the normal 3-host cycle to a 2-host cycle. Ticks in the field had one complete generation per year. Ticks on the farm, as well as ticks in kennels, developed faster and a significant part of their population had two complete generations per year. R. sanguineus is the main vector and reservoir of a pathogen from the Rickettsia conorii complex, the causative agent of Israeli tick typhus. The described conglomerations of R. sanguineus create a great risk to humans who can be attacked by infected ticks in and around their homes, even in large towns. Such a feature of the tick life history most likely exists not only in Israel but in other countries as well.

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with vasopressin in a dog.

    PubMed

    Schmittinger, Christian A; Astner, Sandra; Astner, Leonhard; Kössler, Josef; Wenzel, Volker

    2005-03-01

    That endogenous vasopressin levels in successfully resuscitated human patients were significantly higher than in patients who died pointed to the possible benefit of administering vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Several CPR studies in pigs showed that vasopressin improved blood flow to vital organs, cerebral oxygen delivery, resuscitability and neurological outcome when compared with epinephrine. In a small clinical study, vasopressin significantly improved short-term survival when compared with epinephrine indicating its potential as an alternative pressor to epinephrine during CPR in human beings. As there was little clinical data available at that time, its recommended use was limited to adult human beings with shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation. In this report, we present the case of a dog in which the successful management of intraoperative asystolic cardiac arrest involved vasopressin. Unexpected cardiac arrest occurred during anaesthesia for the surgical removal of multiple mammary adenocarcinomata in a 11-year-old Yorkshire terrier. Despite an ASA physical status assignation of III, the dog was successfully resuscitated with external chest compressions, intermittent positive pressure ventilation and vasopressin (2 doses of 0.8 IU kg(-1)) and was discharged 3 days later without signs of neurological injury. We believe vasopressin contributed to restoring spontaneous circulation. It may prove increasingly useful in perioperative resuscitation in dogs.

  8. Anthrax in a backyard domestic dog in Ukraine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Skrypnyk, Artem; Bagamian, Karoun H; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Skrypnyk, Valeriy

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax has been reported in domestic and wild dogs throughout much of the world. Generally, canids are considered resistant to anthrax, although there are several reports of anthrax deaths in both wild and domestic canid populations. Prior to 2012, anthrax had not been reported in dogs in Ukraine, despite a long history in livestock and wildlife. An outbreak involving at least one cow and one dog was reported from a backyard setting in southern Ukraine in August of 2012. Laboratory results and epizootic data were compiled from official investigation reports of regional and state veterinary services involved in the case response. A single dog died after being fed meat and bones from an illegally slaughtered heifer that died of anthrax 5 days earlier. On the evening of the dog's death, the dog refused food or water; however, there were no other clinical signs. Laboratory tests of dog tissue included traditional bacteriology for Bacillus anthracis, a small rodent bioassay for virulence, and immunoprecipitation tests (IPT). IPT was positive, viable B. anthracis colonies were cultured, and a bioassay confirmed virulence. This was the first confirmed case of canid anthrax in Ukraine. This case report serves to remind veterinary officials that anthrax can affect a wide number of species. We advise surveillance systems remain flexible and include animals that might not otherwise be tested.

  9. Dog bite and injury prevention—analysis, critical review, and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Ozanne-Smith, J; Ashby, K; Stathakis, V

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To analyze Australian dog bite injury data and make international comparisons; to review risk and protective factors relating to the dog, injured person, and environment; and to recommend action for prevention and research. Methods—Australian dog bite injury data, complemented by detailed Victorian and regional data from routine health records and vital statistics, were analyzed to determine incidence, severity, nature, circumstances, and trends. International comparison data were extracted from published reports. Risk and protective factor studies were selected for review from electronic and bibliographic searches where data were recent, sample sizes substantial, and bias limited. Results—The Australian dog bite death rate (0.004/100 000) is lower than both the United States (0.05–0.07/100 000) and Canadian rates (0.007/100 000). Victorian hospitalized trend rates were stable between 1987 and 1998, but there was a decline for children <5 years (p=0.019) corresponding with a reduction in dog ownership. Children 0–4 years have the highest rate of serious injury, particularly facial. Adults have longer hospitalizations, most frequently for upper extremity injury. Risk factors include: child, males, households with dogs, certain breeds, male dogs, home location, and leashed dog. Conclusions—Dog bite rates are high and it may therefore be assumed that current preventative interventions are inadequate. Responsible dog ownership, including separating young children from dogs, avoiding high risk dogs, neutering, regulatory enforcement, and standardized monitoring of bite rates are required. Controlled investigations of further risk and protective factors, and validated methods of breed identification, are needed. PMID:11770660

  10. Utility of cardiac biomarkers during adulticide treatment of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Carretón, E; Morchón, R; González-Miguel, J; Juste, M C; Simón, F; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2013-10-18

    Heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic disease of dogs and other carnivores, characterized by the presence of adult worms in the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle, leading to pulmonary hypertension which may progress to congestive heart failure. Cardiac biomarkers are biological parameters that can be objectively measured as indicators of pathological processes, or to assess the response to therapeutic interventions. To evaluate the myocardial damage during the adulticide treatment in 15 heartworm-infected dogs with ivermectin, doxycycline and melarsomine, measurements of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin, MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were carried out on days 0, 60 and afterwards weekly on days 67, 75, 82, 91, 106, 113 and 120. Dogs were divided by low parasite burden (n=9) and high parasite burden (n=6). On day 0, dogs with high worm burden showed increased cTnI concentrations (3.62 ± 4.78 ng/ml) while dogs with low worm burden had concentrations similar to those of healthy dogs (0.78 ± 0.22 ng/ml), CK-MB concentrations were increased only in dogs with high parasite burden as well (54.4 ± 54.2U/l) and 26.6% (4/15) of the dogs showed pathological concentrations of myoglobin. On day 91, most dogs showed pathological concentrations of myoglobin, CK-MB and AST, probably due to the myositis associated to the intramuscular injection of melarsomine. The rest of the measurements made in the study, the biomarkers concentrations were within normal values, except for cTnI in dogs with high parasite burden, which remained above reference concentrations for healthy dogs during all the study. The evaluation of cardiac biomarkers seems to be a helpful test in the assessment of the myocardium in dogs with heartworm disease during the adulticide treatment.

  11. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  12. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus-induced disease in vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Wayne A; Totten, Janet S; Lappin, Michael R; Schultz, Ronald D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether detection of Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent virus. Virus neutralization (VN) assay results were compared with resistance to viral challenge in 2 unvaccinated Beagle puppies, 9 unvaccinated Beagle dogs (4.4-7.2 years of age), and 9 vaccinated Beagle dogs (3.7-4.7 years of age). Eight of 9 (89%) unvaccinated adult dogs exhibited clinical signs after virus challenge, and 1 (13%) dog died. As compared to adult dogs, the 2 unvaccinated puppies developed more severe clinical signs and either died or were euthanized after challenge. In contrast, no clinical signs were detected after challenge of the 9 adult vaccinated dogs with post-vaccination intervals of up to 4.4 years. In vaccinated dogs, the positive and negative predictive values of VN assay results for resistance to challenge were 100% and 0%, respectively. Results indicate that dogs vaccinated with modified live CDV can be protected from challenge for ≤4.4 years postvaccination and that detection of virus-specific antibodies is predictive of whether dogs are resistant to challenge with virulent virus. Results also indicate that CDV infection in unvaccinated dogs results in age-dependent morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of age-dependent morbidity and mortality, duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the positive and negative predictive values of detection of virus-specific serum antibodies are useful in development of rational booster vaccination intervals for the prevention of CDV-mediated disease in adult dogs.

  13. Ascarid infections of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J C

    1987-11-01

    The ascarids Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Toxascaris leonina are probably the most common gastrointestinal helminths encountered in small animal practice. Both T. canis and T. cati can cause serious disease in kittens and puppies; T. leonina is generally less pathogenic. Prenatal transmission assures that virtually all puppies are born infected with T. canis. Transmammary transmission is probably the major route of infection for kittens with T. cati. In addition, all three species of worm produce resistant eggs and use paratenic hosts to facilitate transmission. Much is now known about the complex biology and life history of T. canis. However, many questions, such as those concerning the mechanisms of larval survival within host tissues and of larval reactivation and migration during pregnancy, await further study. The mechanism of resistance to ascarid infections in cats and dogs has not been clearly defined. Ascariasis is traditionally thought to be a disease of young animals, with older animals being considered immune. However, at least in the case of T. canis, adult dogs can be repeatedly infected. A wide range of anthelmintics is available with extremely high efficacy against patent ascarid infections. The problem of prenatal infection with T. canis may be overcome by strategic use of the newer benzimidazole-carbamates, and the production of ascarid-free puppies now seems possible. However, complete larvicidal activity against somatic stages has not been convincingly demonstrated. Visceral larva migrans-like syndromes are now being recognized in dogs and cats. In addition, visceral larva migrans in children due to T. canis continues to be a significant zoonotic disease in North America and underscores the need for the veterinary profession to control ascarid infections in cats and dogs at every opportunity.

  14. Analyses of a satiety factor NUCB2/nesfatin-1; gene expressions and modulation by different dietary components in dogs

    PubMed Central

    NOZAWA, Satoshi; KIMURA, Tomoko; KURISHIMA, Miyuki; MIMURA, Kana; SAEKI, Kaori; MIKI, Yohei; ODA, Hitomi; MORI, Akihiro; MOMOTA, Yutaka; AZAKAMI, Daigo; ISHIOKA, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexic peptide derived from a precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), which is distributed in various organs, coexists with ghrelin in the gastric X/A-like cells and closely relates to an appetite control in rodents and humans. Nesfatin-1 may be a significant factor addressing the satiety also in veterinary medicine, however, there are few reports about nesfatin-1 in dogs. In the present study, we detected canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA in various tissues, especially abundant in pancreas, gastrointestinal tracts, testis and cerebellum. We examined circulating nesfatin-1 concentrations and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in upper gastrointestinal tracts (gastric corpus, pyloric antrum and duodenum) in dogs fed on different types of diets. Plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations in the dogs were approximately 4 ng/ml and they did not change after feeding through the study, however, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in pyloric antrum were 1.84-fold higher in the dogs fed on a High fiber/High protein diet (P<0.001), 1.48-fold higher in the dogs fed on a High fat/Low protein diet (P<0.05) and 1.02-fold higher in the dogs fed on a Low fat/High carbohydrate diet (not significant) comparing to those on a control diet. It was concluded that High fiber/High protein and High fat/Low protein diets increased NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in canine gastrointestinal tracts. These results may set the stage for further investigations of canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1, which may relate to satiety effects in dogs. PMID:26596634

  15. Analyses of a satiety factor NUCB2/nesfatin-1; gene expressions and modulation by different dietary components in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomoko; Kurishima, Miyuki; Mimura, Kana; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Momota, Yutaka; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi

    2016-03-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexic peptide derived from a precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), which is distributed in various organs, coexists with ghrelin in the gastric X/A-like cells and closely relates to an appetite control in rodents and humans. Nesfatin-1 may be a significant factor addressing the satiety also in veterinary medicine, however, there are few reports about nesfatin-1 in dogs. In the present study, we detected canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA in various tissues, especially abundant in pancreas, gastrointestinal tracts, testis and cerebellum. We examined circulating nesfatin-1 concentrations and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in upper gastrointestinal tracts (gastric corpus, pyloric antrum and duodenum) in dogs fed on different types of diets. Plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations in the dogs were approximately 4 ng/ml and they did not change after feeding through the study, however, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in pyloric antrum were 1.84-fold higher in the dogs fed on a High fiber/High protein diet (P<0.001), 1.48-fold higher in the dogs fed on a High fat/Low protein diet (P<0.05) and 1.02-fold higher in the dogs fed on a Low fat/High carbohydrate diet (not significant) comparing to those on a control diet. It was concluded that High fiber/High protein and High fat/Low protein diets increased NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in canine gastrointestinal tracts. These results may set the stage for further investigations of canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1, which may relate to satiety effects in dogs.

  16. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Cadieu, Jennifer; Kiupel, Matti; Lim, Ailam; Bolin, Steve R; Mansell, Joanne

    2012-05-01

    Cutaneous toxoplasmosis has been previously reported in human beings, rarely reported in cats, and reported in 1 dog with systemic toxoplasmosis. The present report describes 2 cases of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in 2 dogs treated with immunosuppressive therapy. One of the dogs developed generalized cutaneous pustules and pruritus, and the other dog only had a single subcutaneous nodule. Microscopically, skin biopsies showed moderate to severe pyogranulomatous and necrotizing dermatitis and panniculitis, with multifocal vasculitis and vascular thrombosis. Single or aggregates of protozoal tachyzoites were mostly intracytoplasmic and occasionally extracellular. The etiology was confirmed in both cases by immunohistochemistry and by polymerase chain reaction assays, which were followed by nucleic acid sequencing. Both patients were treated with clindamycin. The dog with generalized lesions developed pulmonary and neurological signs and was euthanized. The dog with a single nodule recovered completely with no remission of cutaneous lesions.

  17. The demography of free-roaming dog populations and applications to disease and population control

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Restif, Olivier; Conlan, Andrew J K; Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie; Whay, Helen R; Damriyasa, I Made; Wood, James L N

    2014-01-01

    1. Understanding the demography of domestic dog populations is essential for effective disease control, particularly of canine-mediated rabies. Demographic data are also needed to plan effective population management. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated the contribution of demographic processes (i.e. births, deaths and movement) to variations in dog population size or density, or determined the factors that regulate these processes, including human factors. 2. We report the results of a 3-year cohort study of domestic dogs, which is the first to generate detailed data on the temporal variation of these demographic characteristics. The study was undertaken in two communities in each of Bali, Indonesia and Johannesburg, South Africa, in rabies-endemic areas and where the majority of dogs were free-roaming. None of the four communities had been engaged in any dog population management interventions by local authorities or animal welfare organizations. All identified dogs in the four communities were monitored individually throughout the study. 3. We observed either no population growth or a progressive decline in population size during the study period. There was no clear evidence that population size was regulated through environmental resource constraints. Rather, almost all of the identified dogs were owned and fed regularly by their owners, consistent with population size regulated by human demand. Finally, a substantial fraction of the dogs originated from outside the population, entirely through the translocation of dogs by people, rather than from local births. These findings demonstrate that previously reported growth of dog populations is not a general phenomenon and challenge the widely held view that free-roaming dogs are unowned and form closed populations. 4. Synthesis and applications. These observations have broad implications for disease and population control. The accessibility of dogs for vaccination and evaluation through owners and the

  18. Human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program.

    PubMed

    Koda, N; Shimoju, S

    1999-06-01

    We analyzed dyadic interactions between 12 neutered dogs (6 females and 6 males) and 44 humans (20 women, 14 men, and 10 girls) who were unfamiliar with each other. We also examined the effect of sex differences in dogs and humans as well as age differences in humans on human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program. Female dogs more actively regulated their distance from humans than male dogs. Dogs made contact with women more frequently than with men, and men made contact with dogs more frequently than women. Girls initiated interactions with dogs more frequently than women; girls formed reciprocal interactions with dogs less frequently than women.

  19. An experimental study of hemolysis induced by onion (Allium cepa) poisoning in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Xia, Z; Yu, J

    2008-04-01

    The mechanism of hemolysis induced by onion poisoning in dogs was studied. Six adult, clinically normal Pekingese dogs were fed cooked onions at 30 g/kg body weight/day for 2 days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 after onion administration, and urine was collected the day after bleeding. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased from day 1, and significantly so on day 5 (P < 0.01), contrary to the results of white blood cell counts. So the plasma bilirubin levels and urobilinogen were increased on day 3 (P < 0.01) and day 4 (P < 0.01), respectively. The Heinz body counts were increased dramatically from day 1 (P < 0.01), peaking on day 3 (P < 0.01). Reticulocyte counts were increased from day 1 and the highest value was on day 8 (P < 0.01). Besides anemia, the following erythrocyte parameters were altered: erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was reduced from day 1 and reached the lowest value on day 5 (P < 0.01); the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate was decreased on day 1 (P < 0.01); reduced glutathione was decreased from day 1 (P < 0.01) and the lowest value was on day 3 (P < 0.01); glutathione-peroxidase was increased on day 1, but decreased significantly on day 3 (P < 0.01); hydrogen peroxide was increased on day 1 (P < 0.01), then went down on days 3-12 (the undermost value on day 5, P < 0.01); catalase was risen dramatically on day 5 (the peak value, P < 0.01); malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased on days 1-8, (P < 0.01), and reached the peak value on day 5 (P < 0.01). Deformity of the erythrocyte membrane was decreased on days 1-12 and fluorescence polarization (rho) and microviscosity (eta) of the erythrocyte membrane were increased on days 1-12 (P < 0.01). There were positive correlations between MDA and rho as well as eta, with correlation coefficients of 0.908 and 0.922, respectively (P < 0.01), but there was a negative correlation between MDA and deformity index

  20. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  1. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  2. Effect of recombinant canine distemper vaccine on antibody titers in previously vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Larson, L J; Hageny, T L; Haase, C J; Schultz, R D

    2006-01-01

    Two canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine types are currently commercially available: modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines and a canarypox recombinant CDV (rCDV) vaccine (Recombitek, Merial). This study compared the ability of the rCDV vaccine and MLV vaccines to significantly enhance (boost) the antibody response of previously immunized adult and juvenile dogs. A significant (fourfold or greater) increase in titer occurred in significantly more dogs revaccinated with Recombitek C-4 or Recombitek C-6 than with the MLV-CDV vaccines. This study demonstrates that Recombitek, the only vaccine for dogs containing rCDV, is more likely to significantly boost the CDV antibody response in previously vaccinated dogs than are the MLV-CDV vaccines. Because rCDV vaccine can boost the antibody titer of dogs previously vaccinated with an MLV vaccine, it can and should be used when core vaccines are readministered.

  3. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  4. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy

    PubMed Central

    RAELE, Donato Antonio; GALANTE, Domenico; CAFIERO, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region. PMID:26004432

  5. Myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs: Does size matter?

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; Kilroy-Glynn, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most commonly diagnosed cardiovascular disease in the dog accounting for more than 70% of all cardiovascular disease in dogs. As are most canine diseases with genetic underpinnings, risk of MMVD is greatly increased in a subset of breeds. What is uncommon is that the vast majority of the breeds at elevated risk for MMVD are small or toy breeds with average adult weights under 9 kg. These breeds appear to have little in common other than their diminutive size. In the following review we propose a number of mechanisms by which relatively unrelated small breeds may have developed a predisposition for chronic valvular disorders. Although factors such as age are key in the expression of MMVD, taking a comprehensive look at the commonalities, as well as the differences, between the susceptible breeds may assist in finding the causal variants responsible for MMVD and translating them to improved treatments for both dogs and humans. PMID:22356836

  6. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  7. Influence of dietary protein content and source on colonic fermentative activity in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nery, J; Goudez, R; Biourge, V; Tournier, C; Leray, V; Martin, L; Thorin, C; Nguyen, P; Dumon, H

    2012-08-01

    Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.039, P = 0.003, and P = 0.012, respectively). Greater concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, and valerate were found in the feces of dogs fed HP compared with LP diets (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). The concentrations of ammonia, valerate, phenol, and indole in feces of large sensitive dogs were greater (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.019, respectively) compared with the other groups. The Enterococcus populations were greater in feces of dogs fed with PMHP rather than WGLP diets (P = 0.006). Urinary phenol and indole excretion was greater when dogs were fed PM than WG diets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively) and HP than LP diets (P = 0.001 and P = 0.087, respectively). Large sensitive dogs were prone to excrete a greater quantity of

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  9. Selenium Digestibility and Bioactivity in Dogs: What the Can Can, the Kibble Can’t

    PubMed Central

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Gray, Kerry; Beech, Karen; Cools, An; Alexander, Lucille G.; Du Laing, Gijs; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the long-term health effects of selenium (Se) over- or underfeeding. The efficiency of utilization of dietary Se is subject to many factors. Our study in dogs evaluated the effect of diet type (canned versus kibble) and dietary protein concentration on Se digestibility and bioactivity. Canned and kibble diets are commonly used formats of dog food, widely ranging in protein concentration. Twenty-four Labrador retrievers were used and four canned and four kibble diets were selected with crude protein concentrations ranging from 10.1 to 27.5 g/MJ. Crude protein concentration had no influence on the digestibility of Se in either canned or kibble diets, but a lower Se digestibility was observed in canned compared to kibble diets. However, the biological activity of Se, as measured by whole blood glutathione peroxidase, was higher in dogs fed the canned diets than in dogs fed the kibble diets and decreased with increasing crude protein intake. These results indicate that selenium recommendations in dog foods need to take diet type into account. PMID:27043433

  10. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1–5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs’ behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner’s emotion and reactivity to other dogs’ behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner’s empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog’s emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement “My dog is more important for me than any human being”. In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose

  11. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  12. Factors influencing the antibody response of dogs vaccinated against rabies.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lorna J; Lunt, Mark; Barnes, Annette; McElhinney, Lorraine; Fooks, Anthony R; Baxter, David N; Ollier, William E R

    2007-12-12

    Since 2000, there has been a legal requirement in the UK that dogs and cats should have an effective rabies vaccination with demonstrable sero-conversion if their owners wish to avoid quarantine on re-entry to the UK. In 2002, 10,483 rabies titres were determined on dogs at the VLA. Statistical analyses assessed the efficacy of each vaccine within different dog breeds. Animal size, age, breed, sampling time and vaccine had significant effects on pass rates and median titres. Our data suggests that a general relationship between animal size and level of antibody response exists and smaller sized dogs elicited higher antibody levels than larger breeds of dog. It was not however, only the magnitude of response immediately following vaccination but also the duration of immunity that varied between breeds of dog. Another observation was that young animals, less than 1-year of age, generated a lower antibody response to rabies vaccination than adults. Considerably higher failure rates were also observed for different vaccines tested. Regression analysis revealed that two vaccines performed equally well, and significantly better than the others tested. The variation in antibody response relating to length of interval of sampling following vaccination is not unexpected and presumably relates to the response kinetics for primary vaccination. These data need to be placed in perspective in order to minimise the risk of rabies being re-introduced into a rabies-free country, especially in the consideration of removing the requirement for serological testing for rabies vaccinated dogs that participate in pet travel schemes.

  13. Emergence of Thelazia callipaeda Infection in Dogs and Cats from East-Central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, C; Catarino, A L; Almeida, B; Ramos, C; Campino, L; Cardoso, L

    2016-08-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infects domestic animals, wildlife and human beings, and is considered an emerging pathogen in Europe. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of T. callipaeda infection in dogs and cats from east-central Portugal, a region where the parasite was previously detected in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Thelazia callipaeda was found in 22 (3.8%) of 586 dogs and in four (23.5%) of 17 cats. A total of 178 adult worms (71.9% of females and 28.1% of males) were collected from the conjunctiva of the infected dogs. The number of worms collected per dog ranged from 1 to 35 (average ± standard deviation: 8.08 ± 9.49), with four dogs (18.2%) harbouring only a single parasite. Worms were gathered from dogs throughout all months of the year. A total of 17 adult worms (64.7% of females and 35.3% of males) were obtained from cats. The number of worms per cat ranged from 1 to 14 (4.3 ± 6.5), with three cats (75.0%) having a single parasite. Eyeworm infection was statistically more prevalent in pastoral and farm dogs, in those dogs with contact with other animals and in dogs with ocular manifestations. T. callipaeda is endemic in the east-central part of Portugal, reportedly infecting domestic (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores (red foxes) and evidencing a southerly dissemination. Future investigations should be focused on determining the local distribution and density of the insect vector (Phortica variegata) in this geographical area. This emergent zoonosis should be included by veterinarians, physicians and ophthalmologists in the differential diagnosis of ocular manifestations in their patients, particularly in areas where T. callipaeda is endemic.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Amarante, A F T; Ferrari, T B; Nunes, L C

    2002-01-03

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray dogs, and dogs with owners was investigated by fecal examinations from 271 dogs employing sedimentation, simple flotation and centrifugation-flotation methods. The centrifugation-flotation method, when compared to simple flotation or sedimentation methods was generally more accurate in the diagnosis of all intestinal parasites, but statistical differences were detected only in relation to Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. (synonym Isospora spp.). The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were diagnosed in the fecal samples: Ancylostoma spp. (23.6%); Toxocara canis (5.5%); Trichuris vulpis (4.8%); Spirocerca lupi (1.9%); Dipylidium caninum (0.7%); Giardia spp. (12.2%); Hammondia heydorni (2.6%); Cystoisospora spp. (8.5%); and Sarcocystis spp. (2.2%). The prevalence of most parasites was similar for dogs of mixed-breed and for dogs of a defined-breed, except for Cystoisospora spp. and T. canis which showed a significantly higher prevalence in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. (17.1%) was significantly lower in stray dogs than in those with an owner (31.9%) and the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was higher in stray dogs (P < 0.05). No effect of season on the occurrence of the different parasite genera could be observed, except for Ancylostoma spp., for which an increase in the percentage of dogs shedding eggs was observed at the beginning of Summer with a peak occurrence during April and May (Autumn). The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp., T. canis, T. vulpis, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was higher in adult males than in adult females, but significant differences between the two groups occurred only with Giardia spp. Young animals were found to more frequently shed Nematode eggs in feces than adult animals.

  15. Does affective information influence domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) point-following behavior?

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Gartman, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have examined dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) comprehension and use of human communicative cues. Relatively few studies have, however, examined the effects of human affective behavior (i.e., facial and vocal expressions) on dogs' exploratory and point-following behavior. In two experiments, we examined dogs' frequency of following an adult's pointing gesture in locating a hidden reward or treat when it occurred silently, or when it was paired with a positive or negative facial and vocal affective expression. Like prior studies, the current results demonstrate that dogs reliably follow human pointing cues. Unlike prior studies, the current results also demonstrate that the addition of a positive affective facial and vocal expression, when paired with a pointing gesture, did not reliably increase dogs' frequency of locating a hidden piece of food compared to pointing alone. In addition, and within the negative facial and vocal affect conditions of Experiment 1 and 2, dogs were delayed in their exploration, or approach, toward a baited or sham-baited bowl. However, in Experiment 2, dogs continued to follow an adult's pointing gesture, even when paired with a negative expression, as long as the attention-directing gesture referenced a baited bowl. Together these results suggest that the addition of affective information does not significantly increase or decrease dogs' point-following behavior. Rather these results demonstrate that the presence or absence of affective expressions influences a dogs' exploratory behavior and the presence or absence of reward affects whether they will follow an unfamiliar adult's attention-directing gesture.

  16. Oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma in twelve dogs.

    PubMed

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B G; Jordan, R C; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinct histological subtype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), described in both dogs and man. In dogs, PSCC has long been considered a malignant oral tumour of very young animals, but it has recently been reported to occur in adult dogs as well. The aim of this study was to describe the major clinicopathological characteristics of canine oral PSCC (COPSCC). Twelve dogs diagnosed with COPSCC were included in this retrospective study (1990-2012). The majority (75%) of the dogs were >6 years of age (median age 9 years). All tumours were derived from the gingiva of dentate jaws, with 66.7% affecting the rostral aspects of the jaws. The gross appearance of the lesions varied, with one having an intraosseous component only. The majority (91.7%) of the tumours were advanced lesions (T2 and T3), but no local or distant metastases were noted. Microscopically, two patterns were seen: (1) invasion of bone forming a cup-shaped indentation in the bone or a deeply cavitating cyst within the bone (cavitating pattern), (2) histologically malignant growth, but lack of apparent bone invasion (non-cavitating pattern). The microscopical appearance corresponded to imaging findings in a majority of cases, with cavitating forms presenting with a cyst-like pattern of bone loss or an expansile mass on imaging and non-cavitating forms showing an infiltrative pattern of bone destruction on imaging. These features suggest two distinct biological behaviours of COPSCC.

  17. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs.

  18. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  19. Dietary trial using a commercial hypoallergenic diet containing hydrolyzed protein for dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Marks, Stanley L; Laflamme, Dottie P; McAloose, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Six dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) received a commercially available hypoallergenic diet containing an enzymatically hydrolyzed defatted soy globulin as the only protein source. Five of the six dogs had been refractory to a variety of controlled diets, and four dogs had failed to respond to previous medical therapy. All dogs were fed the test diet twice daily for 10 weeks. Dogs not showing adequate improvement in clinical signs after 2 to 4 weeks on diet alone had appropriate medical therapy added to the dietary regimen. Gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy were performed on Day 0 and repeated at the conclusion of the study. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a pathologist using a numeric grading scheme to describe histologic alterations and mucosal architecture. Dietary therapy alone provided adequate clinical improvement in four dogs, and concurrent medical therapy was required in two dogs, one of which had exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Mean fecal scores improved after therapy. Five dogs showed mild to moderate histologic improvement in duodenal biopsies after therapy. The clinical improvement observed cannot be solely attributed to the hydrolyzed nature of the protein source because the diet tested was highly digestible, contained cornstarch (rather than intact grains) and a source of medium-chain triglycerides (23% of fat), and had an altered ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Nevertheless, the resolution of clinical signs and improved biopsy scores demonstrate the importance of conducting further studies to critically assess the role of diets containing a hydrolyzed protein source for the management of dogs with previously refractory IBD.

  20. Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emmanuel S; Miran, Miran B; Kasuku, Ayubu A; Nzalawahe, Jahashi

    2016-05-24

    The prevalence of taeniasis was determined during the period January to April 2013 in a cross-sectional study of non-descript domestic dogs from the livestock-wildlife ecosystem of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Taeniid eggs were determined by screening faecal samples using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Predisposing factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. Of the 205 faecal samples screened, 150 (73.2%) were positive for taeniid eggs. The prevalence of dogs harbouring taeniid eggs was 80%, 30.2% and 75.3% in the less than 1 year, 1-3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. Age group and sex prevalence in dogs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), although the females showed a marginally higher prevalence (73.8%) in comparison to the males (72.7%). Taeniid eggs were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of dogs located in Waso (80.6%) and Endulen (75%) than in Malambo (63.2%, P < 0.05). The study revealed that dogs owned and raised by agro-pastoralists were at a lower risk of acquiring Taenia spp. infection (P = 0.001) than those that were raised by pastoralists. The majority of dog owners were not aware of the predisposing factors and the mode of transmission of taeniids. Dogs were frequently fed on viscera, trimmings and the heads of slaughtered animals, and they were not treated for parasitic infections. The findings of this study indicate that taeniasis is prevalent among non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, underscoring the need for further research and active surveillance to better understand the transmission cycle of Taenia spp. in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  1. Do you see what I see? The difference between dog and human visual perception may affect the outcome of experiments.

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Ujvári, Vera; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Péter, András

    2017-04-07

    The visual sense of dogs is in many aspects different than that of humans. Unfortunately, authors do not explicitly take into consideration dog-human differences in visual perception when designing their experiments. With an image manipulation program we altered stationary images, according to the present knowledge about dog-vision. Besides the effect of dogs' dichromatic vision, the software shows the effect of the lower visual acuity and brightness discrimination, too. Fifty adult humans were tested with pictures showing a female experimenter pointing, gazing or glancing to the left or right side. Half of the pictures were shown after they were altered to a setting that approximated dog vision. Participants had difficulty to find out the direction of glancing when the pictures were in dog-vision mode. Glances in dog-vision setting were followed less correctly and with a slower response time than other cues. Our results are the first that show the visual performance of humans under circumstances that model how dogs' weaker vision would affect their responses in an ethological experiment. We urge researchers to take into consideration the differences between perceptual abilities of dogs and humans, by developing visual stimuli that fit more appropriately to dogs' visual capabilities.

  2. Postmortem findings in four litters of dogs with familial canine dermatomyositis.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Prieur, D. J.; Haupt, K. H.; Collier, L. L.; Evermann, J. F.; Ladiges, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Postmortem evaluations were performed on 20 juvenile to young adult collie and collie-Labrador retriever crossbred dogs with dermatomyositis and 10 neonatal collies. Cutaneous, muscular, and vascular lesions were present in the juvenile and adult dogs and were most severe in areas of the head and distal extremities. In more severely affected dogs, lesions were more generalized, including myositis of esophageal muscle and arteritis of skin, muscle, bladder, and spermatic cord. Although viruses were not isolated from muscle, crystalline viral-like structures were present in cytoplasm of endothelial cells within skeletal muscle. The dogs with dermatitis and myositis consistently had lymphoid hyperplasia, especially of peripheral lymph nodes. More severely affected dogs were smaller than less severely affected littermates, and the more severely affected males had reduced weight of testicles and prostate glands, compared with body weight. The reduced weight of genital organs correlated positively with reduced fertility. A few lymphoid aggregates were present in or around thyroid glands of 6 of the 20 dogs. There was no histologic evidence of glomerular disease in any of the dogs. The neonatal collies had no evidence of dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3717301

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Riedl, M; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Hartmann, K

    2015-12-12

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to assess current prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) in adult, healthy dogs, including risk factors associated with lack of antibodies, and reaction to revaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). One hundred dogs routinely presented for vaccination were included in the study and vaccinated with a single dose of a combined MLV. Information was collected on signalment, origin, environment, vaccination history and side effects. Prevaccination and postvaccination antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression, was used to investigate association between different variables and presence of antibodies as well as titre increase. Protective CPV antibodies were present in 86.0 per cent of dogs. Intervals of more than four years since the last vaccination and rare contacts with other dogs were determined as main risk factors for the absence of antibodies. An increase in titres only occurred in 17.0 per cent of dogs. Dogs without protective titres before vaccination or with bodyweight <10 kg were more likely to have an adequate titre increase. Based on these findings, antibody status should be determined instead of periodic vaccinations to ensure reliable protection without unnecessary vaccinations in adult dogs.

  4. Pet Dogs and Children’s Health: Opportunities for Chronic Disease Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul; Nagykaldi, Zsolt; Olson, Ardis L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Positive associations between having a pet dog and adult health outcomes have been documented; however, little evidence exists regarding the benefits of pet dogs for young children. This study investigates the hypothesis that pet dogs are positively associated with healthy weight and mental health among children. Methods This cross-sectional study accrued a consecutive sample of children over 18 months in a pediatric primary care setting. The study enrolled 643 children (mean age, 6.7 years); 96% were white, 45% were female, 56% were privately insured, and 58% had pet dogs in the home. Before an annual visit, parents of children aged 4 to 10 years completed the DartScreen, a comprehensive Web-based health risk screener administered using an electronic tablet. The screener domains were child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time, mental health, and pet-related questions. Results Children with and children without pet dogs did not differ in BMI (P = .80), screen time of 2 hours or less (P = 0.99), or physical activity (P = .07). A lower percentage of children with dogs (12%) met the clinical cut-off value of Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED-5) of 3 or more, compared with children without dogs (21%, P = .002). The mean SCARED-5 score was lower among children with dogs (1.13) compared with children without dogs (1.40; P = .01). This relationship was retained in multivariate analysis after controlling for several covariates. Conclusions Having a pet dog in the home was associated with a decreased probability of childhood anxiety. Future studies need to establish whether this relationship is causal and, if so, how pet dogs alleviate childhood anxiety. PMID:26605705

  5. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  6. Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate--Virginia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Julie R; Wallace, Ryan M; Gruszynski, Karen; Freeman, Marilyn Bibbs; Campbell, Colin; Semple, Shereen; Innes, Kristin; Slavinski, Sally; Palumbo, Gabriel; Bair-Brake, Heather; Orciari, Lillian; Condori, Rene E; Langer, Adam; Carroll, Darin S; Murphy, Julia

    2015-12-18

    Canine rabies virus variant has been eliminated in the United States and multiple other countries. Globally, however, dogs remain the principal source for human rabies infections. The World Health Organization recommends that when dogs cross international borders, national importing authorities should require an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animal did not show signs of rabies at the time of shipment, was permanently identified, vaccinated, or revaccinated, and had been subjected to a serologic test for rabies before shipment. On June 8, 2015, an adult female dog that had recently been picked up from the streets of Cairo, Egypt, and shipped by a U.S. animal rescue organization to the United States was confirmed to have rabies by the Virginia Department of General Services Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS). This dog was part of a large shipment of dogs and cats from Egypt that rescue organizations had distributed to multiple states for adoption. During the investigation, public health officials learned that the rabies vaccination certificate used for entry of the rabid dog into the United States had intentionally been falsified to avoid exclusion of the dog from entry under CDC's current dog importation regulations. This report underscores the ongoing risk posed by U.S. importation of domestic animals that have not been adequately vaccinated against rabies.

  7. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  8. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports.

  9. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  10. Comparison of continuous versus intermittent enteral feeding in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Guilford, W G; Lawoko, C R

    1996-01-01

    In humans, continuous intragastric feeding has been suggested to cause fewer gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects, better weight gain and nitrogen balance, and less glucose intolerance than bolus feeding. The aim of this study was to compare the GI adverse effects and the metabolic and nutritional consequences of intragastric feeding of an enteral formula (Jevity; Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH) intermittently or continuously to dogs. Using a cross-over study design, 10 healthy dogs were randomly assigned to be fed Jevity via gastrostomy tube either continuously (CF) or in 3 bolus meals/day (IF) for 10 days. The dogs were weighed daily. Serum chemistry and glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed before and after each 10-day trial period. Fecal dry matter (FDM), serum osmolality (sOsm), and serum electrolytes (sElec) were determined 5 times during each 10 day trial period. Urine specific gravity was checked intermittently. Hydrogen breath tests were performed on days 0, 3, and 10. During the last 6 days of each trial period, nitrogen balance and digestibility of the Jevity were determined. There were no GI adverse effects noted on either protocol, and no significant (P > .05) differences in body weights, serum chemistry results, sElec, sOsm, GTT, hydrogen breath tests, digestibility trials, or nitrogen balance. There was a significant (P < .05) decrease in FDM over time for both protocols, and a significant (P < .05) increase in urine volume for IF compared with CF. In summary, there were no significant differences between treatments in weight maintenance, GI adverse effects, GTT, nitrogen balance, or feed digestibility. Changes in FDM suggest that the dogs received excess water. In conclusion, this study of healthy dogs provides no support for the preferential use of continuous intragastric feeding over bolus feeding.

  11. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  12. A service dog in group.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Brian; Collins, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Service dogs are sanctioned by the Americans with Disabilities Act as having protected rights allowing them to assist owners with disabilities. These dogs are appearing with increasing frequency in healthcare settings, and it is important for healthcare providers to understand the rules and regulations given to service animals and owners. We discuss processes that transpired when a service dog was brought into a psychodynamic psychotherapy group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the unintended consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 2010 as it concerns service dogs and the impact on the group process. Problems resulting from the introduction of service dogs into therapy groups should be anticipated and explicitly discussed in the course of the group's transactions.

  13. Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium.

    PubMed

    Claerebout, E; Casaert, S; Dalemans, A-C; De Wilde, N; Levecke, B; Vercruysse, J; Geurden, T

    2009-04-06

    The objectives of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in different dog populations in northern Belgium, to estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections and to identify potential risk factors. Between 2004 and 2007 a total of 1159 faecal samples were collected from 451 household dogs, 357 dogs from breeding kennels and 351 dogs with gastrointestinal disorders. The samples from dogs with gastrointestinal disorders were sent to the diagnostic Laboratory for Parasitology at Ghent University by veterinary practitioners. In household dogs the prevalence of intestinal parasites was relatively low. Giardia was the most commonly found parasite (9.3%, CI 5.5-13.1), followed by Toxocara canis (4.4%, CI 2.7-6.8). Much higher infection rates were observed in kennel dogs, especially for Giardia spp. (43.9%, CI 37.8-50.0); T. canis (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2) and Cystoisospora spp. (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2). Also in dogs with gastrointestinal problems, Giardia spp. (18.1%, CI 13.1-23.1), Cystoisospora spp. (8.8%, CI 6.1-12.3) and T. canis (7.4%, CI 4.9-10.7) were the most frequently detected parasites. In all dog populations pups were more frequently infected with Cystoisospora (P<0.0001 to P<0.05), Giardia (P<0.001 to P<0.05), and T. canis (P<0.0001 to P<0.001) than adult dogs, except for T. canis in household dogs, where this correlation was not significant. A significant association of anthelmintic treatment with T. canis infections was only observed within the household population. Household dogs with a higher number of treatments per year were more frequently infected with T. canis (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between the different breeding kennels for the occurrence of Cystoisospora, Giardia and T. canis (P<0.0001) and large kennels harboured relatively more infected animals than smaller breeding facilities (P<0.05). However, this was not significant for Giardia spp. Breed and gender did not affect the risk of an

  14. Ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi infection transmitted by wild Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard(®) 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected.

  15. The FedEx Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The original shipping strategy of FedEx was to fly all packages to a hub during the afternoon and evening, sort them there, and then fly them to their destinations overnight for delivery the next day. This leads to interesting mathematical questions: Given a population represented by points in Euclidean space or on a sphere, what is the location…

  16. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  17. Reproduction of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) after feeding or food deprivation in winter.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, J; Mustonen, A-M; Nieminen, P; Pasanen, S; Araja-Matilainen, H; Hyvärinen, H

    2002-12-01

    The wild raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canidae, Carnivora) goes through autumn fattening followed by winter sleep. Farmed raccoon dogs also exhibit autumn fattening but not winter sleep, as a result of daily feeding and lack of nests. We studied the effects of food deprivation and winter sleep or active winter feeding on the physiology and reproduction of farm-born raccoon dogs. Eighty-six animals were put on a 2-month fast in November-December. The fast caused no deleterious effects on the health of the raccoon dogs. In the spring the food-deprived animals had slightly more cubs per mated female than the fed animals. There was a significant negative correlation between the number of cubs obtained and the mean body mass of the females at the beginning of the mating season. The highest mean number of cubs was obtained by the females that weighed 5-7 kg. The results indicate that the raccoon dog is finely adapted to a long period of food deprivation in the winter. Furthermore, winter sleep and food deprivation could be introduced to farm conditions by providing the raccoon dogs with nestboxes and withholding food for a period of 6-8 weeks in mid-winter.

  18. 38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service dogs. 17.148..., Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.148 Service dogs. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: Service dogs are guide or service dogs prescribed for a disabled veteran under this section. (b)...

  19. Initial evaluations of the effectiveness of spinetoram as a long-acting, oral systemic pulicide for controlling cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    White, W Hunter; Riggs, Kari L; Totten, Michelle L; Snyder, Daniel E; McCoy, Christine M; Young, David R

    2017-01-15

    Spinetoram is a semi-synthetic, spinosyn class natural product derived from fermentation by the actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Based on LD50 (50% lethal dose) values against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) using an in vitro contact assay, spinetoram was approximately 4-fold more potent than spinosad. Subsequently, two parallel-arm, randomized block design laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of orally administered spinetoram against experimental C. felis infestations on dogs, when administered as a single dose or multiple doses over a 6-12h interval. In the first study, 16 mixed-breed dogs were allocated to two treatment groups of eight dogs each, based on pre-treatment flea retention rates: negative (placebo) control; and a single dose of spinetoram at 30mg/kg. In the second study, 32 mixed- and pure-breed dogs were allocated to four treatments groups of eight dogs each, based on pre-treatment flea retention rates: negative (placebo) control; a single dose of 60mg/kg; three sequential 20mg/kg oral doses evenly administered over a 6h period; and three sequential 20mg/kg oral doses evenly administered over a 12h period. In both studies, treatments were administered to dogs in a fed state in order to enhance absorption of spinetoram. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed 24h after treatment and persistent efficacy was assessed 48h after each subsequent flea infestation. The duration of effectiveness was assessed at approximate weekly intervals beginning on Day 5 through Day 56 in the first study, or through Day 105 in the second study. In both studies, treatment efficacy was ≥99% (geometric means) through 44 d, with ≥99% efficacy continuing through 72 d for all three treatments in the second study. Efficacy remained ≥90% for at least 8 weeks with a single 30mg/kg dose; through 13 weeks with three sequential 20mg/kg doses; and through 15 weeks with a single 60mg/kg dose. For all time points and in both studies, spinetoram

  20. Experimental evaluation of Ethibloc for nonsurgical nephrectomy. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.C.; Bowers, T.; Chuang, V.P.; Tsai, C.C.

    1982-11-01

    Six adult dogs weighing 18-28 kg were used to evaluate a new embolic material, Ethibloc, for nonsurgical nephrectomy. Both acute and chronic studies were performed. Results indicated that Ethibloc is easily administered and neither toxic nor mutagenic (at 9 weeks). However, it exhibits inadequate radiopacity at the dosages used and may require a balloon catheter (which could cause some Ethibloc to be forced through the glomerular capillaries) or repeat embolization to achieve permanent and complete renal infarction.

  1. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Fahrion, Anna; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Webster, Pia; Kranjc, Asja; Glaus, Tony; Deplazes, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n=3) or 500 (n=3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two dogs were treated with moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on solution and two further dogs with an oral experimental compound 92 days post infection (dpi), and were necropsied 166 dpi. Two untreated control dogs were necropsied 97 dpi. Prepatency was 47-49 days. Dogs inoculated with 500 L3 exhibited earlier (from 42 dpi) and more severe respiratory signs. Clinical signs resolved 12 days after treatment and larval excretion stopped within 20 days in all four treated dogs. Upon necropsy, 10 and 170 adult worms were recovered from the untreated dogs inoculated with 50 and 500 L3, respectively. Adult worms were also found in two treated dogs, in the absence of L1 or eggs. Despite heavy A. vasorum infection load and severe pulmonary changes including vascular thrombosis, only mild haematological changes were observed. Eosinophilia was absent but the presence of plasma cells was observed. Neutrophilic leucocytes showed a transient increase but only after treatment. Signs for coagulopathies were slight; nevertheless coagulation parameters were inoculation dose dependent. Ten weeks after treatment pulmonary fibrosis was still present. Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident.

  2. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine A; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-11-15

    When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs' scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher's Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher's Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  3. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  4. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  5. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  6. Phylogenetic identification of Cystoisospora spp. from dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Carreno, Ramon A; Tani, Hiroyuki; Yoshiuchi, Ryusaku; Kanai, Takenori; Kimata, Isao; Uni, Shigehiko; Furuya, Masaru; Sasai, Kazumi

    2011-03-10

    Cystoisospora spp. from feces in dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs were isolated, sequenced at the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene locus and compared to other Cystoisospora spp. Cystoisospora oocysts from dogs and raccoon dogs were morphologically similar with those of C. ohioensis, and cat isolates were similar with those of C. felis. The sequences from dogs and raccoon dogs, and cats have a homology with C. ohioensis and C. felis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences showed that the dog and raccoon dog isolates were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp. including C. ohioensis, C. belli, and C. orlovi. The cat isolate formed a sister group with C. felis that was a separate clade from the dog and raccoon dog group. We report sequence variation in these Cystoisospora sequences and have identified raccoon dogs as another carnivore host for Cystoisospora spp. infecting dogs.

  7. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Contagious yawning is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and has recently attracted much attention from developmental and comparative sciences. The function, development and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon, however, remain largely unclear. Contagious yawning has been demonstrated in dogs and several non-human primate species, and theoretically and empirically associated with empathy in humans and non-human primates. Evidence of emotional closeness modulating contagious yawning in dogs has, nonetheless, been contradictory. Humans show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with typically developing children displaying a substantial increase at the age of four, when a number of cognitive abilities (e.g. accurate identification of others' emotions) begin to clearly manifest. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human animals have, however, thus far only involved adult individuals. Here, we report a study of the ontogeny of domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) susceptibility to yawn contagion, and whether emotional closeness to the yawning model affects this. Thirty-five dogs, aged 4-14 months, observed a familiar and unfamiliar human repeatedly yawn or gape. The dogs yawned contagiously, but emotional closeness with the model did not affect the strength of contagion, raising questions as to recent evidence of emotionally modulated auditory contagious yawning in dogs. The dogs showed a developmental effect, with only dogs above 7 months evidencing contagion. The results support the notion of a developmental increase in dogs' attention to others and identification of others' emotional states and suggest that yawn contagion is underpinned by developmental processes shared by humans and other animals.

  8. The effects of dietary deprivation on body temperature and oxygen consumption in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Wallace, G M; Pfeiffer, E W

    1992-04-01

    1. Body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were compared between fed (Control), food and water deprived (FWD), and water deprived (WD) black-tailed prairie dogs, in the month of January. 2. Mean Tb of Control black-tailed prairie dogs (36.2 degrees C) was significantly different from FWD (33.4 degrees C) and WD (30.4 degrees C) black-tailed prairie dogs. 3. VO2 was not significantly different between FWD and Control black-tailed prairie dogs (4.4 and 4.0 ml O2/kg/hr, respectively), while VO2 was significantly different between WD and Control animals (2.9 and 4.0 ml O2/kg/hr, respectively). 4. These findings are discussed as possible mechanisms for conserving body water.

  9. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  10. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  11. DEMOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL FINDINGS, INCLUDING EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE, IN DOGS WITH CHRONIC COUGH

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Eleanor C.; Clay, Latoya D.; Bradley, Julie M.; Davidian, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Controlled studies investigating risk factors for the common presenting problem of chronic cough in dogs are lacking. Hypothesis/Objectives To identify demographic and historical factors associated with chronic cough in dogs, and associations between the characteristics of cough and diagnosis. Animals Dogs were patients of an academic internal medicine referral service. Coughing dogs had a duration of cough ≥ 2 months (n=115). Control dogs had presenting problems other than cough (n=104). Methods Owners completed written questionnaires. Demographic information and diagnoses were obtained from medical records. Demographic and historical data were compared between coughing and control dogs. Demographic data and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) also were compared with hospital accessions and adult smoking rates, respectively. Characteristics of cough were compared among diagnoses. Results Most coughing dogs had a diagnosis of large airway disease (n=88; 77%). Tracheobronchomalacia was diagnosed in 59 dogs (51%), including 79% of toy breed dogs. Demographic risk factors included older age, smaller body weight, and being toy breed (p<0.001). No association was found between coughing and month (p=0.239) or season (p=0.414) of presentation. Exposure to ETS was not confirmed to be a risk factor (p=0.243). No historical description of cough was unique to a particular diagnosis. Conclusions and clincal importance Associations with age, size, and toy breeds were strong. Tracheobronchomalacia is frequent in dogs with chronic cough, but descriptions of cough should be used cautiously in prioritizing differential diagnoses. The association between exposure to ETS and chronic cough deserves additional study. PMID:20492480

  12. Postnatal development of bile secretory physiology in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Tavoloni, N.; Jones, M.J.; Berk, P.D.

    1985-04-01

    To determine whether bile formation in the dog is an immature process at birth, several determinants of bile secretion were studied in anesthetized, bile duct-cannulated puppies of 0-42 days of age and adult dogs. Basal canalicular bile flow rate, estimated by /sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance, averaged 0.182 microliter/min/g liver in 0-3 day-old puppies and increased to 0.324 and 0.461 microliter/min/g in puppies 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. Calculated ductular bile water reabsorption (/sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance-bile flow) was virtually absent in 0-3 day-old puppies, and averaged 0.017 and 0.092 microliter/min/g in puppies of 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. In adult dogs, ductular bile water reabsorption was 0.132 microliter/min/g. These functional deficiencies of the newborn dog were associated with an increased biliary permeability to /sup 3/H-inulin which could not be accounted for solely by an increased solute diffusion due to the lower rate of canalicular bile flow. Administration of taurocholate up to 2000 nmol/min/kg produced in all animals a similar increase in canalicular bile flow and bile acid excretion, and was not associated with changes in ductular bile water reabsorption rate. These findings are interpreted to indicate that, in the dog, bile secretory function is immature at birth and develops during postnatal life.

  13. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  14. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  15. [Post-mortem animal predation of the genital region caused by a half-breed dog].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Claas T; Wrobel, Detlev; Tsokos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe and discuss the case of a 51-year-old man, who was lying mummified in his apartment. Beside the corpse, the well-fed half-breed dog of the deceased was found. Only the penis and testicles of the corpse were destroyed by post-mortem animal scavenging, whereas the face and the rest of the body were intact. There was plenty of dog food in the apartment. In contrast to wild animals, with domestic dogs hunger is the cause for post-mortem scavenging only in the minority of cases. It is rather a displacement activity. Frequently, the face and hands are destroyed by post-mortem animal predation, as these body regions are usually unclothed and thus easily accessible. Lesions in other localizations are seldom seen and injuries in the genital region are a rarity.

  16. Changes in calcium status in aged rats fed Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis and oligofructose-enriched inulin.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Violetta; McSorley, Emeir; Naughton, Patrick J

    2011-02-01

    In this study we hypothesized that an increase in numbers of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine can affect calcium (Ca) status in the elderly. Adult and aged rats were fed a diet with or without synbiotics for 21 days. Synbiotics increased the numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in large intestine in both adult and aged rats. The plasma Ca concentration was significantly increased while osteocalcin concentration was significantly decreased only in aged rats fed synbiotics.

  17. Elimination of Dirofilaria (syn. Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in dogs with monthly treatments of moxidectin 2.5%/imidacloprid 10% (Advocate, Bayer) spot-on.

    PubMed

    Fok, Eva; Jacsó, Olga; Szebeni, Zsolt; Gyorffy, András; Sükösd, László; Lukács, Zoltán; Schaper, Roland

    2010-04-01

    Elimination of microfilaria in dogs infected with zoonotic Dirofilaria repens would be desirable to reduce further spread. Moxidectin has demonstrated efficacy against microfilariae and safety in dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis and could be an option for controlling D. repens microfilariae. A field study with 64 dogs previously confirmed positive for D. repens microfilaria was conducted in Hungary, in which a spot-on product (Advocate, Bayer) was tested. Treatments were applied to 44 dogs once a month for 3 months (five dogs) or 6 months (22 dogs), alternatively every 2 weeks for 6 months (17 dogs). Twenty dogs remained untreated. Microfilaria counts were performed once a month and for a further 6 months following the last treatment. Two weeks after the first treatment, 38 of 44 dogs were microfilaria negative. Four weeks after the initial treatment, one dog still showed a low microfilaria count. Following the second treatment, all treated dogs were negative. This status was maintained during the 6-month observation period after the last treatment. These data demonstrate the successful long-lasting elimination of microfilariae. Moreover, it may be supposed that adult D. repens were killed based on the observation that no further microfilariae were seen up to 6 months after the end of the treatment period.

  18. Assessing demographic and epidemiologic parameters of rural dog populations in India during mass vaccination campaigns.

    PubMed

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Gompper, Matthew E

    2013-08-01

    Mass vaccination of dogs is a mainstay for efforts to control rabies and other viral pathogens. The success of such programs is a function of the ability to vaccinate sufficient proportions of animals to develop herd immunity. However, fully assessing success in reaching target vaccination-levels and in understanding the outcome of mass vaccination efforts is hindered if insufficient information is available on the demographics of dog populations and the prevalence of the targeted pathogens. While such information can sometimes be gained from questionnaire surveys, greater precision requires direct assessment of the dog populations. Here we show how such information can be gained from surveys of dogs conducted in association with mass-vaccination programs. We conducted surveys of dogs in six villages in rural Maharashtra, India, between February and July 2011 as part of an effort to reduce the risk of human rabies and virus transmission from dogs to wildlife. Mass vaccination efforts were conducted in each village, and paired with blood sample collection and photographic mark-recapture approaches to gain epidemiologic and demographic data. This data in turn facilitated estimates of dog abundance, population density and structure, vaccination coverage, and seroprevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). The median dog population size for the six villages was 134 (range 90-188), the median dog population density was 719 dogs per km(2) (range 526-969), and the median human:dog ratio for these six villages was 34 (range 30-47). The median household:dog ratio for the six villages was 6 (range 5-8). Following vaccination efforts, the median vaccination coverage achieved was 34% (range 24-42%). The dog populations consisted mostly of adult dogs (67-86%) and the median sex ratio for the study area was male biased (1.55 males per female; range 0.9-2.5). The seroprevalence of antibodies against CAV, CPV

  19. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on proteinuria in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zatelli, A.; Roura, X.; D’Ippolito, P.; Berlanda, M.; Zini, E.

    2016-01-01

    Treating proteinuria in dogs reduces the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD); renal diets and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4) were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 days. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Dogs in group A (n=22) received enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, q12h) and in group B (n=22) benazepril (0.5 mg/kg, q24h); in both groups, dogs were fed the same renal diet. After randomization, dogs were monitored for 120 days. Body weight and body condition score (BCS), serum concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and total proteins, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio were compared at different time-points. After 30 days of renal diet, creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio decreased significantly (p<0.0001). Compared to randomization, body weight, BCS, albumin, total proteins, creatinine and BUN did not vary during follow-up in the 44 dogs and differences between group A and B were not observed. However, the UPC ratio of group A at day 60, 90 and 150 was significantly lower than in group B and compared to randomization (p<0.05). In group B it did not vary overtime. It is concluded that the renal diet is beneficial to decrease creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio in proteinuric CKD dogs. Enalapril further ameliorates proteinuria if administered along with renal diet. PMID:27540513

  20. Attributes, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors relating to prevention of heartworm in dogs among members of a national hunting dog club.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Barton W; Lutzy, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2011-03-22

    The Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) has cited an increasing number of reports of failure of heartworm prophylaxis in dogs. Failures may be due to resistance of L(3)-L(4) stage Dirofilaria immitis to the macrocyclic lactone class of compounds used for prophylaxis, lack of compliance with and understanding of administration of prophylactics, individual differences in drug absorption or metabolism, or a combination of these factors. Using the latest scientific information, the American Heartworm Society (AHS) and Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of heartworm infection in dogs. This study summarizes the knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors relating to prevention of heartworm among members of a national hunting dog club, visitors to the club website, and attendees at club-sponsored events. These factors can have a direct effect on the success of heartworm prophylaxis. Results suggest that the dog owners lack confidence in the accuracy of the heartworm test to identify infection, the efficacy of products sold for prevention of heartworm, and the effectiveness of treatment to eliminate adult heartworms from infected dogs. Knowledge about when to begin heartworm preventive medication in a new puppy and the timing of heartworm tests was also lacking among a substantial number of respondents. In order to increase acceptance of prophylaxis and reduce the likelihood of a false conclusion of prophylactic failure, education of dog owners should focus on the need for an appropriately timed annual heartworm test and the importance of administering the last dose of monthly heartworm preventative after the last possible day of potential transmission.

  1. [A survey on intestinal parasites of livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Frey, C F; Regotz, J; Rosenberg, G; Gottstein, B; Kohler, S

    2010-12-01

    The present study describes the occurrence of intestinal parasite infections in livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs. A total of 71 guardian dogs (more than half of the total number of guardian dogs in Switzerland) and 21 herding dogs were coprologically examined, using a combined sedimentation-flotation method. In 21 (23 %) of the dogs intestinal parasites were detected, and 8 (8.7 %) of these dogs shed either sporocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (n = 6) or taeniid eggs (n = 2). The evaluation of questionnaires providing data on age, origin and deworming schemes of the dogs completed the study.

  2. Prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma.

  3. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  4. Demography of the pet dog and cat population on the island of Ireland and human factors influencing pet ownership.

    PubMed

    Downes, Martin; Canty, Mary J; More, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Published data on aspects of domestic pet demographics are available in many countries. Several of these studies have linked household demographics, such as the presence of children in the household, to pet ownership. There is very little published information about the demography of domestic pets on the island of Ireland (the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland). This study was conducted to describe the demography of the pet dog and cat populations on the island of Ireland and to identify human factors influencing pet ownership. A questionnaire was designed and administered to households to collect data about the demographics of households and their dogs and cats. The questions related to location, building structure, social class, nationality and family structure of the household, and the sex, age and source of each pet dog and/or cat. The survey was administered by a commercial company, using computer-assisted telephone interview techniques to 1250 households selected using random digit dialling and quota controls. In this study, a pet dog was defined as a dog that was been fed by a household and considered a pet by the participant of the study. A pet cat was defined as a cat that was both fed by the household and allowed into the house. The results show that 35.6% of households in Ireland have one or more pet dogs and 10.4% of households have one or more pet cats. In total, 47.3% of pet dogs and 76.1% of pet cats were neutered. Females of both species are more likely to be neutered than males. Factors associated with dog ownership included location, house type, household social class, household composition, the presence of school children in the house, and the presence of a cat in the house. Factors associated with pet cat ownership included the type of house structure, the presence of a dog in the house and the gender and age of the participant. Cats tend to stray into households. This study was the first to provide detailed information about the

  5. Domestic dogs in a fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: abundance, habitat use and caring by owners.

    PubMed

    Torres, P C; Prado, P I

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed at estimating the population size and attitudes of residents towards caring for domestic dogs, through questionnaire surveys, as well as the frequency of these animals in different habitats (anthropic and forest patch), using scent stations. The study was conducted in a severely fragmented area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A large number of unrestricted dogs was recorded, averaging 6.2 ind/km². These dogs have owners and are regularly fed. Dog records decreased from the anthropogenic matrix to the forest patch edge, which suggests that dogs act as an edge effect on forest patches. Encounters between domestic dog and wild animals can still be frequent in severely fragmented landscapes, mainly at the forest edges. However the fact that most dogs have an owner and are more frequent in the anthropic habitat suggests that their putative effects are less severe than expected for a carnivore of such abundance, but the reinforcement of responsible ownership is needed to further ameliorate such effects.

  6. A plague epizootic in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Buskirk, Steven W; Williams, Elizabeth S; Edwards, William H

    2006-01-01

    Plague is the primary cause for the rangewide decline in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) distribution and abundance, yet our knowledge of plague dynamics in prairie dog populations is limited. Our understanding of the effects of plague on the most widespread species, the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), is particularly weak. During a study on the population biology of black-tailed prairie dogs in Wyoming, USA, plague was detected in a colony under intensive monitoring, providing a unique opportunity to quantify various consequences of plague. The epizootic reduced juvenile abundance by 96% and adult abundance by 95%. Of the survivors, eight of nine adults and one of eight juveniles developed antibodies to Yersinia pestis. Demographic groups appeared equally susceptible to infection, and age structure was unaffected. Survivors occupied three small coteries and exhibited improved body condition, but increased flea infestation compared to a neighboring, uninfected colony. Black-tailed prairie dogs are capable of surviving a plague epizootic and reorganizing into apparently functional coteries. Surviving prairie dogs may be critical in the repopulation of plague-decimated colonies and, ultimately, the evolution of plague resistance.

  7. Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors.

  8. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008).

  9. Cranial Suture Closure in Domestic Dog Breeds and Its Relationships to Skull Morphology.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Madeleine; Haussman, Sinah

    2016-04-01

    Bulldog-type brachycephalic domestic dog breeds are characterized by a relatively short and broad skull with a dorsally rotated rostrum (airorhynchy). Not much is known about the association between a bulldog-type skull conformation and peculiar patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure in domestic dogs. In this study, we aim to explore breed-specific patterns of cranial suture and synchondrosis closure in relation to the prebasial angle (proxy for airorhynchy and thus bulldog-type skull conformation) in domestic dogs. For this purpose, we coded closure of 18 sutures and synchondroses in 26 wolves, that is, the wild ancestor of all domestic dogs, and 134 domestic dogs comprising 11 breeds. Comparisons of the relative amount of closing and closed sutures and synchondroses (closure scores) in adult individuals showed that bulldog-type breeds have significantly higher closure scores than non-bulldog-type breeds and that domestic dogs have significantly higher closure scores than the wolf. We further found that the prebasial angle is significantly positively correlated with the amount of closure of the basispheno-presphenoid synchondrosis and sutures of the nose (premaxillo-nasal and maxillo-nasal) and the palate (premaxillo-maxillary and interpalatine). Our results show that there is a correlation between patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure and skull shape in domestic dogs, although the causal relationships remain elusive.

  10. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is hodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  11. Are wildlife detector dogs or people better at finding Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Heaton, J.S.; Cablk, Mary E.; Drake, K.K.; Valentin, C.; Yee, J.L.; Medica, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Our ability to study threatened and endangered species depends on locating them readily in the field. Recent studies highlight the effectiveness of trained detector dogs to locate wildlife during field surveys, including Desert Tortoises in a semi-natural setting. Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) are cryptic and difficult to detect during surveys, especially the smaller size classes. We conducted comparative surveys to determine whether human or detector dog teams were more effective at locating Desert Tortoises in the wild. We compared detectability of Desert Tortoises and the costs to deploy human and dog search teams. Detectability of tortoises was not statistically different for either team, and was estimated to be approximately 70% (SE = 5%). Dogs found a greater proportion of tortoises located in vegetation than did humans. The dog teams finished surveys 2.5 hours faster than the humans on average each day. The human team cost was approximately $3,000 less per square kilometer sampled. Dog teams provided a quick and effective method for surveying for adult Desert Tortoises; however, we were unable to determine-their effectiveness at locating smaller size classes. Detection of smaller size classes during surveys would improve management of the species and should be addressed by future research using Desert Tortoise detector dogs.

  12. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

  13. Effect of interaction type on the characteristics of pet-directed speech in female dog owners.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, Sarah; Gilbert, Caroline; Leboucher, Gérard

    2017-02-11

    Recent studies focusing on the interspecific communicative interactions between humans and dogs show that owners use a special speech register when addressing their dog. This register, called pet-directed speech (PDS), has prosodic and syntactic features similar to that of infant-directed speech (IDS). While IDS prosody is known to vary according to the context of the communication with babies, we still know little about the way owners adjust acoustic and verbal PDS features according to the type of interaction with their dog. The aim of the study was therefore to explore whether the characteristics of women's speech depend on the nature of interaction with their dog. We recorded 34 adult women interacting with their dog in four conditions: before a brief separation, after reuniting, during play and while giving commands. Our results show that before separation women used a low pitch, few modulations, high intensity variations and very few affective sentences. In contrast, the reunion interactions were characterized by a very high pitch, few imperatives and a high frequency of affectionate nicknames. During play, women used mainly questions and attention-getting devices. Finally when commanding, women mainly used imperatives as well as attention-getting devices. Thus, like mothers using IDS, female owners adapt the verbal as well as the non-verbal characteristics of their PDS to the nature of the interaction with their dog, suggesting that the intended function of these vocal utterances remains to provide dogs with information about their intentions and emotions.

  14. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of distribution, bioaccumulation and excretion of POPs in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2015-10-01

    We used PBPK (physiologically-based pharmacokinetic) modelling to investigate distribution, bioaccumulation and excretion of the seven POPs (persistent organic pollutants) CB-99, CB-153, HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, BDE-47 and BDE-99 in 4 adult captive Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches fed minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber for 500-635 days. The PBPK modelled POP concentrations in adipose tissue, liver, kidney and plasma were mostly within a factor 2 of actual measured tissue levels even for those at the lower concentration end. The excretion route for oxychlordane and CB-153 was modelled to be via faeces while lung alveolar excretion dominated for BDE-47, BDE-99, HCB, p,p'-DDE and CB-99. Furthermore the model suggested the retained mass of POPs after 500 and 635 days of exposure, respectively, to be relatively low despite these POPs being highly recalcitrant. The retention increased in the following order (% of total intake); p,p'-DDE (1%)

  15. Behavioral and Heart Rate Pattern Differences Between Breast-Fed and Bottle-Fed Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessed behavioral and physiological differences between 61 breast-fed and 39 bottle-fed neonates. Mean postpartum assessment occurred at 37 hours. Results suggest that breast-fed infants had significantly longer heart periods, elevated heart period variability, and higher vagal tone than bottle-fed infants. (Author/RWB)

  16. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P < 0.01) but gnathosoma and podosoma did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  17. "Who's been a good dog?" - Owner perceptions and motivations for treat giving.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Ward, L; Pink, C; Craigon, J; Millar, K M

    2016-09-15

    Complex relationships commonly exist between owners and their companion animals, particularly around feeding behaviour with an owner's affection or love for their animal most pronounced through the provision of food. It is notable that the pet food market is experiencing strong year-on-year growth in sales of dog and cat treats. Recognising the impact of treat giving in pet nutrition, the objective of the study was to investigate owner attitudes and motivations towards feeding treats (shop bought and other) to their dogs. A researcher-mediated questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was used to interview dog owners (n=280) at two locations: an out-of-town retail park and a country park in the East Midlands. Owners almost unanimously viewed the word 'treat' within a nutritional context, as opposed to a new toy or other pleasure. The majority (96%) of owners interviewed reported feeding treats to their dog, with 69% feeding shop-bought treats on a daily basis. A wide range of treats was reportedly given by owners and the majority of owners interviewed fed multiple treat types. No association was found between owner age and frequency of shop-bought treats fed (P=0.659) nor between owner age and frequency of food given to the dog from the owner's plate (P=0.083). A wide range of foods which would not be considered balanced for the animal's nutritional requirements was viewed as a treat by some dog owners. A range of positive and negative views around the feeding of treats were expressed by dog owners, with some citing beneficial effects while others were clearly aware of the association between treat feeding and potential weight gain/obesity. Owner views included themes around positive reinforcement and responsibility but also reflected relational aspects of the human-animal bond. The results of the study show that treat giving is commonplace in feeding regimes and that treats are embedded in the feeding behaviour of many dog owners

  18. Perceptions and treatment seeking behavior for dog bites in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rumana, R; Sayeed, A A; Basher, A; Islam, Z; Rahman, M R; Faiz, M A

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dog bites among residents of a rural community in Bangladesh from September 2006 to February 2007 using face to face interviews with 1,973 adults from five villages. The mean age of the respondents was 34+/-16 years. Sixty-eight percent of subjects were female, 7.3% of respondents reported a history of dog bite in a family member; 10% had been bitten twice. Sixty-five percent of subjects were aware of rabies and 99.1% knew a dog bite was the cause of rabies. Seventy-one percent of subjects were aware of a rabies vaccine, 77.5% of respondents stated rabies can cause death. Ninty percent of dog bite victims received treatment by traditional healers, 25% were treated with a rabies vaccine and 2.1% of victims died. Greater awareness is needed in rural Bangladesh regarding prevention of rabies.

  19. Effects of partnerships between people with mobility challenges and service dogs.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Terry K; Perea-Burns, Suzanne; Sedillo, Jessica Salazar; Hendrix, Ingrid C; Winkle, Melissa; Deitz, Jean

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of partnerships between people with disabilities and service dogs on functional performance and social interaction. METHOD. A single-subject, alternating treatment design was used. The participants were 3 women with mobility challenges who owned service dogs. For each participant, time and perceived amount of effort for two tasks were measured for functional performance. Interaction and satisfaction levels were measured for social interactions. RESULTS. Primary findings were that service dog partnerships decreased performance time for four of the six tasks, decreased effort for five of the six tasks, increased social interactions for 2 of the participants, and increased levels of satisfaction with social interactions for all participants. CONCLUSION. For adult women with mobility challenges, service dog partnerships may contribute to energy conservation through decreased time and effort required to complete some tasks and may increase social interactions.

  20. A Human Case of Zoonotic Dog Tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2017-01-01

    We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son’s feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Microscopically, each proglottid had 2 genital pores, 1 on each lateral edge, and numerous egg capsules in the uterus. The patient was successfully treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel. Adult worms were recovered in the diarrheic stool after praziquantel treatment and purgation. His family had household pet dogs for several years, and he might have acquired the infection by ingestion of infected fleas of his pet dogs. A history of dog or cat pets and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis of D. caninum infection. The infected pets should also be treated. PMID:28285500

  1. Prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hun; Huh, Sun

    2005-06-01

    The intestines and hearts of dogs were examined for Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Dirofilaria immitis, after necropsy between June 26 and September 29, 2004 in Chuncheon, Korea. Of the 662 dogs examined, 6 were infected with T. canis (0.9%), 86 with T. leonina (13.0%). Fifty dogs were infected with D. immitis among 500 dogs examined (10.0%). Five were co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina, and three were co-infected with T. leonina and D. immitis. The cumulative positive infection rate for three species was 134/662 (20.2%). Considering previously reported seropositive rates of T. canis excretory-secretory antigen, i.e., 5% in the adult population in Korea, the possibility of toxocariasis caused by T. leonina should be reevaluated.

  2. Prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hun

    2005-01-01

    The intestines and hearts of dogs were examined for Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Dirofilaria immitis, after necropsy between June 26 and September 29, 2004 in Chuncheon, Korea. Of the 662 dogs examined, 6 were infected with T. canis (0.9%), 86 with T. leonina (13.0%). Fifty dogs were infected with D. immitis among 500 dogs examined (10.0%). Five were co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina, and three were co-infected with T. leonina and D. immitis. The cumulative positive infection rate for three species was 134/662(20.2%). Considering previously reported seropositive rates of T. canis excretory-secretory antigen, i.e., 5% in the adult population in Korea, the possibility of toxocariasis caused by T. leonina should be reevaluated. PMID:15951642

  3. Service Dogs in the Perioperative Setting.

    PubMed

    Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L

    2017-04-01

    Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs.

  4. Associations between Stress and Quality of Life: Differences between Owners Keeping a Living Dog or Losing a Dog by Euthanasia

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The loss of a pet may be stressful to the owner. The main objectives of this study were to compare the levels of stress and to explore the correlates of QOL of healthy adults who currently own or who have just lost their dog. Methods The study sample contained 110 current, and 103 bereaved dog owners, all females, who lost their dogs due to euthanasia. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and divided into four major domains–Physical, Psychological, Relationship, and Environmental. Demographic variables, stress, health behaviors, and social support from family, friends, and significant other were included in multivariate analysis. Results Stress levels were significantly higher in bereaved owners. QOL in three of the four domains (Physical, Psychological, and Relationship) of current owners were significantly better than among bereaved owners. Stress was significantly associated with these three domains of QOL. Quality of life was found to be positively associated with social support. Age was related directly only to current owners’ QOL. Conclusions The results suggest that a loss of a dog is associated with stress for the bereaved owner and reduced physical, psychological, and relationship QOL. Lack of social support in the case of death of a companion animal has a strong effect on owners’ grief reactions. PMID:25826295

  5. Probiotic Potential of a Lactobacillus Bacterium of Canine Faecal-Origin and Its Impact on Select Gut Health Indices and Immune Response of Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Shalini; Jadhav, Sunil Eknath; Dutta, Narayan; Kumar, Avneesh

    2017-02-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop a probiotic of canine-origin for its potential application in pet nutrition. Accordingly, 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from faeces of dogs, out of which 9 strains were short-listed for further in vitro testing based on the aggregation time and cell surface hydrophobicity. The results of acid-, bile- and phenol-tolerance tests indicated that out of the nine, isolate cPRO23 was having better resistance to these adverse conditions likely to be encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. The isolate also showed optimal enzymatic activities for amylase, lipase and protease. Further assessments also indicated its superiority in terms of co-aggregation and antagonistic activity against pathogenic strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis. Subsequently, the isolate was identified through 16S rRNA sequencing and sequence homology, and designated as Lactobacillus johnsonii CPN23. The candidate probiotic was then evaluated in vivo using 15 adult Labrador dogs, divided into 3 groups, viz. CON (with no probiotics), dPRO (with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 as a conventional dairy-origin probiotic) and cPRO (with L. johnsonii CPN23 as a canine-origin probiotic). Results of the 9-week study indicated that supplementation of cPRO improved (P < 0.05) the faecal concentration of acetate and butyrate with a concomitant reduction (P < 0.05) in faecal ammonia. The cell-mediated immune response, assessed as delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to phytohaemagglutinin-P, was better (P < 0.05) in dogs fed cPRO as compared to the CON dogs. There were, however, no variations evident in the antibody response to sheep-erythrocytes among the three groups. It is concluded that the canine-origin L. johnsonii CPN23, in addition to possessing all the in vitro functional attributes of a candidate probiotic, also has the potential to be used as a probiotic in pet nutrition programs.

  6. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  7. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  8. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  9. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  10. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  11. Cardiopulmonary function values before and after heartworm removal in dogs with caval syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, H; Sasaki, Y; Ishihara, K; Kawakami, M

    1991-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary function values were determined before and after surgical removal of adult heartworms in 25 dogs with spontaneous and 4 dogs with drug-induced caval syndrome (CS). Fifteen dogs with spontaneous CS (recovery group) and 4 dogs with drug-induced CS (drug-induced CS group) recovered after removal, and 10 dogs with spontaneous CS were euthanatized or died (nonsurviving group). Before heartworm removal, injected radiographic contrast medium was regurgitated from the right ventricle to the right atrium. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and total pulmonary resistance were not statistically different between the recovery and nonsurviving groups of dogs, but the end-diastolic right ventricular pressure (mean +/- SD, 6.9 +/- 9.1 mm of Hg) and the a (8.7 +/- 9.2 mm of Hg)- and v (6.3 +/- 8.5 mm of Hg)-waves of the right atrial pressure curve in the recovery group were less, respectively, than the end-diastolic right ventricular pressure (17.3 +/- 6.0 mm of Hg) and the a (15.8 +/- 6.1 mm of Hg)- and v (21.4 +/- 6.9 mm of Hg)-waves in dogs of the nonsurviving group. After heartworm removal, contrast medium regurgitation disappeared, and cardiac output of the right ventricle increased in dogs of the recovery (from 2.08 +/- 0.72 to 2.38 +/- 0.68 L/min; P less than 0.05) and drug-induced CS (from 1.42 +/- 0.19 to 1.88 +/- 0.26 L/min, P less than 0.05) groups. However, regurgitation remained, and cardiac output did not increase in some dogs of the nonsurviving group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs. [Cobalt 60 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Jacobus, J.P.; Grissom, M.P.; Eng, R.R.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-03-01

    The relation between radiation-induced vomiting and gastric emptying is unclear and the treatment of this condition is not established. We explored, therefore, (a) the effect of cobalt 60 irradiation on gastric emptying of solids and liquids and (b) the possibility of preventing radiation-induced vomiting with the dopamine antagonist, domperidone. Twenty dogs were studied on two separate days, blindly and in random order, after i.v. injection of either a placebo or 0.06 mg/kg domperidone. On a third day, they received 8 Gy (800 rads) whole body irradiation with cobalt 60 gamma-rays after either placebo (n . 10) or domperidone (n . 10). Before each study, each dog was fed chicken liver tagged in vivo with 99mTc-sulfur colloid (solid marker), and water containing 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (liquid marker). Dogs were placed in a Pavlov stand for the subsequent 3 h and radionuclide imaging was performed at 10-min intervals. Irradiation produced vomiting in 9 of 10 dogs given placebo but only in 1 of 10 dogs pretreated with domperidone (p less than 0.01). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was significantly suppressed by irradiation (p less than 0.01) after both placebo and domperidone. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced vomiting is accompanied by suppression of gastric emptying. Furthermore, domperidone prevents vomiting produced by ionizing radiation but does not alter the accompanying delay of gastric emptying.

  13. Owner experiences in treating dogs and cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Aptekmann, Karina P; Armstrong, Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Rand, Jacquie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report owner experiences and satisfaction in treating a pet with diabetes mellitus using a descriptive report from an Internet-based survey. Descriptive analysis of results was performed, χ(2) tests were used to detect differences in responses between dog and cat owners, and correlations were assessed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. A total of 834 owners participated in the survey. More diabetic dogs (97%) than cats (82%) were treated with insulin injections. Insulin was administered twice daily in 87% of dogs and 73% of cats. Porcine lente and neutral protamine Hagedorn were the most commonly administered insulins in dogs. In cats, glargine and protamine zinc insulin were the most commonly used insulins. Most pets were not fed a prescribed diabetes diet. More cat (66%) than dog (50%) owners were satisfied with the diabetic control achieved. Cat owners were more likely to use home blood glucose monitoring. Treatment was considered expensive by the majority of owners. Few published reports follow diabetic pets after diagnosis or report owner satisfaction. The results of this study provide useful information that may help veterinarians better educate owners and set expectations regarding diabetes treatment and quality of life for diabetic pets.

  14. Natural transmission routes of Neospora caninum between farm dogs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Th; Barkema, H W; Eysker, M; Hesselink, J W; Wouda, W

    2002-04-30

    Twelve dairy herds with evidence of post-natal infection with Neospora caninum were compared with 21 control herds with no evidence of post-natal infection. On the former farms, dogs consumed placenta or licked uterine discharge in 75 and 67% of the farms, respectively, while on control farms these activities occurred in 38 and 24% of the farms, respectively. On all control farms and all but three post-natally infected farms the dogs were fed colostrum or milk. Defecation of dogs on the feeding alley was observed in 92% of the post-natally infected farms and in 24% of the control farms. The same trend was observed for defecation of dogs in grass silage, in 75% of the post-natally infected farms and in 19% of the control farms; and in corn silage, in 50% of the post-natally infected farms and in 10% of the control farms. Consumption of placenta, material of aborted foetuses or uterine discharge in combination with defecation on the feeding alley, storage of grass or corn silage was observed in 19% of the control farms and in 75% of the post-natally infected farms. This study supports the hypothesis that farm dogs may become infected by foetal fluids or placental material of infected cattle, and may subsequently cause a post-natal infection of cattle in the herd by shedding oocysts.

  15. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  16. Large Mesozoic mammals fed on young dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaoming; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Chuankui

    2005-01-13

    Mesozoic mammals are commonly portrayed as shrew- or rat-sized animals that were mainly insectivorous, probably nocturnal and lived in the shadow of dinosaurs. The largest known Mesozoic mammal represented by substantially complete remains is Repenomamus robustus, a triconodont mammal from the Lower Cretaceous of Liaoning, China. An adult individual of R. robustus was the size of a Virginia opossum. Here we report a new species of the genus, represented by a skeleton with most of the skull and postcranium preserved in articulation. The new species is 50% larger than R. robustus in skull length. In addition, stomach contents associated with a skeleton of R. robustus reveal remains of a juvenile Psittacosaurus, a ceratopsian dinosaur. Our discoveries constitute the first direct evidence that some triconodont mammals were carnivorous and fed on small vertebrates, including young dinosaurs, and also show that Mesozoic mammals had a much greater range of body sizes than previously known. We suggest that Mesozoic mammals occupied diverse niches and that some large mammals probably competed with dinosaurs for food and territory.

  17. Effect of exercise on gastroduodenal functions in untrained dogs.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Naruse, S; Hayakawa, T; Shibata, T

    1994-05-01

    Eight dogs were used to study the effect of 2 h submaximal (60-70% of maximal heart rate) exercise on gastric secretion and gastroduodenal motor function in fasted and fed states. Fasting gastric acid and pepsin secretion were not affected by exercise. Postprandial gastric acid secretion was significantly depressed (p < 0.05) during the second hour of exercise. Postprandial pepsin secretion was significantly decreased in both resting and exercised states. Gastric emptying of a liquid meal (protein 23.5%, fat 3.5%, carbohydrate 66.5% [w/w], 390kcal) was significantly delayed by exercise (p < 0.05). The migrating motor complex (MMC) was not observed during exercise, however, upon cessation of exercise, MMCs appeared at an expected 214 +/- 14 min after the pre-exercise MMC. Exercise did not affect the mean motor activity of the stomach but significantly increased the mean frequency (p < 0.05) and amplitude (p < 0.01) of the contractions in the duodenum, in the fasted and fed states, respectively. In conclusion, exercise lasting more than 1 h significantly depressed postprandial gastric secretion and significantly delayed gastric emptying (p < 0.05). Duodenal motor activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) by exercise in both the fasted and fed states.

  18. Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  20. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  1. "I'm Just a'-Walking the Dog" correlates of regular dog walking.

    PubMed

    Christian nee Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Intrapersonal and environmental factors associated with dog walking (N = 483) were examined. A greater proportion of regular (80%) than irregular (59%) dog walkers met the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Owners who perceived greater social support and motivation from their dogs to walk, and who had access to a dog-supportive park within their neighborhood, were more likely to regularly walk with their dogs, even after adjustment for other well-known correlates of physical activity. The higher level of physical activity of regular dog walkers can be attributed to the additional walking these owners perform with their dogs.

  2. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  3. Alien species and their zoonotic parasites in native and introduced ranges: The raccoon dog example.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Davison, John; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-03-30

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid that is indigenous in East Asia and alien in Europe, where it was introduced more than half a century ago. The aim of this study was to compare the parasite faunas associated with raccoon dogs in their native and introduced ranges, and to identify zoonotic parasite species. We examined 255 carcasses of hunted raccoon dogs from Estonia and recorded a total of 17 helminth species: 4 trematodes, 4 cestodes and 9 nematodes. The most prevalent parasite species were Uncinaria stenocephala (97.6%) and Alaria alata (68.3%). Average parasite species richness was 2.86 (the highest was 9) and only two animals were not parasitized at all. Although the infection intensity was determined by weight and not by sex, all animals infected with more than five helminth species were males. We also found that animals infected with higher numbers of helminth species fed significantly more on natural plants. Intentional consumption of grass may represent a self-medicating behaviour among raccoon dogs. We included the Estonian data into a wider comparison of raccoon dog parasite faunas and found a total of 54 helminth taxa, including 28 of zoonotic potential. In Europe, raccoon dogs are infected with a minimum of 32 helminth species of which 19 are zoonotic; in the native range they are infected with 26 species of which 17 are zoonotic. Most species were nematodes or trematodes, with fewer cestodes described. The recent increase in the number and range of raccoon dogs in Europe and the relatively high number of zoonotic parasite taxa that it harbours suggests that this species should be considered an important source of environmental contamination with zoonotic agents in Europe.

  4. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  5. Prevention and treatment of dog bites.

    PubMed

    Presutti, R J

    2001-04-15

    Almost one half of all dog bites involve an animal owned by the victim's family or neighbors. A large percentage of dog bite victims are children. Although some breeds of dogs have been identified as being more aggressive than other breeds, any dog may attack when threatened. All dog bites carry a risk of infection, but immediate copious irrigation can significantly decrease that risk. Assessment for the risk of tetanus and rabies virus infection, and subsequent selection of prophylactic antibiotics, are essential in the management of dog bites. The dog bite injury should be documented with photographs and diagrams when appropriate. Family physicians should educate parents and children on ways to prevent dog bites.

  6. Infection rate and genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis in pet and stray dogs in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Junqiang; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite that is known to be zoonotic. To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs and to identify genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in dog populations, we examined the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in both pet dogs (from pet dog farms, pet shops, pet hospitals, pet markets) and stray dogs of different ages in Henan Province, China. A total of 940 fresh fecal specimens were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Henan Province. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 14.3% (134/940) as determined by microscopy, with the highest infection rate (17.3%) observed in dogs from shelters. Young dogs were more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs, and G. duodenalis cysts were found more frequently in diarrheic dogs. All G. duodenalis-positive isolates were characterized at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) loci, and 37, 51, and 48 sequences were obtained, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified using multi-locus sequence analysis. Six novel sequences of the tpi locus, one novel sequence of the gdh locus and two novel sequences of the bg locus were detected among the G. duodenalis assemblage C isolates, while two novel sequences of the gdh locus were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage D isolates. Our data indicate that G. duodenalis is a common parasite and cause of diarrheal disease in dogs in Henan Province. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in the study population.

  7. Artificial Blood for Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain “blood” for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin–albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA3), was synthesized as an artificial O2-carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O2-binding affinity was high (P50 = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations. PMID:27830776

  8. Neotropical echinococcosis: second report of Echinococcus vogeli natural infection in its main definitive host, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus).

    PubMed

    do Carmo Pereira Soares, Manoel; Souza de Souza, Alex Junior; Pinheiro Malheiros, Andreza; Nunes, Heloisa Marceliano; Almeida Carneiro, Liliane; Alves, Max Moreira; Farias da Conceição, Bernardo; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Marins Póvoa, Marinete

    2014-04-01

    The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) acts as the natural definitive host in the life cycle of Echinococcus vogeli, the causative agent of polycystic hydatid disease, a zoonotic neglected disease in the South America. We report a case of natural infection by Echinococcus vogeli in a bush dog from the Brazilian Amazon, confirmed by the morphological and morphometric examination of adult parasites and their hooks obtained from the small intestine of the canid. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis corroborated these findings. This is the second report of natural infection by E. vogeli in a bush dog.

  9. Larvicidal effect of imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on solution in dogs experimentally inoculated with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, M; Fahrion, A; Ossent, P; Kohler, L; Webster, P; Heine, J; Deplazes, P

    2009-12-23

    A controlled, randomized, blinded dose confirmation study was conducted to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10 mg/kg/moxidectin 2.5 mg/kg body weight spot-on solution in dogs experimentally inoculated with 200 infective third stage larvae (L3) of Angiostrongylus vasorum. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly allocated to three study groups of 8 dogs each. Animals in group 1 were treated 4 days post-inoculation (dpi), those in group 2 at 32 dpi, and the dogs in group 3 were left untreated. All dogs were euthanized and necropsied 56-59 dpi. In order to determine the worm burdens in the arterial lung vessels a method of reverse lung perfusion with phosphate buffered solution after inhibition of coagulation with heparin was applied. In the control group, excretion of first stage larvae (L1) of A. vasorum started 47-55 dpi and all dogs excreted L1 at least on one sample day before euthanasia (0.1-32.5 larvae per gram of faeces). A mean of 99 (SD 42.8) adult parasites were recovered in the post-mortem examinations in these eight control dogs. In contrast, no L1 at all were found in the faeces of dogs of groups 1 and 2, nor were any adult parasites detected at necropsy. Respiratory symptoms were observed in dogs of groups 2 and 3. Pathological findings in the lungs correlated with the treatment groups: in the animals of group 1, no or minimal lesions were found, while in all those of group 2 dispersed patterns of pale pink, slightly raised and consolidated foci were present in all lung lobes. In contrast, the lungs of the dogs from group 3 were severely affected: large confluent areas were hardened, raised and discoloured, with frequent haemorrhagic patches. Pneumonia, thrombi and parasites were histologically confirmed. The lung lymph nodes were regularly enlarged. Hence, imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on effectively eliminated fourth stage larvae (L4) and immature adult A. vasorum in experimentally infected dogs and prevented patent infections

  10. Terbinafine pharmacokinetics after single dose oral administration in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mary R; May, Elizabeth R; Imerman, Paula M; Felz, Charles; Day, Timothy A; Carlson, Steve A; Noxon, James O

    2011-12-01

    Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal prescribed for the treatment of mycoses in humans. It is increasingly being used in veterinary patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine in dogs after a single oral dose. Ten healthy adult dogs were included in the study. A single dose of terbinafine (30-35 mg/kg) was administered orally, and blood samples were periodically collected over a 24 h period during which dogs were monitored for adverse effects. Two of 10 dogs developed transient ocular changes. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and used to determine plasma terbinafine concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using PK Solutions(®) computer software. Area under the curve (AUC) from time 0 to 24 h was 15.4 μg·h/mL (range 5-27), maximal plasma concentration (C(max) ) was 3.5 μg/mL (range 3-4.9 μg/mL) and time to C(max) (T(max) ) was 3.6 h (range 2-6 h). The time above minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) as well as AUC/MIC was calculated for important invasive fungal pathogens and dermatophytes. The T > MIC was 17-18 h for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), while the MIC for Sporothrix schenckii and Coccidioides immitis was exceeded for 9.5-11 h. The AUC/MIC values ranged from 9 to 13 μg h/mL for these fungi. Our results provide evidence supporting the use of terbinafine as an oral therapeutic agent for treating systemic and subcutaneous mycoses in dogs.

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths of dogs in Western Pomerania, Poland.

    PubMed

    Tylkowska, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Gregorczyk, Aneta; Templin, Ewelina

    2010-01-01

    A total of 763 fecal samples were collected from dogs in Western Pomerania during 2006-2007 to determine the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of dogs in this region. In the city of Szczecin, 648 fecal samples were collected every month in the annual cycle from nine city areas and analysed. Six fecal samples were taken at each collection time from each site. A total of 115 fecal samples from rural areas were investigated. Each fecal sample was dissected with a needle, checked for tapeworm segments and adult forms of nematodes, and examined for parasite eggs using Willis-Schlaff flotation method. The mean prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection among dogs in Western Pomerania was 34.84%. The greatest number of samples containing parasites came from the Chociwel commune (46.67%), and the smallest number from the city of Szczecin (23.92%). The greatest number of samples containing parasites from the city of Szczecin originated from the Słoneczne estate (34.72%), and the smallest number from the Kasprowicz Park (13.89%). Dogs' feces were found to contain segments of Dipylidium caninum (4.07%) and Taenia sp. (3.45%) tapeworms and eggs of five species of gastrointestinal nematodes: Uncinaria stenocephala (11%), Toxocara canis (20.62%), Toxascaris leonina (2.91%), Ancylostoma sp. (4.61%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.27%). The highest prevalence of endoparasite infection among dogs was found in July (42.60%) and the lowest in February (5.56%). Both single- and multi-species infections were observed. In the area of Szczecin, single-species infections were the most common (18.83%).

  12. Internet resources cataloguing inherited disorders in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Crook, Alice; Sargan, David R

    2011-08-01

    Up-to-date annotated catalogues of known inherited disorders in dogs are freely available on the Internet, providing vital information to existing and prospective dog owners, dog breeders, veterinarians, geneticists and others interested in the occurrence and control of inherited disorders. These resources are the Canine Inherited Disorders Database (CIDD), Inherited Diseases in Dogs (IDID) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) the latter associated with Listing of Inherited Disorders in Animals (LIDA). The history and features of these resources are summarised.

  13. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  14. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma within the medulla oblongata of a young dog.

    PubMed

    Hostnik, E T; Kube, S A; Jortner, B; Hager, D; Garman, R H

    2015-01-01

    A 13-week-old male intact Poodle mix dog developed an acute onset of vestibular ataxia, tetraparesis, and vomiting. The patient presented ambulatory, tetraparetic, and ataxic with a head tilt to the left and a disconjugate nystagmus (rotary nystagmus with fast phase to the right in right eye and vertical nystagmus in left eye). There were absent postural reactions in the left pelvic and left thoracic limbs and decreased right-sided postural reactions. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intra-axial mass within the left midcaudal medulla oblongata. On gross dissection, there was a left-sided neoplasm in the medulla oblongata with surrounding hemorrhage. The histologic findings indicated that the mass was a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. This tumor, an uncommon variant of an astrocytoma most often seen in children and young adult humans, has yet to be described in dogs.

  15. An APRT mutation is strongly associated with and likely causative for 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Furrow, Eva; Pfeifer, Randall J; Osborne, Carl A; Lulich, Jody P

    2014-03-01

    2,8-Dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) urolithiasis in people is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (APRT). 2,8-DHA urolithiasis has recently been reported in two dogs, but, to the authors' knowledge, no studies have yet investigated the genetic basis for susceptibility to the development of 2,8-DHA urolithiasis in this species. Our aim was to sequence APRT in dogs affected by 2,8-DHA urolithiasis and compare the results to clinically healthy dogs of similar ancestral lineages. Our hypothesis was that we would identify an autosomal recessive mutation in APRT that is associated with the disease. The case population consisted of six dogs with a history of 2,8-DHA urolithiasis: five Native American Indian Dogs (NAIDs) and a mixed breed. The control population consisted of adult NAIDs with no history of urolithiasis. We sequenced APRT and identified a missense mutation in a highly conserved codon of APRT (c.260G>A; p.Arg87Gln). The c.260A mutation was present in a homozygous state in all six dogs with 2,8-DHA urolithiasis, and it was strongly associated with the disease. This exact missense mutation has been previously reported to cause loss of APRT enzyme function in a human cell line, and it is likely a causative mutation in dogs. Therefore, the dog offers a naturally-occurring genetic animal model for 2,8-DHA urolithiasis.

  16. Enhanced reproduction in mallards fed a low level of methylmercury: An apparent case of hormesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 mg/g mercury (Hg) in the form of methylmercury chloride. There were no effects of Hg on adult weights and no overt signs of Hg poisoning in adults. The Hg-containing diet had no effect on fertility of eggs, but hatching success of eggs was significantly higher for females fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (71.8%) than for controls (57.5%). Survival of ducklings through 6 d of age was the same (97.8%) for controls and mallards fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury. However, the mean number of ducklings produced per female was significantly higher for the pairs fed 0.5 ??g/g Hg (21.4) than for controls (16.8). Although mercury in the parents' diet had no effect on mean duckling weights at hatching, ducklings from parents fed 0.5 mg/g Hg weighed significantly more (mean = 87.2 g) at 6 d of age than did control ducklings (81.0 g). The mean concentration of Hg in eggs laid by parents fed 0.5 ??g/g mercury was 0.81 ??g/g on a wet-weight basis. At this time, one cannot rule out the possibility that low concentrations of Hg in eggs may be beneficial, and this possibility should be considered when setting regulatory thresholds for methylmercury. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  17. A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Law, Tsz Hong; Davies, Emma S S; Pan, Yuanlong; Zanghi, Brian; Want, Elizabeth; Volk, Holger A

    2015-11-14

    Despite appropriate antiepileptic drug treatment, approximately one-third of humans and dogs with epilepsy continue experiencing seizures, emphasising the importance for new treatment strategies to improve the quality of life of people or dogs with epilepsy. A 6-month prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over dietary trial was designed to compare a ketogenic medium-chain TAG diet (MCTD) with a standardised placebo diet in chronically antiepileptic drug-treated dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Dogs were fed either MCTD or placebo diet for 3 months followed by a subsequent respective switch of diet for a further 3 months. Seizure frequency, clinical and laboratory data were collected and evaluated for twenty-one dogs completing the study. Seizure frequency was significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (2·31/month, 0-9·89/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (2·67/month, 0·33-22·92/month, P=0·020); three dogs achieved seizure freedom, seven additional dogs had ≥50 % reduction in seizure frequency, five had an overall <50 % reduction in seizures (38·87 %, 35·68-43·27 %) and six showed no response. Seizure day frequency were also significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (1·63/month, 0-7·58/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (1·69/month, 0·33-13·82/month, P=0·022). Consumption of the MCTD also resulted in significant elevation of blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in comparison with placebo diet (0·041 (sd 0·004) v. 0·031 (sd 0·016) mmol/l, P=0·028). There were no significant changes in serum concentrations of glucose (P=0·903), phenobarbital (P=0·422), potassium bromide (P=0·404) and weight (P=0·300) between diet groups. In conclusion, the data show antiepileptic properties associated with ketogenic diets and provide evidence for the efficacy of the MCTD used in this study as a therapeutic option for epilepsy treatment.

  18. Dogs as pets, visitors, therapists and assistants.

    PubMed

    Winkle, Melissa Y; Wilder, Anna; Jackson, Liberty Z

    2014-01-01

    Dogs can play an integral role in the recovery of patients through companionship, animal-assisted therapy, and as assistance dogs. This article will define and differentiate these 3 categories and provide resources for home healthcare and hospice clinicians who may want to include dogs in the plan of care for select patients.

  19. Porencephaly and hydranencephaly in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Davies, E S S; Volk, H A; Behr, S; Summers, B; de Lahunta, A; Syme, H; Jull, P; Garosi, L

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed to identify dogs with cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavitatory lesions on MRI. Six dogs were included and the lesions were classified. In the three dogs in the present study with hydranencephaly, unilateral but complete loss of the temporal and parietal lobes was noted and had almost complete loss of the occipital and frontal lobes of a cerebral hemisphere. In the three dogs with porencephaly, there was unilateral incomplete loss of the parietal lobe and one dog had additional partial loss of the temporal and frontal lobes. Two of the dogs with porencephaly had seizures; the third showed no associated clinical signs. The dogs with hydranencephaly had mentation changes and circled compulsively. The two porencephalic dogs with seizures were treated with phenobarbitone. One of the dogs with hydranencephaly showed increased frequency and duration of circling; one dog's clinical signs did not progress and the third dog was euthanased due to increasing aggression. The dog with increased circling had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and the circling frequency reduced.

  20. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  1. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  2. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  3. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  4. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  5. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  6. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  7. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  8. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  9. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  10. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  11. Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, B A; King, R; Sheichat, N; Eventov, B; David, D

    2008-01-01

    Since 1956, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been the primary vectors maintaining wildlife rabies in Israel. Oral rabies vaccination of wild canids, initiated in 1998, resulted in near-elimination of the disease in wildlife by 2005. In 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of rabies was observed in stray dogs in the vaccinated area of the Golan Heights, with no cases in foxes or jackals. Epidemiological investigations showed that the infected dogs were from territories across the border. This was confirmed by molecular analysis, which showed that the virus was different from rabies isolates endemic to this area. The objective of this study was to determine bait acceptance and the feasibility of oral rabies vaccination in packs of livestock guardian dogs. Coated sachets and fishmeal polymer baits of Raboral V-RG (Merial, USA) were tested in five different test zones. Both formats were hand-fed to individual dogs and to dogs belonging to dog packs. Bait uptake and consumption were observed in each dog. The estimated efficacy of oral rabies vaccination was very low (a maximum of 28%). Vaccine delivery problems were observed in dogs belonging to packs, whereby dominant animals consumed multiple baits and in competitive situations baits were swallowed whole. The uncertainty of oral vaccination necessitated turning to other methods to control this outbreak: stray dogs were removed and herd dogs were vaccinated parenterally. This study showed that oral rabies vaccination of dogs in packs using baits designed for wildlife would not be effective. Possibly, different baits or steps to circumvent competition within the pack will make this approach feasible.

  12. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species.

  13. Increase in Trx2/Prx3 redox system immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and hippocampus of aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Song, Ju Min; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jin Sang; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

    2011-11-01

    We previously reported that no distinct neuronal loss occurred in the aged dog spinal cord, although oxidative stress was increased in the aged dog spinal cord. Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2)/peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) redox system is a major route for removing H(2)O(2) in the central nervous system. In the present study, we compared the distribution and immunoreactivity of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2), Trx2 and Prx3 and their protein levels in the spinal cord and hippocampus between the adult (2-3 years) and aged (10-12 years) dogs. The number of TrxR2-immunoreactive neurons was slightly increased; however, its immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the aged spinal cord compared to that in the adult spinal cord. On the other hand, the number and immunoreactivity of both Trx2- and Prx3-immunoreactive neurons were significantly increased in the spinal cord of the aged dog. Similarly, in the hippocampus of the aged dog, TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and protein levels were markedly increased compared to those in the adult dog. These results indicate that the increases of TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and their protein levels in the aged spinal cord and hippocampus may contribute to reducing neuronal damage against oxidative stresses during normal aging.

  14. Efficacy and bait acceptance of vaccinia vectored rabies glycoprotein vaccine in captive foxes (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cliquet, F; Barrat, J; Guiot, A L; Caël, N; Boutrand, S; Maki, J; Schumacher, C L

    2008-08-26

    The red fox, dog, and raccoon dog are known to play a major role in the global epidemiology of rabies. These three canid species were used to compare the appetency and efficacy of two commercial bait formats, each containing a single dose of vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine. Square and rectangular RABORAL V-RG baits were fed to individual caged animal, and results were evaluated using three parameters: bait consumption, induction of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection after a virulent rabies challenge. The rectangular and square RABORAL V-RG baits were found to deliver the oral rabies vaccine in a similar manner to all three species resulting in acceptable seroconversion and effective protection levels after the rabies challenge. Appetency of each bait type was measured by bait consumption and found to be similar for both RABORAL V-RG bait formats in the fox and dog. The square RABORAL V-RG bait, however, was consumed more effectively than the rectangular RABORAL V-RG bait by the raccoon dog.

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Food Guarding Behavior in Shelter Dogs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Weiss, Emily; Slater, Maragret

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Even though food guarding is an adaptive trait for dogs, they are often euthanized when they exhibit this behavior while at an animal shelter. This research demonstrates some dogs that guard their food can be adopted and guarding is seldom seen in the home. Based on post-adoption follow-up of the dogs selected for the program, guarding behavior was rarely reported during the first three weeks, and by three months, adopters reported no food bowl guarding behavior. The adopters reported being highly bonded with these dogs and return rates were lower than general shelter dog population. Placing food guarding dogs into homes and providing follow-up support for adopters can provide a life-saving safety net for many shelters. Abstract A survey given to animal shelters across the US reported food bowl guarding as one of the most common reasons for euthanasia and only 34% attempted to modify this guarding behavior. This study identified 96 dogs that guarded their food bowl during an assessment, and then placed them into a home on a modification program. Food guarding behavior was identified as stiffening, gulping, growling, freezing, and/or biting a fake hand during the SAFER® food bowl assessment. Dogs that exhibited guarding behavior over toys were excluded. Follow-up was done at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months post adoption to measure all guarding behavior in the home. Six adopters reported at least one incident involving guarding in the first three weeks, of which only one was around the food bowl. By three months, those adopters reported no guarding behavior except one new occurrence of a dog guarding a rawhide was reported in the third month. For dog identified with food guarding, the return rate to the shelter was 5% and 9% for adult dogs not identified with guarding behavior. Adopters did not comply with at least one aspect of the program, so it is unclear why so little guarding was reported. The key finding is that dogs that guarded their food bowl

  16. Owned dog ecology and demography in Villa de Tezontepec, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, Luz Maria; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Sargeant, Jan M; Coe, Jason B; Flockhart, D T Tyler; Reynoso Palomar, Alejandro; Canales Vargas, Erick J; Greer, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Dog overpopulation in developing countries has negative implications for the health and safety of people, including the transmission of zoonotic diseases, physical attacks and intimidation to humans and animals, as well as impacts on canine welfare. Understanding the ecology and demographic characteristics of a dog population can help in the planning and monitoring of canine population control programs. Little data exist regarding demography and dynamics of domestic dog populations in semi-urban areas in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out between October 21 and November 7, 2015, to characterize the dog ecology and demography in Villa de Tezontepec, Hidalgo, Mexico. A face-to-face survey was used to collect data from randomly selected households in four contiguous communities using stratified two-stage cluster sampling. Within each household, adults answered questions related to their dogs and their experiences with dog bites and aggression. A total of 328 households were interviewed, representing a participation rate of 90.9% (328/361) and 1,450 people. Approximately 65.2% of the households owned one or more dogs, with a mean of 1.3 (SD=1.5) and 2.0 (SD=1.5) owned dogs in all participant households and dog-owning households, respectively. The human: owned dog ratio for all participant households was 3.4:1 (1450/428), and for the dog-owning households was 2.3:1 (984/428). The owned dog male: female ratio was 1.4:1 (249/179). Approximately 74.4% (95.0% CI=69.8% - 78.7%) of the owned dogs were older than one year (mean age: 2.9 years; SD=2.5). The mean age of owned female dogs at first litter was 1.9 years (SD=1.2) and the mean litter size was 4.2 puppies (SD=2.1). Approximately 36.9% (95.0% CI=31.8% - 46.4%) of the females were spayed, and 14.1% (95.0% CI=10.7% - 19.7%) of the males were neutered. Only 44.9% (95.0% CI=40.1% - 49.7%) were always confined when unsupervised. Approximately 84.4% (95.0% CI=80.6% - 87.7%) were reported to have been vaccinated

  17. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis.

  18. Volumetric assessment of cerebral asymmetries in dogs.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Franchini, Delia; Pepe, Anna M; Sasso, Raffaella; Dimatteo, Salvatore; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Quaranta, Angelo

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we quantified volumetric brain asymmetries from computed tomography (CT) scans in 12 healthy dogs, using a semi-automated technique for assessing in vivo structure asymmetry. Volumetric assessment of asymmetrical cerebral lateral ventricle (ALV) was also investigated. Our results showed that seven dogs exhibited a right hemisphere significantly greater than the left, two dogs had a left-greater-than-right hemisphere asymmetry, and finally two dogs displayed no significant brain volumetric asymmetry. This right-biased hemispheric asymmetry supports data reported previously using post-mortem morphological studies in both dogs and other mammalian species.

  19. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  20. Cephalic index and perceived dog trainability.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S

    2009-11-01

    People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for running and brachycephalic breeds are more specialized for fighting. Dog breeds rated as highly trainable are instead mesocephalic, morphological generalists. Looking trainable in dogs may reflect differences in physical morphology.

  1. Survival and reproductive success of black ducks fed methyl mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Stendell, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A diet containing 3 ppm mercury was fed to black ducks (Anas rubripes) for periods of 28 weeks during two consecutive breeding seasons. Clutch size, egg production, number of eggs incubated, hatchability and survival of ducklings were lower during both years in hens fed mercury. Reduced hatchability and poor duckling survival were the most harmful effects. During 2 years, 13 pairs of breeders fed mercury produced only 16 ducklings that survived 1 week compared with 73 ducklings from 13 pairs of controls. Mercury residues in eggs, embryos and ducklings averaged about 30% lower during the second breeding season compared with first year results. Third eggs laid by treated hens contained a mean of 6?14 and 3?86 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Whole embryos that failed to hatch contained means of 9?62 and 6?08 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Brains of dead ducklings contained between 3?25 and 6?98 ppm mercury and exhibited lesions characteristic of mercury poisoning. Relative tissue mercury levels for treated adult breeders were: feathers > liver > kidney > breast muscle > brain. Mercury levels in males and females did not differ.

  2. Morning ambush attacks by black-footed ferrets on emerging prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Jachowski, D.S.; Livieri, T.M.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Forsberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) often hunt at night, attacking normally diurnal prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in underground burrow systems. While monitoring black-footed ferrets in South Dakota during morning daylight hours, we observed an adult female ferret ambush a black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) emerging from a burrow. On a neighboring colony, we observed a second adult female ferret engaging in similar ambush behaviors on 12 occasions, although prey was not visible. We retrospectively assessed radio-telemetry data on white-tailed prairie dogs (C. leucurus) and a male and a female ferret to evaluate ferret activity in relation to timing of prairie dog emergence. Activity of radio-collared ferrets was high during the hourly period when prairie dogs first emerged and the following 2 hr, relative to later daylight hours. Such behavior is consistent with behaviors observed in South Dakota. Nighttime movements by ferrets might involve hunting but also reconnaissance of prey preparatory to morning ambush attacks.

  3. Factors that affect parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs by fleas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David; Hoogland, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that feed on vertebrate hosts. Fleas can reduce the fitness of hosts by interfering with immune responses, disrupting adaptive behaviors, and transmitting pathogens. The negative effects of fleas on hosts are usually most pronounced when fleas attain high densities. In lab studies, fleas desiccate and die under dry conditions, suggesting that populations of fleas will tend to decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared precipitation vs. parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) by fleas at a single colony during May and June of 13 consecutive years (1976–1988) at Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, USA. The number of fleas on prairie dogs decreased with increasing precipitation during both the prior growing season (April through August of the prior year) and the just-completed winter–spring (January through April of current year). Due to the reduction in available moisture and palatable forage in dry years, herbivorous prairie dogs might have been food-limited, with weakened behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. In support of this hypothesis, adult prairie dogs of low mass harbored more fleas than heavier adults. Our results have implications for the spread of plague, an introduced bacterial disease, transmitted by fleas, that devastates prairie dog colonies and, in doing so, can transform grassland ecosystems.

  4. Printing Machining. Sheet-Fed Offset Lithography Volume (1)-Single Unit. Guide for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jennifer; And Others

    This two-part guide is for printing machinists in Australia who are responsible for providing on-the-job training to apprentices and retraining to adult workers. The aim of the package is to provide training in the use of sheet-fed offset lithographic presses. Part A provides introductory materials for the on-the-job trainers, including the…

  5. Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I

    1988-08-01

    Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed.

  6. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-09

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being.

  7. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    PubMed Central

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  8. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Intestinal Trichomonads in Pet Dogs in East China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Chao; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jingjing; Gu, You-Fang; Zhang, Xi-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The trichomonad species Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis were recently detected in the feces of dogs with diarrhea. However, little information is available on the prevalence and pathogenicity of these parasites in the canine population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of trichomonads infecting pet dogs in Anhui and Zhejiang provinces, east China. In total, 315 pet dogs, with or without diarrhea, from 7 pet hospitals were included in this epidemiological survey. Microscopy and PCR detected P. hominis in 19.7% (62/315) and 31.4% (99/315) of fecal samples, respectively. T. foetus infection was detected in 0% (0/315) of samples with microscopy and in 0.6% (2/315) with PCR. The prevalence of P. hominis was significantly higher in young dogs (≤12 months) than in adult dogs (>12 months), and was significantly higher in diarrheic dogs (50.6%) than in non-diarrheic dogs (24.3%; P<0.05). Infection with T. foetus did not correlate with any risk factors evaluated in this study. A sequence analysis of the P. hominis PCR products showed minor allelic variations between our sequences and those of P. hominis strains from other hosts in different parts of the world. Type CC1 was the most common strain in dogs in east China. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S rRNA gene sequences from the 2 T. foetus isolates detected in this study displayed 100% identity and were homologous to the sequences of other strains isolated from domestic cats in other countries. PMID:28095654

  9. Taste responses of dogs to ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D A; Doty, R L

    1990-12-15

    Although it is widely believed that ethylene glycol-based antifreeze (AF) is an attractive tastant to dogs and other animals, empirical data on this point are not available. In experiment 1, we examined the propensity of 178 adult mixed-breed dogs to approach, sniff, and lick a concentration of AF commonly used in automotive cooling systems (50%). Despite the fact that most of the dogs approached and sniffed the AF in these 5-minute tests, only 9% initiated lick responses and most of these were brief and not followed by additional licking. In experiment 2, the lick responses of five gastric-cannulated dogs to aqueous solutions of 20% sucrose, 50% ethylene glycol, 50% propylene glycol, water, and 50% AF were examined in 14-minute tests before and after periods of food and water deprivation. Under the latter conditions, 2 of the 5 dogs drank amounts of ethylene glycol that would have been lethal to uncannulated dogs. None of the five dogs drank potentially lethal amounts of AF. The preference order for these tastants was sucrose greater than water greater than ethylene glycol greater than AF = propylene glycol. Although these findings question the general belief that AF is highly palatable to most dogs, they do imply that large individual differences in responsiveness exist and that AF ingestion is likely influenced by motivational state. Furthermore, they suggest the possibility that unpleasant-tasting additives could be successfully developed to eliminate the ingestion of AF, because the initial attractiveness of AF is relatively low. Such additives would have to be stable in vehicular cooling systems and not adversely affect the functional aspects of AF performance.

  10. Aggressive dogs are characterized by low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status.

    PubMed

    Re, Simona; Zanoletti, Marco; Emanuele, Enzo

    2008-03-01

    Canine aggressive behaviour is one of the most common problems being reported by dog owners. However, the biochemical basis of this phenomenon remains unclear. In humans, alterations in omega-3 plasma polyunsatured fatty acids and elevated omega6/omega-3 ratio have been linked to behavioural alterations, including aggression. Thus far, however, the relationship between plasma polyunsatured fatty acid status and aggression has not been investigated in the dog. In the present study we sought to investigate whether polyunsatured fatty acid status could be altered in plasma of pathologically aggressive Canis familiaris. Eighteen adult male German Shepherd dogs, aged 4.9 +/- 0.9 years, showing no clinical signs but aggression, were investigated. Eighteen healthy male dogs, aged 4.8 +/- 0.7 years, with a negative history of behavioural and neurological disorders served as controls. Baseline fasting plasma polyunsatured fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Compared to normal dogs, aggressive dogs showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) concentrations and a higher omega6/omega-3 ratio. In addition, they showed reduced cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations compared to their normally behaving counterparts. Altogether, our results suggest that low omega-3 fatty acids may adversely impact behaviour in dogs, resulting in greater propensity to aggression. However, given the cross-sectional design of our study, we cannot claim any causal relationship between the presence of alterations in fatty acid status and canine aggressiveness. Whether omega-3 fatty acids supplementation may be useful to reduce aggressive behaviour in the dog deserves further investigation.

  11. Computed tomographic assessment of sternal lymph node dimensions and attenuation in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Milovancev, Milan; Nemanic, Sarah; Bobe, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess dimensions and attenuation of sternal lymph nodes (SLNs) observed by means of CT in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult research dogs. PROCEDURES Precontrast and postcontrast enhanced CT of the thorax was performed on each dog. Objective and subjective contrast-enhanced CT measurements were obtained. RESULTS By use of CT, 2 SLNs were identified in 10 of the 12 dogs and 1 SLN was identified in 2. Median SLN length, height, and width were 8.5 mm (range, 4 to 22 mm), 6.0 mm (range, 3 to 10 mm), and 5.0 mm (range, 3 to 10 mm), respectively. Median SLN length-to-T4 ratio, height-to-T4 ratio, and width-to-T4 ratio were 0.64 (range, 0.24 to 1.22), 0.37 (range, 0.25 to 0.53), and 0.29 (range, 0.19 to 0.67), respectively. Median SLN volume was 123 mm(3) (range, 38 to 484 mm(3)). Median height-to-length ratio, width-to-length ratio, and height-to-width ratio were 0.57 (range, 0.27 to 1.75), 0.51 (range, 0.31 to 1.25), and 1.27 (range, 0.50 to 2.50), respectively. All SLNs had homogenous contrast enhancement with median precontrast and postcontrast attenuation values of 18.3 Hounsfield units (HU; range, 4.4 to 36.9 HU) and 41.3 HU (range, 24.0 to 77.4 HU), respectively. All SLNs had a visible hilus, which was fat attenuating in 8 dogs and hypoattenuating in 4 dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT imaging characteristics described in this study may provide a reference for dimensions and appearance of SLNs of healthy dogs and serve as a basis for comparison with results for diseased dogs.

  12. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach.

  13. Effects of wintertime fasting and seasonal adaptation on AMPK and ACC in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and liver of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2016-02-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid with autumnal fattening and passive wintering strategy. We examined the effects of wintertime fasting and seasonality on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of metabolism, and its target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) on the species. Twelve farmed raccoon dogs (eleven females/one male) were divided into two groups: half were fasted for ten weeks in December-March (winter fasted) and the others were fed ad libitum (winter fed). A third group (autumn fed, eight females) was fed ad libitum and sampled in December. Total AMPK, ACC and their phosphorylated forms (pAMPK, pACC) were measured from hypothalamus, liver, intra-abdominal (iWAT) and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT). The fasted animals lost 32% and the fed 20% of their body mass. Hypothalamic AMPK expression was lower and pACC levels higher in the winter groups compared to the autumn fed group. Liver pAMPK was lower in the winter fasted group, with consistently decreased ACC and pACC. AMPK and pAMPK were down-regulated in sWAT and iWAT of both winter groups, with a parallel decline in pACC in sWAT. The responses of AMPK and ACC to fasting were dissimilar to the effects observed previously in non-seasonal mammals and hibernators. Differences between the winter fed and autumn fed groups indicate that the functions of AMPK and ACC could be regulated in a season-dependent manner. Furthermore, the distinctive effects of prolonged fasting and seasonal adaptation on AMPK-ACC pathway could contribute to the wintering strategy of the raccoon dog.

  14. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shank, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) was to show, in a simulated spacecraft environment, the feasibility of using a microprocessor to automate the onboard orbit determination functions. The software and hardware configuration used to support FEDS during the demonstration and the results of the demonstration are discussed.

  15. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  16. Neurobiology of the aging dog.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Aged canines naturally accumulate several types of neuropathology that may have links to cognitive decline. On a gross level, significant cortical atrophy occurs with age along with an increase in ventricular volume based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Microscopically, there is evidence of select neuron loss and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of aged dogs, an area critical for intact learning and memory. The cause of neuronal loss and dysfunction may be related to the progressive accumulation of toxic proteins, oxidative damage, cerebrovascular pathology, and changes in gene expression. For example, aged dogs naturally accumulate human-type beta-amyloid peptide, a protein critically involved with the development of Alzheimer's disease in humans. Further, oxidative damage to proteins, DNA/RNA and lipids occurs with age in dogs. Although less well explored in the aged canine brain, neuron loss, and cerebrovascular pathology observed with age are similar to human brain aging and may also be linked to cognitive decline. Interestingly, the prefrontal cortex appears to be particularly vulnerable early in the aging process in dogs and this may be reflected in dysfunction in specific cognitive domains with age.

  17. Training Dogs for Heroin Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The acquisition and maintenance of detection and search task behaviors are accomplished with positive control techniques. The principal controlling reinforcer (consequence) used is food. The dog is permitted to behave freely in the work environment without coercion and with minimal restraint. The conditioned reinforcers are then used to obtain the fundamental skills, and odor discrimination. Training procedures are described.

  18. Cricopharyngeal achalasia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Renate M

    2003-12-01

    A 4-month-old, female terrier-poodle cross was presented with a chronic history of dysphagia. Fluoroscopic swallowing studies localized the problem to the upper esophageal sphincter. A diagnosis of cricopharyngeal achalasia was made. After cricopharyngeal and thyropharyngeal myectomy, the dog was able to eat soft food without difficulty.

  19. Selective imitation in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Viranyi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig

    2007-05-15

    The transmission of cultural knowledge requires learners to identify what relevant information to retain and selectively imitate when observing others' skills. Young human infants--without relying on language or theory of mind--already show evidence of this ability. If, for example, in a communicative context, a model demonstrates a head action instead of a more efficient hand action, infants imitate the head action only if the demonstrator had no good reason to do so, suggesting that their imitation is a selective, interpretative process [1]. Early sensitivity to ostensive-communicative cues and to the efficiency of goal-directed actions is thought to be a crucial prerequisite for such relevance-guided selective imitation [2]. Although this competence is thought to be human specific [2], here we show an analog capacity in the dog. In our experiment, subjects watched a demonstrator dog pulling a rod with the paw instead of the preferred mouth action. In the first group, using the "inefficient" action was justified by the model's carrying of a ball in her mouth, whereas in the second group, no constraints could explain the demonstrator's choice. In the first trial after observation, dogs imitated the nonpreferred action only in the second group. Consequently, dogs, like children, demonstrated inferential selective imitation.

  20. Pancreatic functions in high salt fed female rats

    PubMed Central

    Lasheen, Noha N

    2015-01-01

    Salt consumption has been increased worldwide and the association of high salt diets with enhanced inflammation and target organ damage was reported. Little data were available about the effect of high salt diet on exocrine function of pancreas, while the relation between high salt intake and insulin sensitivity was controversial. This study was designed to investigate the effect of high salt diet on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions, and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism(s). Twenty adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups; control group; fed standard rodent diet containing 0.3% NaCl, and high salt fed group; fed 8% NaCl for 8 weeks. On the day of sacrifice, rats were anesthized by i.p. pentobarbitone (40 μg/kg B.W.). Nasoanal length was measured and fasting blood glucose was determined from rat tail. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta for determination of plasma sodium, potassium, amylase, lipase, aldosterone, insulin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Pancreata of both groups were histologically studied. Compared to control group, 8-week high salt fed group showed: significant elevation in body weight, body mass index, Lee index, plasma sodium, TGF-β1 and IL6, however, plasma aldosterone, amylase, lipase, and insulin levels were significantly decreased. A nonsignificant increase in plasma potassium and nonsignificant changes in fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR were detected between groups. Pancreatic fibrosis was observed in test group. High salt diet for 8 weeks caused pancreatic fibrosis evidenced by decline of both exocrine and endocrine functions of pancreas in Wistar rats. PMID:26216433

  1. Redescription of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984 (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) from a dog in Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three species of the genus Cercopithifilaria have been morphologically and molecularly characterized in dog populations in southern Europe: Cercopithifilaria grassii (Noè, 1907), Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (reported as Cercopithifilaria sp. I), and Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al., 2012. The adults of Cercopithifilaria sp. I have remained unknown until the present study. Methods The material originated from a dog from Sardinia (Italy) diagnosed with dermal microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. The holotype and three paratypes of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984, described from dogs in Brazil, were studied as comparative material. A cox1 (~689 bp) and 12S (~330 bp) gene fragments were amplified and phylogenetic analysis carried out. Results The highest numbers of adult nematodes (82%) were collected in the sediment of the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk (n = 37) and forelimbs (n = 36). The morphology of the adult nematodes and microfilariae collected from the dog in Sardinia corresponded to those of C. bainae. All cox1 and 12S gene sequences showed a high homology (99-100%) with sequences from microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. Conclusions The morphological and molecular identity of the microfilariae of C. bainae overlap those described previously as Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (=Cercopithifilaria sp. I). Therefore, the present study reports the occurrence of C. bainae in Europe, for the first time after its description and the single record in Brazil. C. bainae appears to be highly diffused in dog populations in southern Europe. The phylogenetic analyses based on cox1 and 12S do not reveal the three species of Cercopithifilaria parasitizing dogs as a monophyletic group, which suggests that they have derived independently by host switching. PMID:23642161

  2. Characterization of Proteinuria in Dogue de Bordeaux Dogs, a Breed Predisposed to a Familial Glomerulonephropathy: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Rachel; Trumel, Catherine; Smets, Pascale M Y; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Aresu, Luca; Daminet, Sylvie; Concordet, Didier; Palanché, Florence; Peeters, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Dogue de Bordeaux dog has been reported to be predisposed to a familial glomerulonephropathy that displays some morphological modifications reported in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Prevalence of quantitatively abnormal renal proteinuria was recently reported to be 33% in this breed. The nature of the proteinuria was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and determinations of urinary markers (urinary retinol-binding protein, urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, urinary albumin and urinary immunoglobulin G) on stored specimens. Diagnostic performances of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis to identify dogs with elevated urinary biomarkers were assessed. Samples from 102 adult Dogue de Bordeaux dogs (47 non-proteinuric [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ≤ 0.2], 20 borderline-proteinuric [0.2< urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ≤ 0.5] and 35 proteinuric dogs [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio >0.5]) were used, of which 2 were suffering from familial glomerulonephropathy. The electrophoretic protein patterns, for all but one proteinuric dog, were indicative of a glomerular origin and, in all dogs, the urinary albumin concentration related to creatinine concentration and the urinary immunoglobulin G concentration related to creatinine concentration were above the upper limit of the reference interval established for the breed. Sensitivity and specificity of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis identifying dogs with elevated urinary albumin concentration were 94% and 92%, respectively, while diagnostic performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis in detecting dogs with elevated urinary immunoglobulin G concentration yielded sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 74%, respectively. These results suggest that all proteinuric and some borderline-proteinuric Dogue de Bordeaux dogs likely have underlying glomerular lesions and that sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and

  3. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA mainly in Rhipicephalus sanguineus male ticks removed from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sand flies are the only biologically adapted vectors of Leishmania parasites, however, a possible role in the transmission of Leishmania has been proposed for other hematophagous ectoparasites such as ticks. In order to evaluate natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, taking into account its close association with dogs, 128 adult R. sanguineus ticks removed from 41 dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis were studied. Methods Individual DNA extraction was performed from each tick and whole blood taken from dogs. Dog sera were tested for IgG antibodies to L. infantum antigen by ELISA and L. infantum real-time PCR was performed from canine whole blood samples and ticks. Results Leishmania infantum PCR was positive in 13 ticks (10.1%) including one female, (2.0%) and 12 males (15.2%), and in only five dogs (12.2%). Male ticks had a significantly higher infection rate when compared to female R. sanguineus. The percentage of L. infantum seroreactive dogs was 19.5%. All but two PCR positive dogs were seroreactive. Leishmania infantum PCR positive ticks were removed from seropositive and seronegative dogs with a variety of PCR results. Conclusions This study demonstrates high prevalence of L. infantum DNA in R. sanguineus ticks removed from L. infantum seropositive and seronegative dogs. The presence of L. infantum DNA was detected mainly in male ticks possibly due to their ability to move between canine hosts and feed on several canine hosts during the adult life stage. Additional studies are needed to further explore the role of R. sanguineus ticks and in particular, male adults, in both the epidemiology and immunology of L. infantum infection in dogs in endemic areas. PMID:22613502

  4. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  5. Onset and duration of protective immunity against clinical disease and renal carriage in dogs provided by a bi-valent inactivated leptospirosis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Minke, J M; Bey, R; Tronel, J P; Latour, S; Colombet, G; Yvorel, J; Cariou, C; Guiot, A L; Cozette, V; Guigal, P M

    2009-05-28

    Protection against clinical disease and prevention of the renal carrier state remain the key objectives of vaccination against leptospirosis in the dog. In the present paper, groups of dogs were vaccinated twice with a commercial bacterin (EURICAN L) containing Leptospira interrogans serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and canicola and challenged with heterologous representatives of both serovars at 2 weeks (onset of immunity) or 14 months (duration of immunity) after the second vaccination. Control dogs were not vaccinated against leptospirosis and kept with the vaccinated dogs. The challenges, irrespective of the serovar, reliably produced clinical signs consistent with Leptospira infection in the control pups with up to 60% mortality. As expected clinical disease in the adult controls was less severe, but we were able to induce morbidity and mortality as well. Under these extreme challenge conditions, clinical signs in the vaccinated dogs were rare, and when observed, mild and transient in nature. Following experimental infection, 100% of the control pups and 83% of the adult controls became renal carriers. Despite the heavy challenges, none of the 18 vaccinated puppies (onset of immunity studies) and only 2 out of the 16 vaccinated adult dogs (duration of immunity studies) developed a renal carrier state. These results show that a primary course of two doses of EURICAN L provided quick onset and long-term protection against both clinical leptospirosis and the renal carrier stage. This vaccine should provide veterinarians with a powerful tool to prevent clinical disease in dogs and zoonotic transmission of leptospirosis to humans.

  6. A minute virus of canines (MVC: canine bocavirus) isolated from an elderly dog with severe gastroenteritis, and phylogenetic analysis of MVC strains.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, T; Kawakami, K; Abe, T; Mochizuki, M

    2010-10-26

    Two of the three adult dogs kept in a family developed severe gastroenteritis. From the feces of one of the affected dogs a minute virus of canines (MVC) was detected by PCR and virus isolation. That this virus had recently infected the dogs was indicated by high anti-MVC antibody titers of their sera. No other virus commonly associated with canine gastrointestinal disease was implicated. As no previous association of MVC infection and disease in aged dogs had been described, further characterization of the isolated virus was performed to determine if it had unique pathogenic or genetic properties. Experimental infection of adult dogs did not result in clinical disease and comparison of the viral genome with other MVCs did not reveal any novel elements. The American, Japanese and Korean MVC strains studied were closely related to bocaviruses of bovine and human origin, and appeared to have evolved uniquely in the dog population after dividing from the common ancestor of bocaviruses. Further detailed clinical and virological studies are warranted to define the role of MVCs in disease in adult dogs.

  7. Cestodes of dogs and cats in North America.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Gary

    2009-11-01

    Cestodes are hermaphroditic flatworms (tapeworms) consisting of a scolex, neck region, and repeating segments. Cestodes lack a mouth, intestine, and body cavity. Life cycles are indirect, with the definitive host acquiring the adult form of the tapeworm by the ingestion of the larval metacestode stage contained in an intermediate host. This article describes the cyclophyllidean and pseudophyllidean groups of infective cestodes. Tapeworm infection is common in dogs and cats in North America. Infection rarely results in clinical disease, but animals infected with tapeworms should be treated. Echinococcosis, though infrequently diagnosed, remains a serious human health threat in North America.

  8. Clinical, echocardiographic, and neurohormonal effects of a sodium-restricted diet in dogs with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rush, J E; Freeman, L M; Brown, D J; Brewer, B P; Ross, J N; Markwell, P J

    2000-01-01

    The use of low-sodium diets in dogs with heart failure is common practice, but randomized, double-blind studies have not been conducted to examine the benefits or problems with this approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low-sodium diet on clinical, echocardiographic, and neurohormonal parameters in dogs with heart failure. Dogs with stable chronic heart failure were fed exclusively a low-sodium (LS) and a moderate-sodium (MS) diet for 4 weeks each in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. At days 0, 28, and 56, echocardiography and thoracic radiography were performed, and blood was analyzed for electrolytes and neurohormones. Fourteen dogs completed the study (9 with chronic valvular disease and 5 with dilated cardiomyopathy). Electrolyte abnormalities were common during the study, and serum sodium and chloride concentrations decreased significantly on the LS diet. Neurohormones did not change significantly between diet groups. Maximum left atrial (P = .05) and standard left atrial (P = .09) size decreased on the LS diet. For dogs with chronic valvular disease, vertebral heart score (P = .05), left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (P = .006) and systole (P = .02), standard left atrial dimension (P = .03), maximum left atrial dimension (P = .02), end-diastolic volume index (P = .02), and end-systolic volume index (P = .04) decreased significantly on the LS diet compared to the MS diet. Although analysis of these data suggests some benefits of a low-sodium diet, future studies with improved study design are needed to further evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of sodium restriction in dogs with heart failure.

  9. Pharmacokinetic characterization of menaquinone-4 in dogs by sensitive HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Sano, Y; Tadano, K; Kikuchi, K; Kaneko, K; Yuzuriha, T

    1993-12-01

    A simple and sensitive assay method for a pharmacokinetic study of Menaquinone-4 in dogs was established using HPLC with fluorescence detection following extraction with organic solvent. The quantification limit of this method was 1 ng/ml of plasma. A new oily solution formulation of Menaquinone-4 was administered orally to nonfasted dogs at doses of 0.4, 4 and 40 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations reached maximum levels at 1 to 1.5 h after dosing, and then decreased slowly. AUC values up to 24 h after administration were almost dose-proportional. Menaquinone-4 was also administered to dogs in soft-capsules, for comparison with a conventional hard-capsule oral formulation and an intravenous lecithin formulation. The mean AUC for oral dosing in the soft-capsule formulation was 13.5% of that for intravenous dosing in lecithin, and was 4.6 times higher than that for oral dosing in hard-capsules. Additional dosing in fasted dogs indicated that the AUC in pre-fed dogs was about 4 times higher, suggesting that feeding before giving Menaquinone-4 raises the bioavailability. Overall Menaquinone-4 was absorbed rapidly after administration in non-fasted dogs and dose-proportional bioavailability was obtained among the doses of 0.4 to 40 mg/kg. Higher plasma concentrations were observed after administration in the soft-capsule formulation rather than in the hard-capsule formulation. These findings suggest that the soft-capsule formulation would show a good pharmacokinetic profile for elderly patients with osteoporosis.

  10. Food allergy in dogs and cats: a review.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J

    2006-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is defined as "all immune-mediated reactions following food intake," in contrast with food intolerance (FI), which is non-immune-mediated. Impairment of the mucosal barrier and loss of oral tolerance are risk factors for the development of FA. Type I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions are the most likely immunologic mechanisms. Food allergens are (glyco-)proteins with a molecular weight from 10-70 kDa and are resistant to treatment with heat, acid, and proteases. The exact prevalence of FA in dogs and cats remains unknown. There is no breed, sex or age predilection, although some breeds are commonly affected. Before the onset of clinical signs, the animals have been fed the offending food components for at least two years, although some animals are less than a year old. FA is a non-seasonal disease with skin and/or gastrointestinal disorders. Pruritus is the main complaint and is mostly corticoid-resistant. In 20-30% of the cases, dogs and cats have concurrent allergic diseases (atopy/flea-allergic dermatitis). A reliable diagnosis can only be made with dietary elimination-challenge trials. Provocation testing is necessary for the identification of the causative food component(s). Therapy of FA consists of avoiding the offending food component(s).

  11. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    PubMed

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  12. TERATOMA OF THE OVARY IN A FREE-RANGING JAPANESE RACCOON DOG (NYCTEREUTES PROCYONOIDES VIVERRINUS).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Masami; Moriya, Maiko; Endo, Tomohiko; Sugiura, Natsuko; Kato, Takuya; Matsuda, Yoko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Kajigaya, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    A young adult, female, free-ranging Japanese raccoon dog ( Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) with scabies infection was found dead as a result of traumatic injuries presumed to reflect vehicular trauma. Necropsy showed a large solid mass located on the left ovarian region, occupying a third of the abdominal cavity. Histologically, the mass contained complex tissues derived from three germinal layers, with areas of cuboidal or columnar epithelium, keratinized squamous epithelium, bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue. This paper presents the first morphologic description of ovarian teratoma in a raccoon dog.

  13. Efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets against naturally acquired intestinal nematodes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Dorr, Paul; Bowman, Dwight D; Crafford, Dionne; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Yoon, Stephen; Chester, S Theodore; Dollhofer, Doris; Visser, Martin; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-02-15

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra, Merial) against naturally acquired intestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six negative control, blinded studies including a total of 114 dogs. Dogs were selected based on a pre-treatment fecal examination indicating patent infections with hookworms (two studies), Toxocara or Toxascaris ascarids (one study each) or Trichuris whipworms (two studies). In each study, dogs were assigned to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups consisting of eight, nine or 10 dogs: untreated (control) or treated with the combination chewable tablet formulation. Chewable tablets were combined to provide doses of actives as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, i.e., 2.5 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or eight days after treatment. A single treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets provided 94.8% and 90.9% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma braziliense and A. caninum, respectively, 97.8% and 99.4% efficacy against adult Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, respectively, and ≥98.3% efficacy against adult Trichuris vulpis. Compared to untreated controls, nematode counts of the treated dogs were significantly reduced (F-test; p<0.002). In addition, analysis of the pooled data across studies revealed that treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets reduced adult Uncinaria stenocephala burdens by 74.9% (p=0.002). All dogs tolerated the treatment well based on clinical observations post-treatment and daily clinical observations. No adverse experiences or other clinical problems related to the treatment were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled

  14. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  15. Human listeners attend to size information in domestic dog growls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M; Reby, David; McComb, Karen

    2008-05-01

    The acoustic features of vocalizations have the potential to transmit information about the size of callers. Most acoustic studies have focused on intraspecific perceptual abilities, but here, the ability of humans to use growls to assess the size of adult domestic dogs was tested. In a first experiment, the formants of growls were shifted to create playback stimuli with different formant dispersions (Deltaf), simulating different vocal tract lengths within the natural range of variation. Mean fundamental frequency (F0) was left unchanged and treated as a covariate. In a second experiment, F0 was resynthesized and Deltaf was left unchanged. In both experiments Deltaf and F0 influenced how participants rated the size of stimuli. Lower formant and fundamental frequencies were rated as belonging to larger dogs. Crucially, when F0 was manipulated and Deltaf was natural, ratings were strongly correlated with the actual weight of the dogs, while when Deltaf was varied and F0 was natural, ratings were not related to the actual weight. Taken together, this suggests that participants relied more heavily on Deltaf, in accordance with the fact that formants are better predictors of body size than F0.

  16. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis.

  17. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.

    PubMed

    May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O

    2012-12-07

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin.

  18. Comparison of cytokine responses between dogs with sepsis and dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Valerie; Burgess, Brandy; Morley, Paul; Bragg, Ryan; Avery, Anne; Dow, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Cytokine abnormalities have been described previously in dogs with varied immune mediated and inflammatory conditions such as IMHA and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to establish references ranges for cytokine levels in dogs and to compare cytokine levels in normal dogs and dogs with two common inflammatory diseases (sepsis and IMHA). We hypothesized that cytokine response profiles in dogs with sepsis would be significantly different from those in dogs with IMHA due to the very different etiologies of the two diseases. Concentrations of 14 different cytokines in serum were measured and values grouped according to cytokine function. Serum from clinically normal dogs was used to establish cytokine concentration reference ranges. Rank values for each of the 4 cytokine groups were then compared statistically between healthy control, septic and IMHA dogs. This analysis revealed differences in cytokine groups between dogs with sepsis and IMHA when compared to healthy control dogs but no difference between dogs with either of these conditions. In conclustion, dogs in the early stage of sepsis and IMHA have similar circulating cytokines despite different etiologies suggesting activation of common immunologic pathways. This may have implications for immunotherapy of immune mediated diseases in dogs of varying etiology.

  19. Anaplasma platys in dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Sosa, Nicolás; Félix, María Laura; Venzal, José Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Anaplasmataceae family members include vector-borne bacteria of veterinary importance that may also affect humans. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the main members of this family detected in dogs worldwide. In Uruguay there are not many published studies on tick-borne pathogens affecting dogs, the only haemoparasite molecularly confirmed in dogs, is the piroplasm Rangelia vitalii. The aim of the present work was to detect the presence of A. platys and E. canis in dogs and dogs-associated ticks of two localities in Northwestern Uruguay. Blood samples from dogs with and without clinical signs associated with vector-borne diseases, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus obtained from these dogs were analyzed by PCR for Anaplasmataceae. Positive dogs were further analyzed by PCR for Ehrlichia spp. and A. platys. All the ticks were found negative. No dog was detected infected with E. canis, while eight dogs (4.2%) were found to be infected with A. platys. Phylogenetic analysis of groESL operon sequence for A. platys revealed no differences with sequences described for A. platys in neighbor countries and from other regions of the world. This is the first report of the presence of A. platys in Uruguay.

  20. Services for Visually Impaired Adults in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magarrell, G.

    1990-01-01

    The article examines the partnership between the Canadian government and nonprofit organizations in delivering rehabilitation services to blind/visually impaired adults. Discussed are legislation, concessions to blind persons, services of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, special equipment, dog guide schools, consumer groups, and the…