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Sample records for adult drug courts

  1. Systematic review of the impact of adult drug treatment courts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Randall T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. correctional system is overburdened by individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll in individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug court treatment programs (DTCs) are present in over 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States, as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes available descriptive information on representative drug treatment court populations, summarizes observational studies of drug court participants, and specifically reviews available experimental effectiveness literature on drug treatment courts. The review concludes by examining limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on drug treatment court interventions. Review of non-experimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of drug treatment courts point toward benefit vs. traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of drug treatment courts are scant (three identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts), and methodological issues arise in combining their findings. These randomized trials failed to demonstrate consistent effect upon re-arrest rates for drug-involved offenders participating in drug treatment court vs. typical adjudication. The two studies examining reconviction and reincarceration, however, demonstrated reductions for the drug treatment court group vs. those typically adjudicated. PMID:20478542

  2. Combining Drug Court with Adolescent Residential Treatment: Lessons from Juvenile and Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Ellis, Rodney A.; Holmes, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Drug courts have been recognized and empirically supported as an effective means of reducing recidivism and use of substances for both juveniles and adults. The paper reports the results of an outcome evaluation of a juvenile drug court in the Upper Cumberland area of Middle Tennessee. As with previous studies, the program showed impressive…

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the New South Wales Adult Drug Court Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marian; Lancsar, Emily; Haas, Marion; Lind, Bronwyn; Weatherburn, Don; Chen, Shuling

    2004-01-01

    In New South Wales, Australia, a cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted of an adult drug court (ADC) program as an alternative to jail for criminal offenders addicted to illicit drugs. This article describes the program, the cost-effectiveness analysis, and the results. The results of this study reveal that, for the 23-month period of the…

  4. Changes in Adult, Child, and Family Functioning among Participants in a Family Treatment Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Cosden, Merith; Koch, Lauren M

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral changes for 76 adults and 115 children from 62 families participating in a Family Treatment Drug Court (FTDC), in either residential or outpatient settings, were studied. Improvements in psychosocial functioning were calculated using a reliable change index (RCI) for family, adult, and child measures. Among outcomes, significant improvements in family functioning were noted and associated with improvements in child development and the likelihood of reunification. Support for FTDCs and implications for future practice and research are discussed. PMID:26827466

  5. Systematic review of the impact of adult drug-treatment courts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall T

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. correctional system is overburdened with individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll on individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug treatment court (DTC) programs are present in more than 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes the available descriptive information on representative DTC populations and the observational studies of drug court participants, and it specifically reviews the available experimental effectiveness literature on DTCs. The review concludes by examining the limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on DTC interventions. A review of nonexperimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of DTCs points toward benefit versus traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of DTCs are scant (3 were identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts), and methodological issues develop in combining their findings. These randomized trials failed to demonstrate a consistent effect on rearrest rates for drug-involved offenders participating in DTC versus typical adjudication. The 2 studies examining reconviction and reincarceration, however, demonstrated reductions for the DTC group versus those typically adjudicated.

  6. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  7. Delay discounting, self-control, and substance use among adult drug court participants.

    PubMed

    Jones, Craig G A; Fearnley, Helen; Panagiotopoulos, Barbara; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between two measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use among a sample of participants on an Australian drug court (n=80). Participants completed a computer-based delay discounting task, a paper-based delay discounting task, and a questionnaire-based measure of self-control. The delay discounting tasks measured individual differences in the value attributed to distal outcomes, which is one aspect of impulsive behavior that has been found to be over-represented among illicit drug users. The relationship between the measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use was assessed by fitting longitudinal panel regression models with adjustment for informative treatment dropout. Consistent with previous research, drug court participants were found to have higher discount rates (i.e. were more impulsive) than a noncriminal population of university students (n=101). Drug court participants also discounted delayed gains more than delayed losses. Delay discounting was not significantly associated with the odds of substance use on the drug court program. There was a positive relationship between the survey-based measure of impulsivity and the mean substance use frequency. The authors conclude that impulsivity is correlated with substance use among drug court participants but not when measuring impulsivity using a delay discounting paradigm.

  8. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  9. Drug Courts. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Drug courts are designed to stop the abuse of alcohol and other drugs and the related criminal activity by offering individuals, whose criminal activity stems from substance abuse, the choice to participate in treatment. In exchange for successful completion of a treatment program, the court has the option of dismissing the original charge,…

  10. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children’s school performance

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Sloan, Frank A.; Evans, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children’s academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. Method State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005–12. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Results Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., mother’s educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. Conclusion While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much—but not all—of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  11. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  12. Cutting Crime: Drug Courts in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    Drug courts depart from traditional criminal justice practice by directing nonviolent drug abusing offenders to intensive court-supervised drug treatment instead of to prison. An examination of drug courts is offered in this booklet. The text is based on extensive interviews with judges, prosecutors, public defenders, court administrators, police…

  13. An Exploration of Treatment and Supervision Intensity among Drug Court and Non-Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Warner, Tara D.; Lattimore, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that drug court programs appear effective in reducing the substance use and recidivism of drug-involved offenders. As there is no single drug court model, programs vary from site to site and the extent to which individual programs are fully implemented is not well documented. The extent to which drug court programs deliver…

  14. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

  15. A Juvenile Drug Court Model in Southern Arizona: Substance Abuse, Delinquency, and Sexual Risk Outcomes by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Bridget S.; Stevens, Sally J.; Fuhriman, Janet; Bogart, John G.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use related crimes continue to be processed in juvenile courts at high rates. One approach for addressing substance related issues has been the implementation of juvenile drug courts. Juvenile drug courts were established given the wide-spread success of adult drug courts. However, juvenile drug courts require different components…

  16. Miami Drug Court Gives Drug Defendants a Second Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Newlyn, Andrea K.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Diversion and Drug Treatment program, known as "Drug Court," in Miami (Florida) in which nonviolent drug offenders have prosecution of their cases deferred while they participate in a court-ordered drug-rehabilitation program. Those who successfully complete the program have their cases dismissed. Whereas typical recidivism rates for…

  17. Drug Court Effectiveness: A Matched Cohort Study in the Dane County Drug Treatment Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Drug treatment courts (DTCs) are widely viewed as effective diversion programs for drug-involved offenders; however, previous studies frequently used flawed comparison groups. In the current study, the author compared rates of recidivism for drug court participants to rates for a traditionally adjudicated comparison group matched on potentially…

  18. Vulnerable populations: drug court program clients.

    PubMed

    Speck, Patricia M; Connor, Pamela D; Hartig, Margaret T; Cunningham, Patricia D; Fleming, Belinda

    2008-09-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are chronic conditions characterized by an inability to control one's urge to use mood- or mind-altering drugs. Recognition of the association between addictions and crime to support the addiction, along with the relapsing nature of addictions, presents treatment and management challenges for clinicians and frustration for patients and their families. Pressures to reduce the burgeoning jail population have resulted in collaboration between the treatment community and the court--a diversion program called drug court. This article reviews the drug court programs, the clients, and the processes of accountability that direct the progress toward sobriety in the drug court clients. It also argues that the drug court clients have unique health needs requiring interventions best suited for the recovering addict enrolled in a diversion program within the criminal justice system. Nurses have the ability to influence these systems and provide safety-net clinics to drug court clients through outreach, case finding, and culturally and linguistically appropriate care that can ultimately help this population to reach a higher level of wellness.

  19. Understanding success and nonsuccess in the drug court.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Andrew; Keena, Linda D; O'Brien, Erin

    2013-10-01

    The drug court was developed as a response to the ineffectiveness of the traditional criminal justice response to addiction. It has grown from 1 Miami court in 1989 to more than 2,100 drug court programs across the United States in 2011. The drug court has been described as a restorative or community justice intervention that can benefit the offender, direct and indirect victims, and the community as a whole through its combination of treatment, intensive supervision, and regular court appearances. Although the number of qualitative drug court studies has increased in recent years, there are few studies that compare those who successfully complete the drug court program with those who do not complete. This article is a qualitative study of drug court participants in an Arkansas drug court program. The article compares and contrasts the perceptions of those graduated from the program with those who were terminated from the program.

  20. Adaptive Interventions in Drug Court: A Pilot Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Arabia, Patricia L.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Croft, Jason R.; McKay, James R.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study (N = 30) experimentally examined the effects of an adaptive intervention in an adult misdemeanor drug court. The adaptive algorithm adjusted the frequency of judicial status hearings and clinical case-management sessions according to pre-specified criteria in response to participants' ongoing performance in the program. Results revealed the adaptive algorithm was acceptable to both clients and staff, feasible to implement with greater than 85% fidelity, and showed promise for eliciting clinically meaningful improvements in drug abstinence and graduation rates. Estimated effect sizes ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 across various dependent measures. Compared to drug court as-usual, participants in the adaptive condition were more likely to receive responses from the drug court team for inadequate performance in the program and received those responses after a substantially shorter period of time. This suggests the adaptive algorithm may have more readily focused the drug court team's attention on poorly-performing individuals, thus allowing the team to “nip problems in the bud” before they developed too fully. These preliminary data justify additional research evaluating the effects of the adaptive algorithm in a fully powered experimental trial. PMID:19724664

  1. Treating Substance Abuse Offenders in the Southwestern United States: A Report Evaluating the Long-Term Effectiveness of the Yuma County Adult Drug Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Sherri; Waters, Thomas Franklin

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes data gathered from the 64 graduates of the Yuma County Drug Court from 1998 to 2001. Those who agreed to participate were interviewed at 3, 6, 12 and/or 18 months after graduation. Instruments used included the Addiction Severity Index, the CSAT GPRA Client Outcomes Measure for Discretionary Programs and a questionnaire…

  2. Los Angeles County drug court programs: initial results.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Jonathan E; Tye, Grace; Ogawa, Patrick L; Imam, Iraj J; Long, Anna M

    2002-10-01

    Los Angeles County established its first drug court program in 1994 in response to escalating criminal activity associated with substance abuse and overcrowded jails. This paper describes results of an evaluation of 803 drug court participants admitted to the program between 1994 and 1997. Of all drug court participants, 76% remained free of any new arrests throughout the one-year followup period, compared to 63% of participants in a drug diversion education program and 49% of the felony defendants not exposed to either program. Of offenders completing the drug court program 80% had no arrests, compared to 67% for non-completers. Drug related re-arrests were significantly lower among drug court graduates (13%) than offenders with no program participation (30%). The study results suggest that drug court participation and graduation decrease the likelihood of repeated arrests, including drug-related arrests. Drug courts represent a promising collaboration between criminal justice and public health agencies.

  3. Perceived deterrence and outcomes in drug court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Foltz, Carol; Lee, Patricia A; Patapis, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    According to perceived-deterrence theory, the likelihood that an offender will engage in drug use or illegal activity is influenced by the perceived certainty of being detected for infractions or recognized for accomplishments, the perceived certainty of receiving sanctions for infractions or rewards for accomplishments, and the anticipated magnitude of the sanctions and rewards. This study evaluated drug court participants' perceived deterrence at monthly intervals during their enrollment in drug court. Exploratory cluster analysis (N=255) on the longitudinal scores yielded five subtypes of drug offenders characterized either by consistently elevated perceived-deterrence scores, consistently moderate scores, consistently low scores, increasing scores, or decreasing scores. The best outcomes were associated with consistently elevated scores, whereas the worst outcomes were associated with scores that declined over time as the participants became accustomed to the program. The clusters also differed in predicted directions on demographic variables. The correlational design does not permit inferences of causality; however, the results lend credence to perceived deterrence as a potential explanatory mechanism for the effects of drug courts.

  4. Outcomes among drug court participants: does drug of choice matter?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L; Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Howell, Terra; Latessa, Edward J

    2011-02-01

    The link between drug and alcohol abuse and criminal behavior is clearly illustrated in the literature. The options of how to respond to these offenders, however, has widely fluctuated over time. Currently, many states have reconsidered their "get tough" approach to one that is more rehabilitative in nature. One particular community-based intervention that has gained in popularity is the drug court model. The literature on drug courts is generally supportive; however, there is a need to examine effectiveness by target population. The purpose of this study is to explore recidivism rates of drug court clients by drug of choice. Using a 2-year follow-up period, this study finds that drug of choice does not significantly influence either successful graduation or arrest. Policy implications are discussed.

  5. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela A; St Lawrence, Janet S; McCluskey, D Lee

    2012-07-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals' perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated into the services provided to drug court participants. Then, surveys were completed by 235 drug court participants to assess whether their sexual risk behaviors affirmed the need for such an intervention. The survey also assessed demographic characteristics, drug use prior to program entry, HIV knowledge, and condom attitudes. The relationship between duration in the drug court program and sexual risk behavior was also examined. Implications for the development and delivery of HIV risk reduction interventions within drug court programs are discussed.

  6. Experience with family drug courts in three cities.

    PubMed

    Haack, Mary; Alemi, Farrokh; Nemes, Susanna; Cohen, Jeri B

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the following components of specialized Family Drug Courts: (1) children under court supervision; (2) parent(s) named in the petition; (3) services provided and court actions taken; and (4) relapse rates. Data were collected from the court records of 65 families in three courts in Florida, Kansas, and New York. Courts differed in type of clients, sanctions used, and length of time required between drug testing. Drug testing frequency varied depending on the parent's recovery and cooperation. Test results indicated a decline in drug use in the first four months and an increased risk for relapse between the 15th and 19th weeks. Specialized Family Drug Courts show promise for an improved way to address child abuse and neglect involving parental substance use. They can also provide a unique clinical training experience for health professionals.

  7. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela A.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals' perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated…

  8. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients' Risk Status in Drug Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status…

  9. Symptoms of depression and successful drug court completion.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natasha S; Trinidad, Jonathan R; Nochajski, Thomas H; Farrell, Mark C

    2013-12-01

    The majority of drug abusing offenders who need substance abuse treatment do not receive it. Although interventions like drug court increase the probability of offender success, little is known about how co-occurring psychological symptoms impact drug court treatment outcomes. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that co-occurring psychological symptoms would have a significant relationship with successful drug court completion. Using a sample of suburban drug court enrollees (n = 122), multivariate logistic regression was conducted with successful drug court completion as the outcome variable. Predictor variables included symptom counts of depression, post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, generalized anxiety, and social phobia. Results indicated that participants with fewer symptoms of depression were more likely to successfully complete drug court than participants with more symptoms. The present study extends previous research by demonstrating that symptoms of depression are related to poorer outcomes for drug court enrollees. Accordingly, drug courts need to address participants' symptoms of depression to maximize success.

  10. Treatment Retention and Changes in Motivation among Drug Court Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinlock, Timothy W.; Sears, Emily A.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Callaman, Jason M.; Brown, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether Motivational Interviewing (MI), found effective with voluntary entrants to drug treatment, would improve intrinsic motivation and treatment retention among drug court probationers. Probationers were randomly assigned to receive either a two-session MI intervention or a two-session Drug Education (DE) intervention…

  11. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  12. The Timing and Accumulation of Judicial Sanctions among Drug Court Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRee, Nick; Drapela, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    Judicial sanctions are used by drug courts to encourage clients to comply with program requirements. However, few studies have explored the application of sanctions in drug courts or the relationship between sanctions and drug court graduation. This article reports the results of a study of sanctions as applied in a drug court in southwest…

  13. Psychiatric Disorders Among Detained Youths: A Comparison of Youths Processed in Juvenile Court and Adult Criminal Court

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason; Teplin, Linda; Voss, Laurie; Simon, Clarissa; Abram, Karen; McClelland, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in youths processed in adult criminal court with youths processed in the juvenile court. Methods Participants were a stratified random sample of 1829 youths (10–18 years of age) arrested and detained in Chicago, IL. Data on 1715 youths (13–18 years of age) from version 2.3 of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children are presented, including 1440 youths processed in juvenile court and 275 youths processed in adult criminal court. Results Among youths processed in the adult criminal court, 66% had at least one psychiatric disorder and 43% had two or more types of disorders. Prevalence rates and the number of comorbid types of disorders were not significantly different between youths processed in adult criminal court and those processed in the juvenile court. Among youths processed in adult criminal court, those sentenced to prison had significantly greater odds of having disruptive behavior, substance use, or comorbid affective and anxiety disorders than those receiving a less severe sentence. Males, African Americans, Hispanics, and older youths had greater odds of being processed in adult criminal court than females, non-Hispanic whites, and younger youths, even after controlling for felony-level violent crime. Conclusions Community and correctional systems must be prepared to provide psychiatric services to youths transferred to adult criminal court, and especially to youths sentenced to prison. Psychiatric service providers must also consider the disproportionate representation of racial/ethnic minorities in the transfer process when developing and implementing services. PMID:18757588

  14. Treatment as Part of Drug Court: The Impact on Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxman, Faye S.; Bouffard, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Drug treatment is one of the critical components of drug court programming, yet it has not been thoroughly studied in the drug court literature. Very little is understood about the nature of drug treatment services provided in the drug court setting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of selected treatment variables on drug court…

  15. Supreme Court Docket: Drug Testing and the Fourth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charlotte C., Ed.; Williams, Charles, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses upon classroom presentation of issues related to the Fourth Amendment of U.S. Constitution. Presents a description of a drug test case simulation (D. Hess); a case involving drug testing in the public sector which is to be heard by the Supreme Court (L. Mandell); and other teaching strategies (D. Hess). Provides a guide for finding Supreme…

  16. How Drug Treatment Courts Work: An Analysis of Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Denise C.; Kearley, Brook W.; Najaka, Stacy S.; Rocha, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines program elements related to reductions in drug use and crime among Drug Treatment Courts (DTC) participants as well as theoretical mechanisms--increased social controls and improved perceptions of procedural justice--expected to mediate the effects of DTC on these outcomes. Data are from 157 research participants interviewed…

  17. Predicting drug court treatment completion using the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Curtis; Powers, Bradley; Halfaker, Dale; Akeson, Steven; Ben-Porath, Yossef

    2012-12-01

    We examined the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) substantive scales to predict Drug Court treatment completion in a sample of individuals identified as being at risk for failure to complete the program. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF scales Behavior/Externalizing Dysfunction, Antisocial Behavior, Aberrant Experiences, Juvenile Conduct Problems, Aggression, and Disconstraint-Revised were associated with increased risk for failure to complete treatment. These results are consistent with previous findings (O'Reilly, 2007; Sellbom, Ben-Porath, Baum, Erez, & Gregory, 2008) regarding treatment completion. Gender was also found to be associated with treatment completion, with females being more likely to complete the Drug Court program than males. Zero-order correlations and relative risk analyses indicated that the MMPI-2-RF can provide useful information regarding risk factors for failure to complete Drug Court treatment. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  18. Secondary Prevention Services for Clients Who Are Low Risk in Drug Court: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatteo, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The drug court model assumes that most drug offenders are addicts, and that drug use fuels other criminal activity. As a result, drug court clients must satisfy an intensive regimen of treatment and supervisory obligations. However, research suggests that roughly one third of drug court clients do not have a clinically significant substance use…

  19. Does Drug Testing Deter Drug Court Participants from Using Drugs or Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinpeter, Christine B.; Brocato, Jo; Koob, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates 3 drug-testing strategies implemented in 5 different jurisdictions with drug courts in Orange County, California. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the sweat patch acts as a deterrent and under what conditions it can be used to improve outcomes. Results indicated that although the use of the sweat patch did not…

  20. Remanding to Adult Court: You Make the Call. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calpin, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson in which students participate in a role-playing exercise to determine whether or not a juvenile should be remanded to an adult court. Includes learning objectives and step-by-step implementation procedures. Also includes four student handouts representing legal issues, briefing sheets, and a mock police report. (CFR)

  1. Is tobacco a drug? Administrative agencies as common law courts.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, C R

    1998-04-01

    Professor Cass Sunstein argues that the FDA has the authority to regulate tobacco products. He considers the text of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which supports the FDA assertion, and the context of its enactment, which argues against the FDA. He resolves the tension between text and context in favor of FDA jurisdiction by turning to the emerging role of administrative agencies. In modern government, he contends, administrative agencies have become America's common law courts, with the power to adapt statutory regimes to new facts and new values when the underlying statute is ambiguous. Professor Sunstein's Article, like the other pieces in this volume, was written after the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina decided Coyne Beahm v. FDA, but before a three judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed that decision in Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. FDA. In Coyne Beahm, the District Court held that the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products, but not tobacco advertising. The Fourth Circuit rejected the District Court's jurisdictional ruling and invalidated the FDA's regulations in their entirety. The Clinton Administration has since requested an en banc rehearing before the Fourth Circuit. PMID:10557544

  2. An Appreciative Inquiry into an Urban Drug Court: Cultural Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond; Cohen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an appreciative inquiry (AI) theoretical research perspective and change methodology to transform the working relationships and cultural expectations of members through the discovery of their positive core leading to an optimistic and confidence-based future for an urban drug court. This study describes how…

  3. Predicting Drug Court Treatment Completion Using the MMPI-2-RF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Curtis; Powers, Bradley; Halfaker, Dale; Akeson, Steven; Ben-Porath, Yossef

    2012-01-01

    We examined the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) substantive scales to predict Drug Court treatment completion in a sample of individuals identified as being at risk for failure to complete the program. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF scales Behavior/Externalizing…

  4. India: High Court rules mandatory death penalty for drug crimes unconstitutional.

    PubMed

    Golichenko

    2011-10-01

    On 16 June 2011, the Bombay High Court issued a judgment that overturned the law providing for a mandatory death penalty for certain drug crimes, becoming the first court in the world to do so. PMID:22165278

  5. Employment, employment-related problems, and drug use at drug court entry.

    PubMed

    Leukefeld, Carl; McDonald, Hope Smiley; Staton, Michele; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison

    2004-01-01

    The literature indicates that employment may be an important factor for retaining substance misusing clients in treatment. Given the link between employment problems and treatment retention for Drug Court clients, the current project builds upon the existing services provided by Drug Courts in order to develop and implement an innovative model that focuses on obtaining, maintaining, and upgrading employment for Drug Court participants. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the employment intervention used in Kentucky Drug Courts, which is grounded in established job readiness and life skill training approaches; and (2) profile those participants who were employed full-time prior to Drug Court and those who were not. Findings suggest that those employed full-time were more likely to have higher incomes and more earned income from legitimate job sources, although there were no differences in the types of employment (major jobs included food service and construction). In addition, study findings suggest that full-time employment was not "protective" since there were few differences in drug use and criminal activity by employment status. Employment interventions need to be examined to determine their utility for enhancing employment and keeping drug users in treatment. This article focuses on the initial 400 participants, who began entering the study in March, 2000.

  6. Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Nancy; Webb, Vincent J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court…

  7. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments.

    PubMed

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Henggeler, Scott W; Shapiro, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes.

  8. Female Drug Offenders Reflect on Their Experiences with a County Drug Court Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James C.; Wolfer, Loreen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the experiences of a group of female drug offenders who successfully completed a county drug court program in northeast Pennsylvania. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed interviews with these women for thematic patterns in order to provide an evaluation of this program based on participants' subjective…

  9. "I Don't See Myself as Prison Material": Motivations for Entering a Rural Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Patten, Ryan; Messer, Sarah; Candela, Kimberlee

    2015-10-01

    Since the inception of drug court in the late 1980s, it has become a widely used alternative to incarcerating drug offenders. Previous research has detailed the effectiveness of programming on recidivism, participants' perceptions of the service delivery model, and cost-effectiveness. The scholarship related to drug offender motivations to participate in drug court has largely discussed family obligations and the sense of loss stemming from drug abuse, and only two studies have discussed the fear of prison as a primary motivator. This research utilized semi-structured interviews with former drug court participants from a rural county in California to ascertain their motivation for engaging in drug court (N = 29). The results show 79% of participants were trying to avoid prison or jail, while 62% were motivated to end the cycle of drug abuse in their lives. The conclusion has policy implications for future drug court design; however, additional research is needed. PMID:24788256

  10. "I Don't See Myself as Prison Material": Motivations for Entering a Rural Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Patten, Ryan; Messer, Sarah; Candela, Kimberlee

    2015-10-01

    Since the inception of drug court in the late 1980s, it has become a widely used alternative to incarcerating drug offenders. Previous research has detailed the effectiveness of programming on recidivism, participants' perceptions of the service delivery model, and cost-effectiveness. The scholarship related to drug offender motivations to participate in drug court has largely discussed family obligations and the sense of loss stemming from drug abuse, and only two studies have discussed the fear of prison as a primary motivator. This research utilized semi-structured interviews with former drug court participants from a rural county in California to ascertain their motivation for engaging in drug court (N = 29). The results show 79% of participants were trying to avoid prison or jail, while 62% were motivated to end the cycle of drug abuse in their lives. The conclusion has policy implications for future drug court design; however, additional research is needed.

  11. Methamphetamine Users in a Community-Based Drug Court: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jennifer L.; Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines men and women methamphetamine (meth) users who participated in a community-based drug court. The treatment of female drug users is a particularly salient issue because of the concerns with relapse and recidivism. For the current study, we studied the impact of the drug court by gender on a group of high-risk/high-need meth…

  12. Adaptive Programming Improves Outcomes in Drug Court: An Experimental Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Croft, Jason R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies in Drug Courts reported improved outcomes when participants were matched to schedules of judicial status hearings based on their criminological risk level. The current experiment determined whether incremental efficacy could be gained by periodically adjusting the schedule of status hearings and clinical case-management sessions in response to participants’ ensuing performance in the program. The adjustments were made pursuant to a priori criteria specified in an adaptive algorithm. Results confirmed that participants in the full adaptive condition (n = 62) were more than twice as likely as those assigned to baseline-matching only (n = 63) to be drug-abstinent during the first 18 weeks of the program; however, graduation rates and the average time to case resolution were not significantly different. The positive effects of the adaptive program appear to have stemmed from holding noncompliant participants more accountable for meeting their attendance obligations in the program. Directions for future research and practice implications are discussed. PMID:22923854

  13. Treatment Retention among African Americans in the Dane County Drug Treatment Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randall T.; Zuelsdorff, Megan; Gassman, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Drug treatment courts (DTCs) provide substance abuse treatment and case management services to offenders with substance use disorders as an alternative to incarceration. Studies indicate that African Americans less frequently complete DTC programming. The current study analyzed data from the Dane County Drug Treatment Court (n = 573). The study…

  14. A Statistical Perspective on the Design of Drug-Court Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrall, Elizabeth L. C.; Bird, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of drug-court studies recognized the poor methodological quality of the evaluations, with only a few being randomized. This article critiques the design of the randomized studies from a statistical perspective. Learning points are identified for future drug-court studies and are applicable to evaluations both of other…

  15. Juvenile Drug Court: Enhancing Outcomes by Integrating Evidence-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Randall, Jeff; Shapiro, Steven B.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of juvenile drug court for 161 juvenile offenders meeting diagnostic criteria for substance abuse or dependence and determined whether the integration of evidence-based practices enhanced the outcomes of juvenile drug court. Over a 1-year period, a four-condition randomized design evaluated outcomes for family court…

  16. An Experimental Trial of Adaptive Programming in Drug Court: Outcomes at 6, 12 and 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Harron, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Test whether an adaptive program improves outcomes in drug court by adjusting the schedule of court hearings and clinical case-management sessions pursuant to a priori performance criteria. Methods Consenting participants in a misdemeanor drug court were randomly assigned to the adaptive program (n = 62) or to a baseline-matching condition (n = 63) in which they attended court hearings based on the results of a criminal risk assessment. Outcome measures were re-arrest rates at 18 months post-entry to the drug court and urine drug test results and structured interview results at 6 and 12 months post-entry. Results Although previously published analyses revealed significantly fewer positive drug tests for participants in the adaptive condition during the first 18 weeks of drug court, current analyses indicate the effects converged during the ensuing year. Between-group differences in new arrest rates, urine drug test results and self-reported psychosocial problems were small and non-statistically significant at 6, 12 and 18 months post-entry. A non-significant trend (p = .10) suggests there may have been a small residual impact (Cramer's ν = .15) on new misdemeanor arrests after 18 months. Conclusions Adaptive programming shows promise for enhancing short-term outcomes in drug courts; however, additional efforts are needed to extend the effects beyond the first 4 to 6 months of enrollment. PMID:25346652

  17. Predicting success and failure in juvenile drug treatment court: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Stein, David M; Deberard, Scott; Homan, Kendra

    2013-02-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 41 studies that examined associations between characteristics of adolescent participants in juvenile drug treatment court and outcomes (i.e., premature termination, recidivism). A summary of within- and post-program recidivism rates was calculated, as was a global estimate of the premature drop-out rate. One clear trend in the available studies was the dramatic difference in recidivism rates for adolescents who succeed in graduating from drug court, relative to those who do not. In addition, the review revealed that behavior patterns evidenced during drug court participation were most strongly associated with both the probability of graduating successfully from drug court and recidivism (e.g., few in-program arrests, citations, detentions, and referrals; greater length of time in program or amount of treatment; lower use of drug and alcohol use, few positive urine screens, greater school attendance). Unfortunately, non-white participants tend to have a lower probability of graduation from drug court and experience higher recidivism during and following the program. Available juvenile drug treatment court studies confirm a number of reputed adolescent risk factors associated with substance abuse, criminality, treatment failure, and recidivism among adolescents (e.g., higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems, higher levels and severity of pre-program substance abuse, male gender). Suggestions for improving the effects of juvenile drug treatment court based on key results of the meta-analysis are offered.

  18. Tried as an adult, housed as a juvenile: a tale of youth from two courts incarcerated together.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Research has questioned the wisdom of housing juveniles who are convicted in criminal court in facilities with adult offenders. It is argued that minors transferred to criminal court should not be incarcerated with adults, due to a greater likelihood of developing criminal skills, being victimized, and attempting suicide. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the other option, housing these youth with minors who have committed less serious crimes and who are therefore adjudicated in juvenile courts, might have unintended consequences for juvenile court youth. The present study utilizes a sample of youth incarcerated in one secure juvenile facility, with some offenders processed in juvenile court (n = 261) and others processed in adult court (n = 103). We investigate whether youth transferred to adult court engage in more institutional offending (in particular, violence) and experience less victimization than their juvenile court counterparts. Results indicate that although adult court youth had a greater likelihood of being convicted of violent commitment offenses than juvenile court youth, the former engaged in less offending during incarceration than the latter. In addition, no significant differences in victimization were observed. These findings suggest that the concern about the need for separate housing for adult court youth is unfounded; when incarcerated together, those tried in adult court do not engage in more institutional violence than juvenile court youth. PMID:23914921

  19. Adaptive Interventions May Optimize Outcomes in Drug Courts: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Arabia, Patricia L.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Croft, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive interventions apply a priori decision rules for adjusting treatment services in response to participants’ clinical presentation or performance in treatment. This pilot study (N = 30) experimentally examined an adaptive intervention in a misdemeanor drug court. The participants were primarily charged with possession of marijuana (73%) or possession of drug paraphernalia (23%). Results revealed that participants in the adaptive condition had relatively higher graduation rates and required significantly less time to graduate from the program and achieve a final resolution of the case. It took an average of nearly 4 fewer months for participants in the adaptive intervention to resolve their cases as compared to drug court as-usual. Participants in the adaptive condition also reported equivalent satisfaction with the program and therapeutic alliances with their counselors. These data suggest that adaptive interventions may enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of drug courts, and justify examining adaptive interventions in large-scale drug court studies. PMID:19785978

  20. Assessing the long-term impact of drug court participation on recidivism with generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher P; Lindquist, Christine H; Koetse, Willem; Lattimore, Pamela K

    2007-11-01

    Drug courts are one of the most common strategies for dealing with the large proportion of criminal offenders who are drug-involved, yet methodological limitations limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many existing evaluations of their effectiveness. The current study examined the long-term impact of drug court participation compared to regular probation on the recidivism of 475 drug-involved offenders under supervision in Hillsborough County, Florida. Using a combination of self-reported data (collected through in-person interviews at baseline, i.e., the beginning of supervision) and administrative records, the study employed a repeated measures framework (examining five 6-month time periods from baseline to 30 months post-baseline) and generalized estimating equations to compare the likelihood of being arrested between drug court participants and a matched sample of comparison offenders. The results indicate that participation in drug court was associated with a significant decrease in the likelihood of being arrested in the 12-18 months post-baseline time period. Although the drug court effect was somewhat delayed (it was not significant prior to 12 months) and short-lived (it was not significant after 18 months), the fact that significant program effects were observed during a time period that coincides with the conclusion of drug court participation for graduates and a time period well beyond initial program exposure, suggests that drug court participants are more likely than comparable offenders not exposed to drug court to remain arrest free when no longer under community supervision.

  1. Factors associated with completion of a drug treatment court diversion program.

    PubMed

    Butzin, Clifford A; Saum, Christine A; Scarpitti, Frank R

    2002-01-01

    Factors related to successful completion of a first offender diversion program were examined from initial data of a longitudinal study of drug treatment court outcomes in Delaware. The strongest predictors of success were factors associated with social stakeholder values, especially those involving employment. Other factors associated with program completion included race, education, and frequency of drug use. While the overall success of drug treatment courts continues to be documented, these data suggest success varies with individual characteristics. The continuing study will explore whether these characteristics are also related to subsequent outcomes, especially drug use relapse and criminal recidivism, over a 24-month post-treatment period.

  2. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  3. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery. PMID:26917964

  4. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery. PMID:26917964

  5. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery.

  6. A trojan horse goes to court: Bolger v. Youngs Drug Products Corp.

    PubMed

    Mason, M

    1984-01-01

    In Bolger v. Youngs Drug Products Corp., the Supreme Court held that a statute prohibiting the mailing of unsolicited advertisements for contraceptives was unconstitutional as applied to Young's advertisements for condoms. The decision rested on a balancing of the first amendment's grant of free speech with the Government's interest in safeguarding an individual's privacy. The Court noted that the advertisements promoted the flow of information on contraception, and pertained to constitutionally protected private activity. This Case Comment argues that the Court's decision is sound and criticizes the view of the concurring opinion that shielding individuals from potentially offensive speech is a substantial governmental interest. The Comment concludes that the Court's decision expands upon precedent which established an individual's right of privacy regarding the use of contraceptives. PMID:6528881

  7. Attrition in drug court research: Examining participant characteristics and recommendations for follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natasha S; Linley, Jessica V; Nochajski, Thomas H; Farrell, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Drug court research is often challenged by study attrition. In this study, researchers attempted to predict study completion using variables traditionally associated with treatment attrition. Findings showed that participants who reported a need for additional help to resolve legal problems and who reported accessing outpatient treatments were more likely to complete the study at the three-month follow-up. The study also demonstrated a relationship between trauma-related symptoms and study attrition. Although sample size was a limitation with these pilot data, researchers are urged to examine attrition and increase efforts to engage drug court enrollees in research studies, especially those with trauma-related symptoms.

  8. Attrition in drug court research: Examining participant characteristics and recommendations for follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natasha S; Linley, Jessica V; Nochajski, Thomas H; Farrell, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Drug court research is often challenged by study attrition. In this study, researchers attempted to predict study completion using variables traditionally associated with treatment attrition. Findings showed that participants who reported a need for additional help to resolve legal problems and who reported accessing outpatient treatments were more likely to complete the study at the three-month follow-up. The study also demonstrated a relationship between trauma-related symptoms and study attrition. Although sample size was a limitation with these pilot data, researchers are urged to examine attrition and increase efforts to engage drug court enrollees in research studies, especially those with trauma-related symptoms. PMID:24475320

  9. Attrition in drug court research: Examining participant characteristics and recommendations for follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Natasha S.; Linley, Jessica V.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Farrell, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Drug court research is often challenged by study attrition. In this study, researchers attempted to predict study completion using variables traditionally associated with treatment attrition. Findings showed that participants who reported a need for additional help to resolve legal problems and who reported accessing outpatient treatments were more likely to complete the study at the three-month follow-up. The study also demonstrated a relationship between trauma-related symptoms and study attrition. Although sample size was a limitation with these pilot data, researchers are urged to examine attrition and increase efforts to engage drug court enrollees in research studies, especially those with trauma-related symptoms. PMID:24475320

  10. Adult Arrests Records and Court Outcomes of Adolescents with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Maryann; Cooper, Deborah K.

    This study used archival data to examine adult charges and court outcomes for 82 individuals who had been treated in public mental health programs as adolescents. Subjects' clinical records from their adolescent day treatment (18 percent), residential (23 percent) or hospital program (58 percent) were reviewed for sociodemographics, clinical…

  11. Educational Alliance: The Importance of Relationships in Adult Education with Court-Mandated Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottern, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual study examines the importance of relationships between teachers and students in court-mandated adult education settings. Although research has been done on the importance of relationships between teachers and incarcerated students, there have been no outstanding studies on the relationships developed between teachers and students…

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Family Therapy in Juvenile Drug Court

    PubMed Central

    Dakof, Gayle A.; Henderson, Craig E.; Rowe, Cynthia L.; Boustani, Maya; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Hawes, Samuel; Linares, Clarisa; Liddle, Howard A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the effectiveness of 2 theoretically different treatments delivered in juvenile drug court—family therapy represented by multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and group-based treatment represented by adolescent group therapy (AGT)—on offending and substance use. Intent-to-treat sample included 112 youth enrolled in juvenile drug court (primarily male [88%], and Hispanic [59%] or African American [35%]), average age 16.1 years, randomly assigned to either family therapy (n = 55) or group therapy (n = 57). Participants were assessed at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following baseline. During the drug court phase, youth in both treatments showed significant reduction in delinquency (average d = .51), externalizing symptoms (average d = 2.32), rearrests (average d = 1.22), and substance use (average d = 4.42). During the 24-month follow-up, family therapy evidenced greater maintenance of treatment gains than group-based treatment for externalizing symptoms (d = 0.39), commission of serious crimes (d = .38), and felony arrests (d = .96). There was no significant difference between the treatments with respect to substance use or misdemeanor arrests. The results suggest that family therapy enhances juvenile drug court outcomes beyond what can be achieved with a nonfamily based treatment, especially with respect to what is arguably the primary objective of juvenile drug courts: reducing criminal behavior and rearrests. More research is needed on the effectiveness of juvenile drug courts generally and on whether treatment type and family involvement influence outcomes. PMID:25621927

  13. An Effectiveness Trial of Contingency Management in a Felony Preadjudication Drug Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Arabia, Patricia L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a contingency management (CM) program in a drug court. Gift certificates for compliance were delivered at 4- to 6-week intervals (total value = $390.00). Participants in one condition earned gift certificates that escalated by $5.00 increments. Participants in a second condition began earning higher magnitude gift…

  14. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Courts by Integrating Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; McCart, Michael R.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to test a relatively efficient strategy for enhancing the capacity of juvenile drug courts (JDC) to reduce youth substance use and criminal behavior by incorporating components of evidence-based treatments into their existing services. Method: Six JDCs were randomized to a condition in which…

  15. An effectiveness trial of contingency management in a felony preadjudication drug court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Arabia, Patricia L; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a contingency management (CM) program in a drug court. Gift certificates for compliance were delivered at 4- to 6-week intervals (total value = $390.00). Participants in one condition earned gift certificates that escalated by $5.00 increments. Participants in a second condition began earning higher magnitude gift certificates, and the density of reinforcement was gradually decreased. No main effects of CM were detected, which appears to be attributable to a ceiling effect from the intensive contingencies already delivered in the drug court and the low density of reinforcement. Preplanned interaction analyses suggested that participants with more serious criminal backgrounds might have performed better in the CM conditions. This suggests that CM programs may be best suited for more incorrigible drug offenders.

  16. Commentary: nuances of reverse-waiver evaluations of adolescents in adult criminal court.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Camilla L; Adams, Adria N; Dahan, Abigail L

    2012-01-01

    Several factors influence a judge's decision to transfer youthful defendants to juvenile court from adult court, including the forensic evaluator's ultimate opinion, the defendant's amenability to treatment, and public safety risk. In this commentary, we examine the constructs that evaluators must assess, as established by Kent v. United States (1966). We begin by outlining the legal history that led to the large population of youths currently in the adult criminal justice system nationwide and the negative consequences of their incarceration in adult settings. We consider the unique role of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists as experts in development, with special regard to their ability to assess and inform the court about amenability to treatment and emotional maturity. The determination of amenability to treatment is further explored through a review of the current literature examining the influence of diagnostic labeling on judicial decisions and the treatment response of adolescent offenders who have psychopathy features. We conclude with an update on the recent proposal for juvenile justice reform in the authors' state of New York.

  17. Finding the loopholes: a cross-sectional qualitative study of systemic barriers to treatment access for women drug court participants

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Diane S.; Silverstein, Jennifer; Thomas, Katherine; Bedel, Precious; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic diversion courts seek to address justice-involved participants’ underlying problems leading to their legal system involvement, including substance use disorder, psychiatric illness, and intimate partner violence. The courts have not addressed systemic hurdles, which can contribute to a cycle of substance use disorder and recidivism, which in turn hinder health and wellness. The study purpose is to explore the systemic issues faced by women participants in drug treatment court from multiple perspectives to understand how these issues may relate to health and wellness in their lives. Methods Qualitative thematic framework analysis of five separate focus groups consisting of female drug treatment court participants, community providers, and court staff (n = 25). Themes were mapped across the socio-ecological framework and contextualized according to social determinants of health. Results Numerous systemic factors impacted women’s access to treatment. Laws and legal policies (governance) excluded those who could potentially have benefitted from therapeutic court and did not allow consideration of parenting issues. Macroeconomic policies limit housing options for those with convictions. Social policies limited transportation, education, and employment options. Public policies limited healthcare and social protection and ability to access available resources. Culture and societal values, including stigma, limited treatment options. Conclusions By understanding the social determinant of health for women in drug treatment court and stakeholder’s perceptions, the legal system can implement public policy to better address the health needs of women drug court participants. PMID:26478853

  18. Lifetime trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in women sentenced to drug court

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; O’Leary, Catina Callahan; Van Buren, Dorothy J.; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female drug court participants and test for differences in socioeconomic status and familial status between women with: i) no trauma exposure, ii) trauma exposure without PTSD, and iii) trauma exposure resulting in PTSD. Three hundred nineteen women were recruited from drug courts. Rates of exposure and likelihood of traumatic events leading to PTSD were examined, sociodemographic characteristics were compared across groups, and a logistic regression analysis was conducted to test for differences in PTSD risk for assaultive vs. non-assaultive events. Twenty percent of participants met PTSD criteria, 71% had trauma exposure without PTSD, and 9% did not endorse any traumatic events. Prostitution and homelessness were more prevalent in women with vs. without a history of trauma, but among trauma-exposed women prevalences did not vary by PTSD status. No differences in risk for PTSD were found between assaultive and non-assaultive events (OR=0.91; 95%CI: 0.48–1.75). Women sentenced to drug court represent a heavily trauma-exposed population, for whom risk for PTSD is not limited to assaultive events. Within this high-risk population, trauma is associated with elevated rates of homelessness and prostitution, even in the absence of PTSD. PMID:22789838

  19. Lifetime trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in women sentenced to drug court.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Carolyn E; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Callahan O'Leary, Catina; Van Buren, Dorothy J; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Jeffe, Donna B; Cottler, Linda B

    2012-12-30

    The aims of this study were to characterize trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female drug court participants and test for differences in socioeconomic status and familial status between women with: (i) no trauma exposure, (ii) trauma exposure without PTSD, and (iii) trauma exposure resulting in PTSD. Three hundred and nineteen women were recruited from drug courts. Rates of exposure and likelihood of traumatic events leading to PTSD were examined, sociodemographic characteristics were compared across groups, and a logistic regression analysis was conducted to test for differences in PTSD risk for assaultive vs. non-assaultive events. Twenty percent of participants met PTSD criteria, 71% had trauma exposure without PTSD, and 9% did not endorse any traumatic events. Prostitution and homelessness were more prevalent in women with vs. without a history of trauma, but among trauma-exposed women prevalences did not vary by PTSD status. No differences in risk for PTSD were found between assaultive and non-assaultive events (OR=0.91; 95%CI: 0.48-1.75). Women sentenced to drug court represent a heavily trauma-exposed population, for whom risk for PTSD is not limited to assaultive events. Within this high-risk population, trauma is associated with elevated rates of homelessness and prostitution, even in the absence of PTSD. PMID:22789838

  20. Meeting health and psychological needs of women in drug treatment court.

    PubMed

    Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; Wilson, John L; Thomas, Katherine; Mittal, Mona; Lamberti, J Steven; Williams, Geoffrey; Silverstein, Jennifer; Mukherjee, Aninda; Walck, Donna; Chin, Nancy

    2014-02-01

    We explored healthcare-related experiences of women drug court participants through combining context from the socio-ecological model with motivation needs for health behavior as indicated by self-determination theory. Five focus groups with 8 women drug court participants, 8 court staff, and 9 community service providers were examined using qualitative framework analysis. Themes emerged across the socio-ecological model and were cross-mapped with self-determination theory-defined motivation needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Socio-ecological levels contained experiences either supporting or eroding women's motivation needs: (1) intrapersonal challenges participants termed an "evil cycle" of relapse, recidivism, trauma, and life challenges; (2) interpersonal context of parenting and stigma involving features of this "evil cycle"; (3) institutions with logistical barriers to legal and medical assistance; (4) community resources inadequate to support living and employment needs. Self-determination theory helps explain motivation required to address the women's healthcare needs and multiple demands at all levels of the socio-ecological model. PMID:24074850

  1. Meeting health and psychological needs of women in drug treatment court.

    PubMed

    Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; Wilson, John L; Thomas, Katherine; Mittal, Mona; Lamberti, J Steven; Williams, Geoffrey; Silverstein, Jennifer; Mukherjee, Aninda; Walck, Donna; Chin, Nancy

    2014-02-01

    We explored healthcare-related experiences of women drug court participants through combining context from the socio-ecological model with motivation needs for health behavior as indicated by self-determination theory. Five focus groups with 8 women drug court participants, 8 court staff, and 9 community service providers were examined using qualitative framework analysis. Themes emerged across the socio-ecological model and were cross-mapped with self-determination theory-defined motivation needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Socio-ecological levels contained experiences either supporting or eroding women's motivation needs: (1) intrapersonal challenges participants termed an "evil cycle" of relapse, recidivism, trauma, and life challenges; (2) interpersonal context of parenting and stigma involving features of this "evil cycle"; (3) institutions with logistical barriers to legal and medical assistance; (4) community resources inadequate to support living and employment needs. Self-determination theory helps explain motivation required to address the women's healthcare needs and multiple demands at all levels of the socio-ecological model.

  2. At the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    States that in the past juvenile courts afforded children with fewer rights than criminal courts accorded to adults accused of the same crimes. Reviews three U.S. Supreme Court cases that affirmed the constitutional rights of juvenile offenders and changed juvenile court proceedings. Discusses whether the juvenile death penalty violates…

  3. Making It Work Without a Family Drug Court: Connecticut's Approach to Parental Substance Abuse in the Child Welfare System.

    PubMed

    Ungemack, Jane; Giovannucci, Marilou; Moy, Samuel; Ohrenberger, Karen; Dematteo, Thomas; Smith, Staceyann

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse presents, complex challenges for the child welfare system and courts. This article describes the State of Connecticut's experience implementing the Recovery Specialist Voluntary Program (RSVP), a recovery support program designed to confront the problem of parental substance abuse within the child welfare system without, a family drug court. The state-level collaboration efforts, system changes, factors affecting development and implementation of RSVP, program participants, and preliminary outcomes are described.

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of California’s Proposition 36 and Drug Court Programs Before and After Propensity Score Matching

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Urada, Darren; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    California’s voter-initiated Proposition 36 (Prop 36) program is often unfavorably compared to drug courts, but little is empirically known about the comparative effectiveness of the two approaches. Using statewide administrative data, analyses were conducted on all Prop 36 and drug court offenders with official records of arrest and drug treatment. Propensity score matching was used to create equivalent groups, enabling comparisons of success at treatment discharge, recidivism over 12 months post-treatment entry, and magnitude of behavioral changes. Significant behavioral improvements occurred for both Prop 36 and drug court offenders, but while more Prop 36 offenders were successful at discharge, more recidivated over 12 months. Core programmatic differences likely contributed to differences in outcomes. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:25342859

  5. Examining substance use among rural Appalachian and urban non-Appalachian individuals participating in drug court.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Lisa M; Perkins, Elizabeth B; Neal, Connie

    2014-02-01

    The study purpose was to examine differences in substance use among individuals in drug court (N = 583) in rural Appalachian (n = 301) and urban non-Appalachian areas (n = 282). A series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of cocaine, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report methamphetamine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Regarding past 30-day use, a series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to use marijuana, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report crack cocaine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Identifying differences which exist in substance use is the first step in generating evidence-based structural changes in treatment drug court programs. Future research should focus on better understanding context in terms of demographic, geographic, and economic conditions, which may be of critical influence on substance use and treatment planning.

  6. The Effect of the Threat of Legal Sanction on Program Retention and Completion: Is that Why They Stay in Drug Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, John R.; Harvey, Angela N.

    2007-01-01

    Drug courts routinely rely on the threat of legal sanction to motivate drug-using criminal offenders to enter and complete community-based treatment programs. In light of the high failure rates among drug court participants, what is the effect of the threat of legal sanction on program retention and completion? A quasiexperimental research design…

  7. Drug Rash (Unclassified Drug Eruption) in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... microscope by a specially trained physician (dermatopathologist). In addition, your doctor may want to perform blood work to look for signs of an allergic reaction. The best treatment for a drug rash is ...

  8. How does family drug treatment court participation affect child welfare outcomes?

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth Joanne; Eldred, Lindsey Morgan; Vernerey, Allison; Sloan, Frank Allen

    2014-10-01

    Parental substance use is a risk factor for child maltreatment. Family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) have emerged in the United States as a policy option to treat the underlying condition and promote family preservation. This study examines the effectiveness of FDTCs in North Carolina on child welfare outcomes. Data come from North Carolina records from child protection services, court system, and birth records. Three types of parental participation in a FDTC are considered: referral, enrolling, and completing an FDTC. The sample includes 566 children who were placed into foster care and whose parents participated in a FDTC program. Findings indicate that children of parents who were referred but did not enroll or who enrolled but did not complete had longer stays in foster care than children of completers. Reunification rates for children of completers were also higher. Outcomes for children in the referred and enrolled groups did not differ in the multivariate analyses. While effective substance use treatment services for parents may help preserve families, future research should examine factors for improving participation and completion rates as well as factors involved in scaling programs so that more families are served.

  9. Comparative analysis of recidivism outcomes following drug treatment court in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Somers, Julian M; Rezansoff, Stefanie N; Moniruzzaman, Akm

    2014-06-01

    Drug Treatment Courts (DTCs) integrate therapeutic interventions for substance using offenders with the administration of justice. Available evidence indicates that DTCs are effective at reducing recidivism, but it is not yet established whether they are equally effective for all subgroups of offenders. The current study investigates the comparative effectiveness of a Canadian DTC among subgroups defined by ethnicity, gender, prior offending, and the presence of a co-occurring mental disorder. Results indicate greater reductions in recidivism among female and Aboriginal participants, and no differences in recidivism associated with the presence or absence of co-occurring mental disorders or the number of prior convictions. Longer duration of involvement with the DTC program was positively associated with reduced recidivism. The effectiveness of DTCs with distinct subpopulations may be related to their composition and inclusion of expertise relevant to the needs of diverse participants.

  10. Examining the Relationships between Family Drug Court Program Compliance and Child Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Child, Holly; McIntyre, Dara

    2015-01-01

    Although the evidence is accumulating to substantiate the successes of Family Drug Courts (FDC), there is little research on the relationship between parent compliance and successful reunification of children with their parent(s). This study looked at data from 206 families participating in a FDC in Sacramento County, California. Four compliance measures were examined individually and collectively, after controlling for participant characteristics, using logistic regression models to determine how FDC participation benchmarks impact child reunification. This study found the best predictors of reunification was participation in support group meetings and negative tests for substance use. These findings indicate that initiatives designed to address the needs of families affected by child maltreatment and substance use should take into account and support engagement in informal, community-based activities as well as formal, clinically focused interventions. PMID:26827465

  11. Staff Perspectives on Juvenile Drug Court Operations: A Multi-Site Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mericle, Amy A.; Belenko, Steven; Festinger, David; Fairfax-Columbo, Jaymes; McCart, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is pervasive among youth, particularly among those involved in the juvenile justice system. Juvenile drug courts (JDCs) are a promising approach for delinquent youth with substance abuse issues. However, research regarding JDCs has shown inconsistent effects, and little is known about the specific components associated with positive outcomes. The current study examines data from interviews of JDC judges and team member focus groups in six JDCs from two contiguous southeastern states to identify stakeholders’ perceptions about what places youth at risk for involvement in JDC and the factors that may contribute to successful outcomes. In addition, we examine these stakeholders’ perceptions of the strengths and challenges facing their JDCs. Our findings highlight the importance of parents and specific strategies implemented by JDCs in influencing the outcomes of youth in JDCs and the importance of interagency collaboration and access to treatment and community resources for the overall success of JDCs. PMID:25977595

  12. Examining the Relationships between Family Drug Court Program Compliance and Child Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Child, Holly; McIntyre, Dara

    2015-01-01

    Although the evidence is accumulating to substantiate the successes of Family Drug Courts (FDC), there is little research on the relationship between parent compliance and successful reunification of children with their parent(s). This study looked at data from 206 families participating in a FDC in Sacramento County, California. Four compliance measures were examined individually and collectively, after controlling for participant characteristics, using logistic regression models to determine how FDC participation benchmarks impact child reunification. This study found the best predictors of reunification was participation in support group meetings and negative tests for substance use. These findings indicate that initiatives designed to address the needs of families affected by child maltreatment and substance use should take into account and support engagement in informal, community-based activities as well as formal, clinically focused interventions.

  13. Courting the Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Mary Neil

    1989-01-01

    Considers the impact of strong public opinion on the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services." Points out three uses of public opinion in Supreme Court decisions and remarks on the Court's insulation from the public. Concludes that amicus curiae briefs are the one persuasive tool for influencing the Court. (LS)

  14. Client and program factors associated with dropout from court mandated drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    To examine why court mandated offenders dropout of drug treatment and to compare their characteristics, treatment experiences, perceptions, and outcomes with treatment completers, we analyzed self-reported and administrative data on 542 dropouts (59%) and 384 completers (41%) assessed for Proposition 36 treatment by thirty sites in five California counties during 2004. At intake, dropouts had lengthier criminal histories, lower treatment motivation, more severe employment and psychiatric problems, and more were using drugs, especially heroin. Relatively fewer dropouts received residential treatment and their retention was much shorter. A similar proportion of dropouts received services as completers and the mean number of services received per day by dropouts was generally more, especially to address psychiatric problems, during the first three months of treatment. The most commonly offender-reported reasons for dropout included low treatment motivation (46.2%) and the difficulty of the Proposition 36 program (20.0%). Consequences for dropout included incarceration (25.3%) and permission to try treatment again (24.0%). Several factors predicting drug treatment dropout were identified. Both groups demonstrated improved functioning at one-year follow-up, but fewer dropouts had a successful outcome (34.5% vs. 59.1%) and their recidivism rate was significantly higher (62.9% vs. 28.9%) even after controlling for baseline differences. Understanding factors associated with drug treatment dropout can aid efforts to improve completion rates, outcomes, and overall effectiveness of California’s Proposition 36 program. Findings may also aid a broader audience of researchers and policy analysts who are charged with designing and evaluating criminal-justice diversion programs for treating drug-addicted offenders. PMID:19150133

  15. Evidence in court: witness preparation and cross-examination style effects on adult witness accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Ellison, Louise E

    2012-01-01

    Witnesses play a clear and pivotal role in the criminal justice system and there is an obvious public interest in identifying procedures that both undermine and maximize the quality of evidence received by the criminal courts. This paper reports an investigation into the effects of witness familiarization and cross-examination type on adult witness accuracy that situates outcomes in both legal and psychological context. 60 mock witnesses observed a crime event and each witness was then cross-examined by a practising barrister in a moot courtroom according to two conditions - either via a scripted complex version of cross-examination or by a simpler but equivalent scripted examination. Mock witnesses were also allocated to two further conditions - half the participants received a guidance booklet on cross-examination and the other half received no familiarization to the process. Study outcomes showed that familiarization of witnesses to cross-examination processes increased accurate responses and reduced errors. The guidance seemingly allowed accessibility to cognitive information that enabled witnesses to process information more effectively. On this basis, advance written information about the nature of the cross-examination and potentially misleading tactics used by advocates could help to immunize against negative lawyerly influence.

  16. Effects of a Rural Family Drug Treatment Court Collaborative on Child Welfare Outcomes: Comparison Using Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, McLean D; Green, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that have examined the impact of family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) on child welfare outcomes have produced mixed results. This study evaluates the impact of a rural, FDTC collaborative on child welfare outcomes using propensity score analysis. Findings from the study show that children in the treatment group had longer stays in child welfare custody but were substantially less likely to experience future incidents of maltreatment than those in families with parental substance use disorders without these services. PMID:26827480

  17. The Court of Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes "Camlin v. Beecher Community School District (Illinois)," wherein the state appellate court held that the school board violated its own drug policy when it expelled a high school student for allegedly smoking marijuana on a field trip without first offering him an opportunity to enter a drug education program. Court also held that…

  18. Domestic Violence Screening and Service Acceptance among Adult Victims in a Dependency Court Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, James E.; Maze, Candice L.; Hannah, Stefanie A.; Lederman, Cindy S.

    2007-01-01

    Many child welfare systems are unable to effectively identify and address co-occurring domestic violence and child maltreatment. In response, the Dependency Court Intervention Program for Family Violence implemented a protocol to identify indicators of domestic violence in families involved with child protection proceedings. This article…

  19. Criminal prosecution of drug traffickers under the continuing criminal enterprise statute in federal courts of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, W J; Carlson, M C

    1983-01-01

    The continuing criminal enterprise statute, 21 United States Code 848, which was enacted in 1970 to deal, inter alia, with suppression of illicit traffic in drugs, contains a mandatory minimum sentencing provision of not less than 10 years and up to life imprisonment following conviction. It also contains a provision to seek forfeiture of the profits obtained by the defendant from the criminal enterprise. When drug-trafficking organizations move their finances abroad, it becomes difficult to identify assets in order to seek forfeiture. Therefore, the successful prosecution of major drug traffickers, under this statute, requires the co-operation of the institutions concerned and of courts in other countries in order to obtain the necessary evidence. Such co-operation is facilitated by a bilateral mutual judicial assistance treaty, when it exists.

  20. Successful completion: an examination of factors influencing drug court completion for white and non-white male participants.

    PubMed

    DeVall, Kristen E; Lanier, Christina L

    2012-08-01

    This research examines the influence of demographic and legal factors on the successful completion of the Seahawk Drug Treatment Court Program for White and Non-White male participants. Located in a medium-size city, the program targets male felony offenders and has been in operation for more than 10 years. The research sample is comprised of 526 participants with a program disposition between January 1, 2005 and September 30, 2010. Using race-specific logistic regression models, results reveal both similarities and differences among these groups. The implications and limitations of this research are discussed, as well as avenues for future research.

  1. Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use and Personality Factors on Adult Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Sybille M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined stability of adolescent drug use into young adulthood and explored influence of personality on adolescent and adult drug use. Participants (n=640) in longitudinal study completed questionnaires assessing tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drug use. General drug use factor in adolescence significantly predicted young adult drug use.…

  2. New Approaches for Working with Children and Families Involved in Family Treatment Drug Courts: Findings from the Children Affected by Methamphetamine Program.

    PubMed

    Rodi, Michael S; Killian, Colleen M; Breitenbucher, Philip; Young, Nancy K; Amatetti, Sharon; Bermejo, Russ; Hall, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the Children Affected by Methamphetamine (CAM) grant program, a federally funded effort to improve outcomes through the addition of targeted interventions for 1,940 families, including 2,596 adults and 4,245 children involved in 12 diverse Family Treatment Drug Courts (FTDCs) located across six U.S. states. The majority were children of parents with a primary methamphetamine use disorder. Findings reflect grantees' reporting on 18 performance indicators of child safety and permanency, adult recovery, and family well-being. Additional information gleaned from grantees' biannual reports provides insights about program implementation. Results, drawn from this large and complex dataset, indicate that comprehensively addressing families' needs is associated with better outcomes than those experienced by similarly situated families in grantees' communities and the nation overall. In addition to describing common program components and outcomes, this article presents important lessons learned about implementing evidence-based children's services in the FTDC context, as well as future directions for research and evaluation in this arena. PMID:26827483

  3. Drug-induced regeneration in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Strehin, Iossif; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise; Leferovich, John; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Heber-Katz, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Whereas amphibians regenerate lost appendages spontaneously, mammals generally form scars over the injury site through the process of wound repair. The MRL mouse strain is an exception among mammals because it shows a spontaneous regenerative healing trait and so can be used to investigate proregenerative interventions in mammals. We report that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a central molecule in the process of regeneration in adult MRL mice. The degradation of HIF-1α protein, which occurs under normoxic conditions, is mediated by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). We used the drug 1,4-dihydrophenonthrolin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid (1,4-DPCA), a PHD inhibitor, to stabilize constitutive expression of HIF-1α protein. A locally injectable hydrogel containing 1,4-DPCA was designed to achieve controlled delivery of the drug over 4 to 10 days. Subcutaneous injection of the 1,4-DPCA/hydrogel into Swiss Webster mice that do not show a regenerative phenotype increased stable expression of HIF-1α protein over 5 days, providing a functional measure of drug release in vivo. Multiple peripheral subcutaneous injections of the 1,4-DPCA/hydrogel over a 10-day period led to regenerative wound healing in Swiss Webster mice after ear hole punch injury. Increased expression of the HIF-1α protein may provide a starting point for future studies on regeneration in mammals. PMID:26041709

  4. Juveniles in court.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Matthew F; Scott, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Nineteenth-century American reformers were concerned about the influence of immaturity and development in juvenile offenses. They responded to their delinquent youths through the creation of juvenile courts. This early American juvenile justice system sought to treat children as different from adults and to rehabilitate wayward youths through the state's assumption of a parental role. Although these rehabilitative goals were never fully realized, the field of American child psychiatry was spawned from these efforts on behalf of delinquent youths. Early child psychiatrists began by caring for juvenile offenders. The function of a child psychiatrist with juvenile delinquents expanded beyond strictly rehabilitation, however, as juvenile courts evolved to resemble criminal adult courts-due to landmark Supreme Court decisions and also juvenile legislation between 1966 and 1975. In response to dramatically increased juvenile violence and delinquency rates in the 1980s, juvenile justice became more retributional, and society was forced to confront issues such as capital punishment for juveniles, their transfer to adult courts, and their competency to stand trial. In the modern juvenile court, child psychiatrists are often asked to participate in the consideration of such issues because of their expertise in development. In that context we review the role of psychiatrists in assisting juvenile courts.

  5. Teacher-Student Relationships in Court-Mandated Adult Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottern, Ron

    2013-01-01

    While there is a considerable body of literature on adult correctional education, this literature almost exclusively deals with teachers and students working within incarceration settings, where students are in jail or prison. There is a lack of research on the experiences of teachers working with students who are a part of the correctional system…

  6. Appellate Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaneman, Paulette S.; Zupanec, Nancy

    These materials are part of the Project Benchmark series designed to teach secondary students about our legal concepts and systems. This unit focuses on the structure and procedures of the California Supreme Court and the Courts of Appeal. The materials outline the historical development of the appellate courts, jurisdiction, and the appeal…

  7. Canada’s highest court unchains injection drug users; implications for harm reduction as standard of healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    North America’s only supervised injection facility, Insite, opened its doors in September of 2003 with a federal exemption as a three-year scientific study. The results of the study, evaluated by an independent research team, showed it to be successful in engaging the target group in healthcare, preventing overdose death and HIV infections while increasing uptake and retention in detox and treatment. The research, published in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals, also showed that the program did not increase public disorder, crime or drug use. Despite the substantial evidence showing the effectiveness of the program, the future of Insite came under threat with the election of a conservative federal government in 2006. As a result, the PHS Community Services Society (PHS), the non-profit organization that operates Insite, launched a legal case to protect the program. On 30 September 2011, Supreme Court of Canada ruled in favour of Insite and underscored the rights of people with addictions to the security of their person under section 7 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter of Rights). The decision clears the ground for other jurisdictions in Canada, and perhaps North America, to implement supervised injection and harm reduction where it is epidemiologically indicated. The legal case validates the personhood of people with addictions while metaphorically unchaining them from the criminal justice system. PMID:22817679

  8. Drug Burden Index in older adults: theoretical and practical issues

    PubMed Central

    Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing. PMID:25246778

  9. Transfer of Juvenile Cases to Criminal Court.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kraus, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    The first juvenile court was founded in 1899 with the focus on rehabilitation of a juvenile offender as opposed to punishment in adult court. Determining culpability and disposition for adolescents has become a source of much discussion. With serious crimes, juvenile delinquents may be transferred from juvenile court to adult criminal court; this practice became more prevalent in the past century. However, growing knowledge of adolescent development has mitigated the culpability of youth offenders and resulted in judicial decisions influential to juvenile dispositions.

  10. Adult and Adolescent Perceptions of Their Community's Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Reese; And Others

    This study identified differences and similarities among the perceptions of adult and adolescent community members regarding drug use patterns and practices. A written questionnaire was administered to 5,128 adolescents from grades 7 through 12 in the rural inland northwest, and a similar questionnaire was administered to over 900 adults in the…

  11. Food and Drug Labeling and the Adult Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michael C.; Aker, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Full disclosure of ingredients on food, drugs, and cosmetic labels is really non-disclosure where the chemical formulation has no common name or where one generic name covers a variety of formations. The Food and Drug Administration offers suggestions for adult education programs in consumer awareness, understanding compound nomenclature, and…

  12. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... conducted over the telephone. The Family component collects information on ... Questions about strategies to reduce prescription drug cost are from the ...

  13. Implications of Recent Drug Approvals for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhower, Christine; Koronkowski, Michael; Marcum, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 medications were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as new drugs or for new indications in 2014 and 2015. Several of the new drugs may benefit older adults, but adverse events and pharmacokinetic changes due to aging must be considered. This article will focus on three recently approved drugs that are marketed for chronic conditions that can affect older adults: suvorexant, for treatment of insomnia; edoxaban, for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for treatment of venous thromboembolism; and droxidopa, for treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Information about indications, mechanisms of action, dosing, efficacy, and safety are reviewed. The place of each agent in therapy for older adults is also discussed. PMID:27340374

  14. Supreme Court Potpourri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Examines several recent Supreme Court decisions and comments on the implications of those decisions. Looks at powers of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the picketing of private homes, involuntary servitude, alcoholism, displaying of adult literature, attorney advertisements, confronting one's accuser, physician peer review…

  15. Coping with Loneliness: Young Adult Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami; Orzeck, Tricia

    Since there appears to be a connection between substance use (and abuse) and loneliness it is of theoretical and clinical interest to explore the differences of coping with loneliness which drug users employ. The present study examined the manner in which MDMA (Ecstasy) users in comparison with non-MDMA (Non-Ecstasy) users and the general…

  16. Statin drugs: reducing cardiovascular risk in older adults.

    PubMed

    McLain, Kellie; Edlund, Barbara J

    2012-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the most modifiable risk factors in preventing heart disease. Evidence demonstrates that the process of atherosclerosis, a result of dyslipidemia, begins in young adults. Initiating statin therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Determining the right statin medication and dose for an older adult based on national guidelines can be challenging, as multiple factors must be considered in this decision. When initiating statin therapy, clinicians should determine the appropriate percentage of reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol needed to achieve the target goal. Additionally, when changing from one cholesterol-lowering medication to another, knowledge of equivalent dosing is important. Generally, statin drugs are well tolerated with a good safety profile in older adults but are underused in this patient population. Issues such as existing comorbid conditions, polypharmacy with the potential for drug-drug interactions, impaired drug metabolism, and decreased functional status can contribute to adverse events and increase the frequency of myalgias and less frequently, hepatotoxicity. Clinicians prescribing statin therapy for older adults need to remain current on advances in research regarding potential interactions and contraindications within this drug class. PMID:22998096

  17. The Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skibine, Alex

    1980-01-01

    Overview of some of the most important Indian court cases of the last decade, including ones regarding treaty rights, tribal jurisdiction and sovereignty, tax jurisdiction, land claims, and hunting and fishing rights. (DS)

  18. Severe potential drug-drug interactions in older adults with dementia and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Bogetti-Salazar, Michele; González-González, Cesar; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the main severe potential drug-drug interactions in older adults with dementia and to examine the factors associated with these interactions. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. The enrolled patients were selected from six geriatrics clinics of tertiary care hospitals across Mexico City. The patients had received a clinical diagnosis of dementia based on the current standards and were further divided into the following two groups: those with severe drug-drug interactions (contraindicated/severe) (n=64) and those with non-severe drug-drug interactions (moderate/minor/absent) (n=117). Additional socio-demographic, clinical and caregiver data were included. Potential drug-drug interactions were identified using Micromedex Drug Reax 2.0® database. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were enrolled, including 57 men (31.5%) and 124 women (68.5%) with a mean age of 80.11±8.28 years. One hundred and seven (59.1%) patients in our population had potential drug-drug interactions, of which 64 (59.81%) were severe/contraindicated. The main severe potential drug-drug interactions were caused by the combinations citalopram/anti-platelet (11.6%), clopidogrel/omeprazole (6.1%), and clopidogrel/aspirin (5.5%). Depression, the use of a higher number of medications, dementia severity and caregiver burden were the most significant factors associated with severe potential drug-drug interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Older people with dementia experience many severe potential drug-drug interactions. Anti-depressants, antiplatelets, anti-psychotics and omeprazole were the drugs most commonly involved in these interactions. Despite their frequent use, anti-dementia drugs were not involved in severe potential drug-drug interactions. The number and type of medications taken, dementia severity and depression in patients in addition to caregiver burden should be considered to avoid possible drug interactions in this population. PMID:26872079

  19. The administration of sulfonamide drugs to adult salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.

    1968-01-01

    Mass treatment is the most convenient way to combat fish diseases. For example, drugs can be administered per os in diets, or chemicals can be added to the water. These methods are mostly ineffective in treating systemic infections of adult salmon because mature salmon do not feed, and many fish diseases cannot be controlled by chemical baths. Thus, effective treatment would require administering drugs to each individual.

  20. Adult neurogenesis and the memories of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Canales, Juan J

    2007-08-01

    Evidence accumulated in the last decade indicating that psychoactive substances negatively influence neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has provided new insights into the neurobiology of drug addiction. Using a variety of experimental approaches and treatments, drugs such as psychomotor stimulants, opioids, alcohol and psychedelic compounds have been shown to alter one or several aspects of adult neurogenesis, including the rate of progenitor proliferation, the survival of newly generated cells, and the maturation and acquisition of cellular phenotype. This evidence, though critical from a neurotoxicological standpoint, cannot be linked unambiguously to the process of drug dependence at this stage of research. Drug addiction is a complex recurrent process involving the acquisition and maintenance of drug taking, followed by detoxification, abstinence and eventual relapse to drug seeking. The specific contribution of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to each of these processes is yet to be determined. This notwithstanding, the suggested role of the hippocampus in the storage and retrieval of declarative and contextual memories on the one hand, and in the regulation of mood and affect on the other, provides a fertile ground for further exploring the mutual relationships between postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and addictive behaviours.

  1. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: promiscuous drug, wanton effects.

    PubMed

    Geil, Chelsea R; Hayes, Dayna M; McClain, Justin A; Liput, Daniel J; Marshall, S Alex; Chen, Kevin Y; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche.

  2. Perceptions of parental substance use disorders in cross-system collaboration among child welfare, alcohol and other drugs, and dependency court organizations.

    PubMed

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Young, Nancy K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-system collaboration among child welfare (CW), alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and court organizations shows promise in addressing the many needs of CW-involved families experiencing parental substance use disorders (SUDs). Research has suggested that differing perceptions of parents with SUDs among staff in these organizations may hinder the collaborative process. Using a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, this study explored staff perceptions of parental SUDs among CW, AOD, and court organizations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to CW respondents, AOD respondents were: (a) less likely to believe that parents could provide effective parenting; (b) more likely to believe that abstinence should be a criterion for reunification; (c) more likely to agree that parents should receive jail time as a consequence for noncompliance with court orders; and (d) more likely to believe that parents could succeed in treatment. Thematic analyses of these focal areas identified two core themes (focus on the primary client and mandated time frames for permanency), as well as multiple subthemes, that provided a nuanced understanding of differing perceptions on these matters. Suggestions for the development of anticipatory cross-system training and practices and implications for policy evaluation are discussed.

  3. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety.

  4. Correlates of Prescription Drug Market Involvement among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background While a significant minority of prescription drug misusers report purchasing prescription drugs, little is known about prescription drug selling. We build upon past research on illicit drug markets, which increasingly recognizes networks and nightlife as influential, by examining prescription drug market involvement. Methods We use data from 404 young adult prescription drug misusers sampled from nightlife scenes. Using logistic regression, we examine recent selling of and being approached to sell prescription drugs, predicted using demographics, misuse, prescription access, and nightlife scene involvement. Results Those from the wealthiest parental class and heterosexuals had higher odds (OR=6.8) of selling. Higher sedative and stimulant misuse (ORs=1.03), having a stimulant prescription (OR=4.14), and having sold other illegal drugs (OR=6.73) increased the odds of selling. College bar scene involvement increased the odds of selling (OR=2.73) and being approached to sell (OR=2.09). Males (OR=1.93), stimulant users (OR=1.03), and sedative prescription holders (OR=2.11) had higher odds of being approached. Discussion College bar scene involvement was the only site associated with selling and being approached; such participation may provide a network for prescription drug markets. There were also differences between actual selling and being approached. Males were more likely to be approached, but not more likely to sell than females, while the opposite held for those in the wealthiest parental class relative to lower socioeconomic statuses. Given that misuse and prescriptions of sedatives and stimulants were associated with prescription drug market involvement, painkiller misusers may be less likely to sell their drugs given the associated physiological dependence. PMID:25175544

  5. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  6. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  7. The effects of age and drug dependency on the emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction of adult streetworkers in australia.

    PubMed

    Cregan, Christina; Kulik, Carol T; Salinger, Dani

    2013-07-01

    This multi-method study investigated a sample of adult streetworkers (n = 107) in Melbourne, Australia in 2008. We contacted outdoor prostitutes through four "drop-in" centers run by not-for-profit organizations. Drug use was the over-riding common characteristic of most of these streetworkers. Using emotional labor theory as a theoretical framework, we hypothesized that individuals who worked on the streets solely to earn money to buy drugs would experience the highest levels of emotional exhaustion and the lowest levels of job satisfaction. We predicted these effects would be most evident for older drug dependent streetworkers. Content analysis of open-ended interview responses identified acting, age, and drug dependency as key themes. Moderator hierarchical regression analysis of responses to closed-ended questions with tests for mediation supported the hypotheses. It also demonstrated that older drug dependent streetworkers felt most trapped in their occupation and this sense of being locked-in was associated with emotional exhaustion but not with job satisfaction. The evidence that age and drug dependency affects the psychological outcomes associated with streetwork suggests that the efforts of police and the courts will be ineffective in dealing with people whose addiction traps them in an occupation that offers few intrinsic rewards. Decriminalization would encourage police to protect streetworkers from violence. Agencies could seek financial support to provide welfare and exit strategies.

  8. The relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=−1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89–1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03–9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  9. Drugs in oral surgery. Brief guidelines for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Grassi, R F; Pappalardo, S; De Benedittis, M; Petruzzi, M; Giannetti, L; Cappello, V; Baglio, O A

    2004-06-01

    Drugs administrable in oral surgery for adult patients are antiseptics-antibiotics, antiinflammatory-analgesics and sedative-hypnotics. Such drugs can be administered before, during or after oral surgery. Sedative-hypnotics can be administered before or during oral surgery in order to control the patient's anxiety. Anti-inflammatory-analgesics, on the other hand, can be administered before or after oral surgery to lower edema and pain. For this purpose, FANS are the most commonly used drugs but, in more traumatic oral surgery, the administration of a single pre-surgery dose of corticosteroids is suitable. As regards, antibiotics have to be given from 15 min to 1 h before oral surgery and continued or otherwise for 24-48 h depending on the dosage. post-surgery infection onset, in fact, is higher within 3 h after oral surgery.

  10. Impact of drug-drug and drug-disease interactions on gait speed in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Jennifer G.; Marcum, Zachary A.; Perera, Subashan; Newman, Anne B.; Greenspan, Susan L.; Gray, Shelly L.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Shorr, Ronald I.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gait speed decline, an early marker of functional impairment, is a sensitive predictor of adverse health outcomes in older adults. The effect of potentially inappropriate prescribing on gait speed decline is not well known. Objective To determine if potentially inappropriate drug interactions impair functional status as measured by gait speed. Methods The sample included 2,402 older adults with medication and gait speed data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. The independent variable was the frequency of drug-disease and/or drug-drug interactions at baseline and three additional years. The main outcome was a clinically meaningful gait speed decline ≥ 0.1 m/s the year following drug interaction assessment. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate generalized estimating equations for both the overall sample and a sample stratified by gait speed at time of drug interaction assessment. Results The prevalence of drug-disease and drug-drug interactions ranged from 7.6–9.3% and 10.5–12.3%, respectively, with few participants (3.8–5.7%) having multiple drug interactions. At least 22% of participants had a gait speed decline of ≥ 0.1 m/s annually. Drug interactions were not significantly associated with gait speed decline overall or in the stratified sample of fast walkers. There was some evidence, however, that drug interactions increased the risk of gait speed decline among those participants with slower gait speeds, though p values did not reach statistical significance (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence intervals 0.96–1.56, p=0.11). Moreover, a marginally significant dose-response relationship was seen with multiple drug interactions and gait speed decline (adjusted odds ratio 1.40; 95% confidence intervals 0.95–2.04, p=0.08). Conclusions Drug interactions may increase the likelihood of gait speed decline among older adults with evidence of preexisting debility. Future studies

  11. Drug-induced liver injury in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of hospitalisation and of medication deregistration. In old age, susceptibility to DILI is affected by changes in physiology and increased interindividual variability, compounded by an increased prevalence of disease and the frailty syndrome. While dose-related or predictable DILI reactions are often detected in preclinical trials, the occurrence of rare hypersensitivity or idiosyncratic reactions cannot be reliably predicted from preclinical studies or even by clinical trials. The limited participation of older adults in clinical trials means that the susceptibility of this population to DILI is largely unknown. Vigilance during clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance must be universally practised. A systematic approach should be taken to determine not only which medicines are hepatotoxic and should be removed from the market, but also the hepatotoxicity risks from marketed drugs to consumers with different characteristics, many of whom are older people. PMID:25083196

  12. Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lavan, Amanda Hanora; Gallagher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations. ADR risk increases with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, increasing burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and suboptimal monitoring of drugs. ADRs are a preventable cause of harm to patients and an unnecessary waste of healthcare resources. Several ADR risk tools exist but none has sufficient predictive value for clinical practice. Good clinical practice for detecting and predicting ADRs in vulnerable patients includes detailed documentation and regular review of prescribed and over-the-counter medications through standardized medication reconciliation. New medications should be prescribed cautiously with clear therapeutic goals and recognition of the impact a drug can have on multiple organ systems. Prescribers should regularly review medication efficacy and be vigilant for ADRs and their contributory risk factors. Deprescribing should occur at an individual level when drugs are no longer efficacious or beneficial or when safer alternatives exist. Inappropriate prescribing and unnecessary polypharmacy should be minimized. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and the use of explicit prescribing criteria can be useful in this regard. PMID:26834959

  13. Drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in polypharmacy among older adults: an integrative review 1

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Soares; de Oliveira, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify and summarize studies examining both drug-drug interactions (DDI) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) in older adults polymedicated. Methods: an integrative review of studies published from January 2008 to December 2013, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, in MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were performed. Results: forty-seven full-text studies including 14,624,492 older adults (≥ 60 years) were analyzed: 24 (51.1%) concerning ADR, 14 (29.8%) DDI, and 9 studies (19.1%) investigating both DDI and ADR. We found a variety of methodological designs. The reviewed studies reinforced that polypharmacy is a multifactorial process, and predictors and inappropriate prescribing are associated with negative health outcomes, as increasing the frequency and types of ADRs and DDIs involving different drug classes, moreover, some studies show the most successful interventions to optimize prescribing. Conclusions: DDI and ADR among older adults continue to be a significant issue in the worldwide. The findings from the studies included in this integrative review, added to the previous reviews, can contribute to the improvement of advanced practices in geriatric nursing, to promote the safety of older patients in polypharmacy. However, more research is needed to elucidate gaps. PMID:27598380

  14. Understanding the Federal Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses the workings of the federal courts and supports six law-related lesson plans. It is divided into the following sections: "The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary"; "The Federal Courts in American Government" ("The Federal Courts and Congress"; "The Federal Courts and the Executive Branch"; "The Federal Courts and the…

  15. The drug-crime nexus in a community sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, M D; Galaif, E R; Carmona, V

    2001-09-01

    The authors tested several theories using prospective data to explain the associations between drug abuse and crime in a community sample of 470 adults. Polydrug problems in early adulthood predicted both criminal behavior and polydrug problems in adulthood. Consequences of drug problems as a young adult included arrests and convictions for drug-related offenses, property damage, and driving under the influence of other drugs. Predictors of later polydrug problems included thefts, driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, arrests and convictions for drug-related offenses, and a lack of support for drug problems. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Drug Sensitivity in Older Adults: The Role of Physiologic and Pharmacokinetic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Morton, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that age-related changes in physiology and pharmacokinetics (how drugs are used in the body) lead to increased drug sensitivity and potentially harmful drug effects. Addresses heightened sensitivity to drug effects seen in older adults. Presents three examples of physiologic decline and discusses some broad considerations for geriatric…

  17. Does Recent Physical and Sexual Victimization Affect Further Substance Use for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…

  18. Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

  19. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    PubMed

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers.

  20. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    PubMed

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers. PMID:25120044

  1. 21 CFR 10.60 - Referral by court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral by court. 10.60 Section 10.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES General Administrative Procedures § 10.60 Referral by court. (a) This...

  2. From the Bench -- Juvenile Courts: How and Why They Have Changed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Heather; Blitzman, Jay; Hibbler, William; Wakefield, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Offers four judges' perspectives on the various changes in the juvenile court system focusing on the increased violence among juveniles as having the greatest effect on the courts; includes issues such as juveniles being tried in adult courts, the need to improve juvenile courts, and the role of public interest. (CMK)

  3. Specialty courts: Who's in and are they working?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert D; Mitchell, Sean M; Thoen, Megan A; Campion, Kelsey; Bolaños, Angelea D; Sustaíta, Michael A; Henderson, Steven

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of specialty courts has been well established in the literature; however, previous studies have not taken into account referral biases that may exist based on offenders' race, socioeconomic status (SES), attorney status, and so forth. The current study hypothesized that (a) Participants who are racially diverse, of lower SES, and represented by privately retained attorneys would be referred less frequently to specialty courts, and (b) Participants in specialty courts would evidence reductions in missed court appointments and failed urinary analyses (UAs) compared with peers not enrolled in specialty courts. Participants (N = 274) were probationers who were involved in 1 of 3 specialty court programs (i.e., drug, driving while intoxicated [DWI], or reentry courts) or a matched sample of probationers not in specialty court services. Results indicated that, in general and with few exceptions, specialty courts did not have differential referral rates based on offender demographics including race, ethnicity, SES, or attorney status (court appointed vs. privately retained). Results examining the effectiveness of the specialty courts were mixed. Participants in the in-prison treatment program reentry court missed a greater proportion of scheduled court meetings than did their matched sample counterparts; however, the other specialty court programs did not significantly differ from their matched-sample counterparts. Participants in the DWI court had a significantly smaller proportion of UA failures to total UAs than did their matched sample peers; however, the drug court and reentry court programs did not significantly differ from their matched sample counterparts. Implications, future directions, and limitations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504644

  4. The Effectiveness of Idaho DUI and Misdemeanor/DUI Courts: Outcome Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Scott M.; Collins, Peter A.; Rosky, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    As DUI Courts continue to expand through the United States, research needs to match the growth to inform administrators and the public on the effectiveness of these courts. The current study found that participation in a DUI or Misdemeanor/DUI Drug Court (23%) reduced recidivism compared to a comparison group (37%) with court filing records that…

  5. Balancing Act: The Adaptation of Traditional Judicial Roles in Reentry Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caitlin J.

    2012-01-01

    While research has confirmed their role adaptation and importance in reducing recidivism in drug courts, little research has documented the role of the judge in reentry courts. Based on interviews with participants and the workgroup, court observations, and a document analysis, this study revealed that judges in a federal reentry court program…

  6. Small Claims Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitric, Eloise; Davis, Janet

    The study examined individuals and companies who used small claims courts and the results of decisions reached in small claims cases. A review of studies including an empirical study of two Ohio small claims courts monitored for 12 months made it clear that small claims courts need to be examined to determine if utilization and accessibility to…

  7. Order in the Court!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, Madeline

    2005-01-01

    This fall teachers will have the infrequent, but valuable opportunity to teach children about the Supreme Court and its confirmation process. The appointment of a new Justice lets students witness the Court's role and how the three branches of government work together. Teachers also report that the Court is a favorite topic because children can…

  8. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined—and many more needed emergency ...

  9. The effects of drug education courses on attitudinal change in adult participants.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, J G; Philips, B U; Gouin, H D

    1975-01-01

    Five hundred eighty-nine adult participants in 10-day drug education courses held at the National Center for Drug Education in Oklahoma were tested before and after each course to assess changes in their attitudes toward drug use and abuse resulting from the course. Twenty-eight opinion statements were found to significantly distinguish the opinions of different occupational groups both before and after the course. Most participants changed their learning priorities for drug education as a result of the course. Participants' personal history of drug use correlated with changes in their learning priorities for drug education.

  10. Stage of Alcohol and Drug Use among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined stages of drug habit acquisition and change among college students, basing the proposed stages of drug use on the Multi-Component Motivational Stages prevention model. Surveys indicated the model helped explain the stages of substance use. The proportion of youths at each stage differed by type of drug. (SM)

  11. Court diversion in perspective.

    PubMed

    James, David V

    2006-01-01

    Court diversion schemes have been running for a decade in New Zealand and are increasing in number in Australia. This paper aims to give an international and historical context to these developments, by reference to psychiatric initiatives at courts in the US and in England and Wales. From a review of the specialist literature, an account is given of three forms of psychiatric intervention in courts over the last 90 years: court psychiatric clinics and mental health courts in the US, and court diversion schemes in England and Wales. High levels of psychiatric morbidity among prisoners, coupled with a continuing increase in prisoner numbers, demonstrate the need for systems for dealing with mentally ill people who come before the courts. Court diversion in England and Wales developed as part of a system where the mentally ill who are found guilty are sent to hospital in lieu of any other sentence. Its focus is on a form of psychiatric triage, and its ethos is the health of the patient. Court psychiatric clinics in the US grew up as an alternative to assessment in prison. Their focus has been on full psychiatric evaluation in an insanity and incompetence jurisdiction. The ethos has been that of serving the court. Mental health courts are heavily influenced by ideas of therapeutic jurisprudence, and their emphasis has been on a judge holding minor offenders in community care through the threat of judicial sanction. Experience in England and Wales has shown that court diversion can be a powerful and effective intervention. In order for it to function properly, those running court schemes need direct admission rights to psychiatric beds, both open and locked. Court diversion schemes are best as part of a spectrum of services to police stations, courts and prisons, which involved both general and forensic psychiatrists.

  12. Effects of addictive drugs on adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) undergo a series of developmental processes before giving rise to newborn neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in adult neurogenesis. During the past decade, the role of NSPCs has been highlighted by studies on adult neurogenesis modulated by addictive drugs. It has been proven that these drugs regulate the proliferation, differentiation and survival of adult NSPCs in different manners, which results in the varying consequences of adult neurogenesis. The effects of addictive drugs on NSPCs are exerted via a variety of different mechanisms and pathways, which interact with one another and contribute to the complexity of NSPC regulation. Here, we review the effects of different addictive drugs on NSPCs, and the related experimental methods and paradigms. We also discuss the current understanding of major signaling molecules, especially the putative common mechanisms, underlying such effects. Finally, we review the future directions of research in this area. PMID:26468052

  13. Getting higher: Co-occurring drug use among marijuana using emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Tzilos, Golfo K.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used illicit drug in the United States (US) continues to be marijuana, and its use among emerging adults continues to rise. Marijuana use can result in a range of negative consequences and has been associated with other drug use in adolescents and emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between marijuana use frequency and use of six other drug classes (opiates, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and sleep medications) among emerging adults. The design was a cross-sectional interview with a community sample of 1,075 emerging adults in the northeastern US. Using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and frequency of binge alcohol, daily marijuana use was associated with a significant increase in the expected odds of opiate, cocaine, stimulant, hallucinogen, inhalant, and tobacco use. The findings identify a subgroup of emerging adult marijuana users – those who use daily –that may be vulnerable to additional negative consequences associated with polysubstance use. PMID:25115183

  14. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB.

  15. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  16. Predicting Heavy Drug Use. Results of a Longitudinal Study, Youth Characteristics Describing and Predicting Heavy Drug Use by Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildhaus, Sam; Shaw-Taylor, Yoku; Pedlow, Steven; Pergamit, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the movement of adolescents and young adults into and out of drug use and to predict heavy drug use. The data source is the Department of Labor's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which began in 1979 with a sample of 12,686 adolescents aged 14-21. After 17 rounds and 19 years, the response rate in…

  17. Alcohol and Drug Use among College Student Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braitman, Abby L.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Ladage, Jessica; Schroeder, Valarie; Gumienny, Leslie A.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Klostermann, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The present paper compared drinking and drug use in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs), compared to non-ACOAs, among college students. Participants were 572 undergraduates. ACOAs were more likely to be current drug users than non-ACOAs. ACOAs reported initiating alcohol use earlier than non-ACOAs; however, ACOAs did not drink more often or more…

  18. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  19. Assessing dietary intake of drug abusing Hispanic adults with and without HIV infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drug abuse is an important risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Hispanics in the Northeastern United States and both drug abuse and HIV are associated with nutritional deficiencies. The selection of a dietary assessment method most appropriate for Hispanic adults with/without HIV...

  20. The Relationships of Drug Items Communicated by Tenenaged Interviewees to Teenaged and Adult Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward V.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses relationships of drug items communicated by teenaged interviewees to teenaged and adult interviewers. The subjects were teenagers in East, Central and West Harlem. A pool of 298 interview tapes was gathered from which 70 tapes were randomly selected. Teenagers' explanations for drug use included 10 categories established by…

  1. Adult Literacy and Drug Addiction: What's the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neri, Charles

    1990-01-01

    A core concept in dealing with drug addiction is the relationship between fear and drug use. In order to deal with fear, one response is a job skills class as a positive, ego-building experience in which literacy skills are emphasized in the context of self-discovery. (SK)

  2. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by drugs, cues, and stress in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In human and animal studies, adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the initiation and subsequent abuse of drugs. Adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse, and a critical aspect of drug abuse is that it is a chronically relapsing disorder. However, little is known of how vulnerability factors such as adolescence are related to conditions that induce relapse, triggered by the drug itself, drug-associated cues, or stress. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and adult rats on drug-, cue-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods On postnatal days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to lever press for i.v. infusions of cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) during two daily 2-h sessions. The rats then self-administered i.v. cocaine for ten additional sessions. Subsequently, visual and auditory stimuli that signaled drug delivery were unplugged, and rats were allowed to extinguish lever pressing for 20 sessions. Rats were then tested on cocaine-, cue-, and yohimbine (stress)-induced cocaine seeking using a within-subject multicomponent reinstatement procedure. Results Results indicated that adolescents had heightened cocaine seeking during maintenance and extinction compared to adults. During reinstatement, adolescents (vs adults) responded more following cocaine- and yohimbine injections, while adults (vs adolescents) showed greater responding following presentations of drug-associated cues. Conclusion These results demonstrated that adolescents and adults differed across several measures of drug-seeking behavior, and adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse precipitated by drugs and stress. PMID:19953228

  3. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure affect the drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats?

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schutová, Barbora; Hrubá, Lenka; Pometlová, Marie

    2011-10-10

    Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide and also one of the most common drugs abused by pregnant women. Repeated administration of psychostimulants induces behavioral sensitization in response to treatment of the same or related drugs in rodents. The effect of prenatal MA exposure on sensitivity to drugs in adulthood is not yet fully determined. Because our most recent studies demonstrated that prenatal MA (5mg/kg) exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same drug, we were interested whether the increased sensitivity corresponds with the increased drug-seeking behavior. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the conditioned place preference (CPP). The following psychostimulant drugs were used as a challenge in adulthood: MA (5mg/kg), amphetamine (5mg/kg) and cocaine (10mg/kg). All psychostimulant drugs induced increased drug-seeking behavior in adult male rats. However, while MA and amphetamine-induced increase in drug-seeking behavior did not differ based on the prenatal drug exposure, prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed tolerance effect to cocaine in adulthood. In addition, prenatally MA-exposed rats had decreased weight gain after administration of MA or amphetamine, while the weight of prenatally MA-exposed rats stayed unchanged after cocaine administration. Defecation was increased by all the drugs (MA, amphetamine and cocaine), while only amphetamine increased the tail temperature. In conclusion, our results did not confirm our hypothesis that prenatal MA exposure increases drug-seeking behavior in adulthood in the CPP test.

  4. Propensity to Work Among Chronically Unemployed Adult Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; DeFulio, Anthony; Long, Lauren; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Analyses were conducted to compare rates of employment before, during, and after employment at the therapeutic workplace, which is a novel employment-based treatment for drug misuse. Participants in two clinical trials attended the therapeutic workplace at higher rates than they worked before intake and six months after discharge. These data suggest that unemployed chronic drug misusers will attend work at higher rates at the therapeutic workplace than in the community when paid modest wages, and that the failure of chronic drug misusers to obtain employment in the community may not result from lack of interest in work. PMID:20964531

  5. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  6. Long-term drug administration in the adult zebrafish using oral gavage for cancer preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Michelle; Henderson, Rachel E.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zebrafish are a major model for chemical genetics, and most studies use embryos when investigating small molecules that cause interesting phenotypes or that can rescue disease models. Limited studies have dosed adults with small molecules by means of water-borne exposure or injection techniques. Challenges in the form of drug delivery-related trauma and anesthesia-related toxicity have excluded the adult zebrafish from long-term drug efficacy studies. Here, we introduce a novel anesthetic combination of MS-222 and isoflurane to an oral gavage technique for a non-toxic, non-invasive and long-term drug administration platform. As a proof of principle, we established drug efficacy of the FDA-approved BRAFV600E inhibitor, Vemurafenib, in adult zebrafish harboring BRAFV600E melanoma tumors. In the model, adult casper zebrafish intraperitoneally transplanted with a zebrafish melanoma cell line (ZMEL1) and exposed to daily sub-lethal dosing at 100 mg/kg of Vemurafenib for 2 weeks via oral gavage resulted in an average 65% decrease in tumor burden and a 15% mortality rate. In contrast, Vemurafenib-resistant ZMEL1 cell lines, generated in culture from low-dose drug exposure for 4 months, did not respond to the oral gavage treatment regimen. Similarly, this drug treatment regimen can be applied for treatment of primary melanoma tumors in the zebrafish. Taken together, we developed an effective long-term drug treatment system that will allow the adult zebrafish to be used to identify more effective anti-melanoma combination therapies and opens up possibilities for treating adult models of other diseases. PMID:27482819

  7. Prescribing psychotropic drugs to adults with an intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Trollor, Julian N; Salomon, Carmela; Franklin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Mental illness is common in people with intellectual disability. They may also have physical health problems which can affect their mental state. Difficulties in communication can contribute to mental health problems being overlooked. These may present with changes in behaviour. Psychological management is usually preferable to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Behavioural approaches are the most appropriate way to manage challenging behaviour. If a drug is considered, prescribers should complete a thorough diagnostic assessment, exclude physical and environmental contributions to symptoms, and consider medical comorbidities before prescribing. Where possible avoid psychotropics with the highest cardiometabolic burden. Prescribe the minimum effective dose and treatment length, and regularly monitor drug efficacy and adverse effects. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychotropics for challenging behaviour. They should be avoided unless the behaviour is severe and non-responsive to other treatments. PMID:27756975

  8. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the Supreme Court's preview. As the 2005 term neared its June 30 end date, the Supreme Court, still adjusting to its first membership change in 11 years, had yet to decide dozens of cases that had defied quick resolution throughout the term. But with the last-minute release of seriously fractured decisions in many of the…

  9. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many commentators have noted that the 2010 Supreme Court term was without the "fireworks" of recent years and, therefore, this year the Court garnered limited media attention and national interest. Contributing to this limited attention was the fact that the term ended with no retirements or looming confirmation battles. In addition, the term's…

  10. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at various cases of the Supreme Court's most recent term. In contrast to the 2006-2007 term when the Supreme Court was regularly split 5-4, during this last term, the justices have formed surprising coalitions in cases considered highly controversial. For example, it was the so-called liberal bloc's Justice Stevens who wrote the…

  11. The psychiatrist in court.

    PubMed

    Grounds, A

    1985-07-01

    Psychiatric evidence may be required on a variety of issues in different courts. Psychiatrists in court face ethical dilemmas, and psychiatric evidence can be misused. Good preparation for cross-examination and a proper understanding of the limits of professional expertise are needed.

  12. Supreme Court Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  13. Insurers lose court battle

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-09-28

    Recent court disputes concerning insurance coverage of Superfund costs have resulted in the retrial of a proinsurer ruling on environmental cleanup costs for potentially responsible parties. The court rejected the insurance industry`s pollution exclusion clause by Aetna and two nonchemical companies. Supposedly this is good news for the chemical industry, because there will be more access to insurance money in Superfund cleanups.

  14. Genetics in the courts

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  15. Psychoactive Drugs Used with Adults and Elderly Adults Who Have Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Review of the medical charts of 369 adults with mental retardation found increased use of psychoactive medications with subjects 55-years old and older compared to those 20-39 years of age. The increased psychoactive use by elderly adults was associated with independent living and with psychiatric diagnosis. Neuroleptic use was increased for…

  16. Parenting styles and emerging adult drug use in Cebu, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Rebecca S.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Bass, Judith K.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Parenting style is a potent and malleable influence on emerging adult substance use. Most of the parenting-substance use literature has been conducted in Western populations and it is unknown whether findings are generalizable to other cultures and contexts. We extended the parenting-substance use literature to a cohort of emerging adults in the Philippines using the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We assessed associations between mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) reported by offspring at age 18 and odds of offspring-reported drug use three years later, adjusted for a range of offspring- and parent/household-level characteristics. Females were dropped from analyses due to low prevalence of drug users. We found that many emerging adults in Cebu reported having used drugs, particularly methamphetamine—a dangerous drug with high abuse potential. Authoritative (warm, firm) mothering was significantly associated with sons’ reduced odds of drug use and neglectful fathering was related at a trend level with sons’ increased odds of having tried drugs. Findings underscore the relation of parenting styles to emerging adults’ drug use and add to the literature on cross-cultural variability in parenting styles. PMID:27330559

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Psychotherapy and Drug Therapy in the Treatment of Unipolar Depression with Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrueck, Susan M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Considered the relative effectiveness of drug therapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of unipolar depression in adults in a meta-analysis of 56 outcome studies. Evidence suggested that psychotherapy was superior to drug therapy. (Author/LLL)

  18. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  19. [Background factors in the detection of drug-resistant bacteria in adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Michio

    2014-02-01

    In the treatment of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis, it has been assumed that subjects over 65 years of age or living with children attending a day nursery, are at higher risk for infection with drug-resistant bacteria. However there are few reports which have discussed the relationship between those risk factors and adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. I investigated the association between adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis living with children attending a day nursery and gender, ages, and frequency of detection of drug-resistant bacteria. From 2010 to 2012, a total of 598 adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis were enrolled. The majority of the study subjects were women, and the largest 10-year age group was 30-39 years. By sex, a greater proportion of the female subjects than the male subjects lived with children attending a day nursery. By age, the proportion of subjects who lived with children attending a day nursery was significantly higher in the 30-39-year age group than other age groups. Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant Haemophilus influenzae were detected at significantly higher rates in subjects with children attending a day nursery than in those without. There were no significant difference in drug-resistant bacteria detection between subjects over 65 years of age, and under 65 years. These findings suggested that living with children attending a day nursery is a risk factor and source of infection by drug-resistant organisms that may cause intra-familial infections of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. These results suggested we must ask adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis whether they are living with children attending a day nursery or not, when we plan their treatment strategy.

  20. Sox2 and Jagged1 Expression in Normal and Drug-Damaged Adult Mouse Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Sean; Taylor, Ruth R.; Forge, Andrew; Hume, Clifford R.

    2007-01-01

    Inner ear hair cells detect environmental signals associated with hearing, balance, and body orientation. In humans and other mammals, significant hair cell loss leads to irreversible hearing and balance deficits, whereas hair cell loss in nonmammalian vertebrates is repaired by the spontaneous generation of replacement hair cells. Research in mammalian hair cell regeneration is hampered by the lack of in vivo damage models for the adult mouse inner ear and the paucity of cell-type-specific markers for non-sensory cells within the sensory receptor epithelia. The present study delineates a protocol to drug damage the adult mouse auditory epithelium (organ of Corti) in situ and uses this protocol to investigate Sox2 and Jagged1 expression in damaged inner ear sensory epithelia. In other tissues, the transcription factor Sox2 and a ligand member of the Notch signaling pathway, Jagged1, are involved in regenerative processes. Both are involved in early inner ear development and are expressed in developing support cells, but little is known about their expressions in the adult. We describe a nonsurgical technique for inducing hair cell damage in adult mouse organ of Corti by a single high-dose injection of the aminoglycoside kanamycin followed by a single injection of the loop diuretic furosemide. This drug combination causes the rapid death of outer hair cells throughout the cochlea. Using immunocytochemical techniques, Sox2 is shown to be expressed specifically in support cells in normal adult mouse inner ear and is not affected by drug damage. Sox2 is absent from auditory hair cells, but is expressed in a subset of vestibular hair cells. Double-labeling experiments with Sox2 and calbindin suggest Sox2-positive hair cells are Type II. Jagged1 is also expressed in support cells in the adult ear and is not affected by drug damage. Sox2 and Jagged1 may be involved in the maintenance of support cells in adult mouse inner ear. PMID:18157569

  1. Drug incompatibilities in the adult intensive care unit of a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Marsilio, Naiane Roveda; da Silva, Daiandy; Bueno, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to identify the physical and chemical incompatibilities among the drugs administered intravenously to patients admitted to an adult intensive care unit. We also aimed to establish pharmaceutical guidelines for administering incompatible drugs. Methods This cross-sectional, prospective, and quantitative study was conducted from July to September 2015. Drug incompatibilities were identified based on an analysis of the patient prescriptions available in the hospital online management system. A pharmaceutical intervention was performed using the guidelines on the preparation and administration of incompatible drugs. Adherence to those guidelines was subsequently assessed among the nursing staff. Results A total of 100 prescriptions were analyzed; 68 were incompatible with the intravenous drugs prescribed. A total of 271 drug incompatibilities were found, averaging 4.0 ± 3.3 incompatibilities per prescription. The most commonly found drug incompatibilities were between midazolam and hydrocortisone (8.9%), between cefepime and midazolam (5.2%), and between hydrocortisone and vancomycin (5.2%). The drugs most commonly involved in incompatibilities were midazolam, hydrocortisone, and vancomycin. The most common incompatibilities occurred when a drug was administered via continuous infusion and another was administered intermittently (50%). Of the 68 prescriptions that led to pharmaceutical guidelines, 45 (66.2%) were fully adhered to by the nursing staff. Conclusion Patients under intensive care were subjected to a high rate of incompatibilities. Drug incompatibilities can be identified and eliminated by the pharmacist on the multidisciplinary team, thereby reducing undesirable effects among patients. PMID:27410410

  2. Drug Education for Adults; A Guide for Directors of Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Special Continuing Education.

    The materials contained in this guide are intended to indicate possibilities, to identify minimum criteria, and to encourage public school involvement in drug education for adults. Part I of the guide discusses essential concepts; leadership elements; program content; and ways of gaining valid insights into the culture of youth, especially as it…

  3. Gender differences in drug use and expenditures in a privately insured population of older adults.

    PubMed

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Miller, G Edward; Banthin, Jessica S; Trinh, Yen

    2005-01-01

    We examine gender differences in use and expenditures for prescription drugs among Medicare and privately insured older adults aged 65 and over, using data on a nationally representative sample of prescription drug purchases collected for the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component. Overall, women spent about $1,178 for drugs, about 17% more than the $1,009 in average expenditures by men. Older women constituted 50.7% of the population and had average annual aggregate expenditures for prescribed medicines of $6.93 billion compared to $5.77 billion for men. Women were more likely than men to use drugs from a number of therapeutic classes-analgesics, hormones and psychotherapeutic agents-and therapeutic subclasses-thyroid drugs, COX-2 inhibitors and anti-depressants. Women also had higher average prescriptions per user for a number of therapeutic classes-hormones, psychotherapeutic agents and analgesics-and therapeutic subclasses-anti-diabetic drugs and beta blockers. Prescribed medications are, arguably, the most important healthcare technology in preventing illness, disability, and death in older adults. It is critical that older women and men have proper access to prescribed medicines. Given the financial vulnerability of this priority population, particularly women, the expanded drug coverage available under the Medicare Modernization Act is of particular relevance in meeting this goal.

  4. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  5. Recent Literature on Medication Errors and Adverse Drug Events in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Jennifer G.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Semla, Todd P.

    2015-01-01

    Medication errors and adverse drug events are common in older adults, but locating literature addressing these issues is often challenging. The objective of this article was to summarize recent studies addressing medication errors and adverse drug events in a single location to improve accessibility for individuals working with older adults. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies published in 2014 and identified 51 potential articles. After critical review, 17 studies were selected for inclusion based on innovation, rigorous observational or experimental study designs, and use of reliable, valid measures. Four articles characterizing potentially inappropriate prescribing and interventions to optimize medication regimens were annotated and critiqued in detail. We hope that health policy makers and clinicians find this information helpful in improving the quality of care for older adults. PMID:26804210

  6. Supreme Court Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Supreme Court's preview is presented in this article. During the 2006-07 Supreme Court term, it was the 5-4 decisions that garnered the most attention. Twenty-four of the term's 72 cases were decided by this narrowest of margins--the highest percentage of 5-4 opinions in a decade--even as the share of unanimous opinions fell "below levels seen…

  7. Court-authorised deprivation of liberty.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom Supreme Court judgment in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P in 2014 introduced a more inclusive 'acid test' for determining the objective element of a deprivation of liberty in cases concerning people who lack decision-making capacity. The case made clear that adults and young people who lack capacity could be deprived of their liberty in care settings other than hospitals and care homes, including the person's own home. A deprivation of liberty that occurs in a setting other than a hospital or care home must be authorised by a Court. This article explains the revised process for applying for Court authorisation of a deprivation of liberty where it occurs in supported living, Shared Lives placements or the incapable person's own home.

  8. Typology of club drug use among young adults recruited using time-space sampling.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Grov, Christian; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined patterns of recent club drug use among 400 young adults (18-29) recruited using time-space sampling in NYC. Subjects had used at least one of six club drugs (methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), cocaine, methamphetamine, and D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)) within the prior 3 months. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to estimate latent groups based on patterns of recent club drug use and examined differences in demographic and psychological variables by class. A 3-class model fit the data best. Patterns were: Primary cocaine users (42% of sample), Mainstream users (44% of sample), and Wide-range users (14% of sample). Those most likely to be Primary cocaine users were significantly less likely to be heterosexual males and had higher educational attainment than the other two classes. Those most likely to be Wide-range users were less likely to be heterosexual females, more likely to be gay/bisexual males, dependent on club drugs, had significantly greater drug and sexual sensation seeking, and were more likely to use when experiencing physical discomfort or pleasant times with others compared to the other two groups. Findings highlight the utility of using person-centered approaches to understand patterns of substance use, as well as highlight several patterns of club drug use among young adults. PMID:19939585

  9. Impact of Psychotropic Drugs on QT Interval Dispersion in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Bruno de Queiroz; Costa, Marcelle Azevedo Nossar; Penna, Filipe; Konder, Mariana Teixeira; Celoria, Bruno Miguel Jorge; de Souza, Luciana Lopes; Pozzan, Roberto; Schneider, Roberta Siuffo; Albuquerque, Felipe Neves; Albuquerque, Denilson Campos

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-induced increase in QT dispersion has been associated with potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Little is known about the use of psychotropic substances, alone or in combination with other drugs on QT dispersion. Objectives To evaluate the impact of psychotropic drugs on QT interval dispersion in adults. Methods An observational cohort study was designed involving 161 patients hospitalized from an emergency department at a tertiary hospital, divided into psychotropic users or non-users. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data and drugs used on a regular basis were collected on admission, in addition to 12-lead electrocardiogram with QT dispersion measurement. Results QT dispersion was significantly higher in the psychotropic user group compared to non-users (69.25 ± 25.5 ms vs. 57.08 ± 23.4 ms; p = 0.002). The QT interval corrected by Bazzett formula was also higher in the psychotropic drugs user group, with statistical significance. (439.79 ± 31.14 ms vs. 427.71 ± 28.42 ms; p = 0.011). A regression analysis model showed a positive association between the number of psychotropic drugs used and QT interval dispersion, with r = 0.341 and p < 0.001. Conclusions The use of psychotropic drugs was associated with increased QT dispersion and this increase was accentuated, as the number of psychotropic drugs used was higher. PMID:24830389

  10. Motivations for Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Considering Social and Developmental Contexts

    PubMed Central

    LeClair, Amy; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims As part of a larger study on prescription drug misuse among young adults active in urban nightlife scenes, we examined participants’ motivations for misuse. Prescription painkillers, stimulants and sedatives were the primary substances of interest. Methods Participants were recruited from nightlife venues in New York using time-space sampling. Subjects completed a mixed-methods assessment at project research offices. The data presented here are from a subsample of 70 qualitative interviews conducted during the baseline assessment. Findings We identified experimentation and a “work hard, play hard” ethos as key motivations for misusing prescription drugs and argue that these motivations are specific, though not necessarily unique, to the participants’ social location as young adults. These findings highlight the role of life stage and social context in the misuse of prescription drugs. Conclusion Future studies of prescription drug misuse should pay attention to the larger social contexts in which users are embedded and, therefore, make decisions about how and why to misuse. Moving beyond the very broad concepts of “recreation” and “self-medication” presently established in the research, policies targeting young adults may want to tailor intervention efforts based on motivations. PMID:26709337

  11. Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults.

    PubMed

    Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M Kate

    2011-06-01

    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. PMID:21534689

  12. Subjective health literacy and older adults' assessment of direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads.

    PubMed

    An, Soontae; Muturi, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly the intended target of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug ads, but limited evidence exists as to how they assess the educational value of DTC ads and, more importantly, whether their assessment depends on their level of health literacy. In-person interviews of 170 older adults revealed that those with low subjective health literacy evaluated the educational value of DTC ads significantly lower than did those with high subjective health literacy. The results prompt us to pay more scholarly attention to determining how effectively DTC ads convey useful medical information, particularly to those with limited health literacy.

  13. A behavioral economic analysis of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pickover, Alison M; Messina, Bryan G; Correia, Christopher J; Garza, Kimberly B; Murphy, James G

    2016-02-01

    The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is a widely recognized public health issue, and young adults are particularly vulnerable to their use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks capture an individual's strength of desire and motivation for a particular drug. We examined young adult prescription drug purchase and consumption patterns using hypothetical behavioral economic purchase tasks for prescription sedatives/tranquilizers, stimulants, and opiate pain relievers. We also examined relations between demand, use frequency, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and sex differences in these relations. Undergraduate students who endorsed past-year prescription drug use (N = 393) completed an online questionnaire for course credit. Measures assessed substance use frequency and DSM-5 SUD symptoms. Hypothetical purchase tasks for sedatives, stimulants, and pain relievers assessed participants' consumption and expenditure patterns for these substances across 25 prices. Past-year prescription sedative, stimulant, and pain reliever use was endorsed by 138, 258, and 189 participants, respectively. Among these users, consumption for their respective substance decreased as a function of ascending price, as expected. Demand indices for a prescription drug were associated with each other and with use frequency and SUD symptoms, with variability across substances but largely not by sex. In addition, demand for prescription pain relievers differentially predicted symptoms independent of use, with differences for females and males. In conclusion, hypothetical consumption and expenditure patterns for prescription drugs were generally well described by behavioral economic demand curves, and the observed associations with use and SUD symptoms provide support for the utility of prescription drug purchase tasks. PMID:26502300

  14. A behavioral economic analysis of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pickover, Alison M; Messina, Bryan G; Correia, Christopher J; Garza, Kimberly B; Murphy, James G

    2016-02-01

    The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is a widely recognized public health issue, and young adults are particularly vulnerable to their use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks capture an individual's strength of desire and motivation for a particular drug. We examined young adult prescription drug purchase and consumption patterns using hypothetical behavioral economic purchase tasks for prescription sedatives/tranquilizers, stimulants, and opiate pain relievers. We also examined relations between demand, use frequency, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and sex differences in these relations. Undergraduate students who endorsed past-year prescription drug use (N = 393) completed an online questionnaire for course credit. Measures assessed substance use frequency and DSM-5 SUD symptoms. Hypothetical purchase tasks for sedatives, stimulants, and pain relievers assessed participants' consumption and expenditure patterns for these substances across 25 prices. Past-year prescription sedative, stimulant, and pain reliever use was endorsed by 138, 258, and 189 participants, respectively. Among these users, consumption for their respective substance decreased as a function of ascending price, as expected. Demand indices for a prescription drug were associated with each other and with use frequency and SUD symptoms, with variability across substances but largely not by sex. In addition, demand for prescription pain relievers differentially predicted symptoms independent of use, with differences for females and males. In conclusion, hypothetical consumption and expenditure patterns for prescription drugs were generally well described by behavioral economic demand curves, and the observed associations with use and SUD symptoms provide support for the utility of prescription drug purchase tasks.

  15. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed. PMID:27774073

  16. The utilization of Arabic online drug information among adults in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abanmy, Norah O; Al-Quait, Nouf A; Alami, Amani H; Al-Juhani, Meshaal H; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2012-10-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items examining the types of accessed Arabic drug information, the respondent's demographics, their ability to easily find and understand Arabic drug-related information, and their trustfulness and dependency on such information websites. Of the 422 Arabic speaking adults who answered the questionnaire, 88% stated that they used Arabic websites to answer drug-related questions. Of the respondents, 50% had a bachelor's degree, 44% were young adults, over half were female (60%), and 72% of them have a chronic disease. The ease of retrieving online information was the most common reason (69%) for consulting such websites. Google as a search engine was the most frequently (86%) accessible website. Although respondents reported different drug-related topics in their online searching, the search for adverse effects was the most common (68%). Respondents claimed that they could easily find (65%) and understand (49%) the drug-related information. Although a good number of respondents qualified this type of information as good, double-checking of information on other websites was highly recommended. Trustfulness was one of the important parameters to measure and 205 respondents (55%) claimed that they only trusted half of the information cited. Moreover, around 48% of respondents considered that finding the same information on more than one website increased its trustfulness. Surprisingly, 54% of respondents did not depend on Arabic information websites when making decisions on drug use

  17. Use of proton-pump inhibitors among adults: a Danish nationwide drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Hallas, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B. Schaffalitzky; Lassen, Annmarie T.; Lødrup, Anders B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has increased over the last decade. The objective of this study was to provide detailed utilization data on PPI use over time, with special emphasis on duration of PPI use and concomitant use of ulcerogenic drugs. Methods: Using the nationwide Danish Prescription Registry, we identified all Danish adults filling a PPI between 2002 and 2014. Using descriptive statistics, we reported (i) the distribution of use between single PPI entities, (ii) the development in incidence and prevalence of use over time, (iii) measures of duration and intensity of treatment, and (iv) the prevalence of use of ulcerogenic drugs among users of PPIs. Results: We identified 1,617,614 adults using PPIs during the study period. The prevalence of PPI use increased fourfold during the study period to 7.4% of all Danish adults in 2014. PPI use showed strong age dependency, reaching more than 20% among those aged at least 80 years. The proportion of users maintaining treatment over time increased with increasing age, with less than10% of those aged 18–39 years using PPIs 2 years after their first prescription, compared with about 40% among those aged at least 80 years. The overall use of ulcerogenic drugs among PPI users increased moderately, from 35% of users of PPI in 2002 to 45% in 2014. Conclusions: The use of PPIs is extensive and increasing rapidly, especially among the elderly. PMID:27582879

  18. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT PRACTICES FOR DRUG-INVOLVED ADULTS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the extent and organizational correlates of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in correctional facilities and community-based substance abuse treatment programs that manage drug-involved adult offenders. METHODS Correctional administrators and treatment program directors affiliated with a national sample of 384 criminal justice and community-based programs providing substance abuse treatment to adult offenders in the United States were surveyed in 2004. Correctional administrators reported the availability of up to 13 specified EBPs and treatment directors up to 15. The sum total of EBPs indicates their extent. Linear models regress the extent of EBPs on variables measuring structure and leadership, culture and climate, administrator attitudes and network connectedness of the organization. RESULTS Most programs offer fewer than 60% of the specified EBPs to drug-involved offenders. In multiple regression models, offender treatment programs that provided more EBPs were community-based, accredited, and network-connected; with a performance-oriented, non-punitive culture, more training resources; and leadership with a background in human services, a high regard for the value of substance abuse treatment and an understanding of EBPs. CONCLUSIONS The use of EBPs among facility- and community-based programs that serve drug-involved adult offenders has room for improvement. Initiatives to disseminate EBPs might target these institutional and environmental domains, but further research is needed to determine whether such organization interventions can promote the uptake of EBPs. PMID:17383551

  19. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Young Adults Driving to a Drinking Location

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark B.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clubs that feature electronic music dance events (EMDEs) draw young adults aged 18 to 34 who are at high-risk for alcohol-related crashes to locations where alcohol sales are the principal source of revenue. Up to 30% of these attendees may also use drugs. This provides an important context in which to study driving arrangements that reflect concern with impaired driving. We explored whether drivers were using less alcohol and fewer drugs at exit than their passengers were and whether a driver for the group ever changed after consuming too much during the evening. Methods Using biological measures of alcohol consumption (breath tests) and drug use (oral fluid tests), 175 drivers and 272 passengers were surveyed among young adults arriving at and departing from EMDEs in San Francisco. Results Upon exit from the drinking locations, only 20% of the drivers, compared to 47% of the passengers, had a high breath alcohol concentration (defined as a BrAC of .05 g/dL or greater). Further, there was evidence that drivers with high BrACs switched to passenger status on exit and former passengers with lower BrACs replaced those drivers. However, there were no differences in the prevalence of drug use among drivers and passengers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the effort by young adult drivers to avoid alcohol-impaired driving appears to be reducing the number of drivers with high BrACs returning from drinking locations, such as EMDEs, by about one third. However, there is no similar pattern for drugged driving. PMID:23415848

  20. Courts and Kids: Pursuing Educational Equity through the State Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past thirty-five years, federal courts have dramatically retreated from actively promoting school desegregation. In the meantime, state courts have taken up the mantle of promoting the vision of educational equity originally articulated in "Brown v. Board of Education". "Courts and Kids" is the first detailed analysis of why the state…

  1. Ontario court affirms that medical marijuana regulations are unconstitutional.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Gordon

    2003-12-01

    On 7 October 2003, the Ontario Court of Appeal upheld the Ontario Superior Court of Justice decision in Hitzig, which found that the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) represented an unconstitutional barrier to accessing a legal supply of marijuana for persons with a recognized medical need. The Court of Appeal tailored its remedial order by striking down the second specialist test required for certain applicants, and eliminating the unconstitutional eligibility and supply provisions, rather than declaring unconstitutional the entire MMAR as the lower court had done. The court's declaration was made effective immediately, in order to maintain the prohibition for non-medicinal possession of marijuana under section 4 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), and to constitutionalize the medical exemption for marijuana possession created under the MMAR. PMID:15108659

  2. Do Specialty Courts Achieve Better Outcomes for Children in Foster Care than General Courts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Eldred, Lindsey M.; Acquah, Kofi F.; Blevins, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effects of unified family and drug treatment courts (DTCs) on the resolution of cases involving foster care children and the resulting effects on school performance. Method: The first analytic step was to assess the impacts of presence of unified and DTCs in North Carolina counties on time children spent in…

  3. Modeling the Potential Impact of a Prescription Drug Copayment Increase on the Adult Asthmatic Medicaid Population

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seung Jin; Paltiel, A. David; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Weiss, Scott T.; Kuntz, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Commonwealth of Massachusetts increased the copayment for prescription drugs by $1.50 for Medicaid (MassHealth) beneficiaries in 2003. We sought to determine the likely health outcomes and cost shifts attributable to this copayment increase using the example of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use among adult asthmatic Medicaid beneficiaries. Method We compared the predicted costs and health outcomes projected over a 1-year time horizon with and without the increase in copayment from the perspective of MassHealth, providers, pharmacies, and MassHealth beneficiaries by employing decision analysis simulation model. Results In a target population of 17,500 adult asthmatics, increased copayments from 50¢ to $2.00 would result in an additional 646 acute events per year, caused by increased drug nonadherence. Annual combined net savings for the state and federal governments would be $2.10 million. Projected MassHealth savings are attributable to both decreased drug utilization and lower pharmacy reimbursement rates; these more than offset the additional costs of more frequent acute exacerbations. Pharmacies would lose $1.98 million in net revenues, MassHealth beneficiaries would pay an additional $0.28 million, and providers would receive additional $0.16 million. Conclusion Over its first year of implementation, increase in the prescription drug copayment is expected to produce more frequent acute exacerbations among asthmatic MassHealth beneficiaries who use ICS and to shift the financial burden from government to other stakeholders. PMID:18237365

  4. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.; Hawke, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Of the three branches of government, the Supreme Court usually receives the least national attention. Not so this year. In addition to another changing of the guard with the retirement of Justice Stevens and the nomination of Elena Kagan, the 2009-2010 term generated a great deal of controversy. And in a number of instances, the public's keen…

  5. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)

  6. Supreme Court Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    Reactions to the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and debate over the president's replacement nomination, Judge John Roberts, Jr., of the D.C. Circuit, dominated this summer's Supreme Court recess. Subsequently, after Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005, President Bush nominated Roberts for the chief justice…

  7. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on two U.S. Supreme Court cases involving unreasonable searches and seizures: (1) Kyllo v. United States, No. 99-8508; and (2) Indianapolis v. Edmond, No. 99-1030. Includes information about the first case and the basis and decision of the second case. (CMK)

  8. The Supreme Court Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Albert J.; Coplan, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. The decisions involve student rights, the Gramm-Rudman budget law, homosexuals' right to privacy, the regulation of state primary elections, pregnancy and employment policy, Miranda Rights, and the legality of certain police searches. (JDH)

  9. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 2008-2009 term, Justice David Souter's decision to return to New Hampshire and President Obama's nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to replace him on the bench had taken over the Supreme Court news cycle. In the end, the consensus has been that, with the possible exception of criminal justice issues, swapping out Souter for Sotomayor…

  10. Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    It was late on Election Day 2010 and Vander Plaats, a Sioux City, Iowa, businessman and leader of a campaign to oust three Iowa Supreme Court justices, had just gotten word that he and his team had pulled it off. The voters had rejected the three justices up for a retention vote: David Baker, Michael Streit, and Chief Justice Marsha Ternus.…

  11. National Youth Court Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Tracy M.

    Youth courts provide communities with an opportunity to impose immediate consequences for first time youthful offenders, while providing a peer operated disposition mechanism that constructively allows young people to take responsibility, be held accountable, and make amends for violating the law. Dispositions hold youth accountable in part…

  12. Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Schrager, Sheree M; Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Alex; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Wong, Carolyn; Iverson, Ellen

    2012-02-14

    BACKGROUND: Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA) and New York (NY), which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old) who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs); homeless persons; and polydrug users. RESULTS: In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. CONCLUSION: Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs. PMID:22798990

  13. Misuse of Prescription and Illicit Drugs Among High-risk Young Adults in Los Angeles and New York

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Alex; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Wong, Carolyn; Iverson, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA) and New York (NY), which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old) who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs); homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs. PMID:22798990

  14. Impact of Multiple Pharmacy Use on Medication Adherence and Drug-drug Interactions in Older Adults with Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Zachary A.; Driessen, Julia; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Gellad, Walid F.; Donohue, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between multiple pharmacy use and medication adherence and potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) among older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional propensity score-weighted analysis of 2009 claims data from a nationally representative sample of 926,956 Medicare Part D beneficiaries aged >65 continuously enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare and Part D that year, and filled >1 prescription at a community/retail or mail order pharmacy. Multiple pharmacy use was defined as concurrent (overlapping time periods) or sequential use (non-overlapping time periods) of >2 pharmacies in the year. Measurements Medication adherence was calculated using a proportion of days covered ≥0.80 for eight therapeutic categories (β-blockers, renin angiotensin system antagonists, calcium channel blockers, statins, sulfonylureas, biguanides [i.e., metformin], thiazolidinediones, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors). Potential DDIs arising from use of certain drugs across a broad set of classes were defined as the concurrent filling of two interacting drugs. Results Overall, 38.1% of the sample used multiple pharmacies. Those using multiple pharmacies (both concurrently and sequentially) consistently had higher adjusted odds of non-adherence (ranging from 1.10 to 1.31, p<0.001) across all chronic medication classes assessed after controlling for socio-demographic, health status and access to care factors, compared to single pharmacy users. The adjusted predicted probability of exposure to a DDI was also slightly higher for those using multiple pharmacies concurrently (3.6%) compared to single pharmacy users (3.2%, AOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.08–1.15) but lower in individuals using multiple pharmacies sequentially (2.8%, AOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.81–0.91). Conclusions Filling prescriptions at multiple pharmacies was associated with lower medication adherence across multiple chronic medications, and a small but statistically significant

  15. Teaching older adults to self-manage medications: preventing adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Curry, Linda Cox; Walker, Charles; Hogstel, Mildred O; Burns, Paulette

    2005-04-01

    Older adults use more prescription and OTC medications than any other age group. Because their medication regimens often are complicated by many medications and different doses, times, and administration methods, older adults are at high risk for medication mismanagement. The most common errors associated with medication mismanagement include mixing OTC and prescription medications, discontinuing prescriptions, taking wrong dosages, using incorrect techniques, and consuming inappropriate foods with specific medications. Both human and environmental factors contribute to medication mismanagement among older adults. Human factors include faulty communication between the health care provider and the patient; the patient's lack of knowledge; ADRs; alcohol-drug interactions; use of OTC medications and herbal products; cognitive, sensory, and motor impairments; and polypharmacy. Environmental factors include high cost of prescribed medications, improper medication storage, and absence of clearly marked expiration dates. Nurses need to take advantage of both formal and informal teaching opportunities in all settings to prepare a patient for medication self-management. Teaching should be individualized and based on a thorough assessment of the patient's abilities to administer medication safely and the specific medication regimen. By involving older adults as active partners in their health care, many errors and medication-related health problems can be prevented. New technologies and devices have the potential for improving the patient's self-management of medications. The role of nurses in educating older adults and their families about proper medication management is vital. PMID:15839523

  16. Illicit drug use, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in the US adult population.

    PubMed

    Akkina, Sanjeev K; Ricardo, Ana C; Patel, Amishi; Das, Arjun; Bazzano, Lydia A; Brecklin, Carolyn; Fischer, Michael J; Lash, James P

    2012-12-01

    Illicit drug use has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in select populations, but it is unknown whether the same association exists in the general population. By using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5861 adults who were questioned about illicit drug use, including cocaine, methamphetamines, and heroin, during their lifetime. The primary outcome was CKD as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation or by microalbuminuria. We also examined the association between illicit drug use and blood pressure (BP) ≥120/80, ≥130/85, and ≥140/90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between illicit drug use and CKD and BP. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar between illicit drug users and nonusers (100.7 vs 101.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.4), as was albuminuria (5.7 vs 6.0 mg/g creatinine, P = 0.5). Accordingly, illicit drug use was not significantly associated with CKD in logistic regression models (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.27) after adjusting for other important factors. However, illicit drug users had higher systolic (120 vs 118 mm Hg, P = 0.04) and diastolic BP (73 vs 71 mm Hg, P = 0.0003) compared with nonusers. Cocaine use was independently associated with BP ≥130/85 mm Hg (OR, 1.24; CI, 1.00-1.54), especially when used more during a lifetime (6-49 times; OR, 1.42; CI, 1.06-1.91). In a representative sample of the US population, illicit drug use was not associated with CKD, but cocaine users were more likely to have elevated BP.

  17. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  18. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  19. Novel Psychoactive Drug Use among Younger Adults Involved in US Nightlife Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of novel psychoactive substances has been reported in clinical studies and recent studies of users. The use of these substances in European nightlife scenes is well documented. Little research has been done to identify the prevalence of these drugs among young adults active in other regions. Aims We focus our sample on socially active young adults to gain an indication of the prevalence and understanding of demographic factors associated with past year mephedrone (“meph”, “bath salts”) and synthetic cannabinoid (“spice”, “K2”) use. Design and Methods This study reports on the results of a field based survey of 1740 patrons at nightlife venues in New York City. Results Within the sample, 8.2% reported use of synthetic cannabinoids and 1.1% reported the use of mephedrone. Gay and Bisexual men reported higher prevalence of mephedrone use. Latinos reported higher prevalence of synthetic cannabinoid use. Multivariate analyses indicate sexual minority identity is associated with mephedrone use and younger age and Latino ethnicity are associated with synthetic cannabinoid use. Discussion and Conclusion The findings suggest the use of synthetic cannabinoids and mephedrone among adults in US. nightlife scenes remains relatively low in comparison to European nightlife scenes, and is low relative to other drug use among young people within these scenes. PMID:23795887

  20. Sexual behavior and drug consumption among young adults in a shantytown in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez-Buccollini, Juan A; DeLea, Suzanne; Herrera, Phabiola M; Gilman, Robert H; Paz-Soldan, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Background Risky sexual behaviors of young adults have received increasing attention during the last decades. However, few studies have focused on the sexual behavior of young adults in shantytowns of Latin America. Specifically, studies on the association between sexual behaviors and other risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS transmission, such as the consumption of illicit drugs or alcohol are scarce in this specific context. Methods The study participants were 393 men and 400 women between 18 and 30 years of age, from a shantytown in Lima, Peru. Data were obtained via survey: one section applied by a trained research assistant, and a self-reporting section. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between use of any illicit drug, high-risk sexual behaviors and reported STI symptoms, adjusting for alcohol consumption level and various socio-demographic characteristics. Results Among men, age of sexual debut was lower, number of lifetime sexual partners was higher, and there were higher risk types of sexual partners, compared to women. Though consistent condom use with casual partners was low in both groups, reported condom use at last intercourse was higher among men than women. Also, a lifetime history of illicit drug consumption decreased the probability of condom use at last sexual intercourse by half. Among men, the use of illicit drugs doubled the probability of intercourse with a casual partner during the last year and tripled the probability of reported STI symptoms. Conclusion Drug consumption is associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and reported STI symptoms in a Lima shantytown after controlling for alcohol consumption level. Development of prevention programs for risky sexual behaviors, considering gender differences, is discussed. PMID:19152702

  1. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  2. Drug Use among American High School Students, College Students, and Other Young Adults. National Trends Through 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Drug use and related attitudes of U.S. high school seniors from the graduating classes of 1975-1985 and young adults in their late teens and early- to mid-twenties were studied, as part of an ongoing research project. Eleven classes of drugs were assessed: marijuana (including hashish), inhalants, hallucinogens, cocaine, heroin, other natural and…

  3. German Kava Ban Lifted by Court: The Alleged Hepatotoxicity of Kava (Piper methysticum) as a Case of Ill-Defined Herbal Drug Identity, Lacking Quality Control, and Misguided Regulatory Politics.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Kenny; Schmidt, Mathias; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2015-12-01

    Kava, the rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, are one of the most important social pillars of Melanesian societies. They have been used for more than 1000 years in social gatherings for the preparation of beverages with relaxing effects. During the colonial period, extract preparations found their way into Western medicinal systems, with experience especially concerning the treatment of situational anxiety dating back more than 100 years. It therefore came as a surprise when the safety of kava was suddenly questioned based on the observation of a series of case reports of liver toxicity in 1999 and 2000. These case reports ultimately led to a ban of kava products in Europe - a ban that has been contested because of the poor evidence of risks related to kava. Only recently, two German administrative courts decided that the decision of the regulatory authority to ban kava as a measure to ensure consumer safety was inappropriate and even associated with an increased risk due to the higher risk inherent to the therapeutic alternatives. This ruling can be considered as final for at least the German market, as no further appeal has been pursued by the regulatory authorities. However, in order to prevent further misunderstandings, especially in other markets, the current situation calls for a comprehensive presentation of the cardinal facts and misconceptions concerning kava and related drug quality issues.

  4. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  5. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P

    2010-11-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the "high." Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  6. Prescription of anti-influenza drugs for healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jane; Corbett, Mark; Stock, Christian; Nicholson, Karl; Elliot, Alex J; Duffy, Steven; Westwood, Marie; Palmer, Stephen; Stewart, Lesley

    2009-09-01

    In publicly funded health systems with finite resources, management decisions are based on assessments of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence commissioned a systematic review to inform their 2009 update to guidance on the use of antiviral drugs for the treatment of influenza. We searched databases for studies of the use of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of seasonal influenza. We present the results for healthy adults (ie, adults without known comorbidities) and people at-risk of influenza-related complications. There was an overall reduction in the median time to symptom alleviation in healthy adults by 0.57 days (95% CI -1.07 to -0.08; p=0.02; 2701 individuals) with zanamivir, and 0.55 days (95% CI -0.96 to -0.14; p=0.008; 1410 individuals) with oseltamivir. In those at risk, the median time to symptom alleviation was reduced by 0.98 days (95% CI -1.84 to -0.11; p=0.03; 1252 individuals) with zanamivir, and 0.74 days (95% CI -1.51 to 0.02; p=0.06; 1472 individuals) with oseltamivir. Little information was available on the incidence of complications. In view of the advantages and disadvantages of different management strategies for controlling seasonal influenza in healthy adults recommending the use of antiviral drugs for the treatment of people presenting with symptoms is unlikely to be the most appropriate course of action.

  7. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, Marta; Bianchi, Lucia; Lucano, Melissa; Bertù, Lorenza; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Summary The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders. PMID:27358221

  8. The longitudinal effect of drug use on productivity status of nonmetropolitan african american young adults.

    PubMed

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for individuals with heavy alcohol use trajectories from adolescence into young adulthood while marijuana effects were evaluated during the period when adolescents are more likely to have initiated usage (14-16 years of age). Productivity status was measured when study participants were between 18 and 21 years, for both alcohol and marijuana. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association between subjects' drug use and productivity. Bivariate analysis of the effects of marijuana use indicate that marijuana users by age 16 are 35% less likely to be productive at age 21 than those who have not initiated marijuana use (p < .005). After controlling for individual, community, and family factors, the multivariate logistic models for alcohol and marijuana use suggest that early adolescence drug use (marijuana and heavy alcohol use) do not have an impact on productivity status during early adulthood. Analyzing and understanding the different drug use trajectories in relation to a productivity outcome is important for policies and research geared to preventing drug use and in identifying its relation with micro- and macro-level labor market outcomes.

  9. Differences in malaria care seeking and dispensing outcomes for adults and children attending drug vendors in Nasarawa, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jenny; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Sieverding, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the differences in care seeking behaviour and dispensing outcomes between adults and children purchasing drugs for malaria at retail shops in Nigeria. Methods In Nasarawa State, retail drug shops were enumerated and a subset of those stocking antimalarials were selected as study sites and surveyed. Customers exiting shops after purchasing antimalarial drugs were surveyed and tested with a malaria rapid diagnostic test. Sick adults and caregivers accompanying sick children were eligible, but individuals purchasing drugs for a sick person that was not present were excluded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the correlates of care seeking and the quality of interaction at the shop. Results Of 737 participants, 80% were adults and 20% were children (under age 18). Caregivers of sick children were more likely to obtain a prescription prior to attending a drug retailer than adults seeking care for themselves and waited a shorter time before seeking care. Caregivers of sick children were also more likely than sick adults to have been asked about symptoms by the retailer, to have been given an examination, and to have purchased an ACT. Fewer than half of respondents had purchased an ACT. Only 14% of adults, but 27% of children were RDT-positive; RDT-positive children were more likely to have had an ACT purchased for them than RDT-positive adults. Conclusions Children with suspected malaria tend to receive better care at drug retailers than adults. The degree of overtreatment and prevalence of dispensing non-recommended antimalarials emphasise the need for routine diagnosis before treatment to properly treat both malaria and non-malaria illnesses. PMID:25877471

  10. Novel psychoactive substance and other drug use by young adults in Western australia.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Leigh S; Gately, Natalie; Bridle, Russell I

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to pilot-test an online survey to obtain data on the prevalence of NPS and other drug use by young Western Australians aged between 18 and 35 years. The Young Adult Drug and Alcohol Survey (YADAS) was a questionnaire deployed online for a period of six months. Participants were recruited via a combined targeted sampling and snowball methodology. There were 472 valid responses. Overall lifetime use of NPS was relatively high (17.6%), while use in the last year was lower (6.6%). These proportions were comparable to that of cocaine use. The most popular NPS were the synthetic cannabinoids. The proportions of respondents drinking alcohol at risky levels, mixing alcohol with energy drinks, and using pharmaceuticals such as ADHD medications for non-medical reasons were high. The YADAS is the first survey to ascertain the prevalence of use of numerous types of NPS in a large sample of young Western Australian adults. The utilization of an online survey methodology yielded valid results as compared to more intensive surveys, and enables researchers greater flexibility in being able to capture current trends. PMID:25950594

  11. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Günthard, Huldrych F.; Saag, Michael S.; Benson, Constance A.; del Rio, Carlos; Eron, Joseph J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Sax, Paul E.; Thompson, Melanie A.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Smith, Davey M.; Jacobsen, Donna M.; Volberding, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE New data and therapeutic options warrant updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat or to prevent HIV infection in adults. OBJECTIVE To provide updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults (aged ≥18 years) with established HIV infection, including when to start treatment, initial regimens, and changing regimens, along with recommendations for using ARVs for preventing HIV among those at risk, including preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis. EVIDENCE REVIEW A panel of experts in HIV research and patient care convened by the International Antiviral Society-USA reviewed data published in peer-reviewed journals, presented by regulatory agencies, or presented as conference abstracts at peer-reviewed scientific conferences since the 2014 report, for new data or evidence that would change previous recommendations or their ratings. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in the PubMed and EMBASE databases through April 2016. Recommendations were by consensus, and each recommendation was rated by strength and quality of the evidence. FINDINGS Newer data support the widely accepted recommendation that antiretroviral therapy should be started in all individuals with HIV infection with detectable viremia regardless of CD4 cell count. Recommended optimal initial regimens for most patients are 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI). Other effective regimens include nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or boosted protease inhibitors with 2 NRTIs. Recommendations for special populations and in the settings of opportunistic infections and concomitant conditions are provided. Reasons for switching therapy include convenience, tolerability, simplification, anticipation of potential new drug interactions, pregnancy or plans for pregnancy, elimination of food restrictions, virologic failure, or drug toxicities. Laboratory

  12. Thermoregulatory deficits in adult Long Evans rat exposed perinatally to the antithyroidal drug, propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Andrew F M; Gilbert, Mary E; Aydin, Cenk; Grace, Curtis E; Hasegawa, Masashi; Gordon, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting drugs and environmental toxicants has been shown to alter a variety of physiological processes in mature offspring. Body (core) temperature (T(c)) is a tightly regulated homeostatic system but is susceptible to disruptors of the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis. We hypothesized that thermoregulation would be disrupted in adult offspring exposed perinatally to an HPT disruptor. Propylythiouracil (PTU) was used as a prototypical compound because of its well known antithyroidal properties. PTU was added to the drinking water of pregnant rats in concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 10 ppm from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Adult male offspring were implanted with radiotransmitters to monitor Tc and motor activity (MA) and were observed undisturbed at an ambient temperature of 22 °C for 12 consecutive days. Data were averaged into a single 24 hour period to minimize impact of ultradian changes in T(c) and MA. All treatment groups showed a distinct circadian temperature rhythm. Rats exposed to 10 ppm PTU exhibited a marked deviation in their regulated T(c) with a reduction of approximately 0.4 °C below that of controls throughout the daytime period and a smaller reduction at night. Rats exposed to 1 or 2 ppm also had smaller but significant reductions in T(c). MA was unaffected by PTU. Overall, developmental exposure to moderate doses of an antithyroidal drug led to an apparent permanent reduction in T(c) of adult offspring that was independent of changes in MA. PMID:23732561

  13. A nationwide study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug use among adults in Iceland 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Geirs, Drifa Palin; Pottegård, Anton; Halldórsson, Matthías; Zoëga, Helga

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we leveraged on complete nationwide prescription data for the total adult population in Iceland (N = 227,000) to examine how attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs have been used over the past decade. In particular, we aimed to describe the prevalence, incidence and duration of use of stimulants and atomoxetine, among adults (≥19 years) in Iceland, with regard to sex, age, type of drug and specialty of the prescribing physician. Our results indicate that the 1-year period prevalence of ADHD drug use rose, from 2.9 to 12.2 per 1000 adults between 2003 and 2012, with the most pronounced increases among young adults (19-24 years). The annual incidence increased 3 times, similarly among men and women. Extended-release methylphenidate formulations were the most commonly used ADHD drugs. Specialists in psychiatry initiated treatment in 79% of new adult ADHD drug users. The proportion of users still receiving treatment after 1 year varied from 43.0% (19-24 years), 57.2% (25-49 years) to 47.5% (50+ years). After 3 years, the corresponding proportions still on treatment were 12.4%, 24.5% and 24.3%, and after 5 years 7.9%, 15.9% and 16.8%. These results of increasing ADHD drug use and short treatment durations call for further investigation of the quality of treatment regimens for adults with ADHD and better follow-up of patients treated with ADHD drugs.

  14. Rulings in Argentinean and Colombian courts decriminalize possession of small amounts of narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David

    2009-12-01

    Two recent court decisions in South America have reflected a growing backlash in the region against the so-called, U.S.-led "war on drugs". In Argentina, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled unanimously on 25 August 2009 that the second paragraph of Article 14 of the country's drug control legislation, which punishes the possession of drugs for personal consumption, was unconstitutional. In Colombia, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled on 8 July 2009 that the possession of illegal drugs for personal use was not a criminal offence.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Adults in Malawi.

    PubMed

    van Oosterhout, J J; Dzinjalamala, F K; Dimba, A; Waterhouse, D; Davies, G; Zijlstra, E E; Molyneux, M E; Molyneux, E M; Ward, S

    2015-10-01

    Limited data address the impact of HIV coinfection on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antituberculosis drugs in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 47 Malawian adults underwent rich pharmacokinetic sampling at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h postdose. Of the subjects, 51% were male, their mean age was 34 years, and 65% were HIV-positive with a mean CD4 count of 268 cells/μl. Antituberculosis drugs were administered as fixed-dose combinations (150 mg rifampin, 75 mg isoniazid, 400 mg pyrazinamide, and 275 mg ethambutol) according to recommended weight bands. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (rifampin and pyrazinamide) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (isoniazid and ethambutol). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and analysis of variance of log-transformed summary parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows (median [interquartile range]): for rifampin, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) of 4.129 μg/ml (2.474 to 5.596 μg/ml), area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-∞) of 21.32 μg/ml · h (13.57 to 28.60 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 2.45 h (1.86 to 3.08 h); for isoniazid, Cmax of 3.97 μg/ml (2.979 to 4.544 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 22.5 (14.75 to 34.59 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 3.93 h (3.18 to 4.73 h); for pyrazinamide, Cmax of 34.21 μg/ml (30.00 to 41.60 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 386.6 μg/ml · h (320.0 to 463.7 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 6.821 h (5.71 to 8.042 h); and for ethambutol, Cmax of 2.278 μg/ml (1.694 to 3.098 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 20.41 μg/ml · h (16.18 to 26.27 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 7.507 (6.517 to 8.696 h). The isoniazid PK data analysis suggested that around two-thirds of the participants were slow acetylators. Dose, weight, and weight-adjusted dose were not significant predictors of PK exposure, probably due to weight-banded dosing. In this first pharmacokinetic study of antituberculosis drugs in Malawian adults, measures of

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Adults in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Dzinjalamala, F. K.; Dimba, A.; Waterhouse, D.; Davies, G.; Zijlstra, E. E.; Molyneux, M. E.; Molyneux, E. M.; Ward, S.

    2015-01-01

    Limited data address the impact of HIV coinfection on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antituberculosis drugs in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 47 Malawian adults underwent rich pharmacokinetic sampling at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h postdose. Of the subjects, 51% were male, their mean age was 34 years, and 65% were HIV-positive with a mean CD4 count of 268 cells/μl. Antituberculosis drugs were administered as fixed-dose combinations (150 mg rifampin, 75 mg isoniazid, 400 mg pyrazinamide, and 275 mg ethambutol) according to recommended weight bands. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (rifampin and pyrazinamide) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (isoniazid and ethambutol). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and analysis of variance of log-transformed summary parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows (median [interquartile range]): for rifampin, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) of 4.129 μg/ml (2.474 to 5.596 μg/ml), area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–∞) of 21.32 μg/ml · h (13.57 to 28.60 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 2.45 h (1.86 to 3.08 h); for isoniazid, Cmax of 3.97 μg/ml (2.979 to 4.544 μg/ml), AUC0–24 of 22.5 (14.75 to 34.59 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 3.93 h (3.18 to 4.73 h); for pyrazinamide, Cmax of 34.21 μg/ml (30.00 to 41.60 μg/ml), AUC0–24 of 386.6 μg/ml · h (320.0 to 463.7 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 6.821 h (5.71 to 8.042 h); and for ethambutol, Cmax of 2.278 μg/ml (1.694 to 3.098 μg/ml), AUC0–24 of 20.41 μg/ml · h (16.18 to 26.27 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 7.507 (6.517 to 8.696 h). The isoniazid PK data analysis suggested that around two-thirds of the participants were slow acetylators. Dose, weight, and weight-adjusted dose were not significant predictors of PK exposure, probably due to weight-banded dosing. In this first pharmacokinetic study of antituberculosis drugs in Malawian adults, measures of

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Adults in Malawi.

    PubMed

    van Oosterhout, J J; Dzinjalamala, F K; Dimba, A; Waterhouse, D; Davies, G; Zijlstra, E E; Molyneux, M E; Molyneux, E M; Ward, S

    2015-10-01

    Limited data address the impact of HIV coinfection on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antituberculosis drugs in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 47 Malawian adults underwent rich pharmacokinetic sampling at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h postdose. Of the subjects, 51% were male, their mean age was 34 years, and 65% were HIV-positive with a mean CD4 count of 268 cells/μl. Antituberculosis drugs were administered as fixed-dose combinations (150 mg rifampin, 75 mg isoniazid, 400 mg pyrazinamide, and 275 mg ethambutol) according to recommended weight bands. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (rifampin and pyrazinamide) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (isoniazid and ethambutol). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and analysis of variance of log-transformed summary parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows (median [interquartile range]): for rifampin, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) of 4.129 μg/ml (2.474 to 5.596 μg/ml), area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-∞) of 21.32 μg/ml · h (13.57 to 28.60 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 2.45 h (1.86 to 3.08 h); for isoniazid, Cmax of 3.97 μg/ml (2.979 to 4.544 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 22.5 (14.75 to 34.59 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 3.93 h (3.18 to 4.73 h); for pyrazinamide, Cmax of 34.21 μg/ml (30.00 to 41.60 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 386.6 μg/ml · h (320.0 to 463.7 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 6.821 h (5.71 to 8.042 h); and for ethambutol, Cmax of 2.278 μg/ml (1.694 to 3.098 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 20.41 μg/ml · h (16.18 to 26.27 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 7.507 (6.517 to 8.696 h). The isoniazid PK data analysis suggested that around two-thirds of the participants were slow acetylators. Dose, weight, and weight-adjusted dose were not significant predictors of PK exposure, probably due to weight-banded dosing. In this first pharmacokinetic study of antituberculosis drugs in Malawian adults, measures of

  18. 27 CFR 71.118 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Court review. 71.118... § 71.118 Court review. If an applicant or respondent files an appeal in Federal court of the... record for submission to the court in accordance with the applicable court rules....

  19. 27 CFR 71.118 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Court review. 71.118... § 71.118 Court review. If an applicant or respondent files an appeal in Federal court of the... record for submission to the court in accordance with the applicable court rules....

  20. Marriage, mortgage, motherhood: what longitudinal studies can tell us about gender, drug 'careers' and the normalisation of adult 'recreational' drug use.

    PubMed

    Measham, Fiona; Williams, Lisa; Aldridge, Judith

    2011-11-01

    Through a consideration of quantitative and qualitative data obtained from young women aged 18-28 in the later years of the North West England Longitudinal Study, this paper explores how women's drug careers develop, progressing the authors' normalisation thesis of 'recreational' drug use from adolescence into adulthood. Longitudinal studies are here compared with repeated cross-sectional surveys more usually favoured and funded by governments. The authors argue that firstly, in relation to methodology, longitudinal studies provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how drug careers develop across the life course and to chart the various impacts of life events and transitions on these careers and vice versa. Secondly, through this exploration of gender differences in drug careers and life transitions, we develop an age and gender-sensitive understanding of how recreational drug use fits into women's adult lives. The paper concludes that the challenge for policy makers is how to address adult women's 'normalised' recreational drug use, in the face of a regime focused on educational provision aimed at adolescent prevention; public health information designed for teenagers; and treatment resources focused on predominantly male and non parenting problem drug users, and the links between addiction and acquisitive crime. PMID:21782407

  1. Marriage, mortgage, motherhood: what longitudinal studies can tell us about gender, drug 'careers' and the normalisation of adult 'recreational' drug use.

    PubMed

    Measham, Fiona; Williams, Lisa; Aldridge, Judith

    2011-11-01

    Through a consideration of quantitative and qualitative data obtained from young women aged 18-28 in the later years of the North West England Longitudinal Study, this paper explores how women's drug careers develop, progressing the authors' normalisation thesis of 'recreational' drug use from adolescence into adulthood. Longitudinal studies are here compared with repeated cross-sectional surveys more usually favoured and funded by governments. The authors argue that firstly, in relation to methodology, longitudinal studies provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how drug careers develop across the life course and to chart the various impacts of life events and transitions on these careers and vice versa. Secondly, through this exploration of gender differences in drug careers and life transitions, we develop an age and gender-sensitive understanding of how recreational drug use fits into women's adult lives. The paper concludes that the challenge for policy makers is how to address adult women's 'normalised' recreational drug use, in the face of a regime focused on educational provision aimed at adolescent prevention; public health information designed for teenagers; and treatment resources focused on predominantly male and non parenting problem drug users, and the links between addiction and acquisitive crime.

  2. Court outcomes for clients referred to a community mental health court liaison service.

    PubMed

    Sly, Ketrina A; Sharples, John; Lewin, Terry J; Bench, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Court liaison and diversion services come in a variety of forms, but the similarities and differences between these services are not well characterized. Findings from a six-year audit of the Newcastle (Australia) Mental Health Court Liaison (MHCL) service are reported, including client characteristics, offence and service contact profiles, court outcomes, and interrelationships among these variables. During the audit period, there were 2383 service episodes by 1858 clients (1478 males, 380 females). Drug and alcohol disorders (40.9%) and psychotic disorders (17.0%) were the most prevalent mental health problems, while assault (23.1%), theft (23.1%), offences against justice procedures (15.4%), driving offences (13.4%) and malicious damage to property (8.3%) were the most frequently recorded charges. Among service episodes with a finalized court outcome, 70.0% involved a punishment (bond: 49.5%; jail term: 29.7%). Females were less likely to be punished, but more likely to have their case dismissed under sections of the relevant Act that required further assessment and monitoring. Being married, or having an adjustment or drug and alcohol disorder, were also associated with an increased likelihood of punishment, while clients with a psychotic or bipolar disorder were less likely to be punished. Among clients who were punished, those referred from inpatient mental health services were more likely to receive a non-jail punishment, while unemployed clients were more likely to be jailed. A substantial proportion of clients had court outcomes that required an ongoing involvement with local mental health services. By being part of community mental health services, our MHCL service is able to work efficiently and effectively with the criminal justice system, while facilitating ready access to existing mental health services and continuation of care.

  3. Identifying and Teaching against Misconceptions: Six Common Mistakes about the Supreme Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana E.

    2006-01-01

    An institution that is commonly taught about in middle and high schools is the U.S. Supreme Court. Many people--adults and young people alike--hold misconceptions about how it works. Interestingly, however, this lack of knowledge does not stop people from having a generally positive opinion of the Court--especially relative to the other two…

  4. An exception to court rule

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.; Strott, L.

    1995-01-01

    In August, 1994, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit handed down a decision that could make it much easier to challenge Superfund remedies in court. The Superfund law explicitly limits judicial review of removal or remedial actions. There are five exceptions to the above which are described in this paper.

  5. Court Cases about Teacher Insubordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Cory Shawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine court cases about adverse employment actions against public educators for insubordination, in an effort to understand what courts consider to be "insubordination." This study represents qualitative document-based research that was based upon the analysis of case law. The research sources were…

  6. Supreme Court Term in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One can't have a meaningful discussion about the 2011-2012 U.S. Supreme Court term without mentioning the historic health care challenge. However, even without that headliner, the term was jam-packed with interesting twists and turns. In addition to health care, the Court confronted a number of hot-button issues, including: immigration, the rights…

  7. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment.

  8. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment. PMID:27145363

  9. Intervention of the Courts in School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1978-01-01

    The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)

  10. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented.

  11. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented. PMID:27154381

  12. Relationship between triterpenoid anticancer drug resistance, autophagy, and caspase-1 in adult T-cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Tsukasa; Morita, Kentaro; Tsukada, Junichi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the inflammasome inhibitor cucurbitacin D (CuD) induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines. Here, we investigated the effects of CuD and a B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-xL) inhibitor on autophagy in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) isolated from adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. CuD induced PBL cell death in patients but not in healthy donors. This effect was not significantly inhibited by treatment with rapamycin or 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The Bcl-xL inhibitor Z36 induced death in primary cells from ATL patients including that induced by CuD treatment, effects that were partly inhibited by 3-MA. Similarly, cell death induced by the steroid prednisolone was enhanced in the presence of Z36. A western blot analysis revealed that Z36 also promoted CuD-induced poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage. Interestingly, the effects of CuD and Z36 were attenuated in primary ATL patient cells obtained upon recurrence after umbilical cord blood transplantation, as compared to those obtained before chemotherapy. Furthermore, cells from this patient expressed a high level of caspase-1, and treatment with caspase-1 inhibitor-enhanced CuD-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that rescue from resistance to steroid drugs can enhance chemotherapy, and that caspase-1 is a good marker for drug resistance in ATL patients. PMID:27190722

  13. Newer drugs and earlier treatment: Impact on lifetime cost of care for HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, C.E.; Champenois, K.; Choisy, P.; Losina, E.; Walensky, R.P.; Schackmanj, B.R.; Ajana, F.; Melliez, H.; Paltiel, A.D.; Freedberg, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the component costs of care to optimize treatment with limited resources. Design We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications Model of HIV disease and treatment to project life expectancy (LE) and both undiscounted and discounted lifetime costs (2010€). Methods We determined medical resource utilization among HIV-infected adults followed from 1998 to 2005 in Northern France. Monthly HIV costs were stratified by CD4 count. Costs of CD4, HIV RNA and genotype tests and antiretroviral therapy (ART) were derived from published literature. Model inputs from national data included mean age 38 years, mean initial CD4 count 372/µl, ART initiation at CD4 counts <350/µl, and ART regimen costs ranging from €760/month to €2,570/month. Results The model projected a mean undiscounted LE of 26.5 years and a lifetime undiscounted cost of €535,000/patient (€320,700 discounted); 73% of costs were ART-related. When patients presented to care with mean CD4 counts of 510/µl and initiated ART at CD4 counts <500/µl or HIV RNA >100,000 copies/ml, LE was 27.4 years and costs increased 1–2%, to €546,700 (€324,500 discounted). When we assumed introducing generic drugs would result in a 50% decline in first-line ART costs, lifetime costs decreased 4–6%, to €514,200 (€302,800 discounted). Conclusions As HIV disease is treated earlier with more efficacious drugs, survival and thus costs of care will continue to increase. The availability in high-income countries of widely-used antiretroviral drugs in generic form could reduce these costs. PMID:22008655

  14. Beyond the prescription: medication monitoring and adverse drug events in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Michael A.; Handler, Steven M.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Schiff, Gordon D.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Whether a given patient will suffer harm from a medication or how severe that harm will be is difficult to precisely predict. As a result, many adverse drug events (ADEs) occur in patients in whom it was reasonable to believe that the drug's benefits exceeded its risks. Improving safety and reducing the burden of ADEs in older adults requires addressing this uncertainty by focusing not only on the appropriateness of the initial prescribing decision but also on detecting and mitigating adverse events once they have started to occur. Such enhanced monitoring of signs, symptoms, and laboratory parameters can determine whether an adverse event has only mild and short-term impacts or major long-term effects on morbidity and mortality. While current medication monitoring practices are often suboptimal, several strategies can be leveraged to improve the quality and outcomes of monitoring. These strategies include using health information technology to link pharmacy and laboratory data, prospective delineation of risk, and patient outreach and activation, all within a framework of team-based approaches to patient management. While many of these strategies are theoretically possible now, they are poorly utilized and will be difficult to implement without a significant restructuring of medical practice. An enhanced focus on medication monitoring will also require a new conceptual framework to re-engineer the prescribing process. In this approach, prescribing quality hinges not on static attributes of the initial prescribing decision, but entails a dynamic process in which the benefits and harms of drugs are actively monitored, managed, and reassessed over time. PMID:21797831

  15. Prevalence, nature and potential preventability of adverse drug events – a population-based medical record study of 4970 adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja M; Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the 3 month prevalence of adverse drug events (ADEs), categories of ADEs and preventable ADEs, and the preventability of ADEs among adults in Sweden. Further, to identify drug classes and organ systems associated with ADEs and estimate their seriousness. Methods A random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council in 2008 was drawn from the Total Population Register. All their medical records in 29 inpatient care departments in three hospitals, 110 specialized outpatient clinics and 51 primary care units were reviewed retrospectively in a stepwise manner, and complemented with register data on dispensed drugs. ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), sub-therapeutic effects of drug therapy (STEs), drug dependence and abuse, drug intoxications from overdose, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indication, were detected during a 3 month study period, and assessed for preventability. Results Among 4970 included individuals, the prevalence of ADEs was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1, 12.9%), and preventable ADEs 5.6% (95% CI 5.0, 6.2%). ADRs (6.9%; 95% CI 6.2, 7.6%) and STEs (6.4%; 95% CI 5.8, 7.1%) were more prevalent than the other ADEs. Of the ADEs, 38.8% (95% CI 35.8–41.9%) was preventable, varying by ADE category and seriousness. ADEs were frequently associated with nervous system and cardiovascular drugs, but the associated drugs and affected organs varied by ADE category. Conclusions The considerable burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from commonly used drugs across care settings warrants large-scale efforts to redesign safer, higher quality healthcare systems. The heterogeneous nature of the ADE categories should be considered in research and clinical practice for preventing, detecting and mitigating ADEs. PMID:24372506

  16. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  17. Illicit Drug Use, Smoking, and Drinking by America's High School Students, College Students, and Young Adults 1975-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This report is the 11th in an annual series reporting the drug use and related attitudes of America's high school seniors and young adults. The findings, which cover the high school classes of 1975 through 1987, come from an ongoing national research and reporting program entitled "Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and…

  18. Club Drug Use among Young Adults Frequenting Dance Clubs and Other Social Venues in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Bimbi, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A convenience sample of young adults (ages 18-25) in New York City was recruited to complete anonymous surveys in social venues (either dance clubs or other social settings, such as coffee shops and university "hangouts") regarding their use of "club drugs" (e.g., MDMA/Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, and LSD).…

  19. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use among Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group-oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed.

  20. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use Among Hispanic Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073

  1. Legalization in the Academy: Higher Education and the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivas, Michael A.; Denison, Kathleen McCartan

    1984-01-01

    Six of the 22 Supreme Court decisions in the 1981-82 term concerning or affecting higher education are discussed. The cases concerned sex discrimination, tuition-free public schooling for undocumented children, residency status, dormitory drug search, student religious groups using school facilities, and the scope of Title IX. (MSE)

  2. Court strikes down restriction in Ottawa's medical marijuana program.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    On 10 January 2008, the Federal Court struck down a key restriction in Ottawa's medical marijuana program.1 The ruling grants approved medical marijuana users more freedom in picking their own grower, and allows growers to supply the drug to more than one patient. PMID:18754124

  3. Jaycee B. v. Superior Court.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    California's Court of Appeal directed the family court to determine temporary child support during the dissolution of a marriage prior to the birth of a child with no genetic or gestational relationship to the intended parents. A husband and wife had entered into a gestational surrogacy contract for an embryo created by in vitro fertilization and using donated gametes. The trial court declined to make a temporary child support order because it found that the unborn child was not yet a "child of the marriage" under state law. The Court of Appeal held that it was unnecessary at this point in the litigation to conclusively establish the issue of the husband's parenthood. It was sufficient that the husband admitted signing the agreement which, for all practical purposes, caused the child's conception and that the husband would likely be found to be the child's father. PMID:12041102

  4. Predicting adverse drug reactions in older adults; a systematic review of the risk prediction models

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR. PMID:25278750

  5. Predicting adverse drug reactions in older adults; a systematic review of the risk prediction models.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR.

  6. Predicting adverse drug reactions in older adults; a systematic review of the risk prediction models.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer M; Williams, Josceline L; Burnham, Thomas G; Prevost, A Toby; Schiff, Rebekah; Erskine, S David; Davies, J Graham

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) risk-prediction models for use in older adults have been developed, but it is not clear if they are suitable for use in clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify and investigate the quality of validated ADR risk-prediction models for use in older adults. Standard computerized databases, the gray literature, bibliographies, and citations were searched (2012) to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies. Studies that developed and validated an ADR prediction model for use in patients over 65 years old, using a multivariable approach in the design and analysis, were included. Data were extracted and their quality assessed by independent reviewers using a standard approach. Of the 13,423 titles identified, only 549 were associated with adverse outcomes of medicines use. Four met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in inpatient cohorts in Western Europe. None of the models satisfied the four key stages in the creation of a quality risk prediction model; development and validation were completed, but impact and implementation were not assessed. Model performance was modest; area under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.623 to 0.73. Study quality was difficult to assess due to poor reporting, but inappropriate methods were apparent. Further work needs to be conducted concerning the existing models to enable the development of a robust ADR risk-prediction model that is externally validated, with practical design and good performance. Only then can implementation and impact be assessed with the aim of generating a model of high enough quality to be considered for use in clinical care to prioritize older people at high risk of suffering an ADR. PMID:25278750

  7. "California v. Greenwood" Moot Court Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana

    1989-01-01

    Provides a moot court activity in which secondary students re-enact the U.S. Supreme Court case "California v. Greenwood," concerning the exclusionary rule and the privacy of a citizen's trash. Students role-play Supreme Court justices and attorneys to gain an understanding of how appellate courts operate. (LS)

  8. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  9. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the... seek court review in the district court of the United States pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(B)....

  10. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the... seek court review in the district court of the United States pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(B)....

  11. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the... seek court review in the district court of the United States pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(B)....

  12. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the... seek court review in the district court of the United States pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(B)....

  13. The Rehnquist Court Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the actions and effects of the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist. Considers Court decisions written in 1988-1989, commenting on the Court's growing self-confidence and strength. Concludes that the Rehnquist Court could be one of the most lasting legacies of the Reagan era. (LS)

  14. The impact of early school behavior and educational achievement on adult drug use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Crum, Rosa M; Robertson, Judith; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of education on drug use disorders among community populations of African Americans. This study explores the impact of multiple early education indicators on later problem drug use in an African American population followed for more than 35 years. The initial cohort comprised all 1st graders (N=1242, 51% female) living in the Woodlawn community of Chicago in 1966. Follow-up assessments were conducted in adolescence (1975-76), early adulthood (1992-93), and mid adulthood (2002-03). One or both adult interviews were completed by 1053 individuals providing information for identifying lifetime drug use disorders. Logistic regression with multiple imputation revealed several important relationships between early education indicators and DSM-III-R/DSM-IV drug use disorders. Specifically, the risk for adult problem drug use was related to: underachievement in 1st grade; low 7th and 8th grade standardized math scores; both suspension from and skipping school in adolescence; not having a high school diploma (compared to having a college degree), and having a diploma or GED (compared to having a college degree). Also, 1st graders characterized as shy by their teachers were less likely to develop problem drug use in adulthood. Results indicate potential opportunities for targeted intervention at multiple life stages.

  15. Risk factor profiles among intravenous drug using young adults: a latent class analysis (LCA) approach.

    PubMed

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2013-03-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population. PMID:23254231

  16. The recreational drug ecstasy disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Sarah M; Walker, Deena M; Reveron, Maria E; Duvauchelle, Christine L; Gore, Andrea C

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive function involves an interaction of three regulatory levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad. The primary drive upon this system comes from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells, which receive afferent inputs from other neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system to result in the proper coordination of reproduction and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that the recreational drug (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy'), which acts through several of the neurotransmitter systems that affect GnRH neurons, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis of male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered saline or MDMA either once (acute) or for 20 days (chronic) and were euthanized 7 days following the last administration. We quantified hypothalamic GnRH mRNA, serum luteinizing hormone concentrations, and serum testosterone levels as indices of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions, respectively. The results indicate that the hypothalamic and gonadal levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are significantly altered by MDMA, with GnRH mRNA and serum testosterone levels suppressed in rats administered MDMA compared to saline. Furthermore, our finding that hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels are suppressed in the context of low testosterone concentrations suggests that the central GnRH neurosecretory system may be a primary target of inhibitory regulation by MDMA usage.

  17. Dynamic Drug-Induced Sleep Computed Tomography in Adults With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Lee, Li-Ang

    2016-01-01

    Surgical success for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) depends on identifying sites of obstruction in the upper airway. In this study, we investigated sites of obstruction by evaluating dynamic changes in the upper airway using drug-induced sleep computed tomography (DI-SCT) in patients with OSA. Thirty-five adult patients with OSA were prospectively enrolled. Sleep was induced with propofol under light sedation (bispectral index 70–75), and low-dose 320-detector row CT was performed for 10 seconds over a span of 2–3 respiratory cycles with supporting a continuous positive airway pressure model. Most (89%) of the patients had multi-level obstructions. Total obstruction most commonly occurred in the velum (86%), followed by the tongue (57%), oropharyngeal lateral wall (49%), and epiglottis (26%). There were two types of anterior-posterior obstruction of the soft palate, uvular (94%) and velar (6%), and three types of tongue obstruction, upper (30%), lower (37%), and upper plus lower obstruction (33%). DI-SCT is a fast and safe tool to identify simulated sleep airway obstruction in patients with OSA. It provides data on dynamic airway movement in the sagittal view which can be used to differentiate palate and tongue obstructions, and this can be helpful when planning surgery for patients with OSA. PMID:27762308

  18. Risk Factor Profiles among Intravenous Drug Using Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) Approach

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population. PMID:23254231

  19. Risk factor profiles among intravenous drug using young adults: a latent class analysis (LCA) approach.

    PubMed

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2013-03-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population.

  20. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers. PMID:26512028

  1. Emerging Trends and Innovations in the Identification and Management of Drug Use among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Marsch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    One in four youths aged 12 to 17 years and more than half of young adults aged 18 to 25 years in the United States have used an illicit drug in their lifetime. A significant number progress to problematic use, and only 1 in 10 young people who meet criteria for dependence or abuse receive some form of treatment. Despite advances in the field, effectively intervening along the continuum of drug use involvement remains a challenge. In this article, we review the current epidemiology of illicit drug use by young people; describe recent advances in assessment, intervention and treatment; and highlight how technology can help overcome barriers to effective management of drug use among young people. PMID:22423469

  2. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers.

  3. "Reasonable" Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court's recent decision in "Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls," wherein the Court held that random drug testing of students taking part in extracurricular activities is constitutional. (PKP)

  4. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  5. [Continuity and discontinuity of psychopathology: a study of patients examined as children and as adults. II. Childhood antecedents of drug dependent adults].

    PubMed

    Manzano, J; Favre, C; Zabala, I; Borella, E; Fischer, W; Gex-Fabry, M; Laufer, D; Seidl, R; Urban, D

    1993-01-01

    The demographic stability of the Swiss Canton of Geneva provided us with the necessary conditions for a follow-up study of the entire childhood population who, having consulted the Child Psychiatry Services between 1963 and 1967, later consulted the adult public psychiatric services (720 cases). We looked for specific clusters of clinical signs which would enable us to differentiate, statistically speaking, the groups of children according to their adult diagnosis. We present here the results for the group of children who were diagnosed at adulthood as drug addicts (DSM III R). We found a specific cluster significantly differentiating these children from the other populations. It includes: a personality disorder (undifferentiated behaviour, and solitary and aggressive behaviour), environmental factors (monoparental, rejecting family) and a lack of mental deficiency.

  6. The effect of victimization, mental health, and protective factors on crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Swendener, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Although research has found high rates of child maltreatment, widespread victimization, and other negative outcomes among homeless youth and young adults, resiliency among this population has largely been understudied. Specifically, a gap remains in terms of how protective factors such as self-efficacy, low deviant beliefs, and religiosity operate among homeless youth and young adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various forms of victimization, mental health, and protective factors with property and violent crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults. Results from regression analyses indicate that running away from home more frequently, experiencing more physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs were associated with greater property crime. Significant correlates of violent crime included being male, running away from home more frequently, greater sexual and physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs. Finally, being male, running away more frequently from home, greater child physical abuse and partner victimization, and more deviant beliefs were all associated with greater illicit drug use. Self-efficacy was positively related to both property and violent crime, suggesting that it may not operate for homeless young adults in the same manner as it does for normative populations.

  7. Drug use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder over 25 adult years: Role of psychopathology in relational networks

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Sundari; Widner, Greg; Shroff, Manan; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Scherrer, Jeffrey; Price, Rumi Kato

    2013-01-01

    Background In traumatized populations, drug use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) persist for many years. Relational factors that mediate this persistence have rarely been systematically examined. Our aim is to examine the relative effects of psychopathology in familial and non-familial networks on the persistence of both disorders over adulthood. Method We utilized longitudinal data from an epidemiologically ascertained sample of male Vietnam veterans (n = 642). Measures included DSM-IV drug use disorders, other psychiatric disorders, network problem history and time-varying marital and employment characteristics. Longitudinal measures of veterans’ psychopathology and social functioning were retrospectively obtained for each year over a 25 year period. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the relative effects of network problems on veteran’s drug use disorders and PTSD after adjusting for covariates. Results Veterans’ mean age was 47 years in 1996. Prevalence of illicit drug disorders declined from 29.8% in 1972 to 8.3 % in 1996, but PTSD remained at 11.7% from 13.2% in 1972. While 17.0% of veterans reported a familial drug use problem, 24.9% reported a non-familial drug use problem. In full GEE models, a non-familial drug problem was a significant predictor of illicit drug use disorders over 25 years (OR = 2.21, CI=1.59-3.09), while both familial depression (OR = 1.69, CI = 1.07-2.68) and non-familial drinking problem (OR=1.66, CI=1.08-2.54) were significant predictors of PTSD over 25 years. Conclusions Familial and non-familial problems in networks differentially affect the persistence of drug use disorders and PTSD in traumatized male adults. PMID:23726975

  8. Are the dental health needs of adults with illegal drug dependence being met by current service provision in the United Kingdom?: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Victoria; Wray, Jane

    2012-10-01

    This literature review outlines the current issues and debates relating to the dental health of adults with drug dependence. The dental health of adults with illegal drug dependence (IDD) continues to be under debate throughout dental practice, and the most appropriate model of care suitable to meet the high complex needs of this client group remains uncertain. The study aims to review and critically analyze available research relating to the oral health effects of illegal drug misuse and the dental health needs and status of adults with drug dependence. Second, it aims to identify and critically evaluate current models of dental service/care delivery, including relevant best practice guidance and potential barriers to dental access for adults with IDD. The available literature pertaining to dental health and adults with drug dependence are systematically reviewed and critically analyzed and evaluated in order to execute a rigorous investigation. The oral effects along with general medical complications associated with IDD are increasingly being recognized. There are substantive negative effects of IDD on oral health, particularly for those with opioid dependence; therefore, these clients have high complex dental needs and low use of dental services. Adults with drug dependence comprise a group with special dental needs and therefore need greater access to dental care than most people due to their high level of need. A high awareness of the implications for oral health care for adults with drug dependence is essential. Dental professionals have a key role in supporting the rehabilitation of these patients from potentially severe or fatal addictions. There is a distinct lack of national policy and guidance relating specifically to adults with drug dependence, and therefore, problems persist. Key findings and recommendations are presented to enhance the development of dental services for adults with IDD.

  9. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9% reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8% sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends, sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half IDUs reported unsafe injection practices, and our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs’ perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  10. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9 % reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8 % sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends or sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half the IDUs reported unsafe injection practices. Our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs' perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  11. Indian Supreme Court demands cleaner blood supply.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1996-01-13

    The government of India recently admitted in parliament that 25% of the country's blood banks remain unlicensed. The Supreme Court has directed the government to establish a National Council for Blood Transfusion in an attempt to curb malpractice, malfunctioning, and corruption in the national blood banking system, and to ensure a safe blood supply. Furthermore, the Court advised the government to enact separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution, and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks. Legal action will be taken if any blood banks remain ill equipped or unlicensed after the period of one year. Agencies have been directed to take steps to eliminate professional blood selling within two years. They have also been asked to ensure that there are trained drug inspectors to check upon the banks. To boost funding for the councils, the government has been advised to allow 100% exemption upon income tax to those who donate money to the organizations. The Director General of Health Services has been asked to submit a report on action taken by July 16, 1996, to ensure compliance.

  12. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

  13. Morphine administration or sexual segregation in infancy affect the response to the same drug in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Laviola, G; Terranova, M L; Alleva, E

    1993-01-01

    Several experiments indicate that CNS opioid regulatory systems show a remarkable plasticity during development. The same systems respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli, particularly those which can affect the threshold of pain sensitivity (e.g., Environmentally Induced Analgesia). This paper summarizes a series of studies using outbred CD-1 mice, aimed at assessing: a) morphine effects on pain sensitivity and locomotor activity at two ages during development, namely, before and after weaning, and b) the consequences of such exposure on adult sensitivity to the same drug. The development of hot-plate response consisted mainly of a progressive decrease of latencies and of a parallel reduction of sensitivity to morphine. While morphine depressed activity on day 14, it increased or had apparently no effect on day 21. With respect to carry-over consequences of early drug and test exposure, the animals with a history of testing at the preweanling stage were more sensitive to the depressant effect of morphine (10 mg/kg) than those pretested at a later stage. By contrast, morphine analgesia was attenuated by drug pre-exposure, independently of the age of previous testing. In sum, the age of early exposure and type of early treatment interacted to determine the level of adult pain sensitivity in the no-drug state. Finally, the long-term effects of sexual segregation in infancy on the response to painful stimulation and morphine were assessed. Adult male mice-reared from birth to weaning in litters containing either only male pups (MM), or both male and female pups (MF)--were challenged in a hot-plate test upon morphine or saline injection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The Supreme Court's Search Ruling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Margie

    The 1971 police search of a newspaper office led to the United States Supreme Court's "Zurcher v The Stanford Daily" decision that newspaper offices can permissibly be searched if it is believed that they contain materials that relate to an ongoing criminal investigation. This decision has been viewed by the press as an attack on First Amendment…

  15. The Camera Comes to Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  16. The Courts and the Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, R. Wayne; Hopf, John

    The study's objectives were to determine how many migratory farm workers were charged with criminal offenses, who they were, and how they were treated in lay courts in Orleans and Steuben Counties (New York) in 1968 and 1969. Lacking comparative data from other jurisdictions, a comparison between migrants and a random sampling of residents in…

  17. 25 CFR 11.908 - Court records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Court records. 11.908 Section 11.908 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.908 Court records. (a) A record of all hearings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this...

  18. The Many Voices of the Burger Court and School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike the Warren Court, the Burger Court has had a lack of unanimity on school desegregation cases and the court has been divided. As a result there is no clear direction evident in the court's decisions. (IRT)

  19. 25 CFR 11.206 - Is the Court of Indian Offenses a court of record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is the Court of Indian Offenses a court of record? 11.206 Section 11.206 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Courts of Indian Offenses; Personnel; Administration § 11.206 Is the...

  20. Short-term Efficacy of a Brief Intervention to Reduce Drug Misuse and Increase Drug Treatment Utilization Among Adult Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Roland C.; Baird, Janette R.; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although brief interventions (BIs) have shown some success for smoking cessation and alcohol misuse, it is not known if they can be applied in the emergency department (ED) to drug use and misuse. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the 3-month efficacy of a BI to reduce drug use and misuse, increase drug treatment services utilization among adult ED patients, and identify subgroups more likely to benefit from the BI. Methods This randomized, controlled trial enrolled 18- to 64-year-old English- or Spanish-speaking patients from two urban, academic EDs whose responses to the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test indicated a need for a brief or intensive intervention. Treatment participants received a tailored BI, while control participants only completed the study questionnaires. At the 3-month follow-up, each participant’s past 3-month drug use and misuse and treatment utilization were compared to his or her baseline enrollment data. Regression modeling was used to identify subgroups of patients (per demographic and clinical factors) more likely to stop or reduce their drug use or misuse or engage in drug treatment by the 3-month follow-up assessment. Results Of the 1,030 participants, the median age was 30 years (interquartile range = 24 to 42 years), and 46% were female; 57% were white/non-Hispanic, 24.9% were black/non-Hispanic, and 15% were Hispanic. The most commonly misused drugs were marijuana, prescription opioids, cocaine/crack, and benzodiazepines. Although at follow-up the proportions of participants reporting any past 3-month drug misuse had decreased in both study arms (control 84% vs. treatment 78%), the decreases were similar between the two study arms (Δ−6.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −13.0% to 0.0). In addition, at follow-up there were no differences between study arms in those who were currently receiving drug treatment (Δ1.8; 95% CI = −3.5 to 6.8), who had received treatment during

  1. The Burger Court and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Philip R.

    This report discusses recent cases involving freedom of the press that have been heard before the Burger court of the United States Supreme Court. The report discerns a trend toward treating the press like an ordinary citizen; this is a reversal of the view of the Warren court that the First Amendment creates special rights for the press so that…

  2. The Courts and the News Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickerell, Albert G.; Lipman, Michel

    This book is intended to provide reporters who cover court proceedings with a basic knowledge of the organization of California's courts and of the procedures they follow. It contains: material about court organization and jurisdiction, pretrial civil procedure, pretrial criminal procedure, and civil and criminal trial procedure; a legal…

  3. Youth Court: Advocating for All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaruppa, Cindy L.; LeBlanc, Patrice; Lacey, Candace H.

    This paper describes the evaluative research of the Palm Beach County, Florida School Districts Youth Court Trial Program. Youth or teen courts have been implemented as an alternative measure to juvenile courts for handling adolescents who committed delinquent acts, usually for the first time. The purpose of the applied research was to identify…

  4. 5 CFR 890.107 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Court review. 890.107 Section 890.107... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 890.107 Court review. (a) A suit... the carrier or carrier's subcontractors. The recovery in such a suit shall be limited to a court...

  5. 36 CFR 1150.105 - Court enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Court enforcement. 1150.105... BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Posthearing Procedures; Decisions § 1150.105 Court... appropriate United States district court to enforce, in whole or in part, any final compliance order....

  6. 46 CFR 327.8 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Court action. 327.8 Section 327.8 Shipping MARITIME....8 Court action. (a) No seamen, having a claim specified in subsections (2) and (3) of section 1(a... representatives shall institute a court action for the enforcement of such claim unless such claim shall have...

  7. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Court appointments. 1604.7 Section 1604.7 Public... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to accept a court appointment if the director of the recipient or the director's designee determines...

  8. 27 CFR 555.80 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Court review. 555.80... Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of..., file a petition for a judicial review of the decision, with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the...

  9. 27 CFR 555.80 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court review. 555.80... Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of..., file a petition for a judicial review of the decision, with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the...

  10. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Court appointments. 1604.7 Section 1604.7 Public... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to accept a court appointment if the director of the recipient or the director's designee determines...

  11. 46 CFR 327.34 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Court action. 327.34 Section 327.34 Shipping MARITIME... AND LITIGATION Admiralty Extension Act Claims; Administrative Action and Litigation § 327.34 Court... under 46 U.S.C. 30101(a) against the Maritime Administration, shall institute a court action against...

  12. 5 CFR 890.107 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Court review. 890.107 Section 890.107... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 890.107 Court review. (a) A suit... the carrier or carrier's subcontractors. The recovery in such a suit shall be limited to a court...

  13. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court appointments. 1604.7 Section 1604.7 Public... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to accept a court appointment if the director of the recipient or the director's designee determines...

  14. 36 CFR 1150.105 - Court enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Court enforcement. 1150.105... BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Posthearing Procedures; Decisions § 1150.105 Court... appropriate United States district court to enforce, in whole or in part, any final compliance order....

  15. 46 CFR 327.8 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Court action. 327.8 Section 327.8 Shipping MARITIME... AND LITIGATION § 327.8 Court action. No seamen, having a claim specified in subsections (2) and (3) of... beneficiaries, or their legal representatives shall institute a court action for the enforcement of such...

  16. 46 CFR 327.8 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Court action. 327.8 Section 327.8 Shipping MARITIME....8 Court action. (a) No seamen, having a claim specified in subsections (2) and (3) of section 1(a... representatives shall institute a court action for the enforcement of such claim unless such claim shall have...

  17. 46 CFR 327.34 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Court action. 327.34 Section 327.34 Shipping MARITIME... AND LITIGATION Admiralty Extension Act Claims; Administrative Action and Litigation § 327.34 Court... under 46 U.S.C. 30101(a) against the Maritime Administration, shall institute a court action against...

  18. 46 CFR 327.8 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court action. 327.8 Section 327.8 Shipping MARITIME... AND LITIGATION § 327.8 Court action. No seamen, having a claim specified in subsections (2) and (3) of... beneficiaries, or their legal representatives shall institute a court action for the enforcement of such...

  19. 36 CFR 1150.105 - Court enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Court enforcement. 1150.105... BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Posthearing Procedures; Decisions § 1150.105 Court... appropriate United States district court to enforce, in whole or in part, any final compliance order....

  20. 45 CFR 1604.7 - Court appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Court appointments. 1604.7 Section 1604.7 Public... LAW § 1604.7 Court appointments. (a) A recipient's written policies may permit a full-time attorney to accept a court appointment if the director of the recipient or the director's designee determines...

  1. 36 CFR 1150.105 - Court enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Court enforcement. 1150.105... BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Posthearing Procedures; Decisions § 1150.105 Court... appropriate United States district court to enforce, in whole or in part, any final compliance order....

  2. The Court in the Homeric Epos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loginov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The research investigates the court system in Homeric Greece. This period was characterized by a declining culture and scarce works that described those times. Hence, the court procedures of those times remains understudied; therefore, the purpose of this research is to reconstruct theoretically the court procedure in Homeric Greece. Homer's and…

  3. 27 CFR 555.80 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Court review. 555.80... Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of..., file a petition for a judicial review of the decision, with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the...

  4. 27 CFR 555.80 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Court review. 555.80... Court review. An applicant, licensee, or permittee may, within 60 days after receipt of the decision of..., file a petition for a judicial review of the decision, with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the...

  5. 27 CFR 71.118 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Court review. 71.118... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Review § 71.118 Court review. If an applicant or respondent files an appeal in Federal court of...

  6. Using population screening for recruitment of young adults engaged in illicit drug use: methodological issues and sampling outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Kemp, Robert; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Najman, Jake M

    2014-05-01

    Social stigma, legal sanctions and the associated lack of sampling frames create barriers to the probabilistic sampling of those engaged in a variety of behaviour, including illicit drug use. We used a novel sampling approach to recruit respondents into a longitudinal study examining amphetamine-type stimulant use. A young adult population was screened for lifetime drug use to create a sampling frame of amphetamine-type stimulant users and non-users. We posted 12,118 screening questionnaires to a random selection of young adults listed on the electoral roll for Brisbane and the Gold Coast, Australia (N=107,275). Using a small pre-paid incentive and intensive telephone and postal reminders we attained a screening response rate of 49.9%. Eligible amphetamine-type stimulant users (used ecstasy or methamphetamine⩾3 times in past 12 months) and non-users (never used ecstasy or methamphetamine) were identified by screening responses. About two-thirds of each selected group took part in the longitudinal study. Comparisons with large-scale population survey data suggest the sample was broadly representative of young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users in Australia.

  7. Effect of antiepileptic drug therapy on thyroid hormones among adult epileptic patients: An analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Arulmozhi, Ranjitha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of conventional and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on thyroid hormone levels in adult epileptic patients. Methods: A hospital-based, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult epileptic patients receiving conventional AEDs (Group 2) or newer AEDs (Group 3) for more than 6 months. Serum thyroid hormone levels including free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were analyzed and the hormonal status was compared with healthy control subjects (Group 1). Findings: Sodium valproate and phenytoin were commonly used conventional AEDs; levetiracetam and topiramate were common among the newer drugs. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum fT4 and increase in serum TSH levels (P < 0.0001) in patients on long-term therapy with conventional antiepileptic agents than in the control group. No significant change in thyroid hormone levels (fT3, fT4, and TSH; P = 0.68, 0.37, and 0.90, respectively) was observed with newer antiepileptics-treated patients when compared to control group. One-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software package. Conclusion: The present study showed that conventional AEDs have significant alteration in the thyroid hormone levels than the newer antiepileptics in adult epileptic patients. PMID:27512707

  8. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  9. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…

  10. The impact of drug-related deaths on mortality among young adults in Madrid.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Bravo, M J; Santacreu, J

    1995-01-01

    The trend from 1983 to 1990 of drug-related mortality (defined as the sum of deaths from acute drug reactions and the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome [AIDS] in drug users) among the population 15 to 39 years of age in Madrid, Spain, was studied and compared with mortality from all causes. All of the mortality rates increased from 1983 to 1990: all causes, from 101/100,000 to 148/100,000; acute drug reactions, from 3/100,000 to 15/100,000; and AIDS, from 0 to 20/100,000. Drug-related mortality represented 60% of the increase in the rate from all causes in males and 170% of the increase in females. The increases in drug-related mortality are likely to continue in the future.

  11. The impact of drug-related deaths on mortality among young adults in Madrid.

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Bravo, M J; Santacreu, J

    1995-01-01

    The trend from 1983 to 1990 of drug-related mortality (defined as the sum of deaths from acute drug reactions and the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome [AIDS] in drug users) among the population 15 to 39 years of age in Madrid, Spain, was studied and compared with mortality from all causes. All of the mortality rates increased from 1983 to 1990: all causes, from 101/100,000 to 148/100,000; acute drug reactions, from 3/100,000 to 15/100,000; and AIDS, from 0 to 20/100,000. Drug-related mortality represented 60% of the increase in the rate from all causes in males and 170% of the increase in females. The increases in drug-related mortality are likely to continue in the future. PMID:7832243

  12. A multi-site study of the use of sanctions and incentives in mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Lisa; Steadman, Henry J; Tillman, Sheila; Vesselinov, Roumen

    2013-02-01

    Mental health courts (MHCs) have become widespread in the United States as a form of diversion for justice-involved individuals with mental illness. Sanctions and incentives are considered crucial to the functioning of MHCs and drug courts, yet with little empirical guidance to support or refute their use, and there are no definitions of what they are. The use of sanctions and to a lesser degree incentives is the focus of this article, with particular emphasis on jail sanctions. Subjects are participants (n = 447) in four MHCs across the United States. Results show that jail sanctions are used in three of four MHCs, and other sanctions are similarly used across the four MHCs. Participants charged with "person crimes" are the least likely to receive any sanctions, including jail, whereas those charged with drug offenses are most often sanctioned. The factors associated with receiving a jail sanction are recent drug use, substance use diagnosis, and drug arrests; being viewed as less compliant with court conditions, receiving more bench warrants, and having more in-custody hearings; and MHC program termination. No personal characteristics are related to receiving sanctions. Knowing which MHC participants are more likely to follow court orders and avoid sanctions, and identifying those who have difficulty adhering to court conditions, can help guide court officials on adjusting supervision, perhaps avoiding reoffending and program failure.

  13. Bench-to-bedside review: Inotropic drug therapy after adult cardiac surgery – a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Doolan, Laurie; Buxton, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Many adult patients require temporary inotropic support after cardiac surgery. We reviewed the literature systematically to establish, present and classify the evidence regarding choice of inotropic drugs. The available evidence, while limited in quality and scope, supports the following observations; although all β-agonists can increase cardiac output, the best studied β-agonist and the one with the most favourable side-effect profile appears to be dobutamine. Dobutamine and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDIs) are efficacious inotropic drugs for management of the low cardiac output syndrome. Dobutamine is associated with a greater incidence of tachycardia and tachyarrhythmias, whereas PDIs often require the administration of vasoconstrictors. Other catecholamines have no clear advantages over dobutamine. PDIs increase the likelihood of successful weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass as compared with placebo. There is insufficient evidence that inotropic drugs should be selected for their effects on regional perfusion. PDIs also increase flow through arterial grafts, reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure and improve right heart performance in pulmonary hypertension. Insufficient data exist to allow selection of a specific inotropic agent in preference over another in adult cardiac surgery patients. Multicentre randomized controlled trials focusing on clinical rather than physiological outcomes are needed. PMID:15987381

  14. Injection drug use and hepatitis C virus infection in young adult injectors: using evidence to inform comprehensive prevention.

    PubMed

    Page, Kimberly; Morris, Meghan D; Hahn, Judith A; Maher, Lisa; Prins, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus epidemic is ongoing in the United States and globally. Incidence rates remain high, especially in young adult injection drug users. New outbreaks of HCV in the United States among young adults, in predominantly suburban and rural areas, have emerged and may be fueling an increase in HCV. This paper discusses some key HCV prevention strategies that to date have not been widely researched or implemented, and wherein future HCV prevention efforts may be focused: (1) reducing sharing of drug preparation equipment; (2) HCV screening, and testing and counseling; (3) risk reduction within injecting relationships; (4) injection cessation and "breaks"; (5) scaled-up needle/syringe distribution, HCV treatment, and vaccines, according to suggestions from mathematical models; and (6) "combination prevention." With ongoing and expanding transmission of HCV, there is little doubt that there is a need for implementing what is in the prevention "toolbox" as well as adding to it. Strong advocacy and resources are needed to overcome challenges to providing the multiple and comprehensive programs that could reduce HCV transmission and associated burden of disease worldwide in people who inject drugs. PMID:23884063

  15. Senior Nursing Students' Participation in a Community Research Project: Effect on Student Self-Efficacy and Knowledge Concerning Drug Interactions Arising from Self-Medication in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neafsey, Patricia J.; Shellman, Juliette

    2002-01-01

    Of 13 nursing students in a community nursing clinical project, 7 worked with older adults who received instruction about drug interaction. Compared to the six whose patients did not receive instruction, these students achieved greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores related to drug interaction. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  16. Drug Treatment in Adult Probation: An Evaluation of an Outpatient and Acupuncture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Melissa M.; Latessa, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of an innovative outpatient drug-free treatment facility serving felony drug offenders who are placed on probation is evaluated. Treatment included educational and group therapy as well as acupuncture. Background characteristics, levels of treatment, and selected outcomes are described. Principles of successful interventions are…

  17. Illicit Drug Use in a Community-Based Sample of Heterosexually Identified Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Manasse, Ashley N.; McCready, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we assess lifetime and recent drug use patterns among 261 heterosexually identified 18- to 25-year-olds through brief street intercept surveys conducted in New York City. Marijuana, hallucinogens, powder cocaine, and ecstasy were the most frequently reported drugs for both lifetime and recent use. Findings further suggest significant…

  18. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  19. Clinical management strategies and implications for parenteral nutrition drug shortages in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hassig, Tanna B; McKinzie, Brian P; Fortier, Christopher R; Taber, David

    2014-01-01

    Drug shortages affect every aspect of patient care, including and especially, nutrition therapy. The purpose of this review is to discuss current parenteral nutrition-related drug shortages, including causes and duration of the disruptions, and provide recommendations for managing specific nutritional shortages that minimize negative patient care outcomes. A general framework for the management of current and future shortages is presented.

  20. Prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder, known as dual diagnosis, is a significant challenge to mental health services. Few older adult specific alcohol and other drug treatment services exist, meaning older adult mental health services may become the default treatment option for many. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis leads to substandard treatment outcomes, including higher rates of psychiatric relapse, higher costs of care and poorer treatment engagement. This paper explores the prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in an older adult community mental health service in inner Melbourne, Australia. This aim was accomplished by using a retrospective file audit of clinical intake assessments (n = 593) performed on consumers presenting to the service over a two-year period, June 2012-2014. Of consumers presenting to the service, 15.5% (n = 92) were assessed by clinicians as having co-occurring AOD use. Depression predominated in the dual diagnosis group as the primary mental health disorder. Dual diagnosis consumers in this sample were statistically more likely to be male and younger than their non-dual diagnosis counterparts. A limitation of this audit was the lack of implementation of screening tools, leaving assessment to clinical judgement or the interest of the clinician. This may also explain the discrepancy between the results of this study and previous work. Although appearing to be a relatively small percentage of assessments, the results accounted for 92 individuals with complex mental health, AOD and medical issues. Poor screening procedures in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess need to be rectified to meet the future challenges inherent in the ageing baby boomer generation, changing drug use trends and extended lifespans through harm reduction initiatives and medical advancements. PMID:26834037

  1. Prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug use in an Australian older adult mental health service.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder, known as dual diagnosis, is a significant challenge to mental health services. Few older adult specific alcohol and other drug treatment services exist, meaning older adult mental health services may become the default treatment option for many. Evidence suggests that dual diagnosis leads to substandard treatment outcomes, including higher rates of psychiatric relapse, higher costs of care and poorer treatment engagement. This paper explores the prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in an older adult community mental health service in inner Melbourne, Australia. This aim was accomplished by using a retrospective file audit of clinical intake assessments (n = 593) performed on consumers presenting to the service over a two-year period, June 2012-2014. Of consumers presenting to the service, 15.5% (n = 92) were assessed by clinicians as having co-occurring AOD use. Depression predominated in the dual diagnosis group as the primary mental health disorder. Dual diagnosis consumers in this sample were statistically more likely to be male and younger than their non-dual diagnosis counterparts. A limitation of this audit was the lack of implementation of screening tools, leaving assessment to clinical judgement or the interest of the clinician. This may also explain the discrepancy between the results of this study and previous work. Although appearing to be a relatively small percentage of assessments, the results accounted for 92 individuals with complex mental health, AOD and medical issues. Poor screening procedures in a population that is traditionally difficult to assess need to be rectified to meet the future challenges inherent in the ageing baby boomer generation, changing drug use trends and extended lifespans through harm reduction initiatives and medical advancements.

  2. Supreme Court rejects challenge to FACE.

    PubMed

    1996-10-25

    On October 7, the US Supreme Court declined to hear Skott vs. US, a case challenging the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). The 1994 law makes it a federal crime to use or attempt to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. The case came to the High Court after the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit overturned an earlier district court ruling and upheld the constitutionality of the federal statute in December 1995. Six Wisconsin anti-choice protestors, who had been arrested in September 1994 after participating in a blockade of a Milwaukee women's health facility, had successfully petitioned the US District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin to dismiss criminal charges based on FACE. While the district court held that Congress had no authority under the Commerce Clause or under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution to enact FACE, the appellate panel found that the lower court had not given sufficient consideration to congressional findings that the activities restricted by FACE substantially affect interstate commerce and are subject to the regulatory power of Congress. FACE has been upheld by the US Courts of Appeal for the Fourth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits and eleven federal district courts. Two district courts have found the law invalid. This marks the third time the High Court has refused to hear a challenge to the law.

  3. Supreme Court rejects challenge to FACE.

    PubMed

    1996-10-25

    On October 7, the US Supreme Court declined to hear Skott vs. US, a case challenging the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). The 1994 law makes it a federal crime to use or attempt to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. The case came to the High Court after the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit overturned an earlier district court ruling and upheld the constitutionality of the federal statute in December 1995. Six Wisconsin anti-choice protestors, who had been arrested in September 1994 after participating in a blockade of a Milwaukee women's health facility, had successfully petitioned the US District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin to dismiss criminal charges based on FACE. While the district court held that Congress had no authority under the Commerce Clause or under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution to enact FACE, the appellate panel found that the lower court had not given sufficient consideration to congressional findings that the activities restricted by FACE substantially affect interstate commerce and are subject to the regulatory power of Congress. FACE has been upheld by the US Courts of Appeal for the Fourth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits and eleven federal district courts. Two district courts have found the law invalid. This marks the third time the High Court has refused to hear a challenge to the law. PMID:12320456

  4. Comprehension of information in three direct-to-consumer television prescription drug advertisements among adults with limited literacy.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rudd, Rima E; Dejong, William; Daltroy, Lawren H

    2005-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) television advertisements present a number of facts about prescription drug risks and benefits in a brief time. This study assessed comprehension of information in three advertisements among 50 adults with limited literacy. Participants correctly answered an average of 59% of comprehension questions. The percentage of respondents correctly answering individual comprehension questions ranged from 26% to 92%. A multivariate analysis suggested that type of information (risk vs. other) and channel (text vs. audio) predicted comprehension. There was a significant interaction effect for literacy and place of birth. Our results suggest key areas for future research on comprehension of DTC advertising. PMID:16278198

  5. Designing a Pediatric Study for an Antimalarial Drug by Using Information from Adults.

    PubMed

    Petit, Caroline; Jullien, Vincent; Samson, Adeline; Guedj, Jérémie; Kiechel, Jean-René; Zohar, Sarah; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to design a pharmacokinetic (PK) study by using information about adults and evaluate the robustness of the recommended design through a case study of mefloquine. PK data about adults and children were available from two different randomized studies of the treatment of malaria with the same artesunate-mefloquine combination regimen. A recommended design for pediatric studies of mefloquine was optimized on the basis of an extrapolated model built from adult data through the following approach. (i) An adult PK model was built, and parameters were estimated by using the stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm. (ii) Pediatric PK parameters were then obtained by adding allometry and maturation to the adult model. (iii) A D-optimal design for children was obtained with PFIM by assuming the extrapolated design. Finally, the robustness of the recommended design was evaluated in terms of the relative bias and relative standard errors (RSE) of the parameters in a simulation study with four different models and was compared to the empirical design used for the pediatric study. Combining PK modeling, extrapolation, and design optimization led to a design for children with five sampling times. PK parameters were well estimated by this design with few RSE. Although the extrapolated model did not predict the observed mefloquine concentrations in children very accurately, it allowed precise and unbiased estimates across various model assumptions, contrary to the empirical design. Using information from adult studies combined with allometry and maturation can help provide robust designs for pediatric studies. PMID:26711749

  6. Designing a Pediatric Study for an Antimalarial Drug by Using Information from Adults.

    PubMed

    Petit, Caroline; Jullien, Vincent; Samson, Adeline; Guedj, Jérémie; Kiechel, Jean-René; Zohar, Sarah; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-28

    The objectives of this study were to design a pharmacokinetic (PK) study by using information about adults and evaluate the robustness of the recommended design through a case study of mefloquine. PK data about adults and children were available from two different randomized studies of the treatment of malaria with the same artesunate-mefloquine combination regimen. A recommended design for pediatric studies of mefloquine was optimized on the basis of an extrapolated model built from adult data through the following approach. (i) An adult PK model was built, and parameters were estimated by using the stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm. (ii) Pediatric PK parameters were then obtained by adding allometry and maturation to the adult model. (iii) A D-optimal design for children was obtained with PFIM by assuming the extrapolated design. Finally, the robustness of the recommended design was evaluated in terms of the relative bias and relative standard errors (RSE) of the parameters in a simulation study with four different models and was compared to the empirical design used for the pediatric study. Combining PK modeling, extrapolation, and design optimization led to a design for children with five sampling times. PK parameters were well estimated by this design with few RSE. Although the extrapolated model did not predict the observed mefloquine concentrations in children very accurately, it allowed precise and unbiased estimates across various model assumptions, contrary to the empirical design. Using information from adult studies combined with allometry and maturation can help provide robust designs for pediatric studies.

  7. A Contextual Comparison of Risk Behaviors Among Older Adult Drug Users and Harm Reduction in Suburban Versus Inner-City Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam W.; Tyndall, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data show that older adults comprise a growing age group of drug users and new AIDS cases in the United States. Prevention and intervention studies show that risk behaviors leading to HIV infection are increasing among older users, particularly among the socially vulnerable. Yet older adults remain an under-researched population of drug users and little is known about their risk behaviors. Our aim is to address this gap in knowledge on older users by comparing contextual factors that influence risk behaviors and harm reduction strategies practiced by older drug users living in different communities. This study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in suburban and inner-city neighborhoods in a large metropolitan area in the southeastern USA. Interviewers conducted face-to-face, in-depth, life-history interviews with 69 older adults (age 45 and older) who used heroin, cocaine, and/or methamphetamine. Findings show that while risk behaviors were similar among older adult drug users living in suburban and inner-city environments, the provision of harm reduction education and paraphernalia varied widely. The results show the need for the expansion of harm reduction services focused on older adult drug users who are homeless, uninsured, or socially isolated. This application-oriented research will inform healthcare and treatment providers and generate new directions for future collaborative harm reduction services aimed to decrease the spread of HIV and other infectious diseases associated with drug use. PMID:23162176

  8. Adolescent exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate cross-sensitizes adults to methamphetamine with drug- and sex-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Ryan A; Ross, Jordan M; Doyle, Hillary H; Helton, Amanda K; Picou, Brittany N; Schulz, Jordyn; Tavares, Chris; Bryant, Sarah; Dawson, Bryan L; Lloyd, Steven A

    2015-03-15

    The increasing availability, over-prescription, and misuse and abuse of ADHD psychostimulant medications in adolescent populations necessitates studies investigating the long-term effects of these drugs persisting into adulthood. Male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to amphetamine (AMPH) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), methylphenidate (MPD) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), or cocaine (COC) (5.0 mg/kg) from postnatal day 22 to 31, which represents an early adolescent period. After an extended period of drug abstinence, adult mice were challenged with a subacute methamphetamine (METH) dose (0.5 mg/kg), to test the long-term effects of adolescent drug exposures on behavioral cross-sensitization using an open field chamber. There were no sex- or dose-specific effects on motor activity in adolescent, saline-treated controls. However, AMPH, MPD, and COC adolescent exposures induced cross-sensitization to a subacute METH dose in adulthood, which is a hallmark of addiction and a marker of long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. Of additional clinical importance, AMPH-exposed male mice demonstrated increased cross-sensitization to METH in contrast to the female-specific response observed in MPD-treated animals. There were no sex-specific effects after adolescent COC exposures. This study demonstrates differential drug, dose, and sex-specific alterations induced by early adolescent psychostimulant exposure, which leads to behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood.

  9. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  10. Use of Psychotropic Drugs by Mentally Retarded Adults in Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Martin, James E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on psychotropic drug use by the mentally retarded and associated behavioral toxicity is reviewed, and suggestions for future research are offered, with implications for community based service delivery. (SEW)

  11. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over five years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome studies (DATOS). Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first year follow-up. However, results of the application of growth mixture models for both sets of trajectories indicated a subgroup of individuals reverted to a high-risk behavior over time, with a higher level of risk at the 5-year follow-up than their original risk level at intake. Of clients who were engaged in regular injection drug use at intake, 76% continued to inject drug at a Moderate/stable or Increased rate over the 5-year follow-up. PMID:18198171

  12. Serotype Changes and Drug Resistance in Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Adults after Vaccinations in Children, Japan, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Naoko; Hanada, Shigeo; Morozumi, Miyuki; Wajima, Takeaki; Shouji, Michi; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) for children was introduced in Japan in November 2010, we examined changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and in genetic antimicrobial drug resistance of isolates from adults with invasive pneumococcal diseases. During April 2010–March 2013, a total of 715 isolates were collected from adults with invasive pneumococcal diseases. Seven-valent PCV serotypes in adults decreased from 43.3% to 23.8%, most noticeably for serotype 6B. Concomitantly, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) serotypes decreased from 82.2% to 72.2%; non-PPSV23 serotypes increased from 13.8% to 25.1%. Parallel with serotype changes, genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae decreased from 32.4% to 21.1%, and 6 non-PPSV23 serotypes emerged (6D, 15A, 15C, 16F, 23A, and 35B). Respective vaccine coverage rates for 13-valent PCV and PPSV23 differed by disease: 73.9% and 84.3% for patients with pneumonia, 56.4% and 69.2% for patients with bacteremia and sepsis, and 45.7% and 69.3% for patients with meningitis. PMID:26485679

  13. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  14. Treatment of functional decline in adults with Down syndrome using selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor drugs.

    PubMed

    Geldmacher, D S; Lerner, A J; Voci, J M; Noelker, E A; Somple, L C; Whitehouse, P J

    1997-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of functional decline in Down syndrome (DS) adults. Acquired cognitive deficits may be difficult to evaluate in the context of baseline impairments. Behavioral symptoms are also common and may represent the effects of depression, AD, or both. Therefore, the objective of this study was to report a clinical case series of selected adults with DS and behavioral change who responded to treatment with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication. Six patients, aged 23 to 63 years, 5 women and 1 man, with the clinical diagnosis of DS presented for diagnosis and treatment of functional decline in adult life. Noncognitive symptoms were prominent and included aggression, social withdrawal, and compulsive behaviors. Memory dysfunction was reported in varying degrees. Treatment with SSRI antidepressants was instituted for depressive, apathetic, and compulsive behaviors. Treated patients showed improvement in behaviors as reported by caregivers, and on objective measures, such as workplace productivity. Noncognitive symptoms are a cardinal feature of functional decline in adults with DS and may represent either depression or AD. In some patients, the symptoms respond well to SSRI agents with concomitant improvement in daily function. Treatment trials with SSRIs may, therefore, be warranted in such cases.

  15. Learning and Memory Deficits in Male Adult Mice Treated with a Benzodiazepine Sleep-Inducing Drug during the Juvenile Period.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yusuke; Tanemura, Kentaro; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Aisaki, Ken-Ichi; Kitajima, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Kanno, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is also known to be important for brain development. Therefore, disturbances of GABA receptor (GABA-R) mediated signaling (GABA-R signal) during brain development may influence normal brain maturation and cause late-onset brain malfunctions. In this study, we examined whether the stimulation of the GABA-R signal during brain development induces late-onset adverse effects on the brain in adult male mice. To stimulate the GABA-R signal, we used either the benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drug triazolam (TZ) or the non-benzodiazepine drug zolpidem (ZP). We detected learning and memory deficits in mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period, as seen in the fear conditioning test. On the other hand, ZP administration during the juvenile period had little effect. In addition, decreased protein expression of GluR1 and GluR4, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, was detected in the hippocampi of mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period. We measured mRNA expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs), which are neuronal activity markers, in the hippocampus shortly after the administration of TZ or ZP to juvenile mice. Decreased IEG expression was detected in mice with juvenile TZ administration, but not in mice with juvenile ZP administration. Our findings demonstrate that TZ administration during the juvenile period can induce irreversible learning and memory deficits in adult mice. It may need to take an extra care for the prescription of benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drugs to juveniles because it might cause learning and memory deficits. PMID:27489535

  16. Learning and Memory Deficits in Male Adult Mice Treated with a Benzodiazepine Sleep-Inducing Drug during the Juvenile Period

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Yusuke; Tanemura, Kentaro; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Aisaki, Ken-Ichi; Kitajima, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Kanno, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is also known to be important for brain development. Therefore, disturbances of GABA receptor (GABA-R) mediated signaling (GABA-R signal) during brain development may influence normal brain maturation and cause late-onset brain malfunctions. In this study, we examined whether the stimulation of the GABA-R signal during brain development induces late-onset adverse effects on the brain in adult male mice. To stimulate the GABA-R signal, we used either the benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drug triazolam (TZ) or the non-benzodiazepine drug zolpidem (ZP). We detected learning and memory deficits in mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period, as seen in the fear conditioning test. On the other hand, ZP administration during the juvenile period had little effect. In addition, decreased protein expression of GluR1 and GluR4, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, was detected in the hippocampi of mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period. We measured mRNA expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs), which are neuronal activity markers, in the hippocampus shortly after the administration of TZ or ZP to juvenile mice. Decreased IEG expression was detected in mice with juvenile TZ administration, but not in mice with juvenile ZP administration. Our findings demonstrate that TZ administration during the juvenile period can induce irreversible learning and memory deficits in adult mice. It may need to take an extra care for the prescription of benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drugs to juveniles because it might cause learning and memory deficits. PMID:27489535

  17. Legal, Individual, and Environmental Predictors of Court Disposition in a Sample of Serious Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Kimonis, Eva; Steinberg, Laurence; Chassin, Laurie; Fagan, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the juvenile court has been expected to consider each youth's distinct rehabilitative needs in the dispositional decision-making process, rather than focusing on legal factors alone. This study examines the extent to which demographic, psychological, contextual, and legal factors, independently predict dispositional outcomes (i.e., probation vs. confinement) within two juvenile court jurisdictions (Philadelphia, Phoenix). The sample consists of 1,355 14- to 18-year-old male and female juvenile offenders adjudicated of a serious criminal offense. Results suggest that legal factors have the strongest influence on disposition in both jurisdictions. For example, a higher number of prior court referrals is associated with an increased likelihood of secure confinement in both jurisdictions. Juveniles adjudicated of violent offenses are more likely to receive secure confinement in Phoenix, but are more likely to be placed on probation in Philadelphia. Race is unrelated to dispositional outcome, but, males are consistently more likely than females to be placed in secure confinement. Importantly, individual factors (e.g., developmental maturity) generally were not powerful independent predictors of disposition. Finally, an examination of the predictors of juvenile versus adult court transfer in Phoenix indicated that males, older juveniles, and those with a violent adjudicated charge were more likely to be transferred to adult court, while juveniles scoring high on responsibility as well as those juveniles with an alcohol dependence diagnosis were more likely to be retained in juvenile court. PMID:17245634

  18. Is there an association between seeing incidents of alcohol or drug use in films and young Scottish adults' own alcohol or drug use? A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As the promotion of alcohol and tobacco to young people through direct advertising has become increasingly restricted, there has been greater interest in whether images of certain behaviours in films are associated with uptake of those behaviours in young people. Associations have been reported between exposure to smoking images in films and smoking initiation, and between exposure to film alcohol images and initiation of alcohol consumption, in younger adolescents in the USA and Germany. To date no studies have reported on film images of recreational drug use and young people's own drug use. Methods Cross sectional multivariable logistic regression analysis of data collected at age 19 (2002-4) from a cohort of young people (502 boys, 500 girls) previously surveyed at ages 11 (in 1994-5), 13 and 15 in schools in the West of Scotland. Outcome measures at age 19 were: exceeding the 'sensible drinking' guidelines ('heavy drinkers') and binge drinking (based on alcohol consumption reported in last week), and ever use of cannabis and of 'hard' drugs. The principle predictor variables were an estimate of exposure to images of alcohol, and of drug use, in films, controlling for factors related to the uptake of substance use in young people. Results A third of these young adults (33%) were classed as 'heavy drinkers' and half (47%) as 'binge drinkers' on the basis of their previous week's consumption. Over half (56%) reported ever use of cannabis and 13% ever use of one or more of the 'hard' drugs listed. There were linear trends in the percentage of heavy drinkers (p = .018) and binge drinkers (p = 0.012) by film alcohol exposure quartiles, and for ever use of cannabis by film drug exposure (p = .000), and for ever use of 'hard' drugs (p = .033). The odds ratios for heavy drinking (1.56, 95% CI 1.06-2.29 comparing highest with lowest quartile of film alcohol exposure) and binge drinking (1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.30) were attenuated by adjustment for gender, social

  19. The influence of neuroscience on US Supreme Court decisions about adolescents' criminal culpability.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    In the past 8 years, the US Supreme Court has issued landmark opinions in three cases that involved the criminal culpability of juveniles. In the most recent case, in 2012, a ruling prohibited states from mandating life without parole for crimes committed by minors. In these cases, the Court drew on scientific studies of the adolescent brain in concluding that adolescents, by virtue of their inherent psychological and neurobiological immaturity, are not as responsible for their behaviour as adults. This article discusses the Court's rationale in these cases and the role of scientific evidence about adolescent brain development in its decisions. I conclude that the neuroscientific evidence was probably persuasive to the Court not because it revealed something new about the nature of adolescence but precisely because it aligned with common sense and behavioural science.

  20. Speech Cases Turned Aside by High Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court declined without comment to take up two major appeals involving student free-speech rights on the Internet. One appeal encompassed two cases decided in favor of students last June by the full U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit, in Philadelphia. The other appeal stemmed from a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for…

  1. Labor Force Experiences of a National Sample of Young Adult Men: The Role of Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the following aspects of labor force experience: (1) earnings; (2) stability of employment; (3) gaps between employment spells; and (4) duration of unemployment. Illicit drug use was found to have an impact on all factors except earnings. (JS)

  2. The psychiatric expert in court.

    PubMed

    Kenny, A

    1984-05-01

    The law about expert evidence is unsatisfactory: it gives scope for the expert to usurp the role of judge, jury and parliament; it brings the professions of the experts into disrepute; and it sets juries the impossible task of sorting pseudo sciences from genuine ones. The law should be reformed by changing statutes which force expert witnesses to testify beyond their science, by taking the provision of expert evidence out of the adversarial context, and by removing from the courts the decision whether a nascent discipline is or is not a science.

  3. 5 CFR 838.806 - Amended court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amended court orders. 838.806 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities § 838.806 Amended court orders. (a) A court order awarding a former spouse...

  4. 5 CFR 838.806 - Amended court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amended court orders. 838.806 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities § 838.806 Amended court orders. (a) A court order awarding a former spouse...

  5. 5 CFR 838.806 - Amended court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amended court orders. 838.806 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Requirements for Court Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities § 838.806 Amended court orders. (a) A court order awarding a former spouse...

  6. 19 CFR 176.31 - Reliquidation following decision of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reliquidation following decision of court. 176.31...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Procedure Following Court Decision § 176.31 Reliquidation following decision of court. (a) Decision of U.S. Court...

  7. 19 CFR 176.31 - Reliquidation following decision of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reliquidation following decision of court. 176.31...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Procedure Following Court Decision § 176.31 Reliquidation following decision of court. (a) Decision of U.S. Court...

  8. 5 CFR 838.122 - State courts' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division of Responsibilities § 838.122 State courts' responsibilities. State courts are responsible for— (a) Providing...

  9. 19 CFR 176.31 - Reliquidation following decision of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reliquidation following decision of court. 176.31...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Procedure Following Court Decision § 176.31 Reliquidation following decision of court. (a) Decision of U.S. Court...

  10. 5 CFR 838.122 - State courts' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division of Responsibilities § 838.122 State courts' responsibilities. State courts are responsible for— (a) Providing...

  11. 5 CFR 838.122 - State courts' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State courts' responsibilities. 838.122... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Division of Responsibilities § 838.122 State courts' responsibilities. State courts are responsible for— (a) Providing...

  12. Update on the Courts. The U.S. Supreme Court: 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the decisions made by the Supreme Court in 1996. Includes a brief profile of the court, a graphic display illustrating its role in the federal court system, the number of signed opinions by each justice, and a profile of chief justice William H. Rehnquist. (MJP)

  13. US Veterans' Court Programs: An Inventory and Analysis of National Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Scott; Stolar, Andrea G; McGuire, James F; Clark, Sean; Coonan, Loretta A; Hausknecht, Paul; Graham, David P

    2016-02-01

    This study used data from a phone survey inventory of US veterans' courts to provide descriptive information on the current status of their various elements. To identify which items were most predictive of a court's percentage of subjects terminated from their program, a linear regression was performed. The following were associated with higher rates of termination from the veterans' court (VC) program: (a) programs that offered phase progression based on measurable goals, (b) programs that conduct frequent drug and alcohol testing, and (c) programs for which sanctions are more severe for failing immediate goals (sobriety) versus long-term ones (completion of training). The following were associated with lower rates of termination from the VC program: (a) programs in which later phases permit less stringent testing, (b) programs utilizing behavioral contracts, (c) programs utilizing brief incarcerations. This inventory provides nationwide empirical data that may be used in the development of veterans' courts. PMID:26797760

  14. The Supreme Court confronts AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-04-17

    The U.S. Supreme Court is taking up its first HIV case, [name removed] vs. [Name removed], which could have a huge impact on the definition of disabilities and on how the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is interpreted in future court cases. A summary of the major points of the case and speculation on how each individual justice can be expected to rule on the issue are discussed. In recent oral arguments, each side was limited to a half hour to present their case and respond to questions from the judges, who are grappling with the definition of a major life activity. In the initial case, a dentist, Dr. [name removed], refused treatments in his office for [name removed], who is HIV-positive. [Name removed] responded by charging that she had been discriminated against under the ADA. Statements and positions from a number of parties are presented, including those who filed amicus briefs in the case. The issue of implications for public health policy is included. The Justice Department's lawyer, Lawrence G. Wallace, presented the government's interests at the oral arguments, and there was some question that his performance was detrimental to the case. PMID:11365301

  15. Pharmacological pain control for human immunodeficiency virus—infected adults with a history of drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Bruce, R. Douglas; Barry, Declan T.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with substance use disorders often face the challenge of managing patients' acute or chronic pain conditions while keeping in mind the potential dangers of prescription opiate dependence. In this clinical review, we critically appraise the existing data concerning barriers to appropriate treatment of pain among HIV-infected patients with substance use disorders. We then analyze published studies concerning the choice of pharmacological pain control regimens for acute and chronic pain conditions in HIV-infected patients, keeping in mind HIV-specific issues related to drug interactions and substance use disorders. We summarize this information in the form of flowcharts for physicians approaching HIV-infected patients who present with complaints of pain, providing evidence-based guidance for the structuring of pain management services and for addressing aberrant drug-taking behaviors. PMID:17481463

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  17. Incidence and predictors of adverse drug events in an African cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with efavirenz

    PubMed Central

    Abah, Isaac Okoh; Akanbi, Maxwell; Abah, Mercy Enuwa; Finangwai, Amos Istifanus; Dady, Christy W; Falang, Kakjing Dadul; Ebonyi, Augustine Odoh; Okopi, Joseph Anejo; Agbaji, Oche Ochai; Sagay, Altiene Solomon; Okonkwo, Prosper; Idoko, John A; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adverse drug reactions associated with efavirenz (EFV) therapy are poorly described beyond the first year of treatment. We aimed to describe the incidence and predictors of EFV-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a cohort of adult Nigerian HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods This retrospective cohort study utilized clinical data of HIV-1 infected adults (aged ≥15 years), commenced on efavirenz containing-regimen between January 2004 and December 2011. The time-dependent occurrence of clinical adverse events as defined by the World Health Organization was analyzed by Cox regression analysis. Results A total of 2920 patients with baseline median (IQR) age of 39 (33-46) years, largely made up of men (78%) were included in the study. During 8834 person-years of follow up, 358 adverse drug events were reported; the incidence rate was 40.3 ADRs per 1000 person-years of treatment. Lipodystrophy and neuropsychiatric disorders were the most common ADRs with incidences of 63 and 30 per 1000 patients respectively. About one-third of the neuropsychiatric adverse events were within 12 months of commencement of ART. The risk of neuropsychiatric ADRs was independently predicted for women [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 9.05; 95% CI: 5.18-15.82], those aged <40 years (aHR 2.59; 95% CI: 1.50-4.45), advanced HIV disease (WHO stage 3 or 4) [aHR 2.26; 95% CI: 1.37-3.72], and zidovudine [aHR 2.21; 95% CI: 1.27-3.83] or stavudine [aHR 4.22; 95% CI: 1.99-8.92] containing regimen compared to tenofovir. Conclusion Neuropsychiatric adverse drug events associated with efavirenz-based ART had both early and late onset in our clinical cohort of patients on chronic EFV therapy. Continuous neuropsychiatric assessment for improved detection and management of neuropsychiatric ADRs is recommended in resource-limited settings where the use of efavirenz-based regimens has been scaled up. PMID:26405676

  18. Drug-resistant tuberculosis clinical trials: proposed core research definitions in adults.

    PubMed

    Furin, J; Alirol, E; Allen, E; Fielding, K; Merle, C; Abubakar, I; Andersen, J; Davies, G; Dheda, K; Diacon, A; Dooley, K E; Dravnice, G; Eisenach, K; Everitt, D; Ferstenberg, D; Goolam-Mahomed, A; Grobusch, M P; Gupta, R; Harausz, E; Harrington, M; Horsburgh, C R; Lienhardt, C; McNeeley, D; Mitnick, C D; Nachman, S; Nahid, P; Nunn, A J; Phillips, P; Rodriguez, C; Shah, S; Wells, C; Thomas-Nyang'wa, B; du Cros, P

    2016-03-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a growing public health problem, and for the first time in decades, new drugs for the treatment of this disease have been developed. These new drugs have prompted strengthened efforts in DR-TB clinical trials research, and there are now multiple ongoing and planned DR-TB clinical trials. To facilitate comparability and maximise policy impact, a common set of core research definitions is needed, and this paper presents a core set of efficacy and safety definitions as well as other important considerations in DR-TB clinical trials work. To elaborate these definitions, a search of clinical trials registries, published manuscripts and conference proceedings was undertaken to identify groups conducting trials of new regimens for the treatment of DR-TB. Individuals from these groups developed the core set of definitions presented here. Further work is needed to validate and assess the utility of these definitions but they represent an important first step to ensure there is comparability in clinical trials on multidrug-resistant TB.

  19. Prescription drug advertising, disease knowledge, and older adults' optimistic bias about the future risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seong; Ju, Ilwoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to broaden the scope of knowledge on the role of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) in the construction of consumers' optimistic bias regarding health issues and their intentions for coping actions. Based on an online survey of U.S. adults aged 65 years or older (N = 622), this study revealed that (a) respondents were optimistically biased in estimating their future risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD); (b) exposure to DTCA for AD medicine related negatively to optimistic bias when respondents had a low level of knowledge about AD, while the relationship disappeared when knowledge was high; (c) optimistic bias was negatively associated with intentions to seek information about AD and professional help to discuss it; and (d) optimistic bias mediated the relationship between the DTCA exposure × AD knowledge interaction and information- and help-seeking intentions. Implications for the theory and practice of DTCA are discussed.

  20. Prescription drug advertising, disease knowledge, and older adults' optimistic bias about the future risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seong; Ju, Ilwoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to broaden the scope of knowledge on the role of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) in the construction of consumers' optimistic bias regarding health issues and their intentions for coping actions. Based on an online survey of U.S. adults aged 65 years or older (N = 622), this study revealed that (a) respondents were optimistically biased in estimating their future risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD); (b) exposure to DTCA for AD medicine related negatively to optimistic bias when respondents had a low level of knowledge about AD, while the relationship disappeared when knowledge was high; (c) optimistic bias was negatively associated with intentions to seek information about AD and professional help to discuss it; and (d) optimistic bias mediated the relationship between the DTCA exposure × AD knowledge interaction and information- and help-seeking intentions. Implications for the theory and practice of DTCA are discussed. PMID:26361065

  1. Onchocerca gutturosa and O. volvulus: studies on the viability and drug responses of cryopreserved adult worms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Townson, S; Shay, K E; Dobinson, A R; Connelly, C; Comley, J C; Zea-Flores, G

    1989-01-01

    The viability and drug responses of cryopreserved adult Onchocerca have been examined in vitro. Male worms were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) using ethanediol as a cryoprotectant in a 2-step incubation procedure. After thawing, 85-90% of O. gutturosa males were normally motile. These motile worms were evaluated for viability using 4 measurements (long-term motility/survival in culture; [U-14C]adenine uptake and leakage; glucose utilization; MTT-formazan colorimetry) and were no different from unfrozen controls. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that the motility responses of cryopreserved worms exposed to the antifilarial drugs ivermectin, CGP 6140 and levamisole were virtually identical to unfrozen controls. Some success was also obtained with this technique in cryopreserving O. volvulus males, with 2 thawed specimens surviving in culture for 93 and 106 d respectively. Following collagenase isolation, female worms were cryopreserved in medium +10% serum without protectant at -79 degrees C. A batch of 8 female O. gutturosa were all motile when thawed 14 d later, with a mean survival time (based on 5 specimens) of 71 d (range 60-90). However, a batch of worms transferred from -79 degrees C to -196 degrees C were badly damaged when thawed. Female O. volvulus were cryopreserved at -79 degrees C in Guatemala and sent by air freight on solid CO2 to the UK. Most specimens were active when thawed. Survival of motile specimens ranged from 7 to 272 d in culture. It is concluded that these techniques are of practical value for the storage and transportation of adult Onchocerca.

  2. Hospitalizations for Alcohol and Drug Overdoses in Young Adults Ages 18–24 in the United States, 1999–2008: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    White, Aaron M.; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-jen; yi, Hsiao-ye

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports indicate an increase in rates of hospitalizations for drug overdoses in the United States. The role of alcohol in hospitalizations for drug overdoses remains unclear. Excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs is prevalent in young adults ages 18–24. The present study explores rates and costs of inpatient hospital stays for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their co-occurrence in young adults ages 18–24 and changes in these rates between 1999 and 2008. Method: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to estimate numbers, rates, and costs of inpatient hospital stays stemming from alcohol overdoses (and their subcategories, alcohol poisonings and excessive consumption of alcohol), drug overdoses (and their subcategories, drug poisonings and nondependent abuse of drugs), and their co-occurrence in 18- to 24-year-olds. Results: Hospitalization rates for alcohol overdoses alone increased 25% from 1999 to 2008, reaching 29,412 cases in 2008 at a cost of $266 million. Hospitalization rates for drug overdoses alone increased 55%, totaling 113,907 cases in 2008 at a cost of $737 million. Hospitalization rates for combined alcohol and drug overdoses increased 76%, with 29,202 cases in 2008 at a cost of $198 million. Conclusions: Rates of hospitalizations for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their combination all increased from 1999 to 2008 among 18- to 24-year-olds. The cost of such hospitalizations now exceeds $1.2 billion annually. The steepest increase occurred among cases of combined alcohol and drug overdoses. Stronger efforts are needed to educate medical practitioners and the public about the risk of overdoses, particularly when alcohol is combined with other drugs. PMID:21906505

  3. The role of sexual expectancies of substance use as a mediator between adult attachment and drug use among gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Tuck, Andrew N.; Wells, Brooke E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research exploring substance use in gay and bisexual men has increasingly paid attention to interpersonal dynamics and relational concerns associated with the use of substances. The current study explored the role of adult attachment style on drug use as well as the potential mediating role of sexual expectancies of substance use among gay and bisexual men. Methods Online survey data were gathered from 122 gay and bisexual men across the U.S., with a mean age of 33 years of age. All participants were HIV-negative and identified their relationship status as single. Survey measures included attachment style, sexual expectancies of substance use, and recent drug use. Results While neither anxious or avoidant attachment were directly associated with the odds of recent drug use, they were positively associated with sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .27, p < .01, and β = .21, p < .05) which, in turn, were positively associated with the odds of drug use (expB = 1.09, p < .01). Bootstrapping tests of indirect effects revealed a significant indirect relationship between anxious attachment and drug use through sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .11, p < .05), but not for avoidant attachment. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of interpersonal expectancies as motivators for drug use among gay and bisexual men. Sexual expectancies of substance use were associated with drug use and anxious adult attachment was associated indirectly with drug use through these sexual expectancies. PMID:26051159

  4. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  5. Educational Policy-Making by the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezny, Arthur A.

    This paper addresses itself to the question of whether the courts determine educational policy, confining its discussion to three court cases. The cases focus on academic freedom and the authority to dismiss, the rights of an individual to discuss in public the injustice of his transfer, and reverse discrimination. (Author/JF)

  6. Kentucky's Unified Court of Justice. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    Resource materials and learning activities to help secondary students in Kentucky learn about their state's court system are provided. The guide begins by providing a history of the Kentucky Court of Justice. Discussed are the qualification of judges, the Retirement and Removal Commission, the Judicial Nominating Commission, and juries. Background…

  7. The Supreme Court as a Small Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Don

    The application of small group interaction and decision making assessment methods has demonstrated many of the interpersonal preferences, understandings, and attitudes of the Supreme Court. Six terms of the Supreme Court, from October 1969 through October 1974 were chosen for evaluation. Only those cases in which the formal opinion of the Court…

  8. Supreme Court Biographies as a Classroom Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author goes beyond Supreme Court decisions to investigate the upbringing and personalities of three Supreme Court justices who left their mark on history: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, and Sandra Day O'Connor. His interviews with their biographers, G. Edward White for Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Juan Williams…

  9. The Roberts Court and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahdert, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    Since President Bush named Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. and Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. to the Supreme Court, speculation has run high as to where the new court may be headed. Citing three recent cases ("Morse v. Frederick", "Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, Inc." and "Garcetti v. Ceballos"), Rahdert expresses concern…

  10. Desegregation Dead? Not in This Court Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Maree

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the interpretations of the court's ruling in "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District 1." The decision handed down June 28, the last day of the Supreme Court's term, does not prohibit school districts from voluntarily integrating schools as long as the school district meets certain legal…

  11. The Supreme Court in the Culture Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the U.S. Supreme Court has been an active and liberally biased participant in the U.S. culture war. Historical evidence is presented, including areas of tuition tax credit and segregated private schools, abortion and the Right-to-Life movement, and prayer in public schools. The author discusses how the Supreme Court has strengthened…

  12. The Rehnquist Court and the Tenth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1995-01-01

    Examines several recent decisions of the more conservative and constructionist Rehnquist Supreme Court. Discusses those judgements that challenge the regulatory power of the federal government. In separate cases concerning mandatory retirement of state judges and regulating toxic waste clean-up, the high court ruled in favor of state control. (MJP)

  13. Court Seen Balky on Religion Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    When Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. reached his fifth anniversary on the U.S. Supreme Court in late September, observers took note of the court's rightward shift during his tenure in a number of areas, including corporate spending on federal elections and the ways school districts may consider race in assigning students. But at least one…

  14. What Happens to Mental Health Court Noncompleters?

    PubMed

    Ray, Bradley; Hood, Brittany J; Canada, Kelli E

    2015-01-01

    Mental health court (MHC) research consistently finds that defendants who successfully complete and graduate from the court are less likely to recidivate than those who do not. However, research has not assessed what happens to these noncompleters once they are sent back to traditional court. Using follow-up data on six years of noncompleters from pre-adjudication MHC, we examine what happens to these defendants in traditional court. Findings suggest that 63.7% of defendants' charges were dismissed, 21.0% received probation, and 15.3% were sentenced to incarceration. We examine the time to disposition and differences in defendant characteristics and disposition outcome as well as the relationship between disposition and subsequent recidivism. Results suggest that more severe punishments in traditional court are associated with recidivism. Logistic regression analysis shows that defendants whose charges were dismissed in traditional court were less likely to recidivate than those who were sentenced to probation or incarceration. Our findings highlight the need for future MHC evaluations to consider traditional court outcomes and support trends towards post-adjudication courts.

  15. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  16. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  17. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  18. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  19. 28 CFR 902.7 - Court action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Court action. 902.7 Section 902.7 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.7 Court action. Pursuant to Section (c) of Article XI of the Compact, a decision by...

  20. The Supreme Court of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    This booklet describes the history, procedures, and the courthouse, plus offering a brief vita for each justice. The pamphlet explains the role of the Supreme Court as the constitutional interpretor and applicator of the United States governmental system, recounting a history of the development of that role. The organization of the court is…

  1. 42 CFR 401.152 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Court review. 401.152 Section 401.152 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.152 Court review. Where the Administrator upon review affirms the denial of a request for records, in whole or in part, the requester...

  2. Buyer's Guide for Tennis Court Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This booklet examines seven planning and decision-making tips for investing in and building tennis courts that can prolong court life and get the most from the investment. It examines defining needs, developing a budget, considering the use of a consultant, choosing a site, choosing a surface and developing working specifications, making specific…

  3. Court Showdown over Florida Vouchers Nears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a nationally-watched case by educators and families which is scheduled to be heard by the Florida Supreme Court. The court is to decide whether Opportunity Scholarships, available to students enrolled in Florida's persistently lowest-rated public schools, run afoul of a prohibition on using public money in religious…

  4. The Equal Access Act: Recent Court Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines court decisions which led to the passage of the Equal Access Act of 1984. Although the act was designed to clarify the issue over the legality of permitting religious clubs to meet on school property, it may have created more confusion. Concludes that the Supreme Court may have to decide the issue. (SLM)

  5. 18. Historic view of Court Street and Depot Square. Photoengraving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic view of Court Street and Depot Square. Photoengraving from Artwork of Rhode Island (Chicago: W.H. Parish Publishing Co., 1896) view west - Court Street Bridge, Court Street spanning Blackstone River & Truman Drive, Woonsocket, Providence County, RI

  6. [Andreas Vesalius in the Spanish Court].

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hyonosuke

    2004-12-01

    After the publication of "Fabrica," Andreas Vesalius entered the Spanish court and became a court physician to Charles the Fifth, Holy Roman Emperor, and then to Philip the Second, Spanish king. The author studied this process and its historical background. The ancestors of Vesalius had close relations with the Hapsburgs and the dukes of BUrgundy, and served them as court physician or a court pharmacist. Vesalius was born in Brussels, obtained his degree at the University of Padua, Italy, became professor of anatomy and surgery there, and published "Tabulae Anatomicae Sex" and "Fabrica."In the ear of the Spanish court, the treatments of Henry the Second, French king, and of Don Carlos, Spanish crown prince, are famous among Vesalius' medical contributions. In the year of his resignation, Charles the Fifth conferred the title of count palatine on Vesalius. PMID:15818875

  7. [Andreas Vesalius in the Spanish Court].

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hyonosuke

    2004-12-01

    After the publication of "Fabrica," Andreas Vesalius entered the Spanish court and became a court physician to Charles the Fifth, Holy Roman Emperor, and then to Philip the Second, Spanish king. The author studied this process and its historical background. The ancestors of Vesalius had close relations with the Hapsburgs and the dukes of BUrgundy, and served them as court physician or a court pharmacist. Vesalius was born in Brussels, obtained his degree at the University of Padua, Italy, became professor of anatomy and surgery there, and published "Tabulae Anatomicae Sex" and "Fabrica."In the ear of the Spanish court, the treatments of Henry the Second, French king, and of Don Carlos, Spanish crown prince, are famous among Vesalius' medical contributions. In the year of his resignation, Charles the Fifth conferred the title of count palatine on Vesalius.

  8. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  9. Postpartum psychosis and the courts.

    PubMed

    Nau, Melissa L; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Although mental state defenses frequently are raised in cases of infanticide, legal criteria for these defenses vary across jurisdictions. We reviewed outcomes of such cases in states using M'Naughten or model penal code (MPC) standards for insanity, and the factors considered by the courts in reaching these decisions. LexisNexis and Westlaw searches were conducted of case law, legal precedent, and law review articles related to infanticide. Google and other Internet search engines were used to identify unpublished cases. Despite the differing legal standards for insanity among states, the outcomes of infanticide cases do not appear to be dependent solely on which standard is used. The presence of psychosis was important in the successful mental state defenses. This case series suggests that states that use the stricter M'Naughten standard have not been less likely than states with an MPC standard to adjudicate women who have committed infanticide as not guilty by reason of insanity.

  10. The Supreme Court upholds parental notice requirements.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    On June 25, 1990 the US Supreme Court ruled in 2 cases concerned with the constitutionally of 2 state law that required parental notification of minors seeking an abortion. In Hodgson v Minnesota the Court ruled that states may not require 2 parent notification. They can however require that both biological parents be notified if a judicial bypass is provided for minors wishing to keep the matter private. In Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health the Court upheld a 1 parent notification law which included a judicial bypass clause. The Court however did refuse to decide whether the state must provide the bypass option it is mandates 1 parent notification. In the Hodgson case the courts opinion stated that the state did not have the right to require that family members talk to each other. Also the Court upheld that states may require a 48-hour waiting period between notification and the procedure to give parents time to provide medical records and to check the doctor's competency. In Ohio the court ruled that states do not have to guarantee absolute anonymity of the minor as long as they make a reasonable effort to keep her name from beginning public. The Court also ruled that states can require a minor to provide "clear and compelling" evidence, the most difficult legal standard of proof, when she is petitioning the court that she is sufficiently mature to consent to the procedure or that parental notification is not in her best interest. Also, the Court ruled that the state may require doctors to notify the parents personally concerning the procedure.

  11. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the United States Supreme Court confirmed that in the school's role of in loco parentis, drug testing of students who were involved in athletics and extracurricular activities was constitutional. In a state of the union address, George W. Bush stated that drug testing in schools had been effective and was part of "our aggressive…

  12. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Vernonia School District v. Acton Supreme Court decision in 1995, forever changed the landscape of the legality of drug testing in schools. This decision stated that students who were involved in athletic programs could be drug tested as long as the student's privacy was not invaded. According to some in the medical profession, there are two…

  13. Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Diagnosed Adults and Children in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Paula Morena de Souza; Ferreira, João Leandro de Paula; Coelho, Luana Portes Ozório; Cavalcanti, Jaqueline de Souza; Lopes, Giselle Ibette Silva Lopez; Matsuda, Elaine Monteiro; Almeida, Flávia Jacqueline; Almeida, Valéria Correia; Campeas, Alexandre Ely; Junior, Luiz Carlos Pereira; Brígido, Luís Fernando de Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) have been a constant threat to treatment efficacy. We evaluated TDRM in plasma RNA of 217 antiretroviral therapy-naive patients from sites in the São Paulo metropolitan area, collected from 2012 to 2014. The partial HIV-1 polymerase region was sequenced using Big Dye terminators at an ABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer. TDRM was defined according to the Stanford database calibrated population resistance (CPR v.6.0), but other drug resistance mutations (DRM) considered at the IAS list (IAS, 2014) and at the Stanford HIV Database Genotyping Resistance Interpretation (GRI-HIVdb) were also described. Out of 78% (170/217) of patients with information on the time of diagnosis, most (83%, 141/170) had been recently diagnosed, with the first positive HIV serology at a median of 58 days (IQR 18-184). Subtype B predominated (70%), followed by subtype F (10%), BF (7.5%), C (7.5%), and BC (5%). TDRMs were observed in 9.2% (20/217, CI 95% 5.9% to 13.6%), mostly (5.2%) to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) antiretroviral class. Among children and adolescents, only a single patient showed TDRMs. Additional non-CPR mutations were observed: 11.5% (25/217) according to IAS or 4.6% (10/217) according to GRI-HIVdb. Overall, 23.5% (51/217) of the cases had one or more DRM identified. TDRM prevalence differed significantly among some sites. These trends deserve continuous and systematic surveillance, especially with the new policies of treatment as prevention being implemented in the country.

  14. High frequency of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-infected adults receiving first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in N'Djamena, Chad.

    PubMed

    Koyalta, Donato; Charpentier, Charlotte; Beassamda, Jatibi; Rey, Elisabeth; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Djemadji-Oudjeil, Noël; Bélec, Laurent

    2009-07-01

    Antiretroviral drug resistance was evaluated in 88 adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus, most with subtype CRF11_cpx, who had received a first-line antiretroviral regimen for 6 months, in N'Djamena, Chad. A total of 47 patients (53%) had detectable viral load at month 6, and 56 (64%) had at least 1 antiretroviral resistance mutation observed.

  15. National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1997. Volume 2: College Students and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study follow-up studies on drug use of young adults post-high school are presented. An introduction, overview of key findings, and study design and procedures (including discussions of validity and representativeness) are provided. Follow-up procedures and sampling issues are discussed. This report is focused…

  16. The Association between Parent Early Adult Drug Use Disorder and Later Observed Parenting Practices and Child Behavior Problems: Testing Alternate Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the association between parent illicit drug use disorder (DUD) in early adulthood and observed parenting practices at ages 27-28 and examined the following 3 theoretically derived models explaining this link: (a) a disrupted parent adult functioning model,(b) a preexisting parent personality factor model, and (c) a disrupted…

  17. No Soldier Left Behind: The Veterans Court Solution.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Paul A; Hanrahan, Kathleen J

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns one of the newer iterations of problem-solving courts: veterans treatment courts. We trace the history of problem solving court implementation and explore the functioning of an established veterans court. The focus of this exploratory, qualitative study is the courthouse workgroup and their interactions both within the veterans court and with more traditional criminal courts and criminal justice agencies. We summarize the literature on problem solving courts and the experience, insights and suggestions of the members of the court we examined.

  18. The Effect of Urban Neighborhood Disorder on Evaluations of the Police and Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Jane B.; Doob, Anthony N.

    2009-01-01

    Are people dissatisfied with the courts as well as the police when they perceive high levels of disorder in their neighborhoods? Consistent with previous research, this study, using a representative sample of Canadian adults, demonstrates that people are significantly more negative about the police when they perceive high levels of disorder. They…

  19. Legal and Psychological Perspectives on Children's Competence to Testify in Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemfuss, J. Zoe; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Young children are often called as witnesses to crimes they were victims of or observed. Because of their immaturity, child witnesses are sometimes more heavily scrutinized than adult witnesses before being allowed to testify in court, for example, through competency screening. This review discusses the psychology and US law relevant to decisions…

  20. Abacavir, an anti–HIV-1 drug, targets TDP1-deficient adult T cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Takiuchi, Yoko; Iwai, Fumie; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagata, Kayoko; Shinohara, Masanobu; Io, Katsuhiro; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Shindo, Keisuke; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Hirota, Kouji; Yamamoto, Junpei; Iwai, Shigenori; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T cell malignancy caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and has a poor prognosis. We analyzed the cytotoxic effects of various nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for HIV-1 on ATL cells and found that abacavir potently and selectively kills ATL cells. Although NRTIs have minimal genotoxicities on host cells, the therapeutic concentration of abacavir induced numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the chromosomal DNA of ATL cells. DSBs persisted over time in ATL cells but not in other cell lines, suggesting impaired DNA repair. We found that the reduced expression of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), a repair enzyme, is attributable to the cytotoxic effect of abacavir on ATL cells. We also showed that TDP1 removes abacavir from DNA ends in vitro. These results suggest a model in which ATL cells with reduced TDP1 expression are unable to excise abacavir incorporated into genomic DNA, leading to irreparable DSBs. On the basis of the above mechanism, we propose abacavir as a promising chemotherapeutic agent for ATL. PMID:26601161

  1. Are decreases in drug use risk associated with reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors among adults in an urban hospital primary care setting?

    PubMed

    Walter, Angela Wangari; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Samet, Jeffrey H; Bernstein, Judith; Saitz, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Drug use is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. We examined whether decreases in drug use risk are associated with reduction in HIV-related sex risk behaviors among adults. Data was from a cohort of participants (n = 574) identified by drug use screening in a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug use in an urban primary care setting. Inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between decreases in drug use risk and sex-related HIV risk behavior reduction from study entry to six months. Weights were derived from propensity score modeling of decreases in drug use risk as a function of potential confounders. Thirty seven percent of the study participants (213/574) reported a decrease in drug use risk, and 7% (33/505) reported decreased sex-related HIV risk behavior at the six-month follow-up point. We did not detect a difference in reduction of risky sexual behaviors for those who decreased drug use risk (unadjusted: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.65-2.70; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.54-2.36). Adults who screened positive for high drug use risk had greater odds of reducing sex risk behavior in unadjusted analyses OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.81-7.60; but the results were not significant after adjusting for confounding AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.85-7.30). In this primary care population, reductions in HIV sex risk behaviors have complex etiologies and reductions in drug use risk do not appear to be an independent predictor of them. PMID:27570734

  2. Preventing Unnecessary Costs of Drug-Induced Hypoglycemia in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boulin, Mathieu; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Background The costs of drug-induced hypoglycemia are a critical but often neglected component of value-based arguments to reduce tight glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods An economic (decision-tree) analysis compared rates, costs, quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained associated with mild, moderate and severe hypoglycemic events for 6 glucose-lowering medication classes in type 2 diabetic adults aged 65–79 versus those 80 years and older. The national U.S. (Center for Medicare Services) and Canadian public health payer perspectives were adopted. Findings Incidence rates of drug-induced hypoglycemia were the highest for basal insulin and sulfonylureas: 8.64 and 4.32 events per person-year in 65–79 year olds, and 12.06 and 6.03 events per person-year for 80 years and older. In both the U.S. and Canada, metformin dominated sulfonylureas, basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide1 receptor agonists. Relative to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in the U.S. and dominated sulfonylureas in Canada for adults 80 years and older. Relative to sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase4 inhibitors were cost-effective for adults 80 years and older in both countries, and for 65–79 year olds in Canada. Annual costs of hypoglycemia for older adults attaining very tight glycemic control with the use of insulin or sulfonylureas were estimated at U.S.$509,214,473 in the U.S. and CAN$65,497,849 in Canada. Conclusions Optimizing drug therapy for older type 2 diabetic adults through the avoidance of drug-induced hypoglycemia will dramatically improve patient health while also generating millions of dollars by saving unnecessary medical costs. PMID:27648831

  3. The Supreme Court confronts AIDS: expanded coverage.

    PubMed

    1998-07-24

    The United States Supreme Court ruled that people with HIV infection may be covered under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), even if they are symptom free. In [name removed] v. [Name removed] sued Dr. [name removed] for discrimination. [Name removed] refused to fill a cavity for [name removed], who is HIV-positive, unless the procedure was performed at a local hospital where he felt there would be better infection-control procedures. The First Circuit Court ruled that [name removed] did not present sufficient evidence showing that HIV transmission was riskier in a dental setting versus a hospital setting. [Name removed] then appealed to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled on June 25, 1998 that [name removed] was protected from discrimination under the ADA's definition of disability, due to her decision to not have children because of her HIV status. Therefore, [name removed]'s decision to not fill the cavity could be considered discrimination. The Supreme Court's decision allows for a broader interpretation of the ADA in future court cases, which may prove beneficial for other HIV positive people or for people suffering from various life threatening diseases. Other possibilities of how HIV might affect major life activities, and as a result, be covered under the ADA are discussed. Positive and negative comments regarding the Supreme Court's decision are also included. PMID:11365574

  4. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-08-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  5. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  6. Physiological, perceptual, and technical responses to on-court tennis training on hard and clay courts.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar M; Duffield, Rob; Minett, Geoffrey M; Sibte, Narelle; Murphy, Alistair P; Baker, John

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of court surface (clay vs. hard court) on technical, physiological, and perceptual responses to on-court tennis training. Four high-performance junior male players performed 2 identical training sessions on hard and clay courts, respectively. Sessions included both physical conditioning and technical elements as led by the coach. Each session was filmed for later notational analysis of stroke count and error rates. Furthermore, players wore a global positioning satellite device to measure distance covered during each session, while heart rate, countermovement jump distance, and capillary blood measures of metabolites were measured before, during, and after each session. Additionally, a respective coach and athlete rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured after each session. Total duration and distance covered during each session were comparable (p > 0.05; d < 0.20). Although forehand and backhands stroke volume did not differ between sessions (p > 0.05; d < 0.30), large effects for increased unforced and forced errors were present on the hard court (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). Furthermore, large effects for increased heart rate, blood lactate, and RPE values were evident on clay compared with hard courts (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). Additionally, although player and coach RPE on hard courts were similar, there were large effects for coaches to underrate the RPE of players on clay courts (p > 0.05; d > 0.90). In conclusion, training on clay courts results in trends for increased heart rate, lactate, and RPE values, suggesting that sessions on clay courts tend towards higher physiological and perceptual loads than hard courts. Furthermore, coaches seem effective at rating player RPE on hard courts but may underrate the perceived exertion of sessions on clay courts.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of the Antimalarial Drug Artemether in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sam; Bendel, Daryl; Lee, Toong C.; Templeton, David

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in two open-label studies. In study 1, 16 healthy males were randomized to each of four single-dose treatments administered in random order: (i) 15.0 mg of sublingual artemether (5 × 3.0 actuations), (ii) 30.0 mg of sublingual artemether (10 × 3.0 mg), (iii) 30.0 mg of sublingual artemether (5 × 6.0 mg), and (iv) 30.0 mg of artemether in tablet form. In study 2, 16 healthy males were randomized to eight 30.0-mg doses of sublingual artemether given over 5 days as either 10 3.0-mg or 5 6.0-mg actuations. Frequent blood samples were drawn postdose. Plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population compartmental pharmacokinetic models were developed. In study 1, sublingual artemether absorption was biphasic, with both rate constants being greater than that of the artemether tablets (1.46 and 1.66 versus 0.43/h, respectively). Relative to the tablets, sublingual artemether had greater bioavailability (≥1.24), with the greatest relative bioavailability occurring in the 30.0-mg dose groups (≥1.58). In study 2, there was evidence that the first absorption phase accounted for between 32% and 69% of the total dose and avoided first-pass (FP) metabolism, with an increase in FP metabolism occurring in later versus earlier doses but with no difference in bioavailability between the dose actuations. Sublingual artemether is more rapidly and completely absorbed than are equivalent doses of artemether tablets in healthy adults. Its disposition appears to be complex, with two absorption phases, the first representing pregastrointestinal absorption, as well as dose-dependent bioavailability and autoinduction of metabolism with multiple dosing. PMID:25801553

  8. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (<500 CD4 cells) or severe (<200) immune suppression, respectively. HIV-1 viral load was >100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and <2000 copies/mL in 9.1%. Five samples (5.7%) harboured any TDR mutation: 2.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and 1.4% for protease inhibitor (PI). All showed only one TDR single-class resistance mutation: M184I (two cases) for NRTI, K101E and K103N for NNRTI and L23I for PI. All viruses excepting one (URF_BG) belonged to subtype B. No phylogenetic TDR networks were found. In conclusion, we report a TDR prevalence of 5.7% in El Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador.

  9. Efficacy and safety findings from naturalistic fluoxetine drug treatment in adolescent and young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, R W; Czekalla, J; Hundemer, H P; Linden, M

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the efficacy and safety of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, in 213 patients (ages 11-23 years) treated by psychiatrists/neurologists (PN) or general practitioners/internists (GPI). Data were derived from naturalistic drug utilization observation (DUO) studies with fluoxetine (n = 18,759 patients). Data collection--at the start and the end of the observation period (< or =6 weeks)--included patient characteristics, diagnoses, medication, co-medication, efficacy, and adverse events (AEs). Nonparametric statistics and descriptive p values (two-tailed) were used. Analyses revealed various differences between PN (n = 56) and GPI (n = 157) samples as to patient and treatment characteristics (p < 0.001-0.08). Based on both Clinical Global Impression (CGI; all p < 0.001) and self-assessment (total n = 47; Zung SDS, all p < or = 0.003), both PN and GPI patients showed improvements in their symptomatology over time, including suicidality (all p < 0.001; there were no group differences). Overall AE rates were higher in PN patients (p < 0.01; 17.9% vs. 4.5%); the frequency and type of AEs in both subgroups were typical for fluoxetine and the total DUO samples. In fact, AE rates were lower compared to controlled trials. Findings suggest that PN patients were more severely ill at observation start and suffered a more complicated treatment course. However, clinical efficacy showed highly significant improvements in both subgroups; AE rates were low in both--although higher in PN patients. Thus, results support a positive benefit/risk ratio of fluoxetine use for this young patient population.

  10. Environmental enrichment protects against the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult male rats, but does not eliminate avoidance of a drug-associated saccharin cue.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Matthew D; Blum, Joshua S; Acosta-Torres, Stefany; Grigson, Patricia S

    2012-02-01

    One of the most menacing consequences of drug addiction is the devaluation of natural rewards (e.g. food, sex, work, money, caring for one's offspring). However, evidence also suggests that natural rewards, such as an enriched environment, can devalue drugs of abuse. Thus, this study used a rodent model to test whether exposure to an enriched environment could protect adult rats from acquiring cocaine self-administration and from the resultant drug-induced devaluation of a natural saccharin reward cue. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intravenous jugular catheters. Rats were then separated into two housing conditions: an enriched condition, including social companions(four/cage) and novel objects (e.g. balls, polyethylene tubes, paper, etc.), and a nonenriched condition where the rats were singly housed with no novel objects. During testing, the rats were given 5-min access to 0.15% saccharin, followed by 1 h to self-administer saline or cocaine (0.167 mg/infusion) on fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. The results showed that rats that were singly housed in the nonenriched environment fell into two groups: low drug-takers (n=34) and high drug-takers (n=12). In comparison, only one out of the 22 rats housed in the enriched environment was a high drug-taker. Thus, all rats in the enriched environment, except one, behaved like low drug-takers under the nonenriched condition. As such, these rats self-administered almost no drug on either the fixed ratio or the progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement and were extremely slow to self-administer their first cocaine infusion. Interestingly, despite their very low levels of drug self-administration, low-drug-taking rats housed in the enriched environment continued to avoid intake of the drug-associated saccharin cue. Taken together, these data suggest that the enriched environment itself served as a salient natural reward that reduced cocaine seeking and cocaine taking, but

  11. 49 CFR 40.405 - May the Federal courts review PIE decisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the Federal courts review PIE decisions? 40.405 Section 40.405 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.405 May the...

  12. Greater Response to Placebo in Children Than in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Drug-Resistant Partial Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rheims, Sylvain; Cucherat, Michel; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite guidelines establishing the need to perform comprehensive paediatric drug development programs, pivotal trials in children with epilepsy have been completed mostly in Phase IV as a postapproval replication of adult data. However, it has been shown that the treatment response in children can differ from that in adults. It has not been investigated whether differences in drug effect between adults and children might occur in the treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, although such differences may have a substantial impact on the design and results of paediatric randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Methods and Findings Three electronic databases were searched for RCTs investigating any antiepileptic drug (AED) in the add-on treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy in both children and adults. The treatment effect was compared between the two age groups using the ratio of the relative risk (RR) of the 50% responder rate between active AEDs treatment and placebo groups, as well as meta-regression. Differences in the response to placebo and to active treatment were searched using logistic regression. A comparable approach was used for analysing secondary endpoints, including seizure-free rate, total and adverse events-related withdrawal rates, and withdrawal rate for seizure aggravation. Five AEDs were evaluated in both adults and children with drug-resistant partial epilepsy in 32 RCTs. The treatment effect was significantly lower in children than in adults (RR ratio: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.89]; p = 0.02 by meta-regression). This difference was related to an age-dependent variation in the response to placebo, with a higher rate in children than in adults (19% versus 9.9%, p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed in the response to active treatment (37.2% versus 30.4%, p = 0.364). The relative risk of the total withdrawal rate was also significantly lower in children than in adults (RR ratio: 0.65 [95

  13. On criminalisation and pathology: a commentary on the Supreme Court judgment on Section 377.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Alok

    2014-01-01

    The judgment delivered last week by the Supreme Court of India, upholding the constitutionality of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), overturns a judgment by the Delhi High Court in 2009 that decriminalised sexual activity between two consenting adults. This judgment has unleashed a veritable firestorm of protest in the public space. There has been a heated and vitriolic debate on this issue in the print and social media, as well as television, with public opinion, in the main, being critical of the judgment. PMID:24509100

  14. Offshore Oil: Supreme Court Ruling Intensified Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a Supreme Court ruling giving the federal government jurisdiction over substantial areas of the outer continental shelf (OCS) which opens the door for a federal program of OCS leasing. (GS)

  15. The Supreme Court V. Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    The author examines the Supreme Court decisions regarding the rights of retarded children not to be institutionalized and rights of retarded people to have aggressive medical treatment that will help prolong their lives. (SB)

  16. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court order. Parties are entitled to rely on orders of courts of competent jurisdiction. If adherence to an Order of a United States District Court or other court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered by consent...

  17. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court order. Parties are entitled to rely on orders of courts of competent jurisdiction. If adherence to an Order of a United States District Court or other court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered by consent...

  18. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court order. Parties are entitled to rely on orders of courts of competent jurisdiction. If adherence to an Order of a United States District Court or other court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered by consent...

  19. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court order. Parties are entitled to rely on orders of courts of competent jurisdiction. If adherence to an Order of a United States District Court or other court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered by consent...

  20. 29 CFR 1608.8 - Adherence to court order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.8 Adherence to court order. Parties are entitled to rely on orders of courts of competent jurisdiction. If adherence to an Order of a United States District Court or other court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered by consent...

  1. Learning by Trial and Error: A Case for Moot Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, J. Lon; Skaggs, Neil T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of active learning within economics focusing on moot courts. Explains how moot courts fit into economics and presents examples of how moot courts can be used within law and economics, history of economic thought, and environmental economics courses. Highlights student perceptions of moot courts. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  2. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  3. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  4. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  5. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  6. 25 CFR 11.901 - The children's court established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true The children's court established. 11.901 Section 11.901... LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.901 The children's court established. When conducting proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part, the Court of Indian Offenses shall be known as the...

  7. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  8. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  9. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  10. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  11. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  12. 5 CFR 838.1016 - Receipt of multiple court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Receipt of multiple court orders. 838... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1016 Receipt of multiple court orders. In the event that OPM receives two or...

  13. 5 CFR 838.1014 - Guidelines on interpreting court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines on interpreting court orders... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1014 Guidelines on interpreting court orders. As circumstances...

  14. 25 CFR 11.912 - Contempt of court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contempt of court. 11.912 Section 11.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.912 Contempt of court. Any willful disobedience or interference...

  15. 5 CFR 838.1004 - Qualifying court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying court orders. 838.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1004 Qualifying court orders. (a) A former spouse is entitled to a portion of an...

  16. 5 CFR 838.1016 - Receipt of multiple court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receipt of multiple court orders. 838... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1016 Receipt of multiple court orders. In the event that OPM receives two or...

  17. 5 CFR 838.1004 - Qualifying court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualifying court orders. 838.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1004 Qualifying court orders. (a) A former spouse is entitled to a portion of an...

  18. 5 CFR 838.1004 - Qualifying court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualifying court orders. 838.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1004 Qualifying court orders. (a) A former spouse is entitled to a portion of an...

  19. 5 CFR 838.1014 - Guidelines on interpreting court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guidelines on interpreting court orders... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1014 Guidelines on interpreting court orders. As circumstances...

  20. 42 CFR 405.730 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with the provisions of section 205(g) of the Act. The filing procedure is set forth at 20 CFR 422... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Court review. 405.730 Section 405.730 Public Health... Court review. (a) To the extent authorized by sections 1869, 1876(c)(5)(B), and 1879(d) of the Act,...

  1. 42 CFR 405.730 - Court review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with the provisions of section 205(g) of the Act. The filing procedure is set forth at 20 CFR 422... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Court review. 405.730 Section 405.730 Public Health... Court review. (a) To the extent authorized by sections 1869, 1876(c)(5)(B), and 1879(d) of the Act,...

  2. Court reaffirms Roe but upholds restrictions.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    By a 5-4 margin, the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed on June 29, 1992, "the essential holding in Roe v. Wade" that prior to fetal viability, a woman has a constitutional right to obtain an abortion. After viability, a state may prohibit abortion, but only if it provides exceptions for endangerment to the woman's life or health. The Court said that both the intimate nature of the decision to terminate a pregnancy and the Court's obligation to follow precedent required it to uphold Roe's central holding. At the same time, however, the Court discarded Roe's trimester framework that severely restricted a state's power to regulate abortion in the early stages of pregnancy, saying that the trimester framework "undervalues" the state's interest in potential life, which exists throughout pregnancy. The Court also adopted a more lenient standard for analyzing the constitutionality of abortion restrictions than was permitted under Roe. It said a state may regulate abortion throughout pregnancy, as long as it does not impose an "undue burden" on a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy. The Court defined "undue burden" as a regulation that "has the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus." Under Roe, the right to abortion was deemed "fundamental" and could not be restricted unless the state could show a "compelling" interest in doing so.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Your business in court and at federal agencies: 2010 - 2011.

    PubMed

    Reiss, John B; Crowder, Dawn; Simons, Brian; Pleskov, Igor; Davis, Tiffany; Nugent, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This year the government aggressively pursued Manufacturers under the enhanced provisions of the False Claims Act (FCA), as well as under the provisions of the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (FDCA). In addition, the government pursued actions against individual executives under the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine ("RCO Doctrine") because it does not believe sanctions against the companies provide sufficient deterrence to inappropriate behavior. Companies need to focus on implementing effective compliance programs in order to prevent the occurrence of allegedly improper activity. It should be noted that the existence of an effective program will not protect executives from liability under the RCO Doctrine if improper behavior takes place. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) has undertaken a number of initiatives during the past year in an attempt to counter claims that its review processes for domestic products is driving the development of drugs and devices to overseas markets. The Agency also has improved its capacity to review products imported from overseas by undertaking initiatives with foreign agencies and stationing more FDA employees in foreign countries. The FDA increased the number of warning letters and other enforcement actions. The FDA added two new topics of enhanced authority during the year. One was an expansion of its regulatory authority over foods, and the second was new authority to regulate certain tobacco products. The former is being subjected to some review by the courts, and the scope of its authority over tobacco is the subject of ongoing major litigation. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are unlikely to experience significant change regarding their regulation of Manufacturers. The FTC, as it has for many years, continues to try to prevent "reverse" payments to generic drug manufacturers by Innovator Manufacturers to diminish generic drug competition, and proposed legislation is

  4. Attitudes Toward and Sexual Partnerships With Drug Dealers Among Young Adult African American Females in Socially Disorganized Communities

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Leah J.; Brown, Qiana

    2015-01-01

    Drug markets in disadvantaged African American neighborhoods have altered social and sexual norms as well as sexual networks, which impact an individual’s risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Presently, we describe the prevalence of sexual partnerships with males involved with illegal drugs among a sample of non-drug-dependent females. In 2010, 120 Black females aged 18 to 30 years completed a semistructured HIV-risk interview. Descriptive statistics revealed approximately 80% of females perceived neighborhood drug activity as a major problem, 58% had sex with a male drug dealer, 48% reported sex with a male incarcerated for selling drugs, and 56% believed drug dealers have the most sexual partners. Our results suggest sexual partnerships with males involved in the distribution of drugs are prevalent. These partnerships may play a substantial role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections among low-risk females, as drug dealers likely serve as a bridge between higher HIV-risk drug and prison populations and lower HIV-risk females. However, the significance of partnerships with males involved in drug dealing has received little attention in HIV and drug abuse literature. Presently, there is a need for more research focused on understanding the extent to which the drug epidemic affects the HIV risk of non-drug-dependent Black female residents of neighborhoods inundated with drugs. Special consideration should be given to the role of the neighborhood drug dealer in the spread of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25797963

  5. Increasing HIV-1 pretreatment drug resistance among antiretroviral-naïve adults initiating treatment between 2006 and 2014 in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chung, Michael H; Silverman, Rachel; Beck, Ingrid A; Yatich, Nelly; Dross, Sandra; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer; Bii, Stephen; Tapia, Kenneth; Stern, Joshua; Chohan, Bhavna; Sakr, Samah R; Kiarie, James N; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2016-06-19

    Antiretroviral-naïve adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya were tested for HIV-1 drug resistance at codons K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184V, and K65R using an oligonucleotide ligation assay. Prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance increased from 3.89% in 2006 to 10.93% in 2014 (P < 0.001), and 95% of those with resistance had at least one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation. Resistance to tenofovir (K65R) was found in 2014 but not in 2006. PMID:27058353

  6. Economic Impact of Adverse Drug Events – A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study of 4970 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Hakkarainen, Katja M.; Hägg, Staffan; Carlsten, Anders; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to estimate the direct costs caused by ADEs, including costs for dispensed drugs, primary care, other outpatient care, and inpatient care, and to relate the direct costs caused by ADEs to the societal COI (direct and indirect costs), for patients with ADEs and for the entire study population. Methods We conducted a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of ADEs identified from medical records. From a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council, 4970 were included in the analyses. During a three-month study period in 2008, direct and indirect costs were estimated from resource use identified in the medical records and from register data on costs for resource use. Results Among 596 patients with ADEs, the average direct costs per patient caused by ADEs were USD 444.9 [95% CI: 264.4 to 625.3], corresponding to USD 21 million per 100 000 adult inhabitants per year. Inpatient care accounted for 53.9% of all direct costs caused by ADEs. For patients with ADEs, the average societal cost of illness was USD 6235.0 [5442.8 to 7027.2], of which direct costs were USD 2830.1 [2260.7 to 3399.4] (45%), and indirect costs USD 3404.9 [2899.3 to 3910.4] (55%). The societal cost of illness was higher for patients with ADEs compared to other patients. ADEs caused 9.5% of all direct healthcare costs in the study population. Conclusions Healthcare costs for patients with ADEs are substantial across different settings; in primary care, other outpatient care and inpatient care. Hence the economic impact of ADEs will be underestimated in studies focusing on inpatient ADEs alone. Moreover, the high proportion of indirect costs in the societal COI for patients with ADEs suggests that the observed costs caused by ADEs would be even higher if including indirect costs. Additional studies are needed to identify interventions to prevent and manage ADEs. PMID:24637879

  7. The Warren Court and the Burger Court: Some Comparisons of Education-Related Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the records of the Warren Court and the Burger Court on education-related cases concerning religion and the schools, teachers' loyalty, due process and racial segregation, freedom of expression, civil rights, and equal protection under the law. Reports the voting record of individual justices. (Author/MLF)

  8. People's Court: How a Student-built Web Site Brought the Community and the Courts Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a group of middle-school students in Walled Lake, Michigan, collaborated with a Web development firm and the county information technology department to build a district court Web site (www.52-1districtcourt.com) to provide community access to legal information. Includes such features as a virtual tour of the court, "Ask the Judge,"…

  9. Do DWI Courts Work? An Empirical Evaluation of a Texas DWI Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.

    2012-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…

  10. Magnitude of adverse drug reaction and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in Hiwot Fana specialized university hospital, eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Mitiku, Habtamu; Teklemariam, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodefiecency virus infected patients did not adhere correctly to their Antiretroviral Therapy because of the drugs adverse effects. Thus, continuous evaluation of the adverse effect of Antiretroviral Therapy will help to make more effective treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Adverse Drug Reaction and associated factors on Antiretroviral Therapy among Human immunodefiecency virus infected Adults at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A Hospital based retrospective study was conducted among 358 of adult patients clinical records on antiretroviral Therapy from April1 to June30, 2014. Results The overall prevalence of Adverse Drug Reaction among Human immunodefiecency virus infected patients on antiretroviral Therapy was 17.0%. Of reported Adverse Drug Reaction, 80.3%, 18% and 1.7% occurred in patients on Stavudine, Zidovudine and Tenofovir based regimens respectively. The common Adverse Drug Reaction were lipodystrophy (fat change) (49.2%), numbness/tingling (27.9%), peripheral neuropathy (18%) and (8.2%) anaemia (8.2%). Patients on Stavudine containing regimens were more likely to develop Adverse Drug Reaction compared to Zidovudine (AOR = 0.212, 95% CI 0.167, 0.914, p<0.001) and Tenofovir (AOR=0.451, 95% CI 0.532, 0.948, p<0.001). Conclusion The overall prevalence of Adverse Drug Reaction among Human immunodefiecency virus infected patients in this study was 17% and more common on those patients taking Stavudine based regimen. Lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were significantly associated with stavudine-based regimens, while anaemia was significantly associated with zidovudine based regimens. Thus regular clinical and laboratory monitoring of patients on Antiretroviral Therapy should be strengthened. PMID:27800108

  11. Impact of cocaine on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an animal model of differential propensity to drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    García-Fuster, M. Julia; Perez, Javier A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal plasticity (e.g., neurogenesis) likely plays an important role in maintaining addictive behavior and/or relapse. This study assessed whether rats with differential propensity to drug-seeking behavior, bred Low-Responders (bLR) and bred High-Responders (bHR) to novelty, show differential neurogenesis regulation after cocaine exposure. Using specific immunological markers, we labeled distinct populations of adult stem cells in the dentate gyrus at different time-points of the cocaine sensitization process; Ki-67 for newly born cells, NeuroD for cells born partway, and BrdU for older cells born prior to sensitization. Results show that: (1) bHRs exhibited greater psychomotor response to cocaine than bLRs. (2) Acute cocaine did not alter cell proliferation in bLR/bHR rats. (3) Chronic cocaine decreased cell proliferation in bLRs only, which became amplified through the course of abstinence. (4) Neither chronic cocaine nor cocaine abstinence affected the survival of immature neurons in either phenotype. (5) Cocaine abstinence decreased survival of mature neurons in bHRs only, an effect that paralleled the greater psychomotor response to cocaine. (6) Cocaine treatment did not affect the ratio of neurons to glia in bLR/bHR rats as most cells differentiated into neurons in both lines. Thus, cocaine exerts distinct effects on neurogenesis in bLR versus bHR rats, with a decrease in the birth of new progenitor cells in bLRs and a suppression of the survival of new neurons in bHRs which likely leads to an earlier decrease in formation of new connections. This latter effect in bHRs could contribute to their enhanced degree of cocaine-induced psychomotor behavioral sensitization. PMID:20104651

  12. Observations of reintegrative shaming in a mental health court.

    PubMed

    Ray, Bradley; Dollar, Cindy Brooks; Thames, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the use of stigmatizing and reintegrative shame - as specified in Braithwaite's Crime, shame and reintegration (1989) - across traditional criminal court and mental health court settings. Items from the Global Observational Ratings Instrument were used to gather data on 87 traditional court cases and 91 mental health court cases, presided over by five different judges. The observational items capture three constructs: respect, disapproval, and forgiveness, as they apply to Braithwaite's theory. We present means tests to examine differences in shaming between court types and judges. Findings show that the mental health court is more likely to use reintegrative shaming and show respect and forgiveness for offenders, and less likely to show disapproval. Similarly, judges who preside in both court types are significantly more likely to practice reintegrative shaming in the mental health court context. We further explore these findings using field notes and illustrate those components of a mental health court that are conducive to reintegrative shaming.

  13. Patent controversies and court cases

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Arsenio M.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

    2012-01-01

    Patents are issued essentially by all countries on inventions that are deemed novel, non-obvious, clearly described and of significant utility or industrial application. The only exceptions to patenting an invention are abstract ideas, laws of nature and natural phenomena, although the exceptions vary depending on countries where moral, public order or human rights considerations are also taken into account. Although patent laws are updated over decades, the rapid progress of science creates situations that the patent laws on the book cannot address, leading to contentious legal issues. This is often true for life saving drugs, particularly drugs for cancers or HIV/AIDS, which are expensive and beyond the reach of poor people because of the proprietary positions of these patented drugs. Another contentious issue is the patent eligibility of human genes and mutations that are often thought of nature's contribution to human health and propagation and should be beyond the reach of patentability. In this review, we address some of these current legal issues and their implications for the development of diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions and even prevention for cancer, a scourge of mankind. PMID:22954683

  14. Pharmacokinetics and safety of recently approved drugs used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in infants, children, and adults

    PubMed Central

    Gostelow, Martyn; Gonzalez, Daniel; Smith, P. Brian; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity in hospitalized infants. Over the past 15 years, several drugs have been approved for the treatment of S. aureus infections in adults (linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, telavancin, tigecycline, and ceftaroline). The use of there majority of these drugs has extended into the treatment of MRSA infections in infants, frequently with minimal safety or dosing information. Only linezolid is approved for use in infants, and pharmacokinetic data in infants are limited to linezolid and daptomycin. Pediatric trials are underway for ceftaroline, telavancin, and daptomycin; however, none of these studies includes infants. Here, we review current pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy data of these drugs with a specific focus in infants. PMID:24716805

  15. Supreme Court refuses to review clinic access law; Second Appeals Court upholds statute.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    On June 19, the US Supreme Court refused to review "Woodall v. Reno," a challenge to the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) filed in Virginia by an anti-choice individual. FACE prohibits the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing or obtaining reproductive health services. By denying the petition for "certiorari," the High Court let stand the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in February. In that ruling, the midlevel federal court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of two of the eight anti-choice lawsuits challenging FACE, "Woodall v. Reno" and "American Life League v. Reno," which were consolidated by the appeals panel. Although plaintiffs in the first case filed a request for review by the High Court within days of the appellate court ruling, plaintiffs in the latter case waited until May to do so. The Department of Justice, which is defending the federal statute, and CRLP and the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, who are intervening on behalf of women and health care providers, will file their opposition to the review by July 26. The Justices will then decide to hear the case. On June 23, a three-judge panel for the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed a lower court's decision to dismiss "Cheffer v. Reno," a facial challenge by Florida anti-choice activists seeking to invalidate FACE. The appeals court had ruled the law did not infringe on First Amendment rights, and the panel rejected the argument that Congress had exceeded its authority under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution by finding that the measure "protects and regulates commercial enterprises." The appeals court accepted an "amicus" brief filed by CRLP and NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund on behalf of the National Abortion Federation, the National Organization of Women, physicians, and women's health clinics, but denied their request to intervene in the

  16. Memory disorders in the law courts.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the ways in which memory disorders and memory distortions arise in the criminal courts. Amnesia for offences is considered in terms of automatisms, alcohol, and crimes of passion. False memories arise in false confessions, allegations of false memory for child sexual abuse, and, just occasionally, with respect to delusional memories. More generally, memory and neuropsychiatric disorders may have implications at each stage of the legal process (fitness to plead, the insanity defence, cases of automatism, diminished responsibility, and at sentencing). However, patients with memory and neuropsychiatric disorders remain very vulnerable within legal and court processes. PMID:23492890

  17. Superfund awakes in state supreme courts

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.

    1998-01-01

    Superfund, often referred to as a sleeping giant, is waking up in state courts with rulings the insurance industry is on the hook for a large share of the nation`s environmental cleanup. While Congress has been quagmired in legislative reauthorization attempts, 40% of the state supreme courts (20 states) have passed laws favoring policyholders of comprehensive general liability insurance (CGL) to be compensated for their cleanup and litigation costs. These rulings vary in terms from state to state, but their collective action is giving the insurance industry grave concerns because of the increase in settlements with CGL policyholders.

  18. Memory disorders in the law courts.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the ways in which memory disorders and memory distortions arise in the criminal courts. Amnesia for offences is considered in terms of automatisms, alcohol, and crimes of passion. False memories arise in false confessions, allegations of false memory for child sexual abuse, and, just occasionally, with respect to delusional memories. More generally, memory and neuropsychiatric disorders may have implications at each stage of the legal process (fitness to plead, the insanity defence, cases of automatism, diminished responsibility, and at sentencing). However, patients with memory and neuropsychiatric disorders remain very vulnerable within legal and court processes.

  19. Hanau licenses voided by German state court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On July 21, the Higher Administrative Court in the German state of Hesse declared illegal three of the first four partial construction licenses for the plutonium section of the Siemens fuel fabrication complex at Hanau. The licenses were issued in the late 1980s by the former Christian Democrat administration of Hesse, but final licensing of the plant - now 90 percent complete - has been held up by the Social Democrat/Green Party coalition government that is now in power. The court ruling came as a result of four cases, and a so-called urgent application, initiated by antinuclear groups in the area.

  20. "Vernonia v. Acton": Should Schools Conduct Random Drug Tests of Student Athletes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, J. Patrick

    1995-01-01

    In June 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Vernonia (Oregon) School District's right to conduct random drug tests of its student athletes. The court balanced a seventh grader's privacy interest with the state's interest in curbing drug abuse among student athletes. Before adopting drug-testing policies, school boards should assess the local…

  1. Factors associated with prevalent hepatitis C: differences among young adult injection drug users in lower and upper Manhattan, New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, T; Des Jarlais, D C; Vlahov, D; Perlis, T E; Edwards, V; Friedman, S R; Rockwell, R; Hoover, D; Williams, I T; Monterroso, E R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined correlates of prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adult injection drug users in 2 neighborhoods in New York City. METHODS: Injection drug users aged 18 to 29 years were street recruited from the Lower East Side and Harlem. Participants were interviewed about drug use and sex practices; venipuncture was performed for hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV serologies. RESULTS: In both sites, testing positive for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was associated with having injected for more than 3 years. Additionally, HCV infection was positively associated with injecting with someone known to have had hepatitis (but the association was significant only in the Lower East Side) and with sharing cotton (but the association was statistically significant only in Harlem). Being in drug treatment and older than 24 years were associated with HCV in the Lower East Side but not in Harlem. Receiving money for sex was associated with anti-HCV positivity in Harlem but not in the Lower East Side. CONCLUSIONS: Several differences in factors associated with prevalent HCV infection existed among 2 populations of young injection drug users from the same city. Indirect transmission of HCV may occur. PMID:11189819

  2. The Drug-Testing Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The recent decision of the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in "Miller," based on the school district's interest in preventing possible abuse, gave legal support for random, suspiciousless drug testing of students. Contends this is a "slippery slope" argument, that the key factor in deciding whether to adopt a policy of random drug testing should…

  3. Drugs: The Unstated Draconian Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Stuart H.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the dramatic changes in the laws covering drug activity over the last 20 years. Federal sentencing guidelines now mandate much longer prison terms depending on the drug and type of activity. Simultaneously, courts have expanded legal definitions and approaches involving prosecution. Discusses the controversy over these developments. (MJP)

  4. 1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 (Samuel Shinn House), No. 405, No. 407 (John Elliott House), No. 409, No. 411 (David Simpson House) - Marshall's Court Area Study, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 4. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT AND LEFT SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT AND LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 1. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 1. FACILITY 26, TENNIS AND BASKETBALL COURTS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FACILITY 26, TENNIS AND BASKETBALL COURTS. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD QUARTERS F. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Tennis Courts, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  8. 2. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER, BUILDING 24 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 221 (TENNIS COURTS) FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING 23 IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Tennis Courts, Corner of Reeves Avenue & Pennsylvania Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  12. 5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. Supreme Court Room (room 573), looking westsouthwest (bearing 250). Not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Supreme Court Room (room 573), looking west-southwest (bearing 250). Not that missing scones are to be returned and presently obscured ceiling is proposed for restoration. - California State Library & Courts Building, 914 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; and parts of north and south wings of main building; facing east. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD DRIVE - Hamilton Field, Tennis Courts, Escolta Avenue at Sixth Street, & Crescent Drive near South Oakwood Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  16. 20. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CONVERTED BASKETBALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF TENNIS COURTS LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CONVERTED BASKETBALL COURT IN FOREGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Alert Area, Southeastern portion of base, east of southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  17. Supreme Court Upholds Religious Liberty: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Russo, Charles J.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews a set of Supreme Court rulings that may dramatically alter the landscape of First Amendment jurisprudence: "Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah"; "Jones v. Clear Creek Independent School District"; "Lambs Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District"; and Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School District." Discusses…

  18. Supreme Court in Review--1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwendolyn H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 and 1997, the Supreme Court declared five acts of Congress to be unconstitutional. An overview of these decisions is offered in this article. It opens with a discussion of those acts that violated the First Amendment. These decisions dealt with the constitutionality of Arizona's "official English" statute; the Communications Decency Act,…

  19. 78 FR 14017 - Courts of Indian Offenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... American Tribal Governments,'' Executive Order 13175 (59 FR 22951, November 6, 2000), and 512 DM 2, we have... are Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians and the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe. The tribes to be removed from... known as CFR Courts): The Seneca-Cayuga Tribe and the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians. This...

  20. Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jongh, Elena M.

    For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…