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Sample records for adult dyslexic readers

  1. Adult Dyslexic Readers Do Not Demonstrate Regularity Effects in Sentence Processing: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon Wyn; Kelly, M. Louise; Corley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We report an eye-movement study that demonstrates differences in regularity effects between adult developmental dyslexic and control non-impaired readers, in contrast to findings from a large number of word recognition studies (see G. Brown, 1997). For low frequency words, controls showed an advantage for Regular items, in which…

  2. Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

  3. How Does Reading Performance Modulate the Impact of Orthographic Knowledge on Speech Processing? A Comparison of Normal Readers and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Nelis, Aubéline; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-01-01

    Studies on proficient readers showed that speech processing is affected by knowledge of the orthographic code. Yet, the automaticity of the orthographic influence depends on task demand. Here, we addressed this automaticity issue in normal and dyslexic adult readers by comparing the orthographic effects obtained in two speech processing tasks that…

  4. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  5. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated words and pseudowords. Two…

  6. Component Processes Subserving Rapid Automatized Naming in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Susana; Inacio, Filomena; Francisco, Ana; Faisca, Luis; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated which time components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) predict group differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers (matched for age and reading level), and how these components relate to different reading measures. Subjects performed two RAN tasks (letters and objects), and data were analyzed through a…

  7. Attentional Blink Differences between Adolescent Dyslexic and Normal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, G.L.; Constantinescu, I.; Cousineau, D.; de Almeida, R.G.; Segalowitz, N.; Grunau, M.v.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possibility that dyslexic individuals require more working memory resources than normal readers to shift attention from stimulus to stimulus. To test this hypothesis, normal and dyslexic adolescents participated in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation experiment (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992).…

  8. The Dyslexic Adult in a Non-Dyslexic World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ellen; Klein, Cynthia

    This book offers a comprehensive look at the world of adults with dyslexia based on their personal experiences and perspectives. Aimed at teachers, employers, career advisers, counselors, and others who work with, support, or live with dyslexic adults, the book uses case studies and adult "voices" to illuminate issues affecting adults with…

  9. Effects of Lexicality and Word Frequency on Brain Activation in Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…

  10. Brain Activity of Regular and Dyslexic Readers while Reading Hebrew as Compared to English Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breznitz, Zvia; Oren, Revital; Shaul, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences among "regular" and dyslexic adult bilingual readers when processing reading and reading related skills in their first (L1 Hebrew) and second (L2 English) languages. Brain activity during reading Hebrew and English unexpected sentence endings was also studied. Behavioral and…

  11. Auditory word identification in dyslexic and normally achieving readers

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer L.; Manis, Franklin R.; Keating, Patricia; Sperling, Anne J.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The integrity of phonological representation/processing in dyslexic children was explored with a gating task in which children listened to successively longer segments (gates) of a word. At each gate, the task was to decide what the entire word was. Responses were scored for overall accuracy as well as the children’s sensitivity to coarticulation from the final consonant. As a group, dyslexic children were less able than normally achieving readers to detect coarticulation present in the vowel portion of the word, particularly on the most difficult items, namely those ending in a nasal sound. Hierarchical regression and path analyses indicated that phonological awareness mediated the relation of gating and general language ability to word and pseudoword reading ability. PMID:17359994

  12. Crossmodal temporal order and processing acuity in developmentally dyslexic young adults.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Marja; Service, Elisabet; Virsu, Veijo

    2002-03-01

    We investigated crossmodal temporal performance in processing rapid sequential nonlinguistic events in developmentally dyslexic young adults (ages 20-36 years) and an age- and IQ-matched control group in audiotactile, visuotactile, and audiovisual combinations. Two methods were used for estimating 84% correct temporal acuity thresholds: temporal order judgment (TOJ) and temporal processing acuity (TPA). TPA requires phase difference detection: the judgment of simultaneity/nonsimultaneity of brief stimuli in two parallel, spatially separate triplets. The dyslexic readers' average temporal performance was somewhat poorer in all six comparisons; in audiovisual comparisons the group differences were not statistically significant, however. A principal component analysis indicated that temporal acuity and phonological awareness are related in dyslexic readers. The impairment of temporal input processing seems to be a general correlative feature of dyslexia in children and adults, but the overlap in performance between dyslexic and normal readers suggests that it is not a sufficient reason for developmental reading difficulties. PMID:11896646

  13. Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

  14. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation. PMID:25941507

  15. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation. PMID:25941507

  16. Is the impaired N170 print tuning specific to developmental dyslexia? A matched reading-level study with poor readers and dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

    2013-12-01

    Left N170 print tuning has been associated with visual expertise for print and has been reported to be impaired in dyslexics, using age matched designs. This is the first time N170 print tuning has been compared in adult dyslexics and adult poor readers, matched in reading level. Participants performed a lexical decision task using both word-like stimuli and symbol strings. In contrast to dyslexics, poor readers displayed similar N170 tuning to control expert readers, suggesting that impaired N170 specialization is a hallmark of developmental dyslexia. Our findings provide electrophysiological support for dyslexia being the result of abnormal specialization of the left occipito-temporal areas involved in the expert processing of print. Furthermore, as shown by correlations data and in accordance with the phonological mapping deficit theory, the impaired visual expertise for print described in dyslexics may have been caused by their core phonological deficits. PMID:24148146

  17. Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language…

  18. Learner-generated drawing for phonological and orthographic dyslexic readers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included word recognition task, orthographic task, phonological awareness task, and scenery texts and questions. Comparisons of the four groups of students showed differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control groups in pre- and posttest performance of scenery texts. Differences also existed in relevant questions and the effect of the learner-generated drawing method. The pretest performance showed problems in the dyslexic samples in reading the scenery texts and answering relevant questions. The posttest performance revealed certain differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control group. Finally, all dyslexic groups obtained a great effect from using the learner-generated drawing, particularly orthographic dyslexia. These results suggest that the learner-generated drawing was also useful for dyslexic students, with the potential for use in the classroom for teaching text reading to dyslexic students. PMID:22982467

  19. Differences in Eye Movements Control among Dyslexic, Retarded and Normal Readers in the Spanish Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos, F. J.; Vila, J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between dyslexia and eye movement control in Spanish-speaking children. Finds no significant differences between dyslexic and retarded readers in their eye movements during reading tasks only; no significant differences between retarded and normal readers in ocular tracking but differences between each of the groups and…

  20. Reading Strategies of Bilingual Normally Progressing and Dyslexic Readers in Hindi and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ashum; Jamal, Gulgoona

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reading accuracy of dyslexic readers in comparison to chronological age-matched normally progressing readers in Hindi and English using word reading tasks, matched for spoken frequency of usage, age of acquisition, imageability, and word length. Both groups showed significantly greater reading accuracy in Hindi than in…

  1. A Dual-Route Perspective on Eye Movements of Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…

  2. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  3. Brain Activity during Performance of Naming Tasks: Comparison between Dyslexic and Regular Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breznitz, Zvia

    2005-01-01

    This research was aimed at contributing to the current understanding of the underlying factors of naming speed and the causes of naming speed deficits. Forty regular readers and 40 dyslexic university students participated in the study. Electrophysiological (Event-Related Potentials [ERPs]) and behavioral measures were employed. Behavioral…

  4. Personality characteristics of dyslexic and nondyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Kosmos, K A; Kidd, A H

    1991-08-01

    Dyslexic persons have developmental abnormalities in reading, writing, speech, or more than one area. To study differences in personality characteristics 25 each dyslexic and nondyslexic men and women, ranging in age from 21 to 73 years, completed the 300-word Adjective Check List. Analysis indicated significant differences between the two groups on 15 of 37 adjectives. Dyslexic men scored significantly lower than nondyslexic men on the Favorable Adjectives checked, Achievement, Dominance, Intraception, Heterosexuality, Self-confidence, Personal Adjustment, Ideal Self, and Military Leadership scales, and they scored significantly higher than nondyslexic men on the Adapted Child scale. Nondyslexic women scored significantly higher than dyslexic women on the Counseling Readiness and the High Origence/High Intellectence scales and significantly lower on the Nurturance, Nurturing Parent, and Feminine Attributes scales. PMID:1961800

  5. Binocular saccade coordination in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Seassau, Magali; Gérard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8–13) and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are: (i) ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task; (ii) a developmental effect exists in reading in control children, in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations; and (iii) ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children’s reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement’s patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:25400559

  6. Phonological and Orthographic Spelling in High-Functioning Adult Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K.; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote…

  7. Cognitive Profiles of Adult Developmental Dyslexics: Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Agnieszka A.; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Iskierka-Kasperek, Ewa; Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish cognitive profiles of dyslexic adults on tests developed within the three main theories of developmental dyslexia: phonological, visual magnocellular and cerebellar and to investigate which theory can account for these profiles. The sample consisted of 15 Polish university students or alumni with a formal…

  8. An Evaluation of a Visual Biofeedback Intervention in Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina; Jackson, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of a biofeedback system designed to treat dyslexia by improving heart-rate variability was evaluated in a single blind study of dyslexic adults. Treatment consisted of four 15 minute exposures to a visual display synchronized with either the participant's own cardiac cycle (intervention condition), or of a synthesized cardiac cycle…

  9. TWO FORMS OF IMPLICIT LEARNING IN YOUNG ADULT DYSLEXICS

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Romano, Jennifer C.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2009-01-01

    Implicit learning is thought to underlie the acquisition of many skills including reading. Previous research has shown that some forms of implicit learning are reduced in individuals with dyslexia (e.g., sequence learning) whereas other forms are spared (e.g., spatial context learning). However, it has been proposed that dyslexia-related motor dysfunction may have contributed to the implicit sequence learning deficits reported earlier. To assess implicit sequence learning in the absence of a motor sequence, 16 young adults diagnosed with dyslexia (20.6 ± 1.5 years) and 18 healthy controls (20.8 ± 2.0 years) completed a triplet frequency learning task (TRIP) that involved learning a sequential regularity in which the location of certain events followed a repeating pattern but motor responses did not. Participants also completed the spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT), which involved learning a spatial regularity in which the location of distractors in some visual arrays predicted the target location. In addition, neuropsychological tests of real-word and pseudo-word reading were administered. TRIP task analyses revealed no between-group differences in pattern learning, but a positive correlation between individual learning scores and reading ability indicated that poor readers learned less well than did good readers. Thus, earlier reports of reduced implicit sequence learning in dyslexics cannot be entirely accounted for by motor sequencing deficits. No significant correlations or group differences in learning were found for SCCT. These findings offer additional evidence for a link between poor reading and impaired implicit sequence learning. PMID:19076397

  10. Enhanced Activation of the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus in Deaf and Dyslexic Adults during Rhyming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSweeney, Mairead; Brammer, Michael J.; Waters, Dafydd; Goswami, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Hearing developmental dyslexics and profoundly deaf individuals both have difficulties processing the internal structure of words (phonological processing) and learning to read. In hearing non-impaired readers, the development of phonological representations depends on audition. In hearing dyslexics, many argue, auditory processes may be impaired.…

  11. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  12. Laterality of Temporoparietal Causal Connectivity during the Prestimulus Period Correlates with Phonological Decoding Task Performance in Dyslexic and Typical Readers

    PubMed Central

    Liederman, Jacqueline; McGraw Fisher, Janet; Wu, Meng-Hung

    2012-01-01

    We examined how effective connectivity into and out of the left and right temporoparietal areas (TPAs) to/from other key cortical areas affected phonological decoding in 7 dyslexic readers (DRs) and 10 typical readers (TRs) who were young adults. Granger causality was used to compute the effective connectivity of the preparatory network 500 ms prior to presentation of nonwords that required phonological decoding. Neuromagnetic activity was analyzed within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma subbands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right TPAs differed across connectivity direction (in vs. out), brain areas (right and left inferior frontal and ventral occipital–temporal and the contralateral TPA), reading group (DR vs. TR), and/or task performance. Within the low beta subband, better performance was associated with increased influence of the left TPA on other brain areas across both reading groups and poorer performance was associated with increased influence of the right TPA on other brain areas for DRs only. DRs were also found to have an increase in high gamma connectivity between the left TPA and other brain areas. This study suggests that hierarchal network structure rather than connectivity per se is important in determining phonological decoding performance. PMID:21980019

  13. Are dyslexic children sensitive to the morphological structure of words when they read? The case of dyslexic readers of French.

    PubMed

    Berthiaume, Rachel; Daigle, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Typically, research has cited a deficient use of word recognition procedures mainly caused by a phonological deficit as the source of dyslexic students' reading difficulties. However, recent studies have shown that morphological processing also plays an important part in reading. In the present study, sensitivity to the morphological structure of words was assessed with a plausibility judgment task, where participants determined which of two pseudo-words most resembled a real word in French, and with a decomposition task requiring participants to extract the base forms of morphologically complex words. Dyslexic participants (DYS, n = 26) aged 9-12 years were matched to 26 participants of the same chronological age (CA) and 30 younger participants of the same reading age (RA). Overall, the decomposition task was less successful at demonstrating morphological knowledge than the plausibility judgment task. Results indicate that dyslexic participants demonstrated some morphological sensitivity, particularly on the plausibility task, but were outperformed by both control groups on both tasks. Performance on morphological tasks was significantly correlated to reading comprehension scores. More research needs to be carried out to better comprehend the effects of task characteristics on dyslexic participants' success and before claiming a different or deviant developmental path for morphological knowledge. PMID:24764057

  14. Use of Syllabic Logograms to Help Dyslexic Readers of English Visualize Abstract Words as Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez-Rodriguez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dyslexics read concrete words better than abstract ones. As a result, one of the major problems facing dyslexics is the fact that only part of the information that they require to communicate is concrete, i.e. can easily be pictured. Method: The experiment involved dyslexic third-grade, English-speaking children (8-year-olds) divided…

  15. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  16. Too little or too much? Parafoveal preview benefits and parafoveal load costs in dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Faísca, Luís; Araújo, Susana; Casaca, Luis; Carvalho, Loide; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Two different forms of parafoveal dysfunction have been hypothesized as core deficits of dyslexic individuals: reduced parafoveal preview benefits ("too little parafovea") and increased costs of parafoveal load ("too much parafovea"). We tested both hypotheses in a single eye-tracking experiment using a modified serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) task. Comparisons between dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults showed reduced parafoveal preview benefits in dyslexics, without increased costs of parafoveal load. Reduced parafoveal preview benefits were observed in a naming task, but not in a silent letter-finding task, indicating that the parafoveal dysfunction may be consequent to the overload with extracting phonological information from orthographic input. Our results suggest that dyslexics' parafoveal dysfunction is not based on strict visuo-attentional factors, but nevertheless they stress the importance of extra-phonological processing. Furthermore, evidence of reduced parafoveal preview benefits in dyslexia may help understand why serial RAN is an important reading predictor in adulthood. PMID:26399720

  17. Diverging receptive and expressive word processing mechanisms in a deep dyslexic reader.

    PubMed

    Ablinger, Irene; Radach, Ralph

    2016-01-29

    We report on KJ, a patient with acquired dyslexia due to cerebral artery infarction. He represents an unusually clear case of an "output" deep dyslexic reader, with a distinct pattern of pure semantic reading. According to current neuropsychological models of reading, the severity of this condition is directly related to the degree of impairment in semantic and phonological representations and the resulting imbalance in the interaction between the two word processing pathways. The present work sought to examine whether an innovative eye movement supported intervention combining lexical and segmental therapy would strengthen phonological processing and lead to an attenuation of the extreme semantic over-involvement in KJ's word identification process. Reading performance was assessed before (T1) between (T2) and after (T3) therapy using both analyses of linguistic errors and word viewing patterns. Therapy resulted in improved reading aloud accuracy along with a change in error distribution that suggested a return to more sequential reading. Interestingly, this was in contrast to the dynamics of moment-to-moment word processing, as eye movement analyses still suggested a predominantly holistic strategy, even at T3. So, in addition to documenting the success of the therapeutic intervention, our results call for a theoretically important conclusion: Real-time letter and word recognition routines should be considered separately from properties of the verbal output. Combining both perspectives may provide a promising strategy for future assessment and therapy evaluation. PMID:26656873

  18. Native American Adult Reader III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful material based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for advanced reading ability (grade 7 and above). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  19. Native American Adult Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful materials based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for intermediate reading ability (grades 4-6). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  20. Processing of Derived Forms in High-Functioning Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on an experiment designed to evaluate processing of derived forms in high-functioning dyslexics, defined as university students with a history of reading difficulties who have age-appropriate reading comprehension skills. We compared high-functioning dyslexics with a group of normal adult readers in their performance on a lexical…

  1. To Teach a Dyslexic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Don

    This book, part autobiography and part manual for teaching dyslexics to read, argues that dyslexia can be more a gift than a handicap. It recounts the life of a dyslexic reader who became an educator, i.e., how "luck" enabled him to learn to read, and how "ignorance" and "stubbornness" enabled him to teach other dyslexics to read and write. Part I…

  2. Word superiority, pseudoword superiority, and learning to read: a comparison of dyslexic and normal readers.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Bouttevin, Sébastien; Truc, Cathy; Bastien, Mireille; Ziegler, Johannes

    2003-12-01

    Identification of letters embedded in briefly presented words (e.g., TABLE), pseudowords (e.g., TOBLE), and illegal nonwords (e.g., TPBFE) was measured using the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm. Children diagnosed as dyslexic and showing a clear disadvantage in recognizing and reading aloud words and pseudowords (compared to chronological age-matched controls) showed a pattern of results that was qualitatively identical to both reading age and chronological age control children. In all three groups a small nonsignificant advantage was obtained for letter identification in words compared to pseudowords, and a massive advantage for letter identification in pseudowords compared to illegal nonwords. A group of adult participants tested with the same materials showed the classic word superiority effect as well as a pseudoword advantage over illegal nonwords. These results suggest that the pseudoword superiority effect is subtended by regularities operating at the level of sublexical orthographic representations (orthotactic constraints). This phenomenon could provide a useful tool for future investigations of the development of orthotactic constraints during reading acquisition. PMID:14642545

  3. Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; De Luca, Maria; Marinelli, Chiara V.; Spinelli, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading) and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN). Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds) and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37 to 52% of the explained variance) when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69%) and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colors as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task) obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs. distal causes to predict reading fluency is discussed. PMID

  4. Dyslexia and psychodynamics: A case study of a dyslexic adult.

    PubMed

    Migden, S D

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between dyslexia and its secondary emotional problems, especially those arising from unproductive defenses, is illustrated in the history and successful treatment of an adult dyslexic male. At the start of treatment, the 33-year-old subject was illiterate, despite an average IQ and a history of many previous educational and therapeutic interventions. Psychological problems, including low self-esteem, alcohol abuse, temper outbursts, and poor relationships with women were seen as largely secondary to the subject's learning problem. A review of the treatment, consisting of remediation concurrent with psychodynamic psychotherapy, reveals specific ways in which these emotional problems hindered educational efforts, as well as ways in which their exploration and resolution in psychotherapy helped the remediation. Similarly, ways in which the subject's learning problem contributed to the development of his emotional problems are discussed. Finally, with reference to the psychoanalytic concept of sublimation, the relationship between improvement in the subject's reading skill and improvement in his impulse control is described. PMID:24233629

  5. The Westcoast Reader. A Newspaper for New Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Joan, Ed.

    This document consists of informative material on and a copy of a newspaper for adults who are learning to read. The newspaper is designed to help new readers develop reading skills, while providing interesting and relevant information with an adult focus. Local, national, and international news stories as well as information about health, safety,…

  6. Neuroanatomical and Behavioral Asymmetry in an Adult Compensated Dyslexic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Christine; Lombardino, Linda J.; Kacinik, Natalie A.; Otto, Ronald; Leonard, Christiana M.

    2006-01-01

    Individual differences in cortical anatomy are readily observable, but their functional significance for behaviors such as reading is not well understood. Here, we report a case of an apparent compensated dyslexic who had attained high achievement in visuospatial mathematics. Data from a detailed background interview, psychometric testing, divided…

  7. Lexical Decision with Left, Right and Center Visual Field Presentation: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Regular Readers by Means of Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differences in processing between regular and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different visual field presentations (left, right, and center). The research utilized behavioral measures that provide information on accuracy and reaction time and electro-physiological measures that permit the examination of brain…

  8. The Role of Morphology and Short Vowelization in Reading Arabic among Normal and Dyslexic Readers in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2007-01-01

    This study was an investigation of several Arabic reading measures among dyslexics and normal Arabic readers across different ages (grades 3, 6, 9, and 12): the role of morphology, short vowelization (phonological and syntactic skills), spelling, reading isolated words, and reading comprehension. The results of the one-way ANOVAs indicated clear…

  9. The Cognitive Profile of Adult Dyslexics and Its Relation to Their Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Hanin; Khateb, Asaid; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    The question of which cognitive impairments are primarily associated with dyslexia has been a source of continuous debate. This study examined the cognitive profile of Hebrew-speaking compensated adult dyslexics and investigated whether their cognitive abilities accounted for a unique variance in their reading performance. Sixty-nine young adults…

  10. Native American Adult Reader. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Behavioral objectives and supplemental student activities are featured in this teacher's guide for using the Native American Adult Readers in basic education/GED programs. The guide provides the rationale for developing the readers, which contain a variety of brief articles and essays and are designed to provide meaningful material based on Native…

  11. Greater Pre-Stimulus Effective Connectivity from the Left Inferior Frontal Area to other Areas is Associated with Better Phonological Decoding in Dyslexic Readers

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Wu, Meng-Hung; Liederman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Janet McGraw

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that neural networks that subserve reading are organized differently in dyslexic readers (DRs) and typical readers (TRs), yet the hierarchical structure of these networks has not been well studied. We used Granger causality to examine the effective connectivity of the preparatory network that occurs prior to viewing a non-word stimulus that requires phonological decoding in 7 DRs and 10 TRs who were young adults. The neuromagnetic activity that occurred 500 ms prior to each rhyme trial was analyzed from sensors overlying the left and right inferior frontal areas (IFA), temporoparietal areas, and ventral occipital–temporal areas within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma sub-bands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right IFAs differed across connectivity direction (into vs. out of the IFAs), brain areas, reading group, and/or performance. Results indicated that greater connectivity in the low beta sub-band from the left IFA to other cortical areas was significantly related to better non-word rhyme discrimination in DRs but not TRs. This suggests that the left IFA is an important cortical area involved in compensating for poor phonological function in DRs. We suggest that the left IFA activates a wider-than usual network prior to each trial in the service of supporting otherwise effortful phonological decoding in DRs. The fact that the left IFA provides top-down activation to both posterior left hemispheres areas used by TRs for phonological decoding and homologous right hemisphere areas is discussed. In contrast, within the high gamma sub-band, better performance was associated with decreased connectivity between the left IFA and other brain areas, in both reading groups. Overly strong gamma connectivity during the pre-stimulus period may interfere with subsequent transient activation and deactivation of sub-networks once the non-word appears. PMID:21160549

  12. Eliciting Dyslexic Symptoms in Proficient Readers by Simulating Deficits in Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion and Visuo-Magnocellular Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholen, Nicole; Weidner, Ralph; Grande, Marion; Amunts, Katrin; Heim, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Among the cognitive causes of dyslexia, phonological and magnocellular deficits have attracted a substantial amount of research. Their role and their exact impact on reading ability are still a matter of debate, partly also because large samples of dyslexics are hard to recruit. Here, we report a new technique to simulate dyslexic symptoms in…

  13. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  14. Multi- and unisensory decoding of words and nonwords result in differential brain responses in dyslexic and nondyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Kast, Monika; Bezzola, Ladina; Jäncke, Lutz; Meyer, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed, in order to investigate the neural substrates involved in the audiovisual processing of disyllabic German words and pseudowords. Twelve dyslexic and 13 nondyslexic adults performed a lexical decision task while stimuli were presented unimodally (either aurally or visually) or bimodally (audiovisually simultaneously). The behavioral data collected during the experiment evidenced more accurate processing for bimodally than for unimodally presented stimuli irrespective of group. Words were processed faster than pseudowords. Notably, no group differences have been found for either accuracy or for reaction times. With respect to brain responses, nondyslexic compared to dyslexic adults elicited stronger hemodynamic responses in the leftward supramarginal gyrus (SMG), as well as in the right hemispheric superior temporal sulcus (STS). Furthermore, dyslexic compared to nondyslexic adults showed reduced responses to only aurally presented signals and enhanced hemodynamic responses to audiovisual, as well as visual stimulation in the right anterior insula. Our behavioral results evidence that the two groups easily identified the two-syllabic proper nouns that we provided them with. Our fMRI results indicate that dyslexics show less neuronal involvement of heteromodal and extrasylvian regions, namely, the STS, SMG, and insula when decoding phonological information. We posit that dyslexic adults evidence deficient functioning of word processing, which could possibly be attributed to deficits in phoneme to grapheme mapping. This problem may be caused by impaired audiovisual processing in multimodal areas. PMID:21641022

  15. Analysis of perceptual confusions between nine sets of consonant-vowel sounds in normal and dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, P L; Hansen, P C; Bradley, L; Stein, J F

    1996-06-01

    It is widely accepted that most developmental dyslexics perform poorly on tasks which assess phonological awareness. One reason for this association might be that the early or "input" phonological representations of speech sounds are distorted or noisy in some way. We have attempted to test this hypothesis directly. In Experiment 1, we measured the confusions that adult dyslexics and controls made when they listened to nine randomly presented consonant-vowel (CV) segments [sequence: see text] under four conditions of increasing white noise masking. Subjects could replay stimuli and were under no obligation to respond quickly. Responses were selected with a computer mouse from a set of nine letter-strings, corresponding to the auditory stimuli, presented on a VDU. While the overall pattern of confusions made by dyslexics and controls was very similar for this stimulus set, dyslexics confused [sequence: see text] significantly more than did controls. In Experiment 2, subjects heard each stimulus once only and were forced to respond as quickly as possible. Under these timed conditions, the pattern of confusions made by dyslexics and controls was the same as before, but dyslexics took longer to respond than controls. The slower responses of dyslexics in Experiment 2 could have arisen because: (a) they were slower at processing the auditory stimuli than controls, (b) they had worse visual pattern memory for letter strings than controls, (c) they were slower than controls at using the computer mouse. In Experiments 3, 4 and 5 subjects carried out control tasks which eliminated each of these possibilities and confirmed that the results from the auditory tasks genuinely reflected subjects' speech perception. We propose that the fine structure of dyslexics' input phonological representations should be further explored with this confusion paradigm by using other speech sounds containing VCs, CCVs and VCCs. PMID:8706379

  16. Classifying acoustic signals into phoneme categories: average and dyslexic readers make use of complex dynamical patterns and multifractal scaling properties of the speech signal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment. The ‘classical’ features examined were based on component process accounts of developmental dyslexia such as the supposed deficit in Envelope Rise Time detection and the deficit in the detection of rapid changes in the distribution of energy in the frequency spectrum (formant transitions). Studies examining these temporal processing deficit hypotheses do not employ measures that quantify the temporal dynamics of stimuli. It is shown that measures based on quantification of the dynamics of complex, interaction-dominant systems (Recurrence Quantification Analysis and the multifractal spectrum) enable QDA to classify the stimuli almost identically as observed in dyslexic and average reading participants. It seems unlikely that participants used any of the features that are traditionally associated with accounts of (impaired) speech perception. The nature of the variables quantifying the temporal dynamics of the speech stimuli imply that the classification of speech stimuli cannot be regarded as a linear aggregate of component processes that each parse the acoustic signal independent of one another, as is assumed by the ‘classical’ aetiologies of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that the results imply that the differences in speech perception performance between

  17. Classifying acoustic signals into phoneme categories: average and dyslexic readers make use of complex dynamical patterns and multifractal scaling properties of the speech signal.

    PubMed

    Hasselman, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment. The 'classical' features examined were based on component process accounts of developmental dyslexia such as the supposed deficit in Envelope Rise Time detection and the deficit in the detection of rapid changes in the distribution of energy in the frequency spectrum (formant transitions). Studies examining these temporal processing deficit hypotheses do not employ measures that quantify the temporal dynamics of stimuli. It is shown that measures based on quantification of the dynamics of complex, interaction-dominant systems (Recurrence Quantification Analysis and the multifractal spectrum) enable QDA to classify the stimuli almost identically as observed in dyslexic and average reading participants. It seems unlikely that participants used any of the features that are traditionally associated with accounts of (impaired) speech perception. The nature of the variables quantifying the temporal dynamics of the speech stimuli imply that the classification of speech stimuli cannot be regarded as a linear aggregate of component processes that each parse the acoustic signal independent of one another, as is assumed by the 'classical' aetiologies of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that the results imply that the differences in speech perception performance between average and

  18. Multi- and Unisensory Decoding of Words and Nonwords Result in Differential Brain Responses in Dyslexic and Nondyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kast, Monika; Bezzola, Ladina; Jancke, Lutz; Meyer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed, in order to investigate the neural substrates involved in the audiovisual processing of disyllabic German words and pseudowords. Twelve dyslexic and 13 nondyslexic adults performed a lexical decision task while stimuli were presented unimodally (either aurally or…

  19. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia B.; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G.; Boggio, Paulo S.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  20. Early Stages of Sensory Processing, but Not Semantic Integration, Are Altered in Dyslexic Adults.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia B; Ueki, Karen; Oliveira, Darlene G; Boggio, Paulo S; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify which stages of language processing are impaired in individuals with dyslexia. For this, a visual-auditory crossmodal task with semantic judgment was used. The P100 potentials were chosen, related to visual processing and initial integration, and N400 potentials related to semantic processing. Based on visual-auditory crossmodal studies, it is understood that dyslexic individuals present impairments in the integration of these two types of tasks and impairments in processing spoken and musical auditory information. The present study sought to investigate and compare the performance of 32 adult participants (14 individuals with dyslexia), in semantic processing tasks in two situations with auditory stimuli: sentences and music, with integrated visual stimuli (pictures). From the analysis of the accuracy, both the sentence and the music blocks showed significant effects on the congruency variable, with both groups having higher scores for the incongruent items than for the congruent ones. Furthermore, there was also a group effect when the priming was music, with the dyslexic group showing an inferior performance to the control group, demonstrating greater impairments in processing when the priming was music. Regarding the reaction time variable, a group effect in music and sentence priming was found, with the dyslexic group being slower than the control group. The N400 and P100 components were analyzed. In items with judgment and music priming, a group effect was observed for the amplitude of the P100, with higher means produced by individuals with dyslexia, corroborating the literature that individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in early information processing. A congruency effect was observed in the items with music priming, with greater P100 amplitudes found in incongruous situations. Analyses of the N400 component showed the congruency effect for amplitude in both types of priming, with the mean amplitude for incongruent

  1. Interested Reader or Uninterested Dissembler?: The Identities Constructed by Upper Primary Aged Dyslexic Pupils during Silent Reading Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the identities that may be constructed by upper primary aged pupils during silent reading sessions. The findings presented are taken from a 2-year ethnographic case study, which investigated how four dyslexic pupils, aged 10-11 (Y5-6), coped with the classroom reading they encountered at a large primary school in northern…

  2. Reader Profiles for Adults with Low Literacy Skills: A Quest to Find Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Katherine S.; Lee, Cheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    Resilient readers are those who, despite their poor phonological decoding skills, have good comprehension abilities (Jackson & Doellinger, 2002). Thus far, these readers have been identified in college settings. The purpose of this study was to a) determine if this reader profile was present in a sample taken from an Adult Basic Education (ABE)…

  3. Reader Profiles for Adults with Low Literacy Skills: A Quest to Find Resilient Readers

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Katherine S.; Lee, Cheryl; College, Mount Holyoke

    2014-01-01

    Resilient readers are those who, despite their poor phonological decoding skills, have good comprehension abilities (Jackson & Doellinger, 2002). Thus far, these readers have been identified in college settings. The purpose of this study was to a) determine if this reader profile was present in a sample taken from an Adult Basic Education (ABE) population, and b) identify compensatory mechanisms these readers might use to better their reading comprehension. We administered a battery of tasks consisting of non-word reading, comprehension, fluency, and orthographic processing to a diverse sample of adults in ABE classes. Not only did we identify a group of resilient readers in this sample, we identified three other sub-groups: unskilled readers who had poor decoding and comprehension abilities, skilled readers who possessed good decoding and comprehension abilities, and a group of individuals who had good decoding skills but poor comprehension abilities. We found that the resilient readers and good decoders/poor comprehenders had better orthographic and fluency skills compared to the unskilled readers. However, these last two groups produced different error patterns on the orthographic and fluency tasks. We discuss the implications that these very different reader profiles have for ABE programs. PMID:25431747

  4. Reader Development Bibliography. Books Recommended for Adult New Readers. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Vickie L.

    This edition is an annotated list of 390 literacy materials for adult new readers. All the materials are written on an eighth-grade level or below. These paperback instructional titles, many in workbook format, are for use with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students. The introduction includes guidelines for…

  5. Reading accuracy and speed of vowelized and unvowelized scripts among dyslexic readers of Hebrew: the road not taken.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Rachel; Katzir, Tami; Shoshan, Noa

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of orthographic transparency on reading ability of children with dyslexia in two Hebrew scripts. The study explored the reading accuracy and speed of vowelized and unvowelized Hebrew words of fourth-grade children with dyslexia. A comparison was made to typically developing readers of two age groups: a group matched by chronological age and a group of children who are 2 years younger, presumably at the end of the reading acquisition process. An additional purpose was to investigate the role of vowelization in the reading ability of unvowelized script among readers with dyslexia in an attempt to assess whether vowelization plays a mediating role for reading speed of unvowelized scripts. The present study found no significant differences in reading accuracy and speed between vowelized and unvowelized scripts among fourth-grade readers with dyslexia. The reading speed of fourth-graders with dyslexia was similar to typically developing second-graders for both the vowelized and unvowelized words. However, fourth-grade children with dyslexia performed lower than the typically developing second-graders in the reading accuracy of vowelized script. Furthermore, for readers with dyslexia, accuracy in reading both vowelized and unvowelized words mediated the reading speed of unvowelized scripts. These results may be a sign that Hebrew-speaking children with dyslexia have severe difficulties that prevent them from developing strategies for more efficient reading. PMID:23239241

  6. Reading Accuracy and Speed of Vowelized and Unvowelized Scripts among Dyslexic Readers of Hebrew: The Road Not Taken

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Katzir, Tami; Shoshan, Noa

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of orthographic transparency on reading ability of children with dyslexia in two Hebrew scripts. The study explored the reading accuracy and speed of vowelized and unvowelized Hebrew words of fourth-grade children with dyslexia. A comparison was made to typically developing readers of two age groups: a group…

  7. Word Learning Deficit among Chinese Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined word learning difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children, readers of a nonalphabetic script. A total of 105 Hong Kong Chinese children were recruited and divided into three groups: Dyslexic (mean age 8;8), CA control (mean age 8;9), and RL control (mean age 6;11). They were given a word learning task and a familiar word…

  8. Too Little or Too Much? Parafoveal Preview Benefits and Parafoveal Load Costs in Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Susana; Faísca, Luís; Araújo, Susana; Casaca, Luis; Carvalho, Loide; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Two different forms of parafoveal dysfunction have been hypothesized as core deficits of dyslexic individuals: reduced parafoveal preview benefits ("too little parafovea") and increased costs of parafoveal load ("too much parafovea"). We tested both hypotheses in a single eye-tracking experiment using a modified serial rapid…

  9. Auditory and Visual Word Recognition in Beginning Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Raymond L.; Cortwright, Richard W.

    An exploratory investigation was made of cross-modality matching within the context of word recognition skills among beginning adult readers. The specific aim of the study was to assess the possibility that a deficit in cross-modality matching might be potentially useful as a diagnostic and predictive indicator of the rate at which adults learn to…

  10. The Reading Strategies of Proficient and Less Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Faizah Abdul; Azman, Norzaini; Jelas, Zalizan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the choice and use of academic reading strategies of adult learners who were identified as proficient and less proficient readers. The major objective was to explore the potential influence of their adult characteristics on their use of their academic reading strategies. Data were gathered using…

  11. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  12. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  13. Adult Readers: Will They Need Basics Too?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford; Bowditch, Deborah

    Results of a 1977 assessment of the reading abilities of approximately 1,250 adults (26 to 35 years old) are reported in this paper and are compared with results of a similar assessment made in 1971. After discussing a typical comprehension exercise used in the assessment, the paper presents the materials and multiple choice questions used in…

  14. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  15. Ethnographic Research on Reading Instructional Strategies for Adult Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; And Others

    A project was undertaken to develop, field test, and revise strategies for adult beginning readers (ABRs). During the first phase of the study, the researchers identified roadblocks to use of word recognition clues by ABRs. Based on data and feedback from local and state piloting and general principles of learning, the project staff developed the…

  16. Variation among Developmental Dyslexics: Evidence from a Printed-Word-Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Caroline E.; Manis, Franklin R.; Pedersen, William C.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    A word-learning task was used to investigate variation among developmental dyslexics classified as phonological and surface dyslexics. Dyslexic children and chronological age (CA)- and reading level (RL)-matched normal readers were taught to pronounce novel nonsense words such as "veep." Words were assigned either a regular (e.g., ''veep'') or an…

  17. Does Accuracy Make a Difference? Examining the Miscues of Proficient and Less than Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theurer, Joan Leikam

    2011-01-01

    One theory of reading posits that "mistakes" made by readers are something that need to be corrected. An alternate theory of reading views "mistakes" as miscues and part of the natural reading process. This research study examined the miscues of proficient and less than proficient adult readers. Less than proficient adult readers produced more…

  18. Dyslexics' usage of visual priors is impaired.

    PubMed

    Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Lieder, Itay; Biron, Tali; Ahissar, Merav

    2016-07-01

    Human perception benefits substantially from familiarity, via the formation of effective predictions of the environment's pattern of stimulation. Basic stimulation characteristics are automatically retrieved and integrated into our perception. A quantitatively measurable manifestation of the integration of priors is known as "contraction to the mean"; i.e., perception is biased toward the experienced mean. We previously showed that in the context of auditory discrimination, the magnitude of this bias is smaller among dyslexic individuals than among good readers matched for age and general reasoning skills. Here we examined whether a similarly reduced contraction characterizes dyslexics' behavior on serial visual tasks. Using serial spatial frequency discrimination tasks, we found that dyslexics' bias toward the experiment's mean spatial frequency was smaller than that observed for the controls. Thus, dyslexics' difficulties in automatic detection and integration of stimulus statistics are domain-general. These difficulties are likely to impede the acquisition of reading expertise. PMID:27472497

  19. Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Proficient Adult ESL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Adrian J.; Theurer, Joan L.; Kim, Koomi J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports recent research investigating the use of retrospective miscue analysis (RMA) as an instructional strategy with proficient second-language (L2) readers. RMA aims to heighten a reader's awareness of the reading process by involving readers in detailed analysis of their oral reading behavior. Using a cross-case analysis of three…

  20. How Do Adult New Readers Locate High-Interest, East-To-Read Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scates, Denni Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how the needs of adult new readers are being met in five North Texas public library systems using the PLA's (Public Library Association) list of recommended titles for "Adult New Readers" for 1993-97 as the comparative sample. All the libraries had titles from the sample, though there was considerable variance. Only one library has an…

  1. An Analysis of the Reading Strategies Used by Adult and Student Deaf Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Alyssa; Wang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine effective reading strategies used by adult deaf readers compared with student deaf readers. There were a total of 11 participants: 5 deaf adults ranging from 27 to 36 years and 6 deaf students ranging from 16 to 20 years. Assessment methods included interview and think-aloud procedures in which…

  2. Enhancement of brain event-related potentials to speech sounds is associated with compensated reading skills in dyslexic children with familial risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Tanskanen, Annika; Ervast, Leena; Heikkinen, Elisa; Lyytinen, Heikki; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2014-12-01

    Specific reading disability, dyslexia, is a prevalent and heritable disorder impairing reading acquisition characterized by a phonological deficit. However, the underlying mechanism of how the impaired phonological processing mediates resulting dyslexia or reading disabilities remains still unclear. Using ERPs we studied speech sound processing of 30 dyslexic children with familial risk for dyslexia, 51 typically reading children with familial risk for dyslexia, and 58 typically reading control children. We found enhanced brain responses to shortening of a phonemic length in pseudo-words (/at:a/ vs. /ata/) in dyslexic children with familial risk as compared to other groups. The enhanced brain responses were associated with better performance in behavioral phonemic length discrimination task, as well as with better reading and writing accuracy. Source analyses revealed that the brain responses of sub-group of dyslexic children with largest responses originated from a more posterior area of the right temporal cortex as compared to the responses of the other participants. This is the first electrophysiological evidence for a possible compensatory speech perception mechanism in dyslexia. The best readers within the dyslexic group have probably developed alternative strategies which employ compensatory mechanisms substituting their possible earlier deficit in phonological processing and might therefore be able to perform better in phonemic length discrimination and reading and writing accuracy tasks. However, we speculate that for reading fluency compensatory mechanisms are not that easily built and dyslexic children remain slow readers during their adult life. PMID:25312203

  3. Morphological Processing in Adult Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Mark; Hagit, Even Zur

    2006-01-01

    This study employed the masked-priming paradigm [Forster and Davis (J Exp Psychol bearn Mem Cogn 10: 680-698, 1984).], along with traditional methods of evaluation of morphological awareness and phonological processing, to obtain a finer-grained picture of the relationship between morphological abilities and reading in adult dyslexic readers.…

  4. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2012-01-01

    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  5. Morphological Awareness and Its Role in Compensation in Adults with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Law, Jeremy M; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the role of morphological awareness (MA) in literacy achievement and compensation in word reading of adults with dyslexia through an exploration of three questions: (1) Do adult dyslexics demonstrate a deficit in MA, and how is this potential deficit related to phonological awareness (PA)? (2) Does MA contribute independently to literacy skills equally in dyslexics and control readers? and (3) Do MA and PA skills differ in compensated and noncompensated dyslexics? A group of dyslexic and normal reading university students matched for age, education and IQ participated in this study. Group analysis demonstrated an MA deficit in dyslexics; as well, MA was found to significantly predict a greater proportion of word reading and spelling within the dyslexic group compared with the controls. Compensated dyslexics were also found to perform significantly better on the morphological task than noncompensated dyslexics. Additionally, no statistical difference was observed in MA between the normal reading controls and the compensated group (independent of PA and vocabulary). Results suggest that intact and strong MA skills contribute to the achieved compensation of this group of adults with dyslexia. Implications for MA based intervention strategies for people with dyslexia are discussed. PMID:25620091

  6. Metacognitive Awareness and Monitoring in Adult and College Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Steve D.; Platt, Jennifer M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken to demonstrate how knowledge of one's cognitive processes, the orchestration of strategic effort, and the monitoring of one's cognitive activities can enhance reading performance. The findings indicate that while older readers exercise more awareness of their own learning processes and greater self-control or…

  7. Engaging Readers and Writers in Adult Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy D.; Bardine, Bryan A.

    2004-01-01

    Too often adult literacy programs seem based on the assumption that, if learners work hard on skills for six months, they will have "acquired" literacy, as though it is a set of skills adults can "get" from a tutor (Kazemek, 1985). One study of 20 adult literacy classes in eight U.S. states found basic (not higher level) skills the predominant…

  8. Children and Adults Both See "Pirates" in "Parties": Letter-Position Effects for Developing Readers and Skilled Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Read, Josephine; McGowan, Victoria A.; Jordan, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers often make anagrammatical errors (e.g. misreading pirates as parties), suggesting they use letter position flexibly during word recognition. However, while it is widely assumed that the occurrence of these errors decreases with increases in reading skill, empirical evidence to support this distinction is lacking. Accordingly, we…

  9. The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B., Ed.; Grace, Andre P., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from leading experts in the field, The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education collects in one volume the best previously published literature on the issues and trends affecting adult education today. The volume includes influential pieces from foundational authors in the profession such as Eduard C.…

  10. Familial resemblance for cognitive abilities in families with P-type dyslexic, L-type dyslexic, or normal reading boys.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, J W; Bakker, D J; Bouma, A; Koops, W

    1990-12-01

    P-type dyslexic, L-type dyslexic, and normal reading boys, and their parents were administered a number of cognitive tasks. The P- and L-type dyslexic boys showed impaired performances on tasks representing a verbal/memory dimension. In addition, L-type dyslexics performed worse on a figure-rotation task, a result that supported the notion of a visuospatial deficit in this type of reading disturbance. The parents of P- and L-type dyslexics exhibited lowered performances on verbal/memory tasks, but they showed no evidence of impaired visuospatial functioning. Indices of familial resemblance revealed differential familial resemblances in the three types of families. In the families of P-type dyslexics, a high father-son effect was found for the visuospatial dimension. In the families of L-type dyslexics, moderately high single-parent/child effects were found for both fathers and mothers and for both the verbal/memory dimension and the visuospatial dimension. In the families of normal readers, only small single-parent/child effects were found. PMID:2286650

  11. Minnesota STAR Project: Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kimberly A.; Frank, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on findings and implications from a two-year evaluation of the Minnesota STudent Achievement in Reading (STAR) Project. This long-term, job-embedded, professional development activity is provided for Minnesota Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners serving intermediate-level adult students reading between 4.0 to 8.9 grade…

  12. Many Literacies: Modules for Training Adult Beginning Readers and Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Marilyn; And Others

    This handbook grew out of the experiences of the teachers and students at the Read/Write/Now Adult Learning Center, a community-based literacy program in Springfield, Massachusetts. It is both a documentation of the experiences of the program and a guide for teachers. The four sections of the handbook contain a number of modules, each of which…

  13. Modified Assessment for Adult Readers: Collage. User's Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Gaie Isett

    A project was conducted to design an alternative assessment tool for use with adult learners traditionally identified as reading below fifth-grade level. This assessment allows for the creation of a goal-oriented Individual Education Plan that is personalized to the learner's needs and educational goals. The approach, analogous to the art…

  14. Food and Drug Labeling and the Adult Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michael C.; Aker, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Full disclosure of ingredients on food, drugs, and cosmetic labels is really non-disclosure where the chemical formulation has no common name or where one generic name covers a variety of formations. The Food and Drug Administration offers suggestions for adult education programs in consumer awareness, understanding compound nomenclature, and…

  15. Adult Developmental Dyslexia in a Shallow Orthography: Are There Subgroups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Service, Elisabet; Lipsanen, Jari; Virsu, Veijo

    2012-01-01

    The existence and stability of subgroups among adult dyslexic readers of a shallow orthography was explored by comparing three different cluster analyses based on previously suggested combinations of two variables. These were oral reading speed versus accuracy, word versus pseudoword reading speed, and phonological awareness versus rapid naming.…

  16. A Study of the Relationships among Chinese Multicharacter Words, Subtypes of Readers, and Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies examining the effectiveness of the whole-word and analytic instructional methods in teaching different subtypes of readers (students with normal reading performance, surface dyslexics, phonological dyslexics, and both dyslexic patterns) and four kinds of Chinese two-character words (two regular [RR],…

  17. A One-to-One Programme for At-Risk Readers Delivered by Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…

  18. Adult Readers' Problems: How a Language-Based Approach Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winser, W. N.

    In order to help adult readers with problems, it is necessary to develop an approach to teaching them that is sensitive to language and that makes explicit reference to the way language works to make meaning in texts. A language-based approach requires teachers to become more aware of the relatively invisible language system that lies behind the…

  19. Visual-Attentional Span and Lexical ­Decision in Skilled Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Dawson, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association between visual-attentional span and lexical decision in skilled adult readers. In the span tasks, an array of letters was presented briefly and recognition or production of a single cued letter (partial span) or production of all letters (whole span) was required. Independently of letter…

  20. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  1. Ethnographic Research on Word Recognition Strategies of Adult Beginning Readers: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; Schumacher, Sally

    A study was conducted to describe factors influencing the acquisition of facilitating and inhibiting reading strategies by adult beginning readers (ABRs) in order to generate potential guidelines for instruction. Using an adapted form of the Goodman and Burke taxonomy of oral reading miscues as initial framework, the investigators described ABRs'…

  2. Ethnographic Research on Word Recognition Strategies of Adult Beginning Readers: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; Schumacher, Sally

    This study was undertaken to identify the reading strategies which facilitated or inhibited the progress of adult beginning readers (ABRs). An ethnographic approach was used so that factors influencing the ABRs' acquisition of these reading strategies could be identified. Using an adapted form of the Goodman and Burke taxonomy of oral reading…

  3. Teaching the Adult Beginning Reader: Designing Research Based Reading Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; Richardson, Judy

    Acknowledging that while it is difficult to suggest specific instructional strategies for accommodating differing adult beginning readers' (ABR) psychosocial behavior, this paper offers appropriate instructional principles based on the educational and social needs of the ABR. The principles presented are as follows: (1) teachers should help adults…

  4. Compensated dyslexics have a more efficient error detection system than noncompensated dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-10-01

    Error/correct-related negativities, response-locked components of the evoked response potential, and N100, a stimulus-locked component, were used to compare error detection monitoring in skilled readers and in compensated and noncompensated dyslexic adolescent readers during a lexical decision task. Results showed a general increase in N100 amplitudes prior to error commission in all groups; a significant decrease in error/correct-related negativity amplitudes in the noncompensated dyslexics compared with the other 2 groups; and smaller error-related negativity correlated with a higher number of decoding errors, lower working memory scores, and lower speed of processing in the neuropsychological battery. Based on the hypothesis in previous studies that the error detection mechanism is a subcomponent of executive functions, the possibility that poor executive ability underlies poor reading skills in the noncompensated dyslexic readers is discussed. These findings can be used as a platform for executive-based diagnosis and training for individuals with reading disabilities. PMID:23112239

  5. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Lexical Reading in Italian Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Italian developmental dyslexic readers show a striking length effect and have been hypothesised to rely mostly on nonlexical reading. Our experiments tested this hypothesis by assessing whether or not the deficit underlying dyslexia is specific to lexical reading. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and length were investigated in the same…

  6. Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.

    PubMed

    Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

    2014-10-01

    One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573

  7. Proclamations from Adult New Readers. Ratified September 10, 1989. National Adult Literacy Congress (2nd, Washington, D.C., September 9-11, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach Literacy International, Syracuse, NY.

    This report contains 10 proclamations prepared by adult new readers at a national conference in September 1989. The proclamations are the result of the new readers' deliberations. They represent the viewpoints of adults who have known firsthand the hardships of illiteracy and the triumph of learning to read. Each proclamation consists of a…

  8. The distinctive vertical heterophoria of dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Quercia, Patrick; Quercia, Madeleine; Feiss, Léonard J; Allaert, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation. This lability is demonstrated using a vertical Maddox test conducted under very specific conditions in which postural sensors are successively stimulated in a predetermined order. A quantitative variation in this VH may be seen during the Bielchowsky Head Tilt Test, which reveals hypertonia of the lower or upper oblique muscles. Vertical orthophoria can be achieved by placing low-power prisms asymmetrically within the direction of action of the superior or inferior oblique muscles. The selection of power and axis is not only guided by elements of the eye examination but also from observation of postural muscle tone. All these elements suggest that the VH could be of postural origin and somehow related to the vertical action of the oblique muscles. VH and torsion are not harmful per se. There is no statistical relationship between their level and the various parameters used to assess the reading skills of dyslexic children. VH and torsion could be a clinical marker of global proprioceptive dysfunction responsible for high-level multisensory disturbances secondary to poor spatial localization of visual and auditory information. This dysfunction might also explain the motor disorders concomitant to dyslexia. PMID:26445526

  9. The distinctive vertical heterophoria of dyslexics

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Quercia, Madeleine; Feiss, Léonard J; Allaert, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation. This lability is demonstrated using a vertical Maddox test conducted under very specific conditions in which postural sensors are successively stimulated in a predetermined order. A quantitative variation in this VH may be seen during the Bielchowsky Head Tilt Test, which reveals hypertonia of the lower or upper oblique muscles. Vertical orthophoria can be achieved by placing low-power prisms asymmetrically within the direction of action of the superior or inferior oblique muscles. The selection of power and axis is not only guided by elements of the eye examination but also from observation of postural muscle tone. All these elements suggest that the VH could be of postural origin and somehow related to the vertical action of the oblique muscles. VH and torsion are not harmful per se. There is no statistical relationship between their level and the various parameters used to assess the reading skills of dyslexic children. VH and torsion could be a clinical marker of global proprioceptive dysfunction responsible for high-level multisensory disturbances secondary to poor spatial localization of visual and auditory information. This dysfunction might also explain the motor disorders concomitant to dyslexia. PMID:26445526

  10. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  11. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  12. PROUD Adult Readers 1-4. People Reading Their Own Unique Dictations [and] A Guide for Teachers and Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Educational Projects, Inc., Lancaster, PA.

    This document consists of a guide for teachers and tutors and four "readers" for adults. These readers are intended to eliminate the problems associated with book-centered, one-to-one tutoring, such as the following: (1) uninteresting, irrelevant materials focusing on single reading skills rather than reading as communication; (2) materials that…

  13. Poetry and Writing: Improving Fluency and Motivation for Students with Developmental Dyslexic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruster, Benita

    2015-01-01

    Struggling readers often lack fluency and motivation and many exhibit dyslexic characteristics. Often these children sit undiagnosed in regular education classroom with interventions that are limited in scope and fail to have the motivational element which will encourage these struggling readers to actively engage in reading and writing. Students…

  14. Beyond Decoding Deficit: Inhibitory Effect of Positional Syllable Frequency in Dyslexic Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, Juan L.; López-Zamora, Miguel; Álvarez, Carlos J.; Bordoy, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether activation and inhibition word processes contribute to the characteristic speed deficits found in transparent orthographies (Wimmer, "Appl Psycholinguist" 14:1-33, 1993). A second and fourth grade sample of normal school readers and dyslexic school readers participated in a lexical decision task. Words were…

  15. The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe Adult Basic Education Program 1979-1980. Adult Contemporary Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Pauline, Ed.

    Designed for use as supplementary reading material, the reader is a collection of short stories (1 to 3 pages in length) developed from interviews with 12 Chippewas living in the Minnesota areas of Cass Lake, Leech Lake, Inger, Pine Point, and White Earth. The interviewees represent various occupations including teacher, school principal, nurse,…

  16. Does Extra Interletter Spacing Help Text Reading in Skilled Adult Readers?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Giner, Lourdes; Marcet, Ana; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants' eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading. PMID:27210581

  17. Consonant-vowel lateralization in dyslexic children: deficit or compensatory development?

    PubMed

    Kershner, J; Micallef, J

    1992-07-01

    Two studies with the same subjects examined dyslexic children's puzzling superiority in forced left ear (LE) dichotic recall with consonant-vowel (CV) combinations. Thirty dysphonemic dyslexics were compared to 30 age-matched and 30 younger reading-matched normal readers. The children were tested in directed attention dichotic listening and in pseudoword decoding, word recognition, reading comprehension, spelling, arithmetic, and general intelligence (IQ). Failure to replicate the LE effect in the first experiment or in free-recall trials suggests its probable origin in aberrant attention/arousal rather than in deviant verbal lateralization. Experiment two replicated the superior LE effect in comparison to both control groups but also found the dyslexics poorer at the right ear (RE). Laterality coefficients confirmed that the dyslexics were more weakly lateralized. Corrections for stimulus dominance revealed that the uncorrected scores (1) concealed the extreme difficulty of the task and (2) obscured floor effects in the LE performance of the normals. Correlations suggest cautiously that CV lateralization may be associated inversely with reading comprehension and word decoding in the dyslexics and normal readers. The results provide mild support for the hypothesis that weak attentional lateralization for CVs in dyslexia may result from the precocious development of posterior right hemisphere attentional systems in compensation for presumed posterior left hemisphere lesions. No support was found for the competing hypothesis that such weak lateralization may be a component of the dyslexics' primary, correlated, or secondary deficit symptomatology. PMID:1643512

  18. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  19. Oakland Readers. A Book of Life Stories Told by Students in the Second Start Adult Literacy Program. Levels One-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Jessica, Ed.

    This set of Oakland Readers consists of four books of oral histories edited on four reading levels. Each book contains life stories told by students in the Second Start Adult Literacy Program. The books are intended for use by tutors and adult students/new readers in adult literacy programs. Life stories of eight students appear in each book. In…

  20. Alternate reading strategies and variable asymmetry of the planum temporale in adult resilient readers

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic choice, orthographic analogy), and semantic (semantic priming, homograph resolution) tasks was compared between resilient, poor and proficient readers. Asymmetry of the planum temporale was investigated in order to determine whether atypical readers showed unusual morphology in this language-relevant region. Resilient readers showed deficits on phonological tasks similar to those shown by poor readers. We obtained no evidence that resilient readers compensate via superior orthographic processing, as they showed neither exceptional orthographic skill nor increased reliance on orthography to guide pronunciation. Resilient readers benefited more than poor or proficient readers from semantic relationships between words and experienced greater difficulty when such relationships were not present. We suggest, therefore, that resilient readers compensate for poor phonological decoding via greater reliance on word meaning relationships. The reading groups did not differ in mean asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, resilient readers showed greater variability in planar asymmetry than proficient readers. Poor readers also showed a trend towards greater variability in planar asymmetry, with more poor readers than proficient readers showing extreme asymmetry. Such increased variability suggests that university students with less reading skill display less well regulated brain anatomy than proficient readers. PMID:20223512

  1. Saccade-target selection of dyslexic children when reading Chinese.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the eye movements of dyslexic children and their age-matched controls when reading Chinese. Dyslexic children exhibited more and longer fixations than age-matched control children, and an increase of word length resulted in a greater increase in the number of fixations and gaze durations for the dyslexic than for the control readers. The report focuses on the finding that there was a significant difference between the two groups in the fixation landing position as a function of word length in single-fixation cases, while there was no such difference in the initial fixation of multi-fixation cases. We also found that both groups had longer incoming saccade amplitudes while the launch sites were closer to the word in single fixation cases than in multi-fixation cases. Our results suggest that dyslexic children's inefficient lexical processing, in combination with the absence of orthographic word boundaries in Chinese, leads them to select saccade targets at the beginning of words conservatively. These findings provide further evidence for parafoveal word segmentation during reading of Chinese sentences. PMID:24508073

  2. The enigma of dyslexic musicians.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Atalia H; Granot, Roni Y; Ahissar, Merav

    2014-02-01

    Musicians are known to have exceptional sensitivity to sounds, whereas poor phonological representations (or access to these representations) are considered a main characteristic of dyslexic individuals. Though these two characteristics refer to different abilities that are related to non-verbal and verbal skills respectively, the recent literature suggests that they are tightly related. However, there are informal reports of dyslexic musicians. To better understand this enigma, two groups of musicians were recruited, with and without a history of reading difficulties. The pattern of reading difficulties found among musicians was similar to that reported for non-musician dyslexics, though its magnitude was less severe. In contrast to non-musician dyslexics, their performance in pitch and interval discrimination, synchronous tapping and speech perception tasks, did not differ from the performance of their musician peers, and was superior to that of the general population. However, the auditory working memory scores of dyslexic musicians were consistently poor, including memory for rhythm, melody and speech sounds. Moreover, these abilities were inter-correlated, and highly correlated with their reading accuracy. These results point to a discrepancy between their perceptual and working memory skills rather than between sensitivity to speech and non-speech sounds. The results further suggest that in spite of intensive musical training, auditory working memory remains a bottleneck to the reading accuracy of dyslexic musicians. PMID:24361476

  3. Lexical quality and eye movements: individual differences in the perceptual span of skilled adult readers.

    PubMed

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments used the gaze-contingent moving-window paradigm to investigate whether reading comprehension and spelling ability modulate the perceptual span of skilled adult readers during sentence reading. Highly proficient reading and spelling were both associated with increased use information to the right of fixation, but did not systematically modulate the extraction of information to the left of fixation. Individuals who were high in both reading and spelling ability showed the greatest benefit from window sizes larger than 11 characters, primarily because of increases in forward saccade length. They were also significantly more disrupted by being denied close parafoveal information than those poor in reading and/or spelling. These results suggest that, in addition to supporting rapid lexical retrieval of fixated words, the high quality lexical representations indexed by the combination of high reading and spelling ability support efficient processing of parafoveal information and effective saccadic targeting. PMID:23972214

  4. Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Tessa M.; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H.; Sereno, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these “semantic” sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7–10 years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects’ written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words’ sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood. PMID:25463817

  5. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system. PMID:26924975

  6. Impaired parvocellular pathway in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Farrag, A F; Khedr, E M; Abel-Naser, W

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies report that some children with dyslexia have impaired visual processing, specifically in the fast-processing magnocellular pathway. The objective was to study the effect of varying luminance and temporal and spatial frequency on the latency and amplitude of the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in normal and dyslexic Egyptian children who speak Arabic (a right-left reading and writing system). VEPs were recorded in 52 dyslexic and 41 normal children in the fourth grade using a black and white checkerboard pattern with different checkerboard sizes and different rates of stimuli at high- and low-contrast media. The peak of the major positive wave component (P100) of each waveform and the trough of the previous major negative wave component were identified, and the peak-to-trough amplitude was measured. The latency and amplitude of VEPs in response to different experimental conditions showed significant shortening of P100 latency under high-contrast media and under low spatial frequency in children with dyslexia compared with normal readers. Furthermore, dyslexia children showed prolonged P100 latency in response to high spatial frequency stimulation compared with the low spatial frequency (P=0.003) and significantly higher N1-P1 amplitude under high-contrast media compared with low-contrast media (P=0.02), whilst no such changes were observed in normal readers. These results are suggestive of deficiency within the parvocellular pathway rather than the magnocellular pathway. As reading apparently places demands primarily on the ability to discriminate fine details, which is to say, on the parvocellular system, we suggested that deficiency in this system, at least in Arabic speaking children, could be a predisposing factor in dyslexia. PMID:12099918

  7. Alternate Reading Strategies and Variable Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale in Adult Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…

  8. Assessing and Understanding the Cognitive and Metacognitive Perspectives of Adults Who Are Poor Readers. Technical Report No. 594.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poissant, Helene

    A study examined adult low-literate readers' knowledge of their cognitive skills. By better knowing this clientele from both the cognitive and metacognitive angles, several objectives could be met, including remedying a lack of knowledge in their assessment, and building a valid curriculum content closer to their needs. Many studies suggest that a…

  9. Manipulation of length and lexicality localizes the functional neuroanatomy of phonological processing in adult readers.

    PubMed

    Church, Jessica A; Balota, David A; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2011-06-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. A developmental fMRI study of reading and repetition reveals changes in phonological and visual mechanisms over age. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2054-2065, 2008]. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus. PMID:20433237

  10. Direct Viewing of Dyslexics' Compensatory Strategies in Speech in Noise Using Auditory Classification Images.

    PubMed

    Varnet, Léo; Meunier, Fanny; Trollé, Gwendoline; Hoen, Michel

    2016-01-01

    A vast majority of dyslexic children exhibit a phonological deficit, particularly noticeable in phonemic identification or discrimination tasks. The gap in performance between dyslexic and normotypical listeners appears to decrease into adulthood, suggesting that some individuals with dyslexia develop compensatory strategies. Some dyslexic adults however remain impaired in more challenging listening situations such as in the presence of background noise. This paper addresses the question of the compensatory strategies employed, using the recently developed Auditory Classification Image (ACI) methodology. The results of 18 dyslexics taking part in a phoneme categorization task in noise were compared with those of 18 normotypical age-matched controls. By fitting a penalized Generalized Linear Model on the data of each participant, we obtained his/her ACI, a map of the time-frequency regions he/she relied on to perform the task. Even though dyslexics performed significantly less well than controls, we were unable to detect a robust difference between the mean ACIs of the two groups. This is partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in listening strategies among a subgroup of 7 low-performing dyslexics, as confirmed by a complementary analysis. When excluding these participants to restrict our comparison to the 11 dyslexics performing as well as their average-reading peers, we found a significant difference in the F3 onset of the first syllable, and a tendency of difference on the F4 onset, suggesting that these listeners can compensate for their deficit by relying upon additional allophonic cues. PMID:27100662

  11. Spelling Transparency and Its Impact on Dyslexic and Unimpaired Children's Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baluch, Bahman; Danaye-Tousi, Maryam

    2006-01-01

    The phonologically transparent Persian orthography is normally transcribed with two distinct spellings; words spelled with vowels (letters) transcribed as a fixed part of the spelling (transparent) and words spelled with vowels (diacritics) omitted (opaque). Three groups of Persian readers, namely developmental dyslexics (n = 29, mean age = 9.4,…

  12. The Lexical Status of Basic Arabic Verb Morphemes among Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Saliba, Fadi

    2008-01-01

    The masked priming paradigm was used to examine the role of the root and verb pattern morphemes in lexical access within the verb system of Arabic. Three groups participated in the study: grade 6 dyslexics, a reading-level-matched group and grade 6 normal readers. The first group consisted of: 28 grade 6 reading disabled (RD) students, 8 girls and…

  13. Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177

  14. Am I dyslexic? Parental self-report of literacy difficulties.

    PubMed

    Leavett, Ruth; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    In the absence of criteria for the diagnosis of dyslexia, considerable weight is given to self-report, in particular in studies of children at family risk of dyslexia. The present paper uses secondary data from a previous study to compare parents who self-report as dyslexic and those who do not, in relation to objectively determined levels of ability. In general, adults are more likely to self-report as 'dyslexic' if they have poorer reading and spelling skills and also if there is a discrepancy between IQ and measured literacy. However, parents of higher social status who have mild literacy difficulties are more likely to self-report as dyslexic than parents who have weaker literacy skills but are less socially advantaged. Together the findings suggest that the judgement as to whether or not a parent considers themselves 'dyslexic' is made relative to others in the same social sphere. Those who are socially disadvantaged may, in turn, be less likely to seek support for their children. PMID:25185509

  15. Print-Tuning Lateralization and Handedness: an Event-Related Potential Study in Dyslexic Higher Education Students.

    PubMed

    van Setten, Ellie R H; Martinez-Ferreiro, Silvia; Maurits, Natasha M; Maassen, Ben A M

    2016-02-01

    Despite their ample reading experience, higher education students with dyslexia still show deficits in reading and reading-related skills. Lateralized print tuning, the early sensitivity to print of the left parietal cortex signalled by the N1 event-related potential (ERP) component, differs between beginning dyslexic readers and controls. For adults, the findings are mixed. The present study aims to investigate whether print tuning, as indexed by the N1 component, differs between 24 students with dyslexia and 15 non-dyslexic controls. Because handedness has been linked to lateralization, first, a separate analysis was conducted including only right-handed participants (n = 12 in both groups), like in most previous studies. ERPs were measured during a judgement task, requiring visual, phonological, or semantic judgments. In both groups, the N1 was earlier and stronger in the left than in the right hemisphere. However, when only strongly right-handed participants were evaluated, the N1 was less left-lateralized for participants with dyslexia as compared with controls. Participants with dyslexia had longer reaction times during the ERP experiment and performed worse on many reading (-related) tasks. These findings suggest that abnormal print tuning can still be found among higher education students with dyslexia and that handedness should be regarded in the study of print tuning. PMID:26639313

  16. Rorschach Responses of Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ann L.; Miles, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rorschach responses of 15 dyslexia children (eight-16 years old) were compared with those of 12 suitably matched controls. Dyslexic Ss made considerable use of card shape, but much less use of other determinants (color, texture, etc.). Unlike controls they seldom turned the cards around and the overall number of responses per person was…

  17. Tactics for Teaching Dyslexic Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Julie A.; Isaacson, Douglas K.

    1986-01-01

    A checklist is offered to help classroom teachers determine behaviors characteristic of dyslexic functioning (both visual-spatial and auditory-linguistic types). Tactics are then suggested for tailoring approaches to their characteristics--strong visual/weak auditory processing skills or strong auditory/weak visual processing skills. (CL)

  18. Teaching Science to Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Working in a school with a high proportion of dyslexic children has helped this author to discover and improve her teaching of science. Officially, dyslexia is seen as "a specific learning difficulty that hinders the learning of literacy skills. This problem of managing verbal codes in memory is neurologically based." Many children come to the…

  19. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  20. Visuospatial deficits of dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Czaplewska, Ewa; Wysocka, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The visuospatial deficit is recognized as typical for dyslexia only in some definitions. However problems with visuospatial orientation may manifest themselves as difficulties with letter identification or the memorizing and recalling of sign sequences, something frequently experienced by dyslexics. Material/Methods The experimental group consisted of 62 children with developmental dyslexia. The control group consisted of 67 pupils with no diagnosed deficits, matched to the clinical group in terms of age. We used the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), the Spatial Span subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale – third edition (WMS – III), the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test in order to analyze visuospatial functioning. Results The results show that dyslexics experienced problems with visuospatial functioning, however only while performing difficult tasks. Significant group differences were found for the Clock Drawing Test, Spatial Span – Backward and the precision of figure coping in the Rey-Osterrieth Test. In addition, the results of dyslexic boys were lower than those obtained by all other groups. Conclusions Our findings provide support for the hypothesis concerning visual deficit as characteristic for dyslexia. PMID:21455108

  1. Re-Imaging Reader-Response in Middle and Secondary Schools: Early Adolescent Girls' Critical and Communal Reader Responses to the Young Adult Novel "Speak"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Reader-response has become one of the most influential literary theories to inform the pedagogies of middle and secondary English classrooms. However, many English and literacy educators have begun to advocate for more critical and culturally responsive versions of reader-response pedagogies, arguing that teachers move beyond valuing students'…

  2. Reduced Neural Integration of Letters and Speech Sounds in Dyslexic Children Scales with Individual Differences in Reading Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Žarić, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Bonte, Milene

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is one of the basic requirements for fluent reading acquisition and its failure may contribute to reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigated event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration in 9-year-old typical and dyslexic readers and specifically test their relation to individual differences in reading fluency. We employed an audiovisual oddball paradigm in typical readers (n = 20), dysfluent (n = 18) and severely dysfluent (n = 18) dyslexic children. In one auditory and two audiovisual conditions the Dutch spoken vowels/a/and/o/were presented as standard and deviant stimuli. In audiovisual blocks, the letter ‘a’ was presented either simultaneously (AV0), or 200 ms before (AV200) vowel sound onset. Across the three children groups, vowel deviancy in auditory blocks elicited comparable mismatch negativity (MMN) and late negativity (LN) responses. In typical readers, both audiovisual conditions (AV0 and AV200) led to enhanced MMN and LN amplitudes. In both dyslexic groups, the audiovisual LN effects were mildly reduced. Most interestingly, individual differences in reading fluency were correlated with MMN latency in the AV0 condition. A further analysis revealed that this effect was driven by a short-lived MMN effect encompassing only the N1 window in severely dysfluent dyslexics versus a longer MMN effect encompassing both the N1 and P2 windows in the other two groups. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in dyslexic children by demonstrating a deficient pattern of letter-speech sound integration depending on the level of reading dysfluency. These findings underscore the importance of considering individual differences across the entire spectrum of reading skills in addition to group differences between typical and dyslexic readers. PMID:25329388

  3. Dyslexic Participants Show Intact Spontaneous Categorization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitris S.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the performance of dyslexic participants on an unsupervised categorization task against that of matched non-dyslexic control participants. Unsupervised categorization is a cognitive process critical for conceptual development. Existing research in dyslexia has emphasized perceptual tasks and supervised categorization tasks (for which…

  4. Word Length and Word Frequency Affect Eye Movements in Dyslexic Children Reading in a Regular (German) Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrwachter, Ute; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Reinhard, Jens; Klosinski, Gunther; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    We combined independently the word length and word frequency to examine if the difficulty of reading material affects eye movements in readers of German, which has high orthographic regularity, comparing the outcome with previous findings available in other languages. Sixteen carefully selected German-speaking dyslexic children (mean age, 9.5…

  5. The CB Reader. A Guide to Understanding the Competency-Based Adult Education Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James T., Ed.; Taylor, Paul G., Ed.

    This monograph contains eleven exemplary articles that focus on topics related to competency-based adult education. Among the articles included are (1) Competency Based Education: Is It Applicable to Adult Education Programs?, by James E. Hertling; (2) What Adult Performance Level Is--and Is Not, by William G. Spady; (3) Competency Based…

  6. Reliability and Validity of the CTOPP Elision and Blending Words Subtests for Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Alice O.; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of American adults struggle with reading but there is a dearth of reading-related assessments for these adults. In turn, researchers and practitioners use assessments designed for children with these adults. This study examined the psychometric and descriptive attributes of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)…

  7. Investigating Morphological Awareness and the Processing of Transparent and Opaque Words in Adults with Low Literacy Skills and in Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Nancy L.; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    For adults with low literacy skills, the role of phonology in reading has been fairly well researched, but less is known about the role of morphology in reading. We investigated the contribution of morphological awareness to word reading and reading comprehension and found that for adults with low literacy skills and skilled readers, morphological…

  8. Auditory Short-Term Memory Capacity Correlates with Gray Matter Density in the Left Posterior STS in Cognitively Normal and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Ramsden, Sue; Ellis, Caroline; Burnett, Stephanie; Megnin, Odette; Catmur, Caroline; Schofield, Tom M.; Leff, Alex P.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of auditory STM is its item-limited processing capacity. We investigated whether auditory STM capacity correlated with regional gray and white matter in the structural MRI images from 74 healthy adults, 40 of whom had a prior diagnosis of developmental dyslexia whereas 34 had no history of any cognitive impairment. Using…

  9. Visual Persistence and Adult Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Roberta L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Visual persistence was investigated in adults with and without dyslexia in order to determine whether dyslexic adults demonstrate problems similar to those found in childhood dyslexia. Results showed that sensitivity of dyslexic adults was impaired when parts of a test stimulus were presented to adjacent retinal areas, suggesting that under…

  10. Motivation and the Adult New Reader: Becoming Literate at the Bob Steele Reading Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetrion, George

    A study examined the sources of motivation of adults participating in the adult literacy program at the Bob Steele Reading Center (BSRC) in Hartford, Connecticut. The "life cycle" approach used to explore motivation throughout the stages of the literacy learning process included brief case studies focusing on the importance of socioemotional…

  11. The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

  12. The Relations between Document Familiarity, Frequency, and Prevalence and Document Literacy Performance among Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Snowden, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of document prevalence and familiarity as predictors of adult document literacy performance. Three indexes--quantifying document prevalence, document familiarity, and the frequency of document use--were constructed using survey responses from an adult community sample and documents collected from government agencies…

  13. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Awadh, Faris H. R.; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages –French, Spanish, and Arabic– that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  14. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    PubMed

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  15. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically under-studied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children’s literature, and the implications for researchers and Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

  16. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

  17. Education Influences Creativity in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children and Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Kapoula, Zoï; Ruiz, Sarah; Spector, Lisa; Mocorovi, Marion; Gaertner, Chrystal; Quilici, Catherine; Vernet, Marine

    2016-01-01

    Background and Study Hypothesis Are dyslexic children and teenagers more creative than non-dyslexic children and teenagers? Whether creativity is higher in dyslexia, and whether this could be related to neurological development specific to the dyslexic disorder, or to compensatory strategies acquired later in life, remains unclear. Here, we suggest an additional role of differential educational approaches taken in each school that could either enhance or suppress an already higher baseline creativity of dyslexic children and teenagers. Results Creativity in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children and teenagers from different schools in France and in Belgium, as well as in students from different universities, was evaluated with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Children and teenagers with dyslexia and/or with other similar dysfunctions showed higher creativity scores than non-dyslexic participants. Moreover, the educational approach could further enhance the creative scores in dyslexia, which could be as high as those measured in students from art universities. Conclusions We conclude that dyslexic children and teenagers can be highly creative. Yet, expression of creativity can be modulated by educational approach, indicating a probable advantage for personal follow-up compared to normalizing education strategies. PMID:26950067

  18. Textual Enhancements and Comprehension with Adult Readers of English in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; Yu, Xiucheng; McDaniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The present study utilizes texts from social psychology to examine the effects of textual enhancements on reading comprehension with 185 native adult Chinese speakers learning English in China. Participants read two different vignettes, either with or without an adjunct. Each adjunct consisted of a "what" question along with instructions to either…

  19. Culture and Processes of Adult Learning: A Reader. Learning through Life 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    This book on the culture and processes of adult learning contains 16 papers organized into sections on power, purpose, and outcomes; adulthood and learning; and learners' experience and facilitating learning. The following papers are included: "'Really Useful Knowledge', 1790-1850" (Johnson); "Feminist Challenges to Curriculum Design" (Parsons);…

  20. Curriculum for the Adult Beginning Reader. 0-3 Reading Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Sandy; And Others

    This curriculum offers an eclectic, multisensorial, holistic, and flexible approach to reading. Sections I and II are an introduction and information on using the curriculum. Section III offers strategies for working with adults. Section IV describes means of formal and informal assessment of the learner. Section V presents an overview of ways…

  1. Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. "A developmental fMRI study of reading and…

  2. Syntactic and Discourse Skills in Chinese Adolescent Readers with Dyslexia: A Profiling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Lo, Jason C. M.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Xiao, Xiaoyun; Chan, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of syntactic and discourse skills to morphological skills, rapid naming, and working memory in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia and to examine their cognitive-linguistic profiles. Fifty-two dyslexic readers (mean age, 13;42) from grade 7 to 9 in Hong Kong high schools were compared with 52…

  3. Romancing the YA Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Bouricius, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the romance genre and provides guidelines for librarians with high school aged readers. Highlights include where to find information about the romance genre; the appeal of romance fiction; levels of sex and sensuality; reference tools; subgenres; and authors and titles that may be popular with young adult romance readers. (LRW)

  4. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  5. A DTI tractography study in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Theys, Catherine; De Vos, Astrid; Vanvooren, Sophie; Sunaert, Stefan; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2015-08-01

    In adults and school-aged children, phonological aspects of reading seem to be sustained by left dorsal regions, while ventral regions seem to be involved in orthographic word recognition. Yet, given that the brain reorganises during reading acquisition, it is unknown when and how these reading routes emerge and whether neural deficits in dyslexia predate reading onset. Using diffusion MRI in 36 pre-readers with a family risk for dyslexia (FRD(+)) and 35 well matched pre-readers without a family risk (FRD(-)), our results show that phonological predictors of reading are sustained bilaterally by both ventral and dorsal tracts. This suggests that a dorsal and left-hemispheric specialisation for phonological aspects of reading, as observed in adults, is presumably gradually formed throughout reading development. Second, our results indicate that FRD(+) pre-readers display mainly white matter differences in left ventral tracts. This suggests that atypical white matter organisation previously found in dyslexic adults may be causal rather than resulting from a lifetime of reading difficulties, and that the location of such a deficit may vary throughout development. While this study forms an important starting point, longitudinal follow-up of these children will allow further investigation of the dynamics between emerging literacy development and white matter connections. PMID:26048528

  6. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9–13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme–phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not. PMID:25538659

  7. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9-13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme-phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not. PMID:25538659

  8. The role of phonological awareness in treatments of dyslexic primary school children.

    PubMed

    Pape-Neumann, Julia; Ermingen-Marbach, Muna van; Grande, Marion; Willmes, Klaus; Heim, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether phonological awareness training is an effective intervention to significantly improve reading in German dyslexic third and fourth graders with a phonological awareness deficit, and whether these children can equally benefit from a phonology-based reading training or a visually-based reading training. German speaking dyslexic elementary school children (n=30; M=9.8 years) were matched by forming triplets based on IQ, reading quotient and phonological awareness and then randomly assigned to one out of three interventions (n=10): a phonological awareness training, a phonology-based reading training (phonics instruction), and a visually-based reading training (repeated reading of sight words). A total of 20 training sessions (30 minutes each) were distributed over four weeks. Typical readers (n=10; M=9.5 years) were assigned to the control group. Phonological awareness training directly improves reading comprehension in German dyslexic children with a phonological awareness deficit. However, these children can equally benefit from a visually-based reading training. In contrast, the phonology-based reading training has a direct selective effect on decoding but not on reading comprehension. Despite divergent short-term patterns, long-term improvement of reading comprehension and decoding is similar across all training groups, irrespective of the training method. Phonological awareness may but does not need to be part of reading remediation in dyslexic children with a phonological deficit when learning to read a consistent orthography. Rather, a visually-based reading strategy might compensate for the phonological deficit in dyslexic children after the initial stage of reading acquisition. PMID:25856525

  9. A randomized control study of instructional approaches for struggling adult readers

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Daphne; Wise, Justin; Morris, Robin; Fredrick, Laura; Nanda, Alice O.; Pae, Hye-K.

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the effectiveness of various instructional approaches on the reading outcomes of 198 adults who read single words at the 3.0 through 5.9 grade equivalency levels. The students were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: Decoding and Fluency; Decoding, Comprehension, and Fluency; Decoding, Comprehension, Fluency, and Extensive Reading; Extensive Reading; and a Control/Comparison approach. The Control/Comparison approach employed a curriculum common to community-based adult literacy programs, and the Extensive Reading approach focused on wide exposure to literature. The Fluency component was a guided repeated oral reading approach, and the Decoding/Comprehension components were SRA/McGraw-Hill Direct Instruction Corrective Reading Programs. Results indicated continued weaknesses in and poor integration of participants’ skills. Although students made significant gains independent of reading instruction group, all improvements were associated with small effect sizes. When reading instruction group was considered, only one significant finding was detected, with the Comparison/Control group, the Decoding and Fluency group, and the Decoding, Comprehension, Extensive Reading and Fluency group showing stronger word attack outcomes than the Extensive Reading group. PMID:22180789

  10. Informational masking of speech in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Calcus, Axelle; Colin, Cécile; Deltenre, Paul; Kolinsky, Régine

    2015-06-01

    Studies evaluating speech perception in noise have reported inconsistent results regarding a potential deficit in dyslexic children. So far, most of them investigated energetic masking. The present study evaluated situations inducing mostly informational masking, which reflects cognitive interference induced by the masker. Dyslexic children were asked to identify a female target syllable presented in quiet, babble, unmodulated, and modulated speech-shaped noise. Whereas their performance was comparable to normal-reading children in quiet, it dropped significantly in all noisy conditions compared to age-, but not reading level-matched controls. Interestingly, noise affected similarly the reception of voicing, place, and manner of articulation in dyslexic and normal-reading children. PMID:26093461

  11. Coloured Filters Improve Exclusion of Perceptual Noise in Visually Symptomatic Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Nadia; Manahilov, Velitchko; Simpson, William

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of visually symptomatic dyslexics have found that their contrast thresholds for pattern discrimination are the same as non-dyslexics. However, when noise is added to the stimuli, contrast thresholds rise markedly in dyslexics compared with non-dyslexics. This result could be due to impaired noise exclusion in dyslexics. Some…

  12. Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional…

  13. Do Dyslexics Have Auditory Input Processing Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether a group of dyslexics had word level receptive…

  14. Identifying and Helping the Dyslexic Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on the definition, etiology, and incidence of dyslexia. Presents guidelines to help developmental educators identify and test dyslexic students. Suggests helping strategies and discusses the basics of language retraining in the areas of reading, spelling, and writing. Includes a 50-item bibliography. (DMM)

  15. The Adolescent Dyslexic: Strategies for Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    The spelling difficulties of the adolescent dyslexic student are described, and techniques are presented to provide the student with the tools needed to cope with spelling requirements, including the study of vowel sounds, doubling the consonant following a short vowel, root words, and laws of probabilities. (JDD)

  16. The Spelling Strategies of Francophone Dyslexic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruberto, Noémia; Daigle, Daniel; Ammar, Ahlem

    2016-01-01

    The development of spelling skill is a very difficult task for students with dyslexia. Spelling in French involves the consideration of various types of knowledge, procedures and strategies. This study aims to describe the spelling strategies of 32 dyslexic students (DYS) aged from 8 to 12 years and to establish links between spelling strategies…

  17. Reading Strategies in Spanish Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Cross-linguistic studies suggest that the orthographic system determines the reading performance of dyslexic children. In opaque orthographies, the fundamental feature of developmental dyslexia is difficulty in reading accuracy, whereas slower reading speed is more common in transparent orthographies. The aim of the current study was to examine…

  18. Orthographic Learning in Dyslexic Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla…

  19. Orthographic learning in dyslexic Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Alvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla 2009; Spinelli, De Luca, Di Filippo, Mancini, Martelli, & Zoccolotti, 2005; Wimmer, 1993). Therefore, the main problem for these children could be the difficulty in developing orthographic representations of the words they read. The aim of this study was to test the ability of dyslexic Spanish-speaking children (whose native language is Spanish) to develop orthographic representations and determine if the context helps them. For this, two experiments were conducted with a group of 100 children, 7-12 years of age. The groups were comprised of 20 dyslexics, 40 chronological age-matched controls and 40 reading level-matched controls. In the first experiment, eight unfamiliar words (four short and four long) were presented six times within the context of a story. In the second experiment, eight pseudowords were presented on a computer and the children had to read them aloud. In both experiments, the reading and articulation times of experimental and control stimuli were compared, before and after the training. Children without dyslexia showed a decrease of the influence of length of word on reading speed, indicating a lexical reading, while for dyslexic children, the influence of length remained unchanged. These results appeared when the stimuli were presented in the context of a story as well as when presented in isolation. In short, our results describe that dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems have problems in developing orthographic representations of words. PMID:25056668

  20. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  1. BULGARIAN READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HODGE, CARLETON T.

    DESIGNED TO FOLLOW THE BASIC COURSE IN BULGARIAN, A READER HAS BEEN PREPARED. IT ASSUMES KNOWLEDGE OF THE VOCABULARY (AS PRESENTED IN THE BASIC COURSE ED 003 873 AND ED 003 874) AS WELL AS THE GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE. THE READER PRESENTS AREA MATERIALS AND INTRODUCES THE STUDENT TO THE VOCABULARY NEEDED TO READ NEWSPAPERS AND SIMILAR…

  2. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  3. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    PubMed Central

    Žarić, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Blomert, Leo; Bonte, Milene

    2015-01-01

    A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n = 17) followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0), the letter “a” was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200) it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1), dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN) window. After the training (T2), our results showed earlier (and enhanced) crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN) in the simultaneous condition (AV0) measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration. PMID:26157382

  4. Dyslexic children show deficits in implicit sequence learning, but not in explicit sequence learning or contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Vaquero, Joaquín M M; Jiménez, Luis; Defior, Sylvia

    2011-06-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling abilities. The absence of other high level cognitive deficits in the dyslexic population has led some authors to propose that non-strategical processes like implicit learning could be impaired in this population. Most studies have addressed this issue by using sequence learning tasks, but so far the results have not been conclusive. We test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of dyslexic children and good readers in both implicit and explicit versions of the sequence learning task, as well as in another implicit learning task not involving sequential information. The results showed that dyslexic children failed to learn the sequence when they were not informed about its presence (implicit condition). In contrast, they learned without significant differences in relation to the good readers group when they were encouraged to discover the sequence and to use it in order to improve their performance (explicit condition). Moreover, we observed that this implicit learning deficit was not extended to other forms of non-sequential, implicit learning such as contextual cueing. In this case, both groups showed similar implicit learning about the information provided by the visual context. These results help to clarify previous contradictory data, and they are discussed in relation to how the implicit sequence learning deficit could contribute to the understanding of dyslexia. PMID:21082295

  5. Dyslexics at Brown. A Student Perspective. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Carol; And Others

    An account of what it means to be a dyslexic student in higher education, put together by a group of Brown students who are dyslexic, is presented in an attempt to make the Brown community aware of dyslexia, its symptoms, and some study strategies for coping with it. Some of the resources that Brown offers its student body are listed. Nine…

  6. An Investigation of Syntactic Abilities in Normal and Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Susan Ann

    Syntactic abilities in oral language of twenty normal and twenty dyslexic second grade boys were investigated. The major hypothesis was that dyslexic children with reading comprehension difficulties are deficient in oral syntax. The concept of syntax was subdivided into five categories: (1) recognition of melody pattern, (2) recognition of…

  7. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

  8. Dyslexic brain activation abnormalities in deep and shallow orthographies: A meta-analysis of 28 functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Kronbichler, Martin; Richlan, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    We used coordinate-based meta-analysis to objectively quantify commonalities and differences of dyslexic functional brain abnormalities between alphabetic languages differing in orthographic depth. Specifically, we compared foci of under- and overactivation in dyslexic readers relative to nonimpaired readers reported in 14 studies in deep orthographies (DO: English) and in 14 studies in shallow orthographies (SO: Dutch, German, Italian, Swedish). The separate meta-analyses of the two sets of studies showed universal reading-related dyslexic underactivation in the left occipitotemporal cortex (including the visual word form area (VWFA)). The direct statistical comparison revealed higher convergence of underactivation for DO compared with SO in bilateral inferior parietal regions, but this abnormality disappeared when foci resulting from stronger dyslexic task-negative activation (i.e., deactivation relative to baseline) were excluded. Higher convergence of underactivation for DO compared with SO was further identified in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) pars triangularis, left precuneus, and right superior temporal gyrus, together with higher convergence of overactivation in the left anterior insula. Higher convergence of underactivation for SO compared with DO was found in the left fusiform gyrus, left temporoparietal cortex, left IFG pars orbitalis, and left frontal operculum, together with higher convergence of overactivation in the left precentral gyrus. Taken together, the findings support the notion of a biological unity of dyslexia, with additional orthography-specific abnormalities and presumably different compensatory mechanisms. The results are discussed in relation to current functional neuroanatomical models of developmental dyslexia. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2676-2699, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061464

  9. Postural Control during the Stroop Test in Dyslexic and Non Dyslexic Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Demule, Emilie; Fauvel, Caroline; Bucci, Maria-Pia

    2011-01-01

    Postural control in quiet stance although simple still requires some cognitive resources; dual cognitive tasks influence further postural control. The present study examines whether or not dyslexic teenagers experience postural instability when performing a Stroop dual task for which their performances are known to be poor. Fifteen dyslexics and twelve non-dyslexics (14 to 17 years old) were recruited from the same school. They were asked to perform three tasks: (1) fixate a target, (2) perform an interference Stroop test (naming the colour or the word rather than reading the word), (3) performing flexibility Stroop task: the subject performed the interference task as in (2) except when the word was in a box, in which case he had to read the word. Postural performances were measured with a force platform. The results showed a main task effect on the variance of speed of body sway only: such variance was higher in the flexibility task than for the other two tasks. No group effect was found for any of the parameters of posture (surface, mediolateral and anteroposterior sway, variance of speed). Further wavelet analysis in the time-frequency domain revealed an increase in the spectral power of the medium frequency range believed to be related to cerebellum control; an accompanying increase in the cancellation time of the high frequency band related to reflexive loops occurred for non-dyslexics only. These effects occurred for the flexibility task and could be due to its high cognitive difficulty. Dyslexics displayed shorter cancellation time for the medium frequency band for all tasks, suggesting less efficient cerebellar control, perhaps of eye fixation and attention influencing body sway. We conclude that there is no evidence for a primary posture deficit in 15 year old teenagers who come from the general population and who were recruited in schools. PMID:21556369

  10. Contributions of syntactic awareness to reading in Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness to Chinese reading among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers matched with the same reading level (reading-level group) participated and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers scored significantly lower than chronological age but similarly to reading level control groups in most measures, especially in the areas of syntactic skills. Analyses of individual data also revealed that over half of the dyslexic readers exhibited certain aspects of deficits in syntactic skills. In regression analyses, syntactic skills were the strongest predictors of ability in word reading and reading comprehension measures. This study highlights the uniquely important correlates of syntactic skills in Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. PMID:23338976

  11. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences. PMID:25071512

  12. Reader Pals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Linda; Wainess, Didi

    1989-01-01

    Reader Pals is a cross-age, whole language, independent, daily reading program designed to supplement existing reading curricula and to enrich daily lessons. A younger child is paired with an older child for a year. Program planning and implementation are discussed, and activities based on a dinosaur theme are suggested. (IAH)

  13. COCHABAMBA READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LASTRA, YOLANDA

    INTENDED AS FOLLOWUP MATERIAL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE TWO-VOLUME SPOKEN COCHABAMBA COURSE, THIS READER CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LONG STORY, "JUANITO," WRITTEN BY OSCAR TERAN. IT HAS BEEN USED AS A RADIO SCRIPT FOR A SERIES OF BROADCASTS FROM A COCHABAMBA STATION WHICH SERVES THE SURROUNDING INDIGENOUS POPULATION. THE MATERIAL IS PRESENTED ON…

  14. Impaired tuning of a fast occipito-temporal response for print in dyslexic children learning to read.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Urs; Brem, Silvia; Bucher, Kerstin; Kranz, Felicitas; Benz, Rosmarie; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Brandeis, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as a disorder of learning to read. It is thus critical to examine the neural processes that impair learning to read during the early phase of reading acquisition, before compensatory mechanisms are adapted by older readers with dyslexia. Using electroencephalography-based event-related imaging, we investigated how tuning of visual activity for print advances in the same children before and after initial reading training in school. The focus was on a fast, coarse form of visual tuning for print, measured as an increase of the occipito-temporal N1 response at 150-270 ms in the event-related potential (ERP) to words compared to symbol strings. The results demonstrate that the initial development of reading skills and visual tuning for print progressed more slowly in those children who became dyslexic than in their control peers. Print-specific tuning in 2nd grade strongly distinguished dyslexic children from controls. It was maximal in the inferior occipito-temporal cortex, left-lateralized in controls, and reduced in dyslexic children. The results suggest that delayed initial visual tuning for print critically contributes to the development of dyslexia. PMID:17728359

  15. The potential of dyslexic individuals in communication design education.

    PubMed

    Corlu, Muzaffer; Ozcan, Oğuzhan; Korkmazlar, Umran

    2007-01-01

    If dyslexic individuals have the ability to express themselves in different ways, particularly in the field of modern graphic design, would they be a favoured group in creating the extraordinary and outstanding ideas that are required in communication design? The study group consisted of 20 primary school dyslexics between ages of 7-12 and 20 non-dyslexics serving as a control group. A jury with four specialists evaluated the drawings gathered from the 40 participants. Even though we might not say surely that the dyslexics are the best possible candidates for communication design education, based on the statistical results we have concluded that they should be among the potential candidates for both general communication design education and for more specific minor study areas such as icon design. PMID:18430979

  16. Dyslexic Children Are Confronted with Unstable Binocular Fixation while Reading

    PubMed Central

    Jainta, Stephanie; Kapoula, Zoï

    2011-01-01

    Reading requires three-dimensional motor control: saccades bring the eyes from left to right, fixating word after word; and oblique saccades bring the eyes to the next line of the text. The angle of vergence of the two optic axes should be adjusted to the depth of the book or screen and - most importantly - should be maintained in a sustained manner during saccades and fixations. Maintenance of vergence is important as it is a prerequisite for a single clear image of each word to be projected onto the fovea of the eyes. Deficits in the binocular control of saccades and of vergence in dyslexics have been reported previously but only for tasks using single targets. This study examines saccades and vergence control during real text reading. Thirteen dyslexic and seven non-dyslexic children read the French text “L'Allouette” in two viewing distances (40 cm vs. 100 cm), while binocular eye movements were measured with the Chronos Eye-tracking system. We found that the binocular yoking of reading saccades was poor in dyslexic children (relative to non-dyslexics) resulting in vergence errors; their disconjugate drift during fixations was not correlated with the disconjugacy during their saccades, causing considerable variability of vergence angle from fixation to fixation. Due to such poor oculomotor adjustments during reading, the overall fixation disparity was larger for dyslexic children, putting larger demand on their sensory fusion processes. Moreover, for dyslexics the standard deviation of fixation disparity was larger particularly when reading at near distance. We conclude that besides documented phoneme processing disorders, visual/ocular motor imperfections may exist in dyslexics that lead to fixation instability and thus, to instability of the letters or words during reading; such instability may perturb fusional processes and might – in part - complicate letter/word identification. PMID:21494641

  17. Individual Differences in Skilled Adult Readers Reveal Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Component Processes of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…

  18. A Study of the Relationships Among Chinese Multicharacter Words, Subtypes of Readers, and Instructional Methods.

    PubMed

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies examining the effectiveness of the whole-word and analytic instructional methods in teaching different subtypes of readers (students with normal reading performance, surface dyslexics, phonological dyslexics, and both dyslexic patterns) and four kinds of Chinese two-character words (two regular [RR], two irregular [II], one regular, one irregular [RI], and one irregular, one regular [IR]). The approaches employed were the analytic method, which focuses on highlighting the phonological components of words, and the whole-word method, which focuses on learning by sight. Two studies were conducted among a sample of 40 primary school students with different reading patterns. The aim was to examine the relationships among different subtypes of readers, two-character words, and instructional methods. In general, students with a surface dyslexic pattern benefited more from the analytic methods. Regarding combinations of different kinds of two-character words, all subtypes of students performed better in reading RR words than in reading II words. PMID:24733819

  19. Distinguished Books. Notable Books of 2002; Best Books for Young Adults; Audiobooks for Young Adults; Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers; Notable Children's Books; Notable Children's Videos; Notable Recordings for Children; Notable Software for Children; Bestsellers of 2002; Literary Prizes, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Riippa, Laurele; Ink, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Includes bibliographies of notable books of 2002, including fiction, nonfiction, and poetry; books for young adults, including fiction, nonfiction, audiobooks, and titles for reluctant readers; notable books for children; videos for children; children's recordings and software; bestsellers, fiction and nonfiction; paperback bestsellers; almanacs,…

  20. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Olulade, O.A.; Flowers, D.L.; Napoliello, E.M.; Eden, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA), is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009). Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007). Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009). Building on these studies, we here (1) investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2) compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3) examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We report

  1. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Olulade, O A; Flowers, D L; Napoliello, E M; Eden, G F

    2015-01-01

    fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called "visual word form area", VWFA), is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009). Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007). Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009). Building on these studies, we here (1) investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2) compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3) examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We report absence

  2. Reading under the skin: physiological activation during reading in children with dyslexia and typical readers.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n = 16) and a control group of typical readers (n = 16). Children's school wellness was measured through self- and parent-proxy reports. Significantly lower SCR was found for dyslexic children in the reading-aloud task, compared to the control group, whereas all participants showed similar physiological reactions to the other experimental conditions. SCR registered during reading tasks correlated with "Child's emotional difficulties," as reported by parents. Possible interpretations of the lower activation during reading aloud in dyslexic children are discussed. PMID:26271916

  3. Motor proficiency in dyslexic children with and without attentional disorders.

    PubMed

    Denckla, M B; Rudel, R G; Chapman, C; Krieger, J

    1985-03-01

    Motor proficiency, in terms of speed, rhythm and absence of overflow, has previously been shown to distinguish nonlearning disabled hyperactive boys from matched controls. Accepted screening methods for selecting children with dyslexia do not include assessments of hyperactivity or other attentional deficits. Dyslexic children selected in this customary manner were compared with an otherwise matched group that had been screened for attentional disorders, on a series of repetitive and alternating movements of the fingers, hands, and feet. The screened dyslexic group performed more rapidly on five of six movements and had fewer qualitative signs of dysrhythmia or overflow. PMID:3977652

  4. Spanish Dyslexic Spelling Abilities: The Case of Consonant Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Francisca; Defior, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates Spanish dyslexic spelling abilities: specifically, the influence of syllabic linguistic structure (simple vs consonant cluster) on children's spelling performance. Consonant clusters are phonologically complex structures, so it was anticipated that there would be lower spelling performance for these syllabic structures than…

  5. Naming Ability and Oral Fluency in Dyslexic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, E. G.; Miles, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    Compared to 19 controls, 21 dyslexic boys, age 11-18, were as successful in naming parts of objects in drawings, and they had no distinctive difficulty over homophones or homographs. However, subjects did produce more distortions of words, examples of inappropriate usage, incomplete sentences, repetitions, and other errors. (Author/JDD)

  6. Dyslexic Students: Success Factors for Support in a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines possible success factors when developing technical solutions for dyslexic students. Findings in the literature, in a web survey answered by students and in the experiences from the development process at the Medical Faculty Library, Lund University, were used to find out potential success factors and difficulties. The…

  7. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration. PMID:26162071

  8. Fluency Remediation in Dyslexic Children: Does Age Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation. Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of…

  9. The Spelling Skills of French-Speaking Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plisson, Anne; Daigle, Daniel; Montesinos-Gelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Learning to spell is very difficult for dyslexic children, a phenomenon explained by a deficit in processing phonological information. However, to spell correctly in an alphabetic language such as French, phonological knowledge is not enough. Indeed, the French written system requires the speller to acquire visuo-orthographical and morphological…

  10. Material specific serial memory deficit in adolescent dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D R; McKeever, W F

    1979-03-01

    The present experiment was concerned with an assessment of possible serial, as opposed to general, memory deficit in dyslexia. Previous studies had consistently confounded general and serial memory assessments. Fifteen specifically dyslexic adolescents and 15 normal-reading controls were administered four separate memory tasks. In the general memory for verbal material task they were shown 20 words, each for three seconds, and were then given a deck of 40 word cards and required to pick out the 20 words just seen. In the serial memory version of the verbal task they were again shown 20 words and subsequently required to reproduce the order in which they had been shown. Two comparable (general and serial) procedures were also administered using faces as the to-be-remembered materials. Results showed comparable performances of the dyslexics and controls on both versions of the face memory task and on the general memory version of the words task. On the serial reproduction version of the verbal task, however, dyslexics were found to be significantly impaired relative to controls. Thus, adolescent dyslexics appear to have a memory impairment which is specific for both type of material (verbal) and type of memory (serial). The results are compatible with Orton's (1937) speculation regarding "sequecing" and "memory" in dyslexia and with the view that the defect resides within the neuropsychological processes of the language-dominant hemisphere. PMID:446046

  11. Dyslexics in Time Machines and Alternate Realities: Thought Experiments on the Existence of Dyslexics, "Dyslexia" and "Lexism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the possibility that "dyslexics" can be thought of as being "othered" and defined by the social norms and educational practices surrounding literacy; which can be termed "Lexism". As such the author, Craig Collinson, a postgraduate academic support officer at Edge Hill University, presents "Lexism" as a new concept that…

  12. Magno and Parvo Stimuli Affect Illusory Directional Hearing in Normal and Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Winston; Meekins, Kelsey; Schirillo, James

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental paradigm adapted from Hari (1995), forty observers listened via headphones to 8 binaural clicks: 4 left-ear leading followed by 4 right-ear leading with either 38 or 140 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs). Concurrently, they viewed either foveal or peripheral visual stimuli designed to activate either the parvocellular or…

  13. Length Effect in Reading and Lexical Decision: Evidence from Skilled Readers and a Developmental Dyslexic Participant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juphard, Alexandra; Carbonnel, Serge; Valdois, Sylviane

    2004-01-01

    A number of experimental data have shown that naming latency increases with length for pseudo-words but not for frequent real words. Different interpretations have been proposed by current models of reading to account for such a length effect. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of lexicality on length effect in both the reading…

  14. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  15. Are E-Readers Viable Instructional Delivery Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schcolnik, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study of e-readers, or electronic book readers, that investigated strategies adult users applied to reading in the new medium, kinds of texts users read, and text characteristics for e-reading. Discusses the process of reading, purposes of reading, and whether e-readers are viable instructional delivery systems. (Contains 63…

  16. Nurturing Lifelong Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, Gerri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author relates how the thing he enjoys most about his job as a school librarian is nurturing lifelong readers, in particular readers of children's literature. In talking about nurturing lifelong readers and, referring to students, staff and school librarians, the author discusses: (1) The Southwell Library Programme; (2) The Lit…

  17. Why is the processing of global motion impaired in adults with developmental dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard; Pitchford, Nicola J; Roach, Neil W; Ledgeway, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with dyslexia are purported to have a selective dorsal stream impairment that manifests as a deficit in perceiving visual global motion relative to global form. However, the underlying nature of the visual deficit in readers with dyslexia remains unclear. It may be indicative of a difficulty with motion detection, temporal processing, or any task that necessitates integration of local visual information across multiple dimensions (i.e. both across space and over time). To disentangle these possibilities we administered four diagnostic global motion and global form tasks to a large sample of adult readers (N=106) to characterise their perceptual abilities. Two sets of analyses were conducted. First, to investigate if general reading ability is associated with performance on the visual tasks across the entire sample, a composite reading score was calculated and entered into a series of continuous regression analyses. Next, to investigate if the performance of readers with dyslexia differs from that of good readers on the visual tasks we identified a group of forty-three individuals for whom phonological decoding was specifically impaired, consistent with the dyslexic profile, and compared their performance with that of good readers who did not exhibit a phonemic deficit. Both analyses yielded a similar pattern of results. Consistent with previous research, coherence thresholds of poor readers were elevated on a random-dot global motion task and a spatially one-dimensional (1-D) global motion task, but no difference was found on a static global form task. However, our results extend those of previous studies by demonstrating that poor readers exhibited impaired performance on a temporally-defined global form task, a finding that is difficult to reconcile with the dorsal stream vulnerability hypothesis. This suggests that the visual deficit in developmental dyslexia does not reflect an impairment detecting motion per se. It is better characterised as a

  18. What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Snowling, Margaret J; Moll, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter to naming the letter color. We could therefore measure reading group differences on "automatic" lexical processing, insofar as it was task-irrelevant. Readers with dyslexia showed obligatory lexical processing and a timeline for recognition that was overall similar to typical readers, but a delay emerged in the output (naming) phase. Further delay was caused by visual-orthographic competition between neighboring stimuli. Our findings outline the specific processes involved when researchers speak of "impaired automaticity" in dyslexic readers' fluency, and are discussed in the context of the broader literature in this field. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414305

  19. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  20. Low-Level Defective Processing of Non-Verbal Sounds in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucles, Paulino; Mendez, Mario; Garay, Jose

    2009-01-01

    We compared processing of non-verbal auditory stimuli by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children using electrophysiological methods. The study included 39 children (17 with dyslexia plus 22 controls) assessed via frontal, central, parietal, and temporal electrodes. As an extension of previous P300 event-related potential studies, we analysed variations…

  1. A Web-Based Screening System for Dyslexic Pupils: Do Teachers Need It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubaidullah, Nor Hasbiah Bt.; Hamid, Jamilah

    2012-01-01

    Currently in Malaysia, schools that conduct the Dyslexia Special Program for dyslexic pupils have to rely on a manual screening instrument, which is cumbersome and slow in diagnosing dyslexic traits in pupils. Thus, this study was carried out to examine prevailing problems that helped in formulating an appropriate solution to overcome existing…

  2. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  3. Dyslexic Students in Higher Education and Virtual Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, L.; Berget, G.; Sandnes, F. E.; Sanderson, N.; Kahn, P.; Fagernes, S.; Olcay, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an interview-based study of the use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) among dyslexic students. Interviews were carried out with 12 informants who had been formally diagnosed as dyslexic. The informants were either enrolled in a university or college programme, or had graduated less than a year before the…

  4. Reliability and Prevalence of an Atypical Development of Phonological Skills in French-Speaking Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Cole, Pascale; Kipffer-Piquard, Agnes; Pinton, Florence; Billard, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, conducted with French-speaking children, we examined the reliability (group study) and the prevalence (multiple-case study) of dyslexics' phonological deficits in reading and reading-related skills in comparison with Reading Level (RL) controls. All dyslexics with no comorbidity problem schooled in a special institution for…

  5. Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

  6. The sources and manifestations of stress amongst school-aged dyslexics, compared with sibling controls.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2008-11-01

    All school children experience stress at some point in their school careers. This study investigates whether dyslexic children, by way of their educational and social difficulties, experience higher levels of stress at school. The School Situation Survey was used to investigate both the sources and manifestations of stress amongst dyslexic children and non-dyslexic sibling controls. Samples were broken down by gender, age and the size of families. Results suggest significant differences between the groups, with dyslexics in academic years 3-5 experiencing the highest stress levels, specifically in interactions with teachers, worries over academic examinations (SATs) and performance testing, causing emotional (fear, shyness and loneliness) and physiological (nausea, tremors or rapid heart beat) manifestations. Results also suggest that dyslexics in larger families (3-4 sibling families) experience greater stress in interactions with their peers, than those in smaller families (two sibling families)--possibly from unfair sibling comparison. PMID:17910007

  7. Is the "Naming" Deficit in Dyslexia a Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Hatzidaki, Anna; Obregon, Mateo

    2010-01-01

    We report a study that investigated the widely held belief that naming-speed deficits in developmental dyslexia reflect impaired access to lexical-phonological codes. To investigate this issue, we compared adult dyslexic and adult non-dyslexic readers' performance when naming and semantically categorizing arrays of objects. Dyslexic readers…

  8. Teachers as Readers: Building Communities of Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Safford, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Given the narrow scope of primary teachers' knowledge and use of children's literature identified in Phase I of "Teachers as Readers" (2006-2007), the core goal of the Phase II project was to improve teachers' knowledge and experience of such literature in order to help them increase children's motivation and enthusiasm for reading, especially…

  9. The Readers' Advisor's Companion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Kenneth D., Ed.; Burgin, Robert, Ed.

    From scholarly discourse to the latest issues in readers' advisory services, this guide provides up-to-date information on the many challenges of the practice, as well as on interdisciplinary directions, continuing education, and the gap in graduate professional education for readers' advisory. The book's 16 chapters are organized into three main…

  10. Science Fiction Readers Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    This book presents science fiction readers theatre scripts for use with grades 4 through 8. The introduction provides information on what readers theatre is and its value, as well as presentation suggestions (e.g., preparing scripts, staging, props, delivery, and post-presentation). Each script includes staging directions and ideas for learning…

  11. Intermediate Cambodian Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Franklin E., Ed.; Proum, Im, Ed.

    This book is a sequel to the "Cambodian System of Writing and Beginning Reader." It is intended to serve as an intermediate reader to develop the student's ability to the point of reading Cambodian texts with the aid of a dictionary. Part One of the book consists of 37 readings, graded in length and difficulty, and selected to provide a wide range…

  12. Speed and accuracy of dyslexic versus typical word recognition: an eye-movement investigation.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Scheepers, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is often characterized by a dual deficit in both word recognition accuracy and general processing speed. While previous research into dyslexic word recognition may have suffered from speed-accuracy trade-off, the present study employed a novel eye-tracking task that is less prone to such confounds. Participants (10 dyslexics and 12 controls) were asked to look at real word stimuli, and to ignore simultaneously presented non-word stimuli, while their eye-movements were recorded. Improvements in word recognition accuracy over time were modeled in terms of a continuous non-linear function. The words' rhyme consistency and the non-words' lexicality (unpronounceable, pronounceable, pseudohomophone) were manipulated within-subjects. Speed-related measures derived from the model fits confirmed generally slower processing in dyslexics, and showed a rhyme consistency effect in both dyslexics and controls. In terms of overall error rate, dyslexics (but not controls) performed less accurately on rhyme-inconsistent words, suggesting a representational deficit for such words in dyslexics. Interestingly, neither group showed a pseudohomophone effect in speed or accuracy, which might call the task-independent pervasiveness of this effect into question. The present results illustrate the importance of distinguishing between speed- vs. accuracy-related effects for our understanding of dyslexic word recognition. PMID:25346708

  13. Psychoanalysis as cognitive remediation: Dynamic and Vygotskian perspectives in the analysis of an early adolescent dyslexic girl.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Lissa; Saul, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    The interface of neurocognitive problems and dynamic concerns are examined in the treatment of an early adolescent dyslexic girl. Despite previous intensive remediation, she had been unable to master reading and spelling, but made remarkable progress after a relatively brief period of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic and Vygotskian perspectives are integrated to provide a model of how play, within the analytic context, is mutative for learning disabled children. Through the process of reexteriorization in the transference, play allows for the interpretation and resolution of traumatic situations which have become associated with learning. As the act of learning becomes separate from the personal and affective context in which it took place, the child gains access to other, more normative, functions of play. These functions include the development of the capacity to separate meaning from action and the ability to understand words as generalized categories which represent objects, rather than being part of the specific object named. These two capacities, fundamental to the development of abstract thought, will support reflective awareness and help modulate affective states. The abilities furthered in play also act to remediate one component of dyslexia-the difficulty separating context from more abstract bits of knowledge. Finally, the child learns to "play at reality, " often trying on the new role of "student". As Vygotsky notes, play is essential in allowing the child to become aware of what she knows. For a dyslexic child, for whom reading may never become completely a part of procedural memory, becoming conscious of what he knows may also enhance mastery of the skills of phonological processing, albeit more slowly than normally developing readers. The pleasure in play and the repetition it generates aids the internalization of the task and the development of automaticity. PMID:16649682

  14. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Dyslexic versus Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Javad; Sobhani-Rad, Davood; Lari, Samaneh; Khoshsima, Mohamadjavad; Azimi, Abbas; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Yekta, Abbasali; Hoseini-Yazdi, Seyed Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Presence of neurophysiological abnormalities in dyslexia has been a conflicting issue. This study was performed to evaluate the role of sensory visual deficits in the pathogenesis of dyslexia. Methods: Pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) were recorded in 72 children including 36 children with dyslexia and 36 children without dyslexia (controls) who were matched for age, sex and intelligence. Two check sizes of 15 and 60 min of arc were used with temporal frequencies of 1.5 Hz for transient and 6 Hz for steady-state methods. Results: Mean latency and amplitude values for 15 min arc and 60 min arc check sizes using steady state and transient methods showed no significant difference between the two study groups (P values: 0.139/0.481/0.356/0.062). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between two methods of PVEPs in dyslexic and normal children using 60 min arc with high contrast (P values: 0.116, 0.402, 0.343 and 0.106). Conclusion: The sensitivity of PVEP has high validity to detect visual deficits in children with dyslexic problem. However, no significant difference was found between dyslexia and normal children using high contrast stimuli. PMID:26730313

  15. Reaching Non-Readers: Meeting Needs in Adult Literacy Services. Results of a Conference of Adult Literacy Specialists at Gannett Foundation Headquarters (Arlington, VA, May 15, 1990). A Gannett Foundation Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannett Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The first of two conferences on adult literacy focused on what needs to be done to give all nonreading U.S. adults the chance to learn to read, write, and do basic math. The number of adults seeking help in learning basic skills far exceeds the capacity of current adult literacy services to help them. Barriers to remedying the problem include lack…

  16. Finding What You're Looking for: A Reader-Centred Approach to the Classification of Adult Fiction in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the classification of adult fiction according to "genre" in public libraries causes more confusion than clarification. Whilst the system purports to model itself on bookstore design, the reality is that the actual arrangement is quite different. In the bookstore model, genre is a marketing category and not a literary…

  17. Visuomotor processing and hand force coordination in dyslexic children during a visually guided manipulation task.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Paulo B; Pedão, Sabrina T; Barela, Jose A

    2014-10-01

    Developmental Dyslexia negatively affects children's reading and writing ability and, in most cases, performance in sensorimotor tasks. These deficits have been associated with structural and functional alterations in the cerebellum and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Both neural structures are active during visually guided force control and in the coordination of load force (LF) and grip force (GF) during manipulation tasks. Surprisingly, both phenomena have not been investigated in dyslexic children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare dyslexic and non-dyslexic children regarding their visuomotor processing ability and GF-LF coordination during a static manipulation task. Thirteen dyslexic (8-14 YO) and 13 age- and sex-matched non-dyslexic (control) children participated in the study. They were asked to grasp a fixed instrumented handle using the tip of all digits and pull the handle upward exerting isometric force to match a ramp-and-hold force profile displayed in a computer monitor. Task performance (i.e., visuomotor coordination) was assessed by RMSE calculated in both ramp and hold phases. GF-LF coordination was assessed by the ratio between GF and LF (GF/LF) calculated at both phases and the maximum value of a cross-correlation function (rmax) and its respective time lag calculated at ramp phase. The results revealed that the RMSE at both phases was larger in dyslexic than in control children. However, we found that GF/LF, rmax, and time lags were similar between groups. Those findings indicate that dyslexic children have a mild deficit in visuomotor processing but preserved GF-LF coordination. Altogether, these findings suggested that dyslexic children could present mild structural and functional alterations in specific PPC or cerebellum areas that are directly related to visuomotor processing. PMID:24960554

  18. Stance, Navigation, and Reader Response in Expository Hypertext

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.; Li, Ledong; Allen, Kris; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating reader stance, navigation, and response in expository hypertext. Subjects in the studies included 69 and 147 adult readers prompted to adopt either an efferent or aesthetic stance when reading a 36-node expository hypertext. Reading was followed by recall and essay writing tasks. Results of the…

  19. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as "cholocate" as the correct word "chocolate." Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading. PMID:27303331

  20. The Comparison of the Visuo-Spatial Abilities of Dyslexic and Normal Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on a comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities (correct rate and speed) between dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. There were a total of 120 10-12 year old students. Thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Taiwan (T.W. dyslexia) and thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Hong Kong (H.K.…

  1. Immaturity of the Oculomotor Saccade and Vergence Interaction in Dyslexic Children: Evidence from a Reading and Visual Search Study

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Nassibi, Naziha; Gerard, Christophe-Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Seassau, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing binocular eye movements during reading and visual search in dyslexic children are, at our knowledge, inexistent. In the present study we examined ocular motor characteristics in dyslexic children versus two groups of non dyslexic children with chronological/reading age-matched. Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN) in twelve dyslexic children (mean age 11 years old) and a group of chronological age-matched (N = 9) and reading age-matched (N = 10) non dyslexic children. Two visual tasks were used: text reading and visual search. Independently of the task, the ocular motor behavior in dyslexic children is similar to those reported in reading age-matched non dyslexic children: many and longer fixations as well as poor quality of binocular coordination during and after the saccades. In contrast, chronological age-matched non dyslexic children showed a small number of fixations and short duration of fixations in reading task with respect to visual search task; furthermore their saccades were well yoked in both tasks. The atypical eye movement's patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an immaturity of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:22438934

  2. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  3. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  4. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  5. Delivering Basic Skills to Adults with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    A recent British government report on low literacy largely ignored dyslexia. Any approach to remediating basic skills must recognize the needs of dyslexic adults as well as their strengths: intuitive understanding of how things work, problem solving and troubleshooting abilities, and heightened visualization and creativity. (SK)

  6. Computerised Screening for Dyslexia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris; Horne, Joanna; Simmons, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Identifying dyslexia in adulthood presents particular challenges because of complicating factors such as acquisition of compensatory strategies, differing degrees of intervention and the problem of distinguishing dyslexic adults from those whose literacy difficulties have non-cognitive causes. One of the implications is that conventional literacy…

  7. The Effect of a Stroop-like Task on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Pia Bucci, Maria; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a secondary task on concurrent postural control was explored in twenty-one dyslexic children (mean age: 10.4±0.3 years). Data were compared with twenty age-matched non-dyslexic children. As a secondary task, a modified Stroop test was used, in which words were replaced with pictures of fruits. The postural control of children was recorded in standard Romberg condition as the children were asked to name the colour of fruits appearing consecutively on a computer screen. Two conditions were tested: a congruent condition, in which the fruit was drawn in its natural ripe colour, and a non-congruent colour condition (NC), in which the fruit was drawn in three abnormal colours. A fixating condition was used as baseline. We analyzed the surface, length and mean speed of the center of pressure and measured the number of correct responses in the Stroop-like tasks. Dyslexic children were seen to be significantly more unstable than non-dyslexic ones. For both groups of children, the secondary task significantly increased postural instability in comparison with the fixating condition. The number of correct responses in the modified Stroop task was significantly higher in the non-dyslexic than in the dyslexic group. The postural instability observed in dyslexic children is in line with the cerebellar hypothesis and supports the idea of a deficit in automatic performance in such children. Furthermore, in accordance with cross domain competition model, our findings show that attentional resources are used to a greater extent by the secondary task than in controlling body stability. PMID:24205028

  8. Hungarian Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalyfy, Ilona; Koski, Augustus A.

    This graded reader is intended to supplement a beginning course in Hungarian after the student has "developed control of about 700 lexical items and can manipulate with fluency much of the basic structure of Hungarian." (It may also be used in an intermediate course.) The 56 reading selections are varied in content and sequenced to develop reading…

  9. Indonesian Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Joseph M.; And Others

    This reader consists of 250 selections of varying lengths. No real attempt has been made to grade the selections according to difficulty for the learner except that the initial selections are shorter and represent straight reporting of such uncomplicated events as arrivals and departures and thus are fairly simple in structure. Notes explaining…

  10. Growing Young Gifted Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    There is great pressure on parents to teach children to read as early as possible. In reality, precocious (early advanced) readers seem to almost master the skill on their own, without the assistance of highly touted, commercially available programs. The 18-month-old toddler who names the letters on alphabet blocks; or the 26-month-old who can…

  11. Hindi Basic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, J. Martin; And Others

    This reader is intended to accompany the Basic Course in Spoken Hindi. Following an outline of the Devanagari script, 20 lessons are presented. Each consists of a reading selection, several illustrative sentences in English and Hindi, and a series of questions. Most of the reading selections were adapted from the magazine "Bal-Bharati." (RM)

  12. Parents and Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Virginia H., Ed.

    This series of 12 articles for parents on how to help pre-schoolers and beginning readers at home was written for the National Reading Center by specialists in reading and early childhood education. The titles and authors are: "Getting Ready to Read" (E. Robert La Crosse), "Creating a Good Reading Climate at Home" (Mary Frances K. Johnson),…

  13. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  14. For Reluctant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidell, Jeannette A.; Horn, Valerie

    The eleven lesson plans outlined in this booklet are designed to stimulate and challenge both underachievers and reluctant readers by helping them learn to read "The New York Times." The lesson plans include the following: exercises in vocabulary enrichment; exercises for developing dictionary skills; topics for oral reports; topics for written…

  15. Miami Linguistic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Alex

    1973-01-01

    The Miami Linguistic Readers, which are comprised of 21 paperbound books grouped in 15 levels, concentrate on sounds and structure of standard American English for teaching linguistically handicapped or disadvantaged children before and during the teaching of basic reading skills. (MC)

  16. The Strategic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, James T., Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To add a foundation to the growing excitement among educators about the central role they play in helping learners become strategic readers, the articles in this thematic journal provide insight into current reading theory and practice. Richard Telfer's article reviews research on strategic reading and clarifies what is meant by the phrase…

  17. Error Detection Mechanism for Words and Sentences: A Comparison between Readers with Dyslexia and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The activity level of the error monitoring system for processing isolated versus contextual words in Hebrew was studied in adults with dyslexia and skilled readers while committing reading errors. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials were measured during a lexical decision task using words in a list and sentences. Error-related…

  18. Finding a (W)hole in the Text: A Case Study of Four Readers Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, Mary Moore

    The purpose of the study was to examine: (1) which perspectives of Reader Response Theory were most applicable in this study; (2) which factors influenced reader responses; and (3) how readers' responses changed over time. The four participants for this case study were chosen from a subject pool of 10 initiate adult full-time divinity students in…

  19. Weaknesses in semantic, syntactic and oral language expression contribute to reading difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed. PMID:23904231

  20. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in Developmental Dyslexia: Activation during Reading in a Surface and Deep Dyslexic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The exploratory study examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in a surface and a deep dyslexic during reading. Significant differences in gray matter blood flow were found between subjects and normal controls. Also differences existed between the surface and deep dyslexic in the distribution of cortical perfusion. (Author/DB)

  1. Superior Parietal Lobule Dysfunction in a Homogeneous Group of Dyslexic Children with a Visual Attention Span Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyrin, C.; Demonet, J. F.; N'Guyen-Morel, M. A.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2011-01-01

    A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control…

  2. Behavioural and Event-Related Potentials Evidence for Pitch Discrimination Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Improvement after Intensive Phonic Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Andreia; Joly-Pottuz, Barbara; Moreno, Sylvain; Habib, Michel; Besson, Mireille

    2007-01-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that dyslexic children have auditory phonological deficits, the precise nature of these deficits remains unclear. This study examines potential pitch processing deficit in dyslexic children, and recovery after specific training, by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioural responses to pitch…

  3. NaturalReader: A New Generation Text Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    NaturalReader (http://www.naturalreaders.com/) is a new generation text reader, which means that it reads any machine readable text using synthesized speech without having to copy and paste the selected text into the NaturalReader application window. It installs a toolbar directly into all of the Microsoft Office[TM] programs and uses a mini-board…

  4. The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, Sally E; Morris, Robin; Shaywitz, Bennett A

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of dyslexia (or specific reading disability), the most common and most carefully studied of the learning disabilities. We first review the core concepts of dyslexia: its definition, prevalence, and developmental course. Next we examine the cognitive model of dyslexia, especially the phonological theory, and review empiric data suggesting genetic and neurobiological influences on the development of dyslexia. With the scientific underpinnings of dyslexia serving as a foundation, we turn our attention to evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment, including interventions and accommodations. Teaching reading represents a major focus. We first review those reading interventions effective in early grades, and then review interventions for older students. To date the preponderance of intervention studies have focused on word-level reading; newer studies are beginning to examine reading interventions that have gone beyond word reading to affect reading fluency and reading comprehension. The article concludes with a discussion of the critical role of accommodations for dyslexic students and the recent neurobiological evidence supporting the need for such accommodations. PMID:18154503

  5. Executive functioning in adults and children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Demetre, James; Hamill, Stephen; Robson, Kate; Shepherd, Haidee; Cody, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    The performance of developmentally dyslexic children and adults was studied upon a range of tasks that involved executive functioning. Both adult and child samples of dyslexics were found to under-perform on the group-embedded figures test. This test required the identification of constituent parts from within complex visual arrays, with good performance necessitating the inhibition of the processing of the surrounding context. A general deficit on visual-spatial tasks was eliminated as an explanation as dyslexics performed normally upon a range of other non-verbal assessments. The dyslexics consistently demonstrated a deficit in digit span tasks, a decrement that was increased with distractors, again suggesting difficulties in inhibiting the processing of the surrounding context. A deficit was also identified upon a verbal fluency task without a deficit in vocabulary level. Additionally, a specific deficit in the recollection of the temporal order of the presentation of items was in evidence, without a deficit in the recognition of the items themselves. The findings taken as a whole suggest that dyslexic individuals show deficiencies in executive functions relating to inhibition of distractors and to sequencing of events, a set of tasks associated with left prefrontal cortex functioning in the acquired neuropsychology literature. PMID:12208010

  6. My Journey as a Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevellos, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    In this case history, the author describes how her journey as a reader evolved from a poor reader who did not like to read in elementary school into an avid trilingual reader in graduate school. Once she discovered the joy of reading, each language in which she read had its own purpose and emotional connection. She credits self-selected reading…

  7. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  8. A Reading Skills Development Program for Adult Non-Readers. Featuring: Supplementary Graphics and Sound (Voice Tutorials). Volumes 1 and 2. The TRS-80 Computer Assisted Instruction Series for Adult Basic Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio State Hospital, TX. Office of Education Services.

    This instructional manual consists of materials for use in implementing a computer-assisted instructional program in reading skills development for adult nonreaders. Discussed first are the project during which this instructional program and manual were developed and the goals of the computer-assisted beginning reading program, a major feature of…

  9. How are Senior Citizens Portrayed in Basal Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Doris F.

    Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…

  10. Reaction Time and Accuracy in Erroneous vs Correct Responses among Dyslexic and Regular Readers: From Letters to Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    Speed of processing (SOP) is a crucial factor in fluent reading and is measured using reading rate. This measure is commonly used to examine correct reading patterns, yet in the present study it is employed to determine whether differences in SOP exist for correct and incorrect reading. One of the characteristics of dyslexia is slow and inaccurate…

  11. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and transposed-letter…

  12. Different Behavioral and Eye Movement Patterns of Dyslexic Readers with and without Attentional Deficits during Single Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Verena; Urton, Karolina; Heine, Angela; Hawelka, Stefan; Engl, Verena; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity of learning disabilities is a very common phenomenon which is intensively studied in genetics, neuropsychology, prevalence studies and causal deficit research. In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabilities, however, comorbidity is often neglected. In the present study, we systematically examined the reading…

  13. Relationship between Reading/Writing Skills and Cognitive Abilities among Japanese Primary-School Children: Normal Readers versus Poor Readers (Dyslexics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Akira; Wydell, Taeko N.; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Shinya, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-five Japanese primary-school children aged from 8 (Grade-2) to 12 (Grade-6) were tested for their abilities to read/write in Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji, for their size of vocabulary and for other cognitive abilities including arithmetic, visuo-spatial and phonological processing. Percentages of the children whose…

  14. Child readers' eye movements in reading Thai.

    PubMed

    Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. PMID:27137836

  15. Do Dyslexics Misread a ROWS for a ROSE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Van Orden, Guy C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient knowledge of the subtle relations between words' spellings and their phonology is widely held to be the primary limitation in developmental dyslexia. In the present study the influence of phonology on a semantic-based reading task was compared for groups of readers with and without dyslexia. As many studies have shown, skilled readers…

  16. The comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities of dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on a comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities (correct rate and speed) between dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. There were a total of 120 10-12 year old students. Thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Taiwan (T.W. dyslexia) and thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Hong Kong (H.K. dyslexia). Overall, 30 of the Taiwanese participants (T.W. normal) and 30 of the Hong Kong participants (H.K. normal) had received no special education. Dyslexic individuals were diagnosed by the doctors' clinical determination. The material was designed using Autodesk 3ds Max. The participants rotated 3D figures by themselves to find a ball. The results indicated that there was very little difference between dyslexic and normal students. However, the most significant difference between dyslexic and normal student was answering speed, especially in the combined data and the male data. An one-way ANOVA test indicated that in terms of rate and answering speed there was no difference between the H.K. and the T.W. dyslexics. Similar results were also found for the students with normal reading abilities in T.W. and H.K. The criterions for defining the visuo-spatial abilities of dyslexia students appear to be similar in Taiwan and Hong Kong. In addition, there is no difference between students' visuo-spatial abilities even though Chinese literacy instructions differed in the two areas. PMID:21334849

  17. Differences between Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children in the Performance of Phonological Visual-Auditory Recognition Tasks: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study was to explore further phonological visual-auditory recognition tasks in a group of fifty-six healthy children (mean age: 9.9 ± 0.3) and to compare these data to those recorded in twenty-six age-matched dyslexic children (mean age: 9.8 ± 0.2). Eye movements from both eyes were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (MobileEBT® e(y)e BRAIN). The recognition task was performed under four conditions in which the target object was displayed either with phonologically unrelated objects (baseline condition), or with cohort or rhyme objects (cohort and rhyme conditions, respectively), or both together (rhyme + cohort condition). The percentage of the total time spent on the targets and the latency of the first saccade on the target were measured. Results in healthy children showed that the percentage of the total time spent in the baseline condition was significantly longer than in the other conditions, and that the latency of the first saccade in the cohort condition was significantly longer than in the other conditions; interestingly, the latency decreased significantly with the increasing age of the children. The developmental trend of phonological awareness was also observed in healthy children only. In contrast, we observed that for dyslexic children the total time spent on the target was similar in all four conditions tested, and also that they had similar latency values in both cohort and rhyme conditions. These findings suggest a different sensitivity to the phonological competitors between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. Also, the eye-tracking technique provides online information about phonological awareness capabilities in children. PMID:27438352

  18. Preliminary study towards the development of copying skill assessment on dyslexic children in Jawi handwriting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Kartini Abdul; Kahar, Rosmila Abdul; Khalid, Halimi Mohd.; Salleh, Rohayu Mohd; Hashim, Rathiah

    2015-05-01

    Recognition of Arabic handwritten and its variants such as Farsi (Persian) and Urdu had been receiving considerable attention in recent years. Being contrast to Arabic handwritten, Jawi, as a second method of Malay handwritten, has not been studied yet, but if any, there were a few references on it. The recent transformation in Malaysian education, the Special Education is one of the priorities in the Malaysia Blueprint. One of the special needs quoted in Malaysia education is dyslexia. A dyslexic student is considered as student with learning disability. Concluding a student is truly dyslexia might be incorrect for they were only assessed through Roman alphabet, without considering assessment via Jawi handwriting. A study was conducted on dyslexic students attending a special class for dyslexia in Malay Language to determine whether they are also dyslexia in Jawi handwriting. The focus of the study is to test the copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Malay Language with and without dyslexia through both characters. A total of 10 dyslexic children and 10 normal children were recruited. In conclusion for future study, dyslexic students have less difficulty in performing Jawi handwriting in Malay Language through statistical analysis.

  19. A Future of Reversals: Dyslexic Talents in a World of Computer Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes that those traits which handicap visually oriented dyslexics in a verbally oriented educational system may confer advantages in new fields which rely on visual methods of analysis, especially those in computer applications. It is suggested that such traits also characterized Albert Einstein, Michael Faraday, James Maxwell, and…

  20. Evidence for a Specific Impairment of Serial Order Short-Term Memory in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Trecy Martinez; Majerus, Steve; Mahot, Aline; Poncelet, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits in dyslexic children, the present study used the distinction between item and serial order retention capacities in STM tasks. According to recent STM models, storage of verbal item information depends very directly upon the richness of underlying phonological and…

  1. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context which requires higher…

  2. Lecturer Perspectives on Dyslexia and Dyslexic Students within One Faculty at One University in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Harriet; Nunkoosing, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore lecturers' experiences with and perspectives on dyslexia and dyslexic students to inform the wider debate about the issues of dyslexia support in higher education. Data were collected and analysed using an abbreviated constructivist grounded theory method. Participants were categorised as "positive", "neutral";…

  3. The Cerebellar Deficit Hypothesis and Dyslexic Tendencies in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Stirling, John

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between cerebellar deficits and dyslexic tendencies in a non-clinical sample, 27 primary school children aged 8-9 completed a cerebellar soft signs battery and were additionally assessed for reading age, sequential memory, picture arrangement and knowledge of common sequences. An average measure of the soft…

  4. Reading and Visual Processing in Greek Dyslexic Children: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzidaki, Anna; Gianneli, Maria; Petrakis, Eftichis; Makaronas, Nikolaos; Aslanides, Ioannis M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of the effects of dyslexia on various processing and cognitive components (e.g., reading speed and accuracy) in a language with high phonological and orthographic consistency. Greek dyslexic children were compared with a chronological age-matched group on tasks that tested participants' phonological and orthographic…

  5. Facebook Levels the Playing Field: Dyslexic Students Learning through Digital Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Owen

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia has an ambivalent relationship with learning technology. Any potential gains may be nullified if the technology is perceived to exacerbate stigma. This paper examines the use of an "everyday" technology, Facebook, by a small group of sixth form students labelled as dyslexic. "Levelling the playing field" is a phrase…

  6. [Prosody and reading: Temporal and melodic characteristics in the dyslexic child in reading and narration].

    PubMed

    Lalain, M; Espesser, R; Ghio, A; De Looze, C; Reis, C; Mendonca-Alves, L

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is widely associated to a massive phonological awareness deficit. This deficit leads to difficulties in grapheme to phoneme conversions in reading and difficulties in words and sentences productions. The origin of the phonological deficit is partially explained by the magnocellular, cerebellar and articulatory theories. Recently, an increasing number of studies demonstrated the relationship between prosody and reading and, more specifically, the potential key role of suprasegmental phonology in the healthy development of phonological representations. The aim of this study is to explore part of prosodic features in dyslexics and normal developing children in reading and narration tasks, in French. We examined reading accuracy, reading rate, pauses frequency and duration, inter-pausal units (IPUs) duration and instantaneous variations of F0. Results show correct decoding skills for all subjects but a lack of automation of this procedure for dyslexics. Differences in pauses frequency and duration, IPUS duration and F0 variations observed between dyslexics and controls confirm the link between prosodic reading and automaticity. The longer pause duration in narrative form a temporal feature of dyslexic's production. This temporal characteristic reflects the cognitive cost done by a speech generation task involving lexical selection, syntactic planning and articulatory programming processes. This result is a first step towards evidence of a suprasegmental phonological deficit in spoken language that could be an early marker of later reading difficulties. PMID:26521345

  7. Electrophysiological Correlates of Impaired Reading in Dyslexic Pre-Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Susana; Bramao, Ines; Faisca, Luis; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    In this study, event related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the extent to which dyslexics (aged 9-13 years) differ from normally reading controls in early ERPs, which reflect prelexical orthographic processing, and in late ERPs, which reflect implicit phonological processing. The participants performed an implicit reading task, which…

  8. Working Memory Tasks in Relation to Phonological Processes of Arab Dyslexics in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-dyiar, Mosaad Abo; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between the working memory tasks and the phonological processes of Arab dyslexics in the primary stage in the State of Kuwait. The researchers used the descriptive research design. The sample of the study consists of 500 pupils (250 males and 250 females), their ages range from (9.05 ± 0.49) years…

  9. Dyslexic Entrepreneurs: The Incidence; Their Coping Strategies and Their Business Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a…

  10. The Effect of Individual Differences in Cognitive Profiles on Response to Treatment in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Research affirms the Double Deficit Hypothesis, which posits that there are three primary dyslexic subtypes, Phonological Deficit, Naming Speed Deficit, and Double Deficit (Wolfe & Bowers 1999; Feller 2008; Katzir et al. 2008). These subtypes differ in terms of core cognitive deficits. There has not been research, to-date, examining the…

  11. The Sources and Manifestations of Stress amongst School-Aged Dyslexics, Compared with Sibling Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2008-01-01

    All school children experience stress at some point in their school careers. This study investigates whether dyslexic children, by way of their educational and social difficulties, experience higher levels of stress at school. The School Situation Survey was used to investigate both the sources and manifestations of stress amongst dyslexic…

  12. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  13. An Assessment of Anxiety Levels in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Iles, Jane E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: It has long been hypothesized that children with learning disabilities, including dyslexia, may be highly vulnerable to emotional consequences such as anxiety. However, research has centred on school-aged children. Aims: The present study aimed to clarify these findings with dyslexic students in higher education. Samples: Sixteen…

  14. Reinventing Papert's Constructionism--Boosting Young Children's Writing Skills with e-Learning Designed for Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2008-01-01

    Since the consent to the Salamanca Statement on special needs education from 1994, e-learning developers have focused on tools aimed to support dyslexic learners. The importance of these efforts is on display every year in the Special Aids exhibition area at the BETT-event in London. ICT and e-learning is now widely used in the special needs…

  15. Contribution of Discourse and Morphosyntax Skills to Reading Comprehension in Chinese Dyslexic and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic…

  16. A Framework for the Creation of Mobile Educational Games for Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladjian, Juan; Richter, Daniel; Muntean, Paul; Ismailovic, Damir; Brügge, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is a reading disability that can, in some cases, be cured. The most frequent treatment for dyslexia consists on repeatedly performing certain word exercises. Because most dyslexic patients are young children, most applications for word training are games. The development of such games is costly and it involves different parts (developers,…

  17. Postural Control and Automaticity in Dyslexic Children: The Relationship between Visual Information and Body Sway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barela, Jose A.; Dias, Josenaldo L.; Godoi, Daniela; Viana, Andre R.; de Freitas, Paulo B.

    2011-01-01

    Difficulty with literacy acquisition is only one of the symptoms of developmental dyslexia. Dyslexic children also show poor motor coordination and postural control. Those problems could be associated with automaticity, i.e., difficulty in performing a task without dispending a fair amount of conscious efforts. If this is the case, dyslexic…

  18. Thermoluminescence dosimeter reader

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, S.; Miura, N.

    1984-10-30

    A thermoluminescence dosimeter reader having a heater for heating a thermoluminescence element, a light measuring circuit for measuring circuit for measuring the intensity of the thermoluminescence emanated from the element when it is heated and a display device for displaying the reading of the dosage of radiation to which the element is exposed according to the intensity of the thermoluminescence is provided with a dosage information inputting means which outputs an electric signal having a value representing a predetermined reference dosage of radiation, a calculating means for calculating a calibration constant which is the ratio between the value of the electric signal and the output value of the light measuring circuit which is the measured value of the dosage of radiation of a reference thermoluminescence element which is exposed to the predetermined reference dosage of radiation, and a memory means for memorizing the calibration constant.

  19. The Malaysian Class Reader Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Devinder; Hunt, Brain

    1990-01-01

    Briefly describes reading standards in Malaysian schools, outlines a class reader program, and provides samples of teaching files designed to help teachers implement the program. (one reference. (GLR)

  20. Mindful Reading: Mindfulness Meditation Helps Keep Readers with Dyslexia and ADHD on the Lexical Track.

    PubMed

    Tarrasch, Ricardo; Berman, Zohar; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on reading, attention, and psychological well-being among people with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits. Various types of dyslexia exist, characterized by different error types. We examined a question that has not been tested so far: which types of errors (and dyslexias) are affected by MBSR training. To do so, we tested, using an extensive battery of reading tests, whether each participant had dyslexia, and which errors types s/he makes, and then compared the rate of each error type before and after the MBSR workshop. We used a similar approach to attention disorders: we evaluated the participants' sustained, selective, executive, and orienting of attention to assess whether they had attention-disorders, and if so, which functions were impaired. We then evaluated the effect of MBSR on each of the attention functions. Psychological measures including mindfulness, stress, reflection and rumination, lifesatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and sleep-disturbances were also evaluated. Nineteen Hebrew-readers completed a 2-month mindfulness workshop. The results showed that whereas reading errors of letter-migrations within and between words and vowelletter errors did not decrease following the workshop, most participants made fewer reading errors in general following the workshop, with a significant reduction of 19% from their original number of errors. This decrease mainly resulted from a decrease in errors that occur due to reading via the sublexical rather than the lexical route. It seems, therefore, that mindfulness helped reading by keeping the readers on the lexical route. This improvement in reading probably resulted from improved sustained attention: the reduction in sublexical reading was significant for the dyslexic participants who also had attention deficits, and there were significant correlations between reduced reading errors and decreases in

  1. Mindful Reading: Mindfulness Meditation Helps Keep Readers with Dyslexia and ADHD on the Lexical Track

    PubMed Central

    Tarrasch, Ricardo; Berman, Zohar; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on reading, attention, and psychological well-being among people with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits. Various types of dyslexia exist, characterized by different error types. We examined a question that has not been tested so far: which types of errors (and dyslexias) are affected by MBSR training. To do so, we tested, using an extensive battery of reading tests, whether each participant had dyslexia, and which errors types s/he makes, and then compared the rate of each error type before and after the MBSR workshop. We used a similar approach to attention disorders: we evaluated the participants’ sustained, selective, executive, and orienting of attention to assess whether they had attention-disorders, and if so, which functions were impaired. We then evaluated the effect of MBSR on each of the attention functions. Psychological measures including mindfulness, stress, reflection and rumination, lifesatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and sleep-disturbances were also evaluated. Nineteen Hebrew-readers completed a 2-month mindfulness workshop. The results showed that whereas reading errors of letter-migrations within and between words and vowelletter errors did not decrease following the workshop, most participants made fewer reading errors in general following the workshop, with a significant reduction of 19% from their original number of errors. This decrease mainly resulted from a decrease in errors that occur due to reading via the sublexical rather than the lexical route. It seems, therefore, that mindfulness helped reading by keeping the readers on the lexical route. This improvement in reading probably resulted from improved sustained attention: the reduction in sublexical reading was significant for the dyslexic participants who also had attention deficits, and there were significant correlations between reduced reading errors and decreases in

  2. The Importance of Processing Automaticity and Temporary Storage Capacity to the Differences in Comprehension between Skilled and Less-Skilled College-Age Deaf Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Leonard P.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, 16 skilled adult readers who are deaf and 14 less skilled readers completed a battery of experimental tasks that generated multiple indicators of storage capacity and automaticity. Results indicate less skilled readers must invest significantly more conscious mental effort than skilled readers to complete basic operations of…

  3. Top One Hundred Kids' Books: Readers Talking to Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Elaine; Kist, Marijo; Sugden, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a committee of children's librarians created a booklist that allowed young readers to talk to other readers through published book annotations. Discusses development, promotion, and judging of a contest that encouraged children to submit new ideas and resulted in a list of entries from children at 55 schools. Includes sample winning…

  4. The Graded Reader Is Dead, Long Live the Electronic Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, John; Neufeld, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Many course books for learners of English as a second or foreign language now claim to contain a strong lexical component. Other practitioners meanwhile continue to advocate the use of graded readers to augment vocabulary development. This article reports the findings of vocabulary profiling and analysis of both course books and graded readers and…

  5. Fostering Fluent Readers and Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, E.

    In recent characterizations of reading and writing, the distinctions melt into each other so that one definition serves for both: both are the creation of meaning. In the act of creating meaning, readers become writers and writers become readers. While reading is primarily receptive and writing is primarily productive, fluency in reading is very…

  6. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  7. Bee a Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Holly, Ed.; Marmolejo, Jill, Ed.

    This publication is a tutor's guide to teaching basic literacy using The Fresno Bee, a California newspaper, as the primary "textbook." The course is aimed at English-speaking adults and is designed to teach reading in an interesting and entertaining way that promotes self-motivated study, both in the classroom and at home. The guide is divided…

  8. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as “cholocate” as the correct word “chocolate.” Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading. PMID:27303331

  9. Characteristics of cognitive deficits and writing skills of Polish adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna Maria; Łockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Marta; Pąchalska, Maria

    2014-07-01

    The present study was aimed at analysing cognitive deficits of dyslexic adults, and examining their written language skills in comparison with their peers. Our results confirm the presence of a certain profile of symptoms in adult dyslexics. We noticed deficits in: phonological (verbal) short-term memory, phonological awareness, rapid automatised naming (speed, self-corrections), visual perception and control, and visual-motor coordination. Moreover, the dyslexic participants, as compared with their nondyslexic peers, produced more word structure errors whilst writing an essay. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the length of the essay, the number of linguistic and punctuation errors, the number of adjectives, and stylistic devices. PMID:23524010

  10. Speech-in-Noise Perception Deficit in Adults with Dyslexia: Effects of Background Type and Listening Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Marjorie; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is associated with impaired speech-in-noise perception. The goal of the present research was to further characterize this deficit in dyslexic adults. In order to specify the mechanisms and processing strategies used by adults with dyslexia during speech-in-noise perception, we explored the influence of background type,…

  11. Progress in reading and spelling of dyslexic children is not affected by executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Walda, Sietske A E; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Wijnants, Maarten L; Bosman, Anna M T

    2014-12-01

    Although poor reading and spelling skills have been associated with weak skills of executive functioning (EF), its role in literacy is not undisputed. Because EF has different theoretical underpinnings, methods of analysis and of assessing, it has led to varying and often contrasting results in its effects in children with dyslexia. The present study has two goals. The first goal is to establish the relationship between a large number of EF tasks and reading and spelling skills in a large number of Dutch dyslexic children (n = 229). More interesting, however, is the second aim. To what extent do EF skills predict progress in reading and spelling in dyslexic children who attended a remediation programme? The results revealed small, but significant relationships between EF and reading and spelling skills, but no relationships between EF and progress in reading and spelling. It is concluded that training EF skills is unlikely to enhance reading and spelling skills. PMID:25200678

  12. Events & Opinion: A Report to Our Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    Reprints an article originally published in 1957. Surveys readers of the journal. Notes that readers felt that 89% of the articles were either very good or excellent. Lists readers' views of pressing educational issues. (RS)

  13. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  14. From Darkness to Light: Tales of Hope for YA Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 14 recently published books for young adult readers that deal with difficult topics but that also shed light and offer hope. Organizes them into: collections of stories and poems; stories that deal with memoirs, memories and dreams; and stories of friends and family. (SR)

  15. Beyond Decoding: Phonological Processing during Silent Reading in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Hazel I.; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl),…

  16. Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Collection of Teaching Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David W., Ed.; Alvermann, Donna E., Ed.; Hinchman, Kathleen A., Ed.

    Recognizing that productively engaging low-achieving adolescents in print-rich classrooms is complicated, this book presents 40 articles that focus specifically on teaching struggling readers in middle school and high school classrooms. The articles in the book are drawn primarily from the "Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy." The book is…

  17. Effect of monocular occlusion on visuomotor perception and reading in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Stein, J; Fowler, S

    1985-07-13

    101 (68%) of 148 dyslexic children had unstable vergence eye movement control (unfixed reference) in the Dunlop synoptophore test. These children tended to make visual rather than phonemic errors when reading and writing; the opposite was true for those with stable control (fixed reference). The 148 dyslexic children were given plano spectacles to wear for 6 months when reading and writing and were randomised to receive either spectacles that had the left lens occluded or untreated ones. The trial was double blind. Conversion from unfixed to fixed reference occurred in 51% of the children who wore occluded spectacles, compared with 24% of those who wore plain spectacles. In the former group increase in reading ability improved by almost 6 months relative to change in age, whereas in those who wore plain spectacles and whose reference did not become fixed reading ability regressed by 0.4 months. The children with unfixed reference who did not benefit from occlusion were those who made not only visual but also phonemic and sequencing errors. Monocular occlusion may thus help one-sixth of dyslexic children to develop reliable vergence control and thereby to read. PMID:2861526

  18. Developmental dyslexia in adults: behavioural manifestations and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Hulme, Charles

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the nature of residual literacy and cognitive deficits in self-reported dyslexic Norwegian adults. The performance of 26 self-reported dyslexic adults was compared with that of a comparison group of 47 adults with no history of reading or spelling difficulties. Participants completed standardized and experimental measures tapping literacy skills, working memory, phonological awareness and rapid naming. Spelling problems were the most prominent marker of dyslexia in adults, followed by text reading fluency and nonword decoding. Working memory and phoneme awareness explained unique variance in spelling, whereas rapid automatized naming explained unique variance in reading fluency and nonword reading. The moderate to strong correlations between self-reported history, self-rating of current literacy skills and outcomes on literacy tests indicate that adults estimated their literacy skills fairly well. Results suggest that spelling impairments, more strongly than reading impairments, make adults perceive themselves as being dyslexic. A combination of three literacy and three cognitive tests predicted group membership with 90.4% accuracy. It appears that weaknesses in phoneme awareness, rapid automatized naming and working memory are strong and persistent correlates of literacy problems even in adults learning a relatively transparent orthography. PMID:24842581

  19. Popular Science Readers: An Aid for Achieving Scientific Literacy in the PRC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetz Frank J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents over 40 excerpts from scientific readers which are designed to help Chinese children and young adults overcome superstition and develop basic scientific literacy. Topics include electricity, human evolution, physical properties of minerals, and personal health and hygiene. Recommends use of these readers as models for educating groups in…

  20. A View of Dyslexia in Context: Implications for Understanding Differences in Essay Writing Experience amongst Higher Education Students Identified as Dyslexic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christine; Sellman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article applies socio-cultural theories to explore how differences in essay writing experience are constituted for a group of students identified as dyslexic. It reports on a qualitative study with eleven student writers, seven of whom are formally identified as dyslexic, from the schools of archaeology, history and philosophy in a…

  1. Filling the Gaps: "The Baby-Sitters Club," the Series Book, and the Learning Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Explores the enormous attraction for young readers of series books (such as Nancy Drew, Hardy Boys, and currently "The Baby-Sitters Club"). Discusses what children might learn from such reading, often thought of as pap literature by adults. (SR)

  2. Impaired Visual Expertise for Print in French Adults with Dyslexia as Shown by N170 Tuning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Gavens, Nathalie; Dufour, Andre; Doignon-Camus, Nadege

    2012-01-01

    Efficient reading relies on expertise in the visual word form area, with abnormalities in the functional specialization of this area observed in individuals with developmental dyslexia. We have investigated event related potentials in print tuning in adults with dyslexia, based on their N170 response at 135-255 ms. Control and dyslexic adults…

  3. Validity of a Protocol for Adult Self-Report of Dyslexia and Related Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method: 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and…

  4. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

  5. Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Nenad; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Wolf, Robert Christian

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance…

  6. Decreased Sensitivity to Phonemic Mismatch in Spoken Word Processing in Adult Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janse, Esther; de Bree, Elise; Brouwer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Initial lexical activation in typical populations is a direct reflection of the goodness of fit between the presented stimulus and the intended target. In this study, lexical activation was investigated upon presentation of polysyllabic pseudowords (such as "procodile for crocodile") for the atypical population of dyslexic adults to see to what…

  7. Inhibitory control during sentence reading in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    van der Schoot, Menno; Licht, Robert; Horsley, Tako M; Aarts, Letty T; van Koert, Barbara; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2004-09-01

    The present study focused on the nature of the reading disability of children with the guessing subtype of dyslexia (who read fast and inaccurately). The objective was to separate the excitatory account of their reading disturbance (i.e., in guessers the words' resting levels of activation are oversensitive to semantic context) from the inhibitory account (i.e., guessers tend to react prematurely to (false) candidate words that are activated in the lexicon). To disentangle the above accounts, guessers and normal readers were presented with a sentential priming task (SPT). In the SPT, subjects had to determine whether the final word of a sentence was semantically congruent or incongruent with the sentence, but had to inhibit their 'congruent' or 'incongruent' response in case of an occasionally presented pseudoword. To evoke guessing, each pseudoword closely resembled either a valid congruent or incongruent word. Guessing referred to prematurely accepting a pseudoword as a word that either appropriately or inappropriately completed the sentence. The extent to which subjects guessed at word meaning was evidenced by the false recognition rates (FRR) of the misspelled terminal words. Analyses on the FRRs of the pseudowords showed that guessers had significantly more difficulty in suppressing the 'go tendency' triggered by the pseudowords. It was concluded that the impulsive reading style of guessers should be ascribed to a less efficient suppression mechanism rather than to excessive reliance on contextual information. Specifically, the data were explained by assuming that the availability of the pseudoword's candidate meaning activated the hand to respond with, and that guessers found difficulty in suspending this response until they analyzed all letters in the stimulus and they could be sure of its spelling. PMID:15590496

  8. Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  9. A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers and measured comprehension and/or fluency outcomes. Findings revealed fluency outcomes were consistently improved following interventions that included listening passage previewing such as listening to an audiotape or adult model of good reading before attempting to read a passage. In addition, there is preliminary evidence that there may be no differential effects between repeated reading interventions and the same amount of non-repetitive reading with older struggling readers for increasing reading speed, word recognition, and comprehension. PMID:22485066

  10. Integration of proprioceptive signals and attentional capacity during postural control are impaired but subject to improvement in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Quercia, Patrick; Demougeot, Laurent; Dos Santos, Mickaël; Bonnetblanc, François

    2011-04-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia suffer from delayed reading capabilities and may also exhibit attentional and sensori-motor deficits. The objective of this study was twofold. First, we aimed at investigating whether integration of proprioceptive signals in balance control was more impaired in dyslexic children when the attentional demand was varied. Secondly, we checked whether this effect was reduced significantly by using a specific treatment to improve eye control deficits and certain postural signs that are often linked to dyslexia (Quercia et al. in J Fr Ophtalmol 28:713-723, 2005, J Fr Ophtalmol 30:380-89, 2007). Thirty dyslexic and 51 treated dyslexic children (> 3 months of treatment) were compared with 42 non-dyslexic children in several conditions (mean age: 136.2 ± 23.6, 132.2 ± 18.7 and 140.2 ± 25 months, respectively). Co-vibration of ankle muscles was effected in order to alter proprioceptive information originating from the ankle. In two vibration conditions, ankle muscles were either not vibrated or vibrated at 85 Hz without illusion of any movement. These two vibration conditions were combined with two attentional conditions. In the first such condition, children maintained balance while merely fixing their gaze on a point in front of them. In the second condition, they had to look for smaller or larger stars in a panel showing forty of each kind. Balance was assessed by means of a force plate. Results indicated that the mean velocity (i.e. the total length) of the center of pressure (CoP) displacement in the 85-Hz vibration condition increased significantly more (compared with no vibration) in the dyslexic and the treated dyslexic groups than in the control group, irrespective of the attention task. Interestingly, in the condition without vibration, the attentional performance of treated children was similar to that of the control group, whereas the attentional performance of the untreated dyslexic children was significantly impaired

  11. Turkish Basic Course. Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrali, Selman N., Comp.; And Others

    The present Reader is the third and final volume in the Foreign Service Institute's "Turkish Basic Course." (See ED 013 451 and ED 024 050 for Units 1-30 and Units 31-50.) Reading selections are arranged in approximate ascending order of difficulty with some grouping of selections in subject matter categories. The selections, which have not been…

  12. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  13. Comparative Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempner, Ken, Ed.; Mollis, Marcela, Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore why particular national higher education systems operate as they do and the effects these systems have on one another, on national and global development, and on the production of knowledge. The works included in this reader address the assessment of inputs and outputs of institutions and the meaning these…

  14. Narratives of the Struggling Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlach, Saba; Burcie, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Struggling readers need to be taught at their instruction level. But often, separating them from their classmates reinforces their feelings of inadequacy. This article will explain the importance of developing a sense of agency in struggling learners and outline some strategies teachers can incorporate to help make this happen within the classroom.

  15. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  16. A Matchmaking Tool for Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcastro, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Discusses readers' advisory services in public libraries and describes a method to convert information on specific books and genres to a computer database. Topics include utilizing staff knowledge, fields included for each book, the development of descriptors, the editing process, and writing summaries and critiques of the books. (LRW)

  17. Reader Response in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles, Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on reader response in the classroom, the works collected in this book represent the results of a five-week summer institute in which 25 middle school, high school, and college teachers studied the principles and applications of literature instruction. The following essays are included: an introduction by G. Garber; "An Overview of the…

  18. Raising Rigor for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; Watson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rigor of learning tasks to align with the expectations in the Common Core State Standards presents challenges for many educators, particularly for middle and high school teachers of nonproficient readers. In this article, the authors describe a number of these challenges and identify four steps that together, create a systematic…

  19. Predictable Books: Captivating Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckner, John

    1990-01-01

    Because prediction plays such a vital role in reading comprehension, predictable books are essential in the teaching of beginning readers. Prediction involves a three-step cycle: sampling, predicting, and confirming. Steps in using predictable books with hearing-impaired students are outlined, and a list of predictable and repetitive books is…

  20. Fairy Tales for Two Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criscoe, Betty L., Ed.; Lanasa, Philip J., III, Ed.

    The 15 adapted fairy tales presented in this book were prepared for use in practicing oral reading by a parent and a child, a teacher and a child, or two children, one of whom reads slightly better than the other. The stories in the book are arranged in dialogue format for two readers. The high interest/low readability stories in the book are…

  1. Reading Comprehension for Older Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a multicomponent comprehension strategy and graphic organizers designed for older readers to gain meaning from text. Practices designed to capitalize on the best research-based elements associated with improved outcomes in reading comprehension, particularly for expository texts, are described. The graphic…

  2. Writing Reviews for Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Reviews are an important resource for readers' advisory and collection development. They are also a helpful promotional tool, introducing patrons to what is new on the shelf. This resource includes: (1) Tips for writing strong, relevant reviews; (2) Different ways reviews can be used to promote your library; and (3) A chapter by Joyce Saricks…

  3. Distinguished Books. Notable Books of 2001; Best Books for Young Adults; Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers; Audiobooks for Young Adults; Notable Children's Books; Notable Children's Videos; Notable Recordings for Children; Notable software and Web Sites for Children; Bestsellers of 2001; Literary Prizes, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Riippa, Laurele; Ink, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Presents bibliographies of notable books, best books for young adults, audiobooks for young adults, notable children's books, notable children's videos, notable recordings for children, and notable software and Web sites for children; discusses bestsellers; and lists literary prizes awarded in 2001. (LRW)

  4. Does the Auditory Saltation Stimulus Distinguish Dyslexic from Competently Reading Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Hogben, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Where the auditory saltation illusion has been used as a measure of auditory temporal processing (ATP) in dyslexia, conflicting results have been apparent (cf. R. Hari & P. Kiesila, 1996; M. Kronbichler, F. Hutzler, & H. Wimmer, 2002). This study sought to re-examine these findings by investigating whether dyslexia is characterized by…

  5. Developmental Language Disability: Adult Accomplishments of Dyslexic Boys. Hood College Monograph Series, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Margaret B.

    A longitudinal study was made of 56 boys, a highly homogeneous group from 44 families. All had attended a regular private elementary school for at least 3 years between 1930 and 1937. All were placed in three groups according to their performance on a language learning facility scale. The lowest 20 were rated as dyslexis, with specific…

  6. Acquired Surface Dyslexia: The Evidence from Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnboim, Smadar

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the symptoms of acquired surface dyslexia in Hebrew. Four acquired surface dyslexic adults were compared with eight normal second graders in terms of reading strategy. Homophones and homographs were a major source of difficulty for native Hebrew surface dyslexic readers; the normal second graders used a non-lexical strategy. (45…

  7. A Developmental, Interactive Activation Model of the Word Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Christopher H.; Tallal, Paula

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of orthographic context on the letter recognition skills of dyslexic children, comparing their performance to that of adults and of chronological and reading age-matched groups. Results showed that the two matched groups showed strong word superiority effect (WSE) for words and pseudowords over nonwords. Dyslexic readers did not…

  8. Dyslexic entrepreneurs: the incidence; their coping strategies and their business skills.

    PubMed

    Logan, Julie

    2009-11-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a significantly higher incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs than in the corporate management and general US and UK populations and some of the strategies they adopt to overcome dyslexia (such as delegation of tasks) may be useful in business. The study was undertaken in two parts. First, entrepreneurs and corporate managers completed an online questionnaire, which combined questions about their company, their management or leadership role and their business skills together with questions that were designed to explore the likely incidence of dyslexia. A follow-up study that made use of a semi-structured questionnaire explored business issues and educational experience in more depth with those who had been diagnosed as dyslexic and those who did not have any history of dyslexia or any other learning difficulty. PMID:19378286

  9. Into Focus: Understanding and Creating Middle School Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Kylene, Ed.; Samuels, Barbara G., Ed.

    Addressing the needs of English language learners, remedial readers, avid readers, gifted readers, dormant readers, reluctant readers, and readers in content areas, this book's goal is to help middle school teachers connect their students to reading. The book offers multiple lists of trade books that different types of middle school readers enjoy;…

  10. Individual Cognitive Training of Reading Disability Improves Word Identification and Sentence Comprehension in Adults with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Lanthier, Odile; Chauvin, Dominique; Hambourg, Nicole; Wilson, Anna J.; Basquin, Michel; Mazet, Philippe; Riviere, Jean Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Reading therapy has been shown to be effective in treating reading disabilities (RD) in dyslexic children, but little is known of its use in subjects with mild mental retardation (MR). Twenty adult volunteers, with both RD and mild MR, underwent 60 consecutive weeks in a cognitive remediation program, and were compared with 32 untreated control…

  11. Evidence for a Preserved Sensitivity to Orthographic Redundancy and an Impaired Access to Phonological Syllables in French Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in…

  12. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  13. The Effects of Visualizing and Verbalizing Methods in Remedial Spelling Training: Individual Changes in Dyslexic Students' Spelling Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Gunter

    2006-01-01

    A remedial spelling training approach is presented which systematically combines certain visualizing and verbalizing methods to foster dyslexic students' orthographic knowledge and strategy use. It essentially depends upon an integrative application of algorithmic graphs and verbal self-instructions: Visualization and verbalization are intended…

  14. Are French Dyslexic Children Sensitive to Consonant Sonority in Segmentation Strategies? Preliminary Evidence from a Letter Detection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; de Cara, Bruno; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether--and how--consonant sonority (obstruent vs. sonorant) and status (coda vs. onset) within syllable boundaries modulate the syllable-based segmentation strategies. Here, it is questioned whether French dyslexic children, who experience acoustic-phonetic (i.e., voicing) and phonological impairments, are…

  15. Perceptions of Turkish Parents with Children Identified as Dyslexic about the Problems that They and Their Children Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study identified problems encountered by both dyslexic children and their parents. Seven parents were interviewed. Parents mentioned the negative attitudes of teachers towards them and their children, the use of incorrect practices in the classroom, and educational insufficiency in relation to dyslexia. Similarly, family members were found to…

  16. Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

  17. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  18. Enhancing Readers' Analysis-by-Synthesis Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    A variety of techniques for improving readers' analysis-by-synthesis abilities (rapid, efficient reading typical of highly skilled readers) are presented in this paper. The techniques discussed in the first part emphasize improving reading comprehension and include the following: (1) modifications of the cloze procedure (encouraging readers to use…

  19. E-Readers: Powering up for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Twyla; Johnson, Kary A.; Rossi-Williams, Dara

    2012-01-01

    E-readers like the Amazon Kindle and the Barnes and Noble Nook are beginning to make their way into school libraries and classrooms. It's about time. E-readers have tremendous potential to entice reluctant readers to read more. A study that the authors recently conducted among low-reading-ability middle school students demonstrated that potential.…

  20. Precision Reading: New Hope for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeze, Rick

    2006-01-01

    A rationale for a novel approach to remedial reading for struggling readers, including students labeled with intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, attention deficit and behavior disorders, below average language development, and those described as reluctant or resistant readers is presented. It is suggested that struggling readers find…

  1. Audiovisual Perception of Noise Vocoded Speech in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Adults: The Role of Low-Frequency Visual Modulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Visual speech inputs can enhance auditory speech information, particularly in noisy or degraded conditions. The natural statistics of audiovisual speech highlight the temporal correspondence between visual and auditory prosody, with lip, jaw, cheek and head movements conveying information about the speech envelope. Low-frequency spatial and…

  2. Cerebral Dominance in Disabled Readers, Good Readers, and Gifted Children: Search for a Valid Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershner, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Disabled readers, good readers, and gifted children were compared on their recognition of words presented tachistoscopically under stimultaneous, bilateral viewing conditions. Poor readers showed inferior right-field performance compared with gifted and good readers, but when IQ was covaried, they showed higher left-field scores and lower visual…

  3. Extending the E-Z Reader Model of Eye Movement Control to Chinese Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…

  4. The Preferences of a Selected Group of Older Readers for Five Biographical Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drotter, Molly Wilson

    The reading interests of a group of older adults were examined. Subjects were 16 adults between the ages of 50 and 85 who read five stories from "Readers' Digest" short story collections and who responded to a questionnaire about their preferences for the stories, their reading habits and interests, and the appealing elements of the stories. The…

  5. Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

    This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

  6. Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (“literacy”). Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words. PMID:24834044

  7. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  8. Reading ability influences native and non-native voice recognition, even for unimpaired readers.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Minal A; Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that phonological ability exerts a gradient influence on talker identification, including evidence that adults and children with reading disability show impaired talker recognition for native and non-native languages. The present study examined whether this relationship is also observed among unimpaired readers. Learning rate and generalization of learning in a talker identification task were examined in average and advanced readers who were tested in both native and non-native language conditions. The results indicate that even among unimpaired readers, phonological competence as captured by reading ability exerts a gradient influence on perceptual learning for talkers' voices. PMID:26827051

  9. A Nineteen-Year Follow-up Study of Good, Average, and Poor Readers in the Fifth and Sixth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Mary Evalyn

    This study described adult reading skills, reading habits, and socioeconomic adjustments of persons known to be good, average, or poor readers in Grades 5 and 6; and investigated relationships among adult reading characteristics; parental and adult socioeconomic adjustment, childhood reading achievement and academic aptitude, and parental reading…

  10. Variation in CR imaging plate readers.

    PubMed

    Fauber, Terri L; Legg, Jeffrey S; Quinn, Megan

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated computed radiography (CR) image processing to determine whether variation exists within and among CR imaging plate readers. Photostimulable imaging plates were exposed using a phantom test tool and processed in 4 CR readers located in diverse settings in an urban academic medical center. Research results indicate daily variation of S-numbers within individual CR readers did not exceed tolerance limits, although over the 3-week study period, evidence of S-number variation within individual CR readers was mixed. In addition, S-number variability among multiple CR readers was found to be statistically significant. Although the cause of the variability remains unknown, evidence of variability among multiple CR readers indicates a need for systematic quality control. PMID:12362532

  11. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  12. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  13. Tracking the Emergence of the Consonant Bias in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Developing Readers

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called “consonant bias”). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2nd and 4th Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4th Grade children, whereas 2nd graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4th graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

  14. Tracking the emergence of the consonant bias in visual-word recognition: evidence with developing readers.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called "consonant bias"). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2(nd) and 4(th) Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4(th) Grade children, whereas 2(nd) graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4(th) graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

  15. [The reader brain: natural and cultural story].

    PubMed

    Valdois, S; Habib, M; Cohen, L

    2008-05-01

    The report of cases of pure alexia suggests that some regions of the neural system are dedicated to reading-specific visual processing abilities. Pure alexia results from the disruption or the disconnection of the visual word form area, a region reproducibly located within the left occipito-temporal sulcus and encoding the abstract identity of strings of visual letters. The functional specialization of this area suggests that it is initially plastic and becomes attuned to the orthographic regularities that constrain letter combination during the acquisition of literacy. The visual word form area further belongs to the network of areas that are consistently implicated in studies of people with developmental dyslexia. Developmental dyslexia is typically interpreted as resulting from a core phonological disorder and most neuroimaging studies showed reduced activity in the left perisylvian regions which have a role in phonological processes. Although low level visual and/or visual attentional disorders have been consistently reported suggesting a visual basis of developmental dyslexia, these disorders typically co-occurred with phonological problems so that the phonological deficit was viewed as the most plausible cause of the poor reading outcome of dyslexic children. In the last years however, dissociations have been reported in developmental dyslexia between phonological processing deficits and a particular kind of visual disorder, a visual attention span deficit characterised by a reduction in the number of distinct orthographic units which can be processed simultaneously in a single fixation. Large sample studies revealed that a non trivial number of dyslexic children exhibit a visual attention span disorder and that this disorder typically dissociates from phonological impairments in the dyslexic population. Neuroimaging studies suggest involvement of the parietal lobes - in particular the superior parietal lobules - in visual attention span and these brain

  16. Psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Łockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial superiority in adults with developmental dyslexia. The results suggest, however, that visual-spatial processing of nonverbal material by adults with developmental dyslexia allows them to efficiently execute tasks that are based on sequential material. Moreover, the participants with specific difficulties in reading and writing exhibited a significantly higher level of aspirations than their peers without such difficulties with a comparable level of educational achievement. These results suggest that succeeding in different fields by highly functioning adult dyslexics may depend on personality and motivational factors, rather than cognitive factors. PMID:23462191

  17. Beyond decoding: phonological processing during silent reading in beginning readers.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Hazel I; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-07-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl), or a spelling control (e.g., garl). Both children and adults showed a benefit from the valid phonology of the pseudohomophone, compared to the spelling control during reading. This indicates that children as young as seven years old exhibit relatively skilled phonological processing during reading, despite having moved past the use of overt phonological decoding strategies. In addition, in comparison to adults, children's lexical processing was more disrupted by the presence of spelling errors, suggesting a developmental change in the relative dependence upon phonological and orthographic processing in lexical identification during silent sentence reading. PMID:25528096

  18. High School Readers: A Profile of above Average Readers and Readers with Learning Disabilities Reading Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigent, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined above average high school readers and high school readers with learning disabilities in order to better understand the impact of twelve years of formal education on reading skills and strategy use while reading expository text. This study examined reading strategies related to knowledge construction, monitoring, and evaluating…

  19. Exploring the relationships between the use of text message language and the literacy skills of dyslexic and normal students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jung-Lung

    2013-01-01

    It is apparent that individuals using text abbreviations as a written convention is a continuingly growing phenomenon. This special writing convention has been referred to as textism usage. However, there is surprisingly little research investigating the impacts of textism use on dyslexic children's cognitive abilities associated with literacy skills. Thus, the relation between textism use, phonological awareness, as well as morphological awareness is not yet clear. This issue is critical and urgent because no conclusive guidance is available for practitioners or educators to refine instructional strategies. Furthermore, given that prior researchers focus mainly on alphabetic language, little research draws attention on non-alphabetic language, in which morphological awareness seems rather significant than phonological awareness. In this study a total of 57 participants across six elementary schools in Taiwan were recruited and were formed into three groups. To effectively collect the textisms used by the participants, this study adopted Facebook as the tool to store the messages because of its high penetration rate of 51 percent in Taiwan. Findings of this study suggested that dyslexic children may get rid of the identification, which might encourage them shift their focuses from others' judgment to selecting a proper textism. To use the textism appropriately requires the dyslexic children realize the meaning of the textism and memorize the spelling/writing convention. Consequently, the dyslexia group in this study performed as well as reading-age group in word recognition and meaning recognition. It seemed that dyslexic children preferred to use contraction, symbol, and combined word. These categories of textism are L-S (logography to semantics) in nature. PMID:23023319

  20. Reading and the ophthalmologist. An introduction into the complex phenomenon of ordinary reading as a guideline for analysis and treatment of disabled readers.

    PubMed

    Legein, C P; Bouma, H

    1982-09-30

    Reading problems are a frequent source of complaint in ophthalmological practice. In many cases suitable optical correction is all that is needed. However, difficulties may remain despite adequate optical correction. This paper describes visual reading processes with the aim of making such difficulties understood and, if possible, providing remedies. Four different types of visual reading processes are distinguished: (a) optical imaging, (b)eye movement control, (c) visual word recognition and (d) integration of information across eye fixations. Next the attempt is made to use our insight to obtain a better understanding of actual reading problems, such as those of elderly readers, low-vision patients, and dyslexics as well as those of the blind. Therapeutic options, including visual aids are given due attention. PMID:7173014

  1. Stability of IQ measures in teenagers and young adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ingesson, S Gunnel

    2006-05-01

    A follow-up study was performed to investigate the stability of IQ measures in a group of dyslexic teenagers and young adults. Earlier research had shown contradictory results. The 65 subjects, 12 years old on the average at first test, were retested after a mean interval of six and a half years. There was a significant relative decrease in verbal IQ (VIQ), which was interpreted as either an effect of low reliability of tests used, or an effect of the dyslexic individuals' less experience with reading and writing, and as a consequence, a lag in verbal ability, the second interpretation being in line with earlier findings in groups of children with learning disabilities. Performance IQ improved significantly and the tentative interpretation was that of a compensatory process, in the sense that the dyslexic children might develop a more visual, intuitive and creative way to process information and solve problems. The conclusion was that caution should be taken, before making important decisions on the basis of a single intelligence test, and that dyslexic children might be at risk to lag behind their peers in terms of VIQ, especially if they are not provided with suitable special education. PMID:16734353

  2. [Effects of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" and "badminton" on total-body coordination in older dyslexic boys].

    PubMed

    Schneider, F J

    1984-11-01

    Reported previously from a U.S. empirical study of 7th grade high-school students (102 male and 84 female) where statistically significant results had been found relative to total body coordination and body image (Schneider, 1978), the effectiveness of a series of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" was verified in a 7.5-week longitudinal study of 7th grade male students (N = 20) attending remedial education at a special school for dyslexic students in Massachusetts, U.S.A. It has been possible to demonstrate that these classes had achieved statistically significant improvements in overall body coordination of Ss, measured with the body coordination test KTK - Körper-Koordinationstest für Kinder (Schilling, Kiphart, 1974). Findings obtained from the control group (N = 20) who, during that same period, had been taught, and practising, "Badminton" in the regular sports classes, elicited the same specific, statistically significant gains in overall body coordination. These improvements are considered attributable to the additional, specific stimuli for development provided to the dyslexic students by "creative movement and pantomime" classes and the racket sport "Badminton" alike. The findings support the thesis that delayed formation of hemispheric linkage is present in dyslexic persons, and that specific movement programmes provide developmental stimuli that influence overall body coordination. PMID:6515105

  3. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation in the color-word Stroop task for Chinese dyslexic children: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinyan; Zhai, Jiahuan; Song, Ranran; Zou, Li; Gong, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral studies have investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia in conflict resolution, a function connected with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) closely. However, little is known about the prefrontal activation in conflict resolution for dyslexic children. In the present study, the involvement of the PFC in resolving conflict was evaluated for Chinese dyslexic children by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The NIRS instrument is a portable, continuous-wave system and can measure concentration changes of hemodynamic parameters (including oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin). Considering better sensitivity, the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was chosen to indicate the prefrontal activation. Ten dyslexic children and 11 normal children were recruited to perform the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included the neutral and color (incongruent) tasks. In behavioral performance, both groups showed significant Stroop effect, longer response time or higher error rate for the color task. In particular, the Stroop interference effect was marginally larger for dyslexic children than normal children in response time. What's more, the two groups showed distinct pattern of oxy-Hb activation during the Stroop tasks. The normal group recruited the bilateral PFC to perform the tasks, while the dyslexic group couldn't activate the bilateral PFC in the difficult color task. Moreover, significantly less color Stroop effect was found in the left PFC for the dyslexic group, showing their disability in coping with the Stroop interference. These findings suggest that the PFC is dysfunctional in conflict resolution for Chinese dyslexic children and that NIRS can be an effective tool in neurological research and clinical application.

  4. Three Readers, Three Languages, Three Texts: The Strategic Reading of Multilingual and Multiliterate Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsheikh, Negmeldin O.

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigates the metacognitive reading strategies of three advanced proficient trilingual readers whose native language is Hausa. The study examines the reading strategies employed by the three readers in English, French and Hausa. The aim of the study was to compare the reading strategy profiles of trilingual readers through…

  5. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  6. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  7. Readers Theatre: An Introduction to Classroom Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    One of the primary principles of Readers Theater is to "dramatize" literature in classroom performance and to provide a visual and oral stimulus to students who are unaccustomed to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. Readers Theater may be used to enhance the critical study of language; to explore author meaning or point of view; to…

  8. Attracting New Readers with Hip Hop Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2007-01-01

    With the explosion of technology, librarians are not the only ones who sometimes feel that reading has taken a backseat as a recreational activity. Readers are not reading like they used to. However, while overall readership is down in almost every demographic group, African-Americans, a faction traditionally considered reluctant readers, are…

  9. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  10. Professional Roles: Inventing Writers for Imagined Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, George P. E.

    Careful audience analysis should be a major focus of the rhetorical side of technical writing courses for university undergraduates. Student writers need to be taught to appreciate their readers' problems, interests, and motives. Most often, audience analysis is accomplished imaginatively--authors create mental images of their readers. Students…

  11. Advanced Hindi Reader in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatuk, Ved Prakash

    This reader contains 25 selections in standard Hindi by recognized authorities in the major fields of social science; namely sociology, anthropology, folklore, economics, and political science. The writings, evenly divided both in content and style, are intended to give the reader a broad perspective of Indian culture. A 128-page Hindi-English…

  12. Designing Online Courses for Screen Reader Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Lorna R.; Frey, Barbara A.; McMorland, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    A review of multiple online courses at one institution was conducted by a skilled screen reader user for the purpose of assessing the extent to which the courses were navigable and understandable to online students using assistive technologies. This paper identifies features of online courses that may present problems for screen reader users and…

  13. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  14. Accelerated Reader. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Accelerated Reader" is a computer-based reading management system designed to complement an existing classroom literacy program for grades pre-K-12. It is designed to increase the amount of time students spend reading independently. Students choose reading-level appropriate books or short stories for which Accelerated Reader tests are available…

  15. Verbal Reports: How Readers Process Unfamiliar Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Mary Beth

    With the use of verbal report strategies, a study was conducted to examine (1) the types of comprehension strategies readers use to process familiar and less familiar texts and (2) the differential use of think aloud strategies by average and below average readers. Subjects were 15 tenth grade male students in upstate New York. Two weeks prior to…

  16. Using Readers' Theater with Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenburger, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The author needed a way to engage her students in the reading process and found one extremely successful strategy: using Readers' Theater. Readers' Theater "dramatizes" literature through a classroom performance and provides visual and oral stimulus to students who are not used to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. It involves a…

  17. Practicum Training for Teachers of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell

    2011-01-01

    Teachers who work with struggling beginning readers need a supervised training experience that leads them to understand both how reading ability develops and how to adapt instruction to meet the needs of individual children. The practicum, in which a teacher works with one struggling reader under the supervision of an experienced and expert…

  18. Notebook Connections: Strategies for the Reader's Notebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Aimee

    2009-01-01

    In "Notebook Know-How", Aimee Buckner demonstrated the power of notebooks to spark and capture students' ideas in the writing workshop. In "Notebook Connections", she turns her focus to the reading workshop, showing how to transform those "couch-potato" readers into deep thinkers. Buckner's fourth-grade students use reader's notebooks as a place…

  19. Reader Response in the Teaching of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marian

    As an interesting development in recent literary criticism, reader response can enhance a composition class in many ways. Reader response, by incorporating both intellect and feeling into an aesthetic reaction to literature, restores the subjective aspect that some forms of criticism deny. Three main elements compose the repeated cycle of a…

  20. Using Nooks to Hook Reluctant Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a two-year qualitative study of electronic reading device use with high school sophomores, most of whom self-identified as reluctant or struggling readers. Electronic readers were used primarily in one weekly fifty-minute class period, during silent sustained reading, wherein students chose freely their texts.…

  1. Secondary School Students' Opinions about Readers' Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabag, S. Gulin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a teaching strategy which not only blends yesterday and today in a meaningful way but also powerfully integrates literacy and history will be examined. Firstly Readers' Theatre as a technique will be introduced. Secondly, the usage guidelines of Readers' Theatre will be presented. Finally the opinions of secondary school students…

  2. Technology: News Readers and Other Handy Utilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how there are advantages and disadvantages to using an Internet News Reader instead of a Web browser. The major advantage is that one can read the headlines and short summaries of news articles from dozens of sources quickly. Another advantage the author points out to news readers is that one gets a short…

  3. KURDISH READERS. PART II, KURDISH ESSAYS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    THIS READER, TOGETHER WITH THE "NEWSPAPER KURDISH" AND "SHORT STORIES" READERS, FOLLOWS THE "BASIC COURSE IN KURDISH" (BY THE SAME AUTHORS) AND ASSUMES A MASTERY OF THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE STRUCTURE AND WRITING SYSTEM AS PRESENTED IN THE BEGINNING COURSE. WRITTEN IN THE SULAIMANIAN DIALECT, THE OFFICIAL DIALECT OF IRAQI KURDISTAN, THESE 12…

  4. The Portrayal of Reader-Writer Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.

    Reader-writer conferencing was examined as an alternative or complement to the direct assessment of writing. Criteria guiding development of a framework for analysis of reader-writer conferencing were summarized as: (1) achievability; (2) transfer to other domains of writing; (3) importance of the outcomes; (4) inter-scorer agreement; and (5)…

  5. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  6. Contrasting group analysis of Brazilian students with dyslexia and good readers using the computerized reading and writing assessment battery “BALE”

    PubMed Central

    Toledo Piza, Carolina M. J.; de Macedo, Elizeu C.; Miranda, Monica C.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys) with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44) drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: (1) an age control group (AC) of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44) matched by age, sex, years of schooling, and type of school; (2) reading control group (RC) of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06) matched by sex, type of school, and reading level. All groups were tested on four tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery (“BALE”): Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT); Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT); Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing); and the Reading Competence Test (RCT). These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling, and reading isolated words and pseudowords (non-words). The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times, and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. These findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning

  7. Chemical Inhibitors of Epigenetic Methyllysine Reader Proteins.

    PubMed

    Milosevich, Natalia; Hof, Fraser

    2016-03-22

    Protein methylation is a common post-translational modification with diverse biological functions. Methyllysine reader proteins are increasingly a focus of epigenetics research and play important roles in regulating many cellular processes. These reader proteins are vital players in development, cell cycle regulation, stress responses, oncogenesis, and other disease pathways. The recent emergence of a small number of chemical inhibitors for methyllysine reader proteins supports the viability of these proteins as targets for drug development. This article introduces the biochemistry and biology of methyllysine reader proteins, provides an overview of functions for those families of readers that have been targeted to date (MBT, PHD, tudor, and chromodomains), and reviews the development of synthetic agents that directly block their methyllysine reading functions. PMID:26650180

  8. Asymmetric bias in perception of facial affect among Roman and Arabic script readers.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robin L; Rouhana, Aida; Ghanem, Dana Abi

    2005-01-01

    The asymmetric chimeric faces test is used frequently as an indicator of right hemisphere involvement in the perception of facial affect, as the test is considered free of linguistic elements. Much of the original research with the asymmetric chimeric faces test was conducted with subjects reading left-to-right Roman script, i.e., English. As readers of right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic, demonstrated a mixed or weak rightward bias in judgements of facial affect, the influence of habitual scanning direction was thought to intersect with laterality. We administered the asymmetric chimeric faces test to 1239 adults who represented a range of script experience, i.e., Roman script readers (English and French), Arabic readers, bidirectional readers of Roman and Arabic scripts, and illiterates. Our findings supported the hypothesis that the bias in facial affect judgement is rooted in laterality, but can be influenced by script direction. Specifically, right-handed readers of Roman script demonstrated the greatest mean leftward score, and mixed-handed Arabic script readers demonstrated the greatest mean rightward score. Biliterates showed a gradual shift in asymmetric perception, as their scores fell between those of Roman and Arabic script readers, basically distributed in the order expected by their handedness and most often used script. Illiterates, whose only directional influence was laterality, showed a slight leftward bias. PMID:15841823

  9. Comparison of aesthetic preferences among Roman and Arabic script readers.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robin L; Mahmasanni, Oula; Rouhana, Aida; Nassif, Nader

    2005-09-01

    The systemic bias for aesthetic preferences demonstrated by prior research is thought to reflect neural organisation. Research on aesthetic preference and laterality has usually been conducted with participants who read a left-to-right Roman script, e.g., English. In order to determine if the aesthetic judgments were influenced by habitual scanning direction, we administered a geometric aesthetic preference test to 578 right-handed adults who represented a range of script experience, i.e., left-to-right Roman script readers (English); right-to-left Arabic script readers; bi-directional readers of Roman and Arabic scripts; and illiterates. We also administered an asymmetric chimeric faces test. Our findings showed that biases in aesthetic preference were influenced by script direction and pictorial dimensions. In a laterally balanced composition, participants preferred to begin their scan with the object representing Interest and terminate with the object representing Weight, the direction being determined by the script. In an unbalanced composition, participants tended to fixate on content, whether Interest or Weight, and move in a direction consistent with the script. PMID:16191811

  10. First genome-wide association scan on neurophysiological endophenotypes points to trans-regulation effects on SLC2A3 in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Roeske, D; Ludwig, K U; Neuhoff, N; Becker, J; Bartling, J; Bruder, J; Brockschmidt, F F; Warnke, A; Remschmidt, H; Hoffmann, P; Müller-Myhsok, B; Nöthen, M M; Schulte-Körne, G

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disorders affecting about 5% of all school-aged children. It has been shown that event-related potential measurements reveal differences between dyslexic children and age-matched controls. This holds particularly true for mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflects automatic speech deviance processing and is altered in dyslexic children. We performed a whole-genome association analysis in 200 dyslexic children, focusing on MMN measurements. We identified rs4234898, a marker located on chromosome 4q32.1, to be significantly associated with the late MMN component. This association could be replicated in an independent second sample of 186 dyslexic children, reaching genome-wide significance in the combined sample (P = 5.14e-08). We also found an association between the late MMN component and a two-marker haplotype of rs4234898 and rs11100040, one of its neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the combined sample, this marker combination withstands correction for multiple testing (P = 6.71e-08). Both SNPs lie in a region devoid of any protein-coding genes; however, they both show significant association with mRNA-expression levels of SLC2A3 on chromosome 12, the predominant facilitative glucose transporter in neurons. Our results suggest a possible trans-regulation effect on SLC2A3, which might lead to glucose deficits in dyslexic children and could explain their attenuated MMN in passive listening tasks. PMID:19786962

  11. A view of dyslexia in context: implications for understanding differences in essay writing experience amongst higher education students identified as dyslexic.

    PubMed

    Carter, Christine; Sellman, Edward

    2013-08-01

    This article applies socio-cultural theories to explore how differences in essay writing experience are constituted for a group of students identified as dyslexic. It reports on a qualitative study with eleven student writers, seven of whom are formally identified as dyslexic, from the schools of archaeology, history and philosophy in a 'traditional' UK university. Semi-structured interviews before, during and after writing a coursework essay revealed well-documented dyslexia-related difficulties and also strong differences in how writing was experienced. The multiple and fluid dimensions that construct these differences suggest the importance of position within the context, previous and developing writing and learning experience, and metacognitive, meta-affective and metalinguistic awareness. They also suggest tensions between specialist and inclusive policies in relation to writing pedagogy for students identified as dyslexic. PMID:23780811

  12. Acquired Dyslexia in a Biscript Reader Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Second Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Nancy; Obler, Loraine K.

    2002-01-01

    This case study examines the reading disruptions in a bilingual/biscriptal (Cantonese/English) older adult reader following traumatic brain injury. Certain characteristics of the subject's reading problems were evident in both writing systems (e.g., sensitivity to word frequency and lack of sensitivity to visual complexity) suggesting principles…

  13. The Effect of Embedded Questions on Readers' Calibration of Test Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofald, Daniel R.; Pajares, M. Frank

    Whether questions embedded in expository text could improve the correspondence between adult readers' subjective assessments of test readiness and their objective test performance (prediction calibration) was studied with 168 undergraduates. In order to minimize the confounding effects of prior knowledge, the subjects were asked to read a text…

  14. Automatic Activation of Phonology in Silent Reading Is Parallel: Evidence from Beginning and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alario, F.-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g.,…

  15. Altering Perspectives: How the Implied Reader Invites Us to Rethink the Difficulty of Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the author's experiences using graphic novels with pre-service teachers in a young adult literature course. Drawing on critical response papers two students composed after reading "Pride of Baghdad," a graphic novel by Brian K. Vaughan and Niko Henrichon, the author argues that when readers possess the background knowledge…

  16. How Readers Spontaneously Interpret "Man"-Suffix Words: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Manizeh; Daneman, Meredyth

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether readers are more likely to assign a male referent to man-suffix terms (e.g. "chairman") than to gender-neutral alternatives (e.g., "chairperson") during reading, and whether this bias differs as a function of age. Younger and older adults' eye movements were monitored while reading passages containing phrases such…

  17. A Case Study of Extensive Reading with an Unmotivated L2 Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Eunseok

    2013-01-01

    Extensive reading is gaining credibility as an effective way of boosting students' affect especially in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context where access to a second language (L2) input is minimal. This study uses a pattern-matching, single case study research design to examine an adult reader's motivation and anxiety shifts…

  18. Novel high-sensitivity fluorescence polarization reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Clifford C.; Levenson, Richard M.; Banks, Peter

    2001-05-01

    We have developed a new fluorescence polarization (FP) reader suitable for high-throughput screening (HST) and ultra-HTS whose assay-performance and sample-throughput are both considerably improved over present state-of-the-art instrumentation. The SymmetryTM reader possesses a number of features that differ from conventional HTS FP readers. These include: laser-based excitation, liquid crystal polarization optics that rapidly and accurately measure polarization states; and CCD detectors to capture emission from multiple wells. We show that the performance in assays relevant to the drug discovery process, such as G- protein coupled receptor-based assays, is significantly enhanced due to a dramatic improvement in precision. Furthermore, the CCD-detection system used can substantially improve sample throughput compared to sequential readers while maintaining high performance.

  19. Using E-Z Reader to Examine the Concurrent Development of Eye-Movement Control and Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Erik D.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Drieghe, Denis; Blythe, Hazel I.; Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; White, Sarah J.; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Compared to skilled adult readers, children typically make more fixations that are longer in duration, shorter saccades, and more regressions, thus reading more slowly (Blythe & Joseph, 2011). Recent attempts to understand the reasons for these differences have discovered some similarities (e.g., children and adults target their saccades…

  20. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Dyslexic Children in a Middle-Sized City of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiajia; Mo, Shengnan; Shao, Shanshan; Zhong, Rong; Ke, Juntao; Lu, Xuzai; Miao, Xiaoping; Song, Ranran

    2013-01-01

    Background There are many discussions about dyslexia based on studies conducted in western countries, and some risk factors to dyslexia, such as gender and home literacy environment, have been widely accepted based on these studies. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies focusing on the risk factors of dyslexia in China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of dyslexia and its potential risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qianjiang, a city in Hubei province, China. Two stages sampling strategy was applied to randomly selected 5 districts and 9 primary schools in Qianjiang. In total, 6,350 students participated in this study and there were 5,063 valid student questionnaires obtained for the final analyses. Additional questionnaires (such as Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and Pupil Rating Scale) were used to identify dyslexic children. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were employed to reveal the potential risk factors to dyslexia. Results Our study revealed that the prevalence of dyslexia was 3.9% in Qianjiang city, which is a middle-sized city in China. Among dyslexic children, the gender ratio (boys to girls) was nearly 3∶1. According to the P-value in the multivariate logistic regression, the gender (P<0.01), mother's education level (P<0.01), and learning habits (P<0.01) (active learning, scheduled reading time) were associated with dyslexia. Conclusion The prevalence rate of dyslexic children in middle-sized cities is 3.9%. The potential risk factors of dyslexic children revealed in this study will have a great impact on detecting and treating dyslexic children in China as early as possible, although more studies are still needed to further investigate the risk factors of dyslexic children in China. PMID:23457604

  1. Clinical characteristics of a population of dyslexic children in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Farrag, A F; Shaker, H; Hamdy, N A; Wafaa, M A

    1995-01-01

    Two groups of pupils from special tract learning schools were randomly selected for this study. The first group (55 pupils) fulfilled the World Federation of Neurology (WFN) definition of developmental dyslexia (DD). The second group (retarded readers, RR) included 20 pupils with IQs between 80 and 90. A group of normal readers was randomly selected from the 5 school grades as a control group. This study showed that the performance IQ of the DD group was not only higher than the verbal IQ, but the DD group also had superior performance IQ compared to normal readers. In the arithmetic achievement test, both DD and RR groups had nearly similar total scores, which were significantly lower than that of the control group. None of the arithmetic subtests could differentiate between DD and RR groups. In linguistic achievement tests, only spontaneous writing and oral spelling could differentiate subjects with DD from the RR group. PMID:7891819

  2. Slower Implicit Categorical Learning in Adult Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Anne J.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Manis, Franklin R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between reading and explicit and implicit categorical learning by comparing university students with poor reading to students with normal reading abilities on two categorical learning tasks. One categorical learning task involved sorting simple geometric shapes into two groups according to a unidimensional rule.…

  3. Do tinted lenses improve the reading performance of dyslexic children? A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Menacker, S J; Breton, M E; Breton, M L; Radcliffe, J; Gole, G A

    1993-02-01

    The use of tinted lenses as a method to improve reading skills in children with dyslexia has been a controversial issue in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to determine if tinted lenses cause a measurable improvement in the reading performance of dyslexic children. Twenty-four children aged 8 to 12 years participated in the study. Dyslexia was diagnosed in all children by psychological evaluation, and these children underwent an ophthalmic evaluation for inclusion into the study. Participants were graded for speed and accuracy as they read through spectacle frames that contained red-, blue-, yellow-, and green-tinted lenses, a neutral-density lens, and empty frames. All lenses for each subject were of the same density level, with subjects alternately distributed to one of two densities tested (0.12 or 0.30 log units). Each child was asked to select the lens condition that subjectively improved reading ability at the conclusion of testing. One-way analysis of variance of reading performance showed neither improvement nor deterioration attributable to lens color or density when applied to error rates (F = 1.73, P = .14 for a density of 0.12; F = 0.28, P = .92 for a density of 0.30) or to reading rates (F = 0.98, P = .44 for a density of 0.12; F = 0.81, P = .55 for a density of 0.30). In addition, the lens condition that was subjectively preferred by each child did not correlate with actual reading performance (chi 2 = 3.83, not significant; 11.07 needed for significance at P = .05). PMID:8431158

  4. Dyslexic, Delayed, Precocious or Just Normal? Word Reading Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Jakob; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Word reading skills and reading-related language and cognitive correlates were examined in Swedish 10-15-year-olds with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The full group with ASD did not differ statistically from an age-matched comparison group in word reading, but a poor-readers subgroup was identified who displayed severe difficulties. Normal…

  5. A meta-analysis of functional reading systems in typically developing and struggling readers across different alphabetic languages.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Courtney; Luk, Gigi; Christodoulou, Joanna A

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research has identified multiple brain regions supporting reading-related activity in typical and atypical readers across different alphabetic languages. Previous meta-analyses performed on these functional magnetic resonance imaging findings typically report significant between-group contrasts comparing typical readers and readers with reading difficulty or a clinical diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. In order to advance our understanding of cross-linguistic convergence of reading-related brain activations for these reader groups, analyses using activation likelihood estimation were carried out separately for typical and atypical readers who ranged from children to adults. Contrasts were analyzed for tasks involving rhyming or reading of letter or word stimuli presented visually in English, Dutch, Italian, German, French, or Norwegian. Typical readers showed reliable activation in only left lateralized regions, including the inferior frontal area, precentral area and middle temporal gyrus. Atypical readers also showed activation in the left inferior frontal area and precentral region, in addition to significant activations in the right hemisphere, including the superior, medial and inferior frontal regions, lingual gyrus and the inferior occipital area. These results distinguish between typical and atypical reader group activations, showing common and distinct regions of activation when engaged in reading-related activities, extending previous meta-analyses on identifying brain regions relevant to reading to include cross-linguistic analyses for alphabetic scripts. Results support the universality of a signature pattern of brain activation in developmental dyslexia across alphabetic languages. PMID:25806009

  6. A meta-analysis of functional reading systems in typically developing and struggling readers across different alphabetic languages

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Courtney; Luk, Gigi; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research has identified multiple brain regions supporting reading-related activity in typical and atypical readers across different alphabetic languages. Previous meta-analyses performed on these functional magnetic resonance imaging findings typically report significant between-group contrasts comparing typical readers and readers with reading difficulty or a clinical diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. In order to advance our understanding of cross-linguistic convergence of reading-related brain activations for these reader groups, analyses using activation likelihood estimation were carried out separately for typical and atypical readers who ranged from children to adults. Contrasts were analyzed for tasks involving rhyming or reading of letter or word stimuli presented visually in English, Dutch, Italian, German, French, or Norwegian. Typical readers showed reliable activation in only left lateralized regions, including the inferior frontal area, precentral area and middle temporal gyrus. Atypical readers also showed activation in the left inferior frontal area and precentral region, in addition to significant activations in the right hemisphere, including the superior, medial and inferior frontal regions, lingual gyrus and the inferior occipital area. These results distinguish between typical and atypical reader group activations, showing common and distinct regions of activation when engaged in reading-related activities, extending previous meta-analyses on identifying brain regions relevant to reading to include cross-linguistic analyses for alphabetic scripts. Results support the universality of a signature pattern of brain activation in developmental dyslexia across alphabetic languages. PMID:25806009

  7. Damping constant estimation in magnetoresistive readers

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej Hernandez, Stephanie

    2015-05-07

    The damping constant is a key design parameter in magnetic reader design. Its value can be derived from bulk or sheet film ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width. However, dynamics of nanodevices is usually defined by presence of non-uniform modes. It triggers new damping mechanisms and produces stronger damping than expected from traditional FMR. This work proposes a device-level technique for damping evaluation, based on time-domain analysis of thermally excited stochastic oscillations. The signal is collected using a high bandwidth oscilloscope, by direct probing of a biased reader. Recorded waveforms may contain different noise signals, but free layer FMR is usually a dominating one. The autocorrelation function is a reflection of the damped oscillation curve, averaging out stochastic contributions. The damped oscillator formula is fitted to autocorrelation data, producing resonance frequency and damping constant values. Restricting lag range allows for mitigation of the impact of other phenomena (e.g., reader instability) on the damping constant. For a micromagnetically modeled reader, the technique proves to be much more accurate than the stochastic FMR line width approach. Application to actual reader waveforms yields a damping constant of ∼0.03.

  8. Damping constant estimation in magnetoresistive readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej; Hernandez, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The damping constant is a key design parameter in magnetic reader design. Its value can be derived from bulk or sheet film ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width. However, dynamics of nanodevices is usually defined by presence of non-uniform modes. It triggers new damping mechanisms and produces stronger damping than expected from traditional FMR. This work proposes a device-level technique for damping evaluation, based on time-domain analysis of thermally excited stochastic oscillations. The signal is collected using a high bandwidth oscilloscope, by direct probing of a biased reader. Recorded waveforms may contain different noise signals, but free layer FMR is usually a dominating one. The autocorrelation function is a reflection of the damped oscillation curve, averaging out stochastic contributions. The damped oscillator formula is fitted to autocorrelation data, producing resonance frequency and damping constant values. Restricting lag range allows for mitigation of the impact of other phenomena (e.g., reader instability) on the damping constant. For a micromagnetically modeled reader, the technique proves to be much more accurate than the stochastic FMR line width approach. Application to actual reader waveforms yields a damping constant of ˜0.03.

  9. "True Wizardry": Readers Theatre in the Classroom. PEN 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Marion E.

    This article describes Readers Theater (a form of group storytelling in which two or more readers present a piece of literature by reading aloud from hand-held scripts) and advocates its use in the classroom. The paper's seven sections are as follows: (1) What is Readers Theater; (2) Readers Theater and Its Conventions (discussing scripts,…

  10. "It's All Coming Together": An Encounter between Implied Reader and Actual Reader in the Australian Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how taking a particular literary theory--the implied reader--serves to offer a focus for the teacher's initial reading of a text and provides a formative assessment tool. Iser's Implied Reader theory is discussed, after which a picture book, "Where the Forest Meets the Sea" by Jeannie Baker, is analysed from this…

  11. Breaking off Engagement: Readers' Disengagement as a Function of Reader and Text Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedecke, Patricia J.; Dong, Daqi; Shi, Genghu; Feng, Shi; Risko, Evan; Olney, Andrew M.; D'Mello, Sidney K.; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    Engagement during reading can be measured by the amount of time readers invest in the reading process. It is hypothesized that disengagement is marked by a decrease in time investment as compared with the demands made on the reader by the text. In this study, self-paced reading times for screens of text were predicted by a text complexity score…

  12. Family based genome-wide copy number scan identifies complex rearrangements at 17q21.31 in dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Veerappa, Avinash M; Saldanha, Marita; Padakannaya, Prakash; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2014-10-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex heritable disorder with unexpected difficulty in learning to read and spell despite adequate intelligence, education, environment, and normal senses. We performed genome-wide screening for copy number variations (CNVs) in 10 large Indian dyslexic families using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Results revealed the complex genomic rearrangements due to one non-contiguous deletion and five contiguous micro duplications and micro deletions at 17q21.31 region in three dyslexic families. CNVs in this region harbor the genes KIAA1267, LRRC37A, ARL17A/B, NSFP1, and NSF. The CNVs in case 1 and case 2 at this locus were found to be in homozygous state and case 3 was a de novo CNV. These CNVs were found with at least one CNV having a common break and end points in the parents. This cluster of genes containing NSF is implicated in learning, cognition, and memory, though not formally associated with dyslexia. Molecular network analysis of these and other dyslexia related module genes suggests NSF and other genes to be associated with cellular/vesicular membrane fusion and synaptic transmission. Thus, we suggest that NSF in this cluster would be the nearest gene responsible for the learning disability phenotype. PMID:25139666

  13. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  14. Spelling Impairments in Italian Dyslexic Children with and without a History of Early Language Delay. Are There Any Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara V.; Iaia, Marika; Putzolu, Anna; Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Chilosi, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Language delay is considered a frequent antecedent of literacy problems and both may be linked to phonological impairment. However, while several studies have examined the relationship between language delay and reading impairment, relatively few have focused on spelling. In this study, spelling performance of 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD), 14 children with a history of language delay (LD), and 14 children without (NoLD) and 28 control participants were examined. Spelling was investigated by a writing to dictation task that included orthographically regular stimuli (word and non-words), as well as words with unpredictable transcription. Results indicated that all dyslexic participants underperformed compared to controls on both regular and unpredictable transcription stimuli, but LD performance was generally the worst. Moreover, spelling impairment assumed different characteristics in LD and NoLD children. LD children were more sensitive to acoustic-to-phonological variables, showing relevant failure especially on stimuli containing geminate consonants but also on polysyllabic stimuli and those containing non-continuant consonants. Error analysis confirmed these results, with LD children producing a higher rate of phonological errors respect to NoLD children and controls. Results were coherent with the hypothesis that among dyslexic children, those with previous language delay have more severe spelling deficit, suffering from defective orthographic lexical acquisition together with long-lasting phonological difficulties. PMID:27148135

  15. Altered connectivity of the dorsal and ventral visual regions in dyslexic children: a resting-state fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Xia, Zhichao; Bi, Yanchao; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    While there is emerging evidence from behavioral studies that visual attention skills are impaired in dyslexia, the corresponding neural mechanism (i.e., deficits in the dorsal visual region) needs further investigation. We used resting-state fMRI to explore the functional connectivity (FC) patterns of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the visual word form area (VWFA) in dyslexic children (N = 21, age mean = 12) and age-matched controls (N = 26, age mean = 12). The results showed that the left IPS and the VWFA were functionally connected to each other in both groups and that both were functionally connected to left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Importantly, we observed significant group differences in FC between the left IPS and the left MFG and between the VWFA and the left MFG. In addition, the strengths of the identified FCs were significantly correlated with the score of fluent reading, which required obvious eye movement and visual attention processing, but not with the lexical decision score. We conclude that dyslexics have deficits in the network composed of the prefrontal, dorsal visual and ventral visual regions and may have a lack of modulation from the left MFG to the dorsal and ventral visual regions. PMID:26441595

  16. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  17. The Invisible Dyslexics: How Public School Systems in Baltimore and Elsewhere Discriminate against Poor Children in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Early Reading Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettleman, Kalman R.

    At least 20 percent of students in the Baltimore City Public Schools and other large urban districts are "invisible dyslexics" (children whose academic futures are doomed because their problems in learning to read are diagnosed too late and treated too little or not diagnosed and treated at all). Delay in early diagnosis and treatment has…

  18. Perceptions of Changes in Phonological Processing, Oral Fluency, and Spelling Ability after a Program for Dyslexics Designed to Improve Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Donna T.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15-20% of the U.S. population has been diagnosed with dyslexia. The theory of automaticity implies that automatic decoding precedes fluency in reading, leading to better comprehension. The "Reading from Scratch" program is designed to assist dyslexics improve their reading ability. Research questions for this case study included…

  19. The Nature of the Phonological Processing in French Dyslexic Children: Evidence for the Phonological Syllable and Linguistic Features' Role in Silent Reading and Speech Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that…

  20. "...If We Were Cavemen We'd Be Fine": Facebook as a Catalyst for Critical Literacy Learning by Dyslexic Sixth-Form Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Owen

    2012-01-01

    This article is derived from a study of the use of Facebook as an educational resource by five dyslexic students at a sixth form college in north-west England. Through a project in which teacher-researcher and student-participants co-constructed a group Facebook page about the students' scaffolded research into dyslexia, the study examined the…

  1. Teaching a Dyslexic Student: A Personal View How Critical Incident Analysis Can Be Used as an Effective Pedagogical Tool in Undergraduate Biosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of critical incident analysis in respect of improving the pedagogical practices in teaching dyslexic undergraduate biosciences students. Critical incident analysis is a well established pedagogical theory (Tripp, 1993) that allows reflection of a seemingly typical incident; the "critical incident", so that changes…

  2. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    DOEpatents

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  3. What Eye Movements Reveal about Deaf Readers

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Levels of illiteracy in the deaf populations around the world have been extremely high for decades and much higher than the illiteracy levels found in the general population. Research has mostly focused on deaf readers’ difficulties rather than on their strengths, which can then inform reading education. Deaf readers are a unique population. They process language and the world surrounding them mostly via the visual channel and this greatly affects how they read or might learn to read. The study of eye movements in reading provides highly sophisticated information about how words and sentences are processed and our research with deaf readers reveals the importance of their uniqueness. PMID:26594098

  4. Understanding Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

  5. Getting Ready to Read with Readers Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I; Pfeffinger, Charla R.

    2007-01-01

    Readers theatre is a presentation by two or more participants who read from scripts and interpret a literary work in such a way that the audience imaginatively senses characterization, setting, and action. This book offers 50, two-page reproducible scripts to entice the preschool and kindergarten group into beginning to read. These patterned…

  6. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Product File Readers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    TES Product File Reader software extracts data from publicly available Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) product data files using publicly available format specifications for scientific analysis in IDL (interactive data language). In this innovation, the software returns data fields as simple arrays for a given file. A file name is provided, and the contents are returned as simple IDL variables.

  7. eReaders in School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of using eReaders in the schools of the Houston Independent School District (HISD), specifically the Barnes and Noble Nook Pilot Project. HSID initially approved only an eReading device that was not wireless since it is very strict on the devices granted access to the wireless network. The biggest roadblock…

  8. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  9. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  10. Readers' Tellings: Narrators, Settings, Flashbacks and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the impact of flashbacks and changes in settings and narrators on reader comprehension. Individually, 34 fourth graders (9 and 10 years of age), mostly with above average reading abilities (5.0), orally read the first chapter of a novel. Both publisher and readability formulae estimated the text to be at a fourth- grade…

  11. How and Why Stories for Readers Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfman, Judy

    2004-01-01

    How did the bee get his bumble? How do birds get their feathers? Why is the bluebird blue? Curious first through fifth graders want to know how and why things happen! Judy Wolfman has created 40 Readers Theatre scripts based on imaginative and creative porquoi stories that stem from multicultural folktales as well as Native American Indian legends…

  12. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  13. The Gifted Reader: Metacognition and Comprehension Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Nancy Gard

    To examine the comprehension process employed by gifted readers and to identify the various metacognitive strategies they employ, 100 gifted student volunteers in grades 4 through 7 were administered the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), Reading Subtests 11 and 13. The students also completed a questionnaire to determine metacognitive awareness…

  14. Preventing the Proliferation of Problem Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, M. Murlee

    The failure of many beginning reading students to become efficient or enthusiastic readers is due to mistaken views of the reading process that cause teachers to stress isolated reading skills and error-free oral reading, rather than focusing on children's ability to read with understanding. Teachers who want to teach differently must take an…

  15. Revisiting the Reader's Rudder: A Comprehension Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Presents the structured comprehension method, a strategy that facilitates literal, inferential, and critical reading comprehension for passive readers who can decode but not comprehend. Uses the method to illustrate how other areas of students' instruction (e.g., vocabulary enhancement through morphemic analysis, use of a phonogram approach to…

  16. Reader Development Initiatives in International School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilke, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Argues that school library policy should include support and encouragement of reading as a life-long activity. Describes a number of recent reader-development initiatives, some of which include activities involving World Book Day, sponsored by UNESCO, and the 'shadowing' schemes of the Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medal awards. (AUTH/NB)

  17. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  18. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  19. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  20. Project Physics Reader 4, Light and Electromagnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 4, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. The 21 articles are included under the following headings: Letter from Thomas Jefferson; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; Systems, Feedback, Cybernetics; Velocity of Light; Popular Applications of Polarized Light; Eye and…

  1. Character and Moral Education: A Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVitis, Joseph L., Ed.; Yu, Tianlong, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Against a formidable national discourse that emphasizes academic standardization, accountability, and high-stakes testing in educational policy, "Character and Moral Education: A Reader" seeks to re-introduce and revive the moral mission of education in public conversation and practices in America's schools. With contributions from a prominent…

  2. Tape Lessons to Accompany Intermediate Nepali Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Manindra K.

    These tape lessons follow the sequence of the intermediate Nepali Reader. There are 12 lessons each containing various types of exercises designed to increase listening, speaking, and reading skills. Each lesson contains the following types of exercises: (1) listening comprehension; (2) question answering; (3) repetition; and (4) multiple choice…

  3. Ethnographic Research: A Reader [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation & Research in Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This reader was designed to support the Open University Masters in Social Sciences program and as such includes an appendix of useful questions based on the texts used to stimulate seminar discussion. It offers insights into ethnographic research techniques and serves as a tool through which some limitations of conventional quantitative research…

  4. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  5. Understanding Deaf Readers: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelstone, Aaron Weir

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills, beyond a functional level, is difficult for most deaf readers. Standardized testing demonstrates a median 4th grade reading level that remains consistent even after national norming of the Stanford Achievement test on the population of deaf school children. Deaf education continues to generate various educational…

  6. Readers Response Approach to English Poetry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Antonia Hsiu-Chen; Sher, Teresa Hsiang-Jen

    This paper describes an elective course at Taiwan's Wen Tzao Ursuline College of Modern Languages, "Concise English Poetry Appreciation and Recitation." The course is based on the reader response approach and targets third year students, leading them into the world of poetry through various stages (traditional nursery rhymes and simple, humorous,…

  7. Creating a Disabled Reader: A Father's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jerry

    A father describes how the public school system made his daughter, Charlie, into a disabled reader. Charlie had experienced early reading success both at home and in kindergarten, and enjoyed reading. Placed in the low reading group in first grade, Charlie resisted the dull, structured exercises of remedial reading instruction which she received…

  8. Teaching Content Material through Reader's Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When it comes to content area material, much of what students read and learn is predicated on information they have read before and are supposed to remember. Teachers often use silent reading and round robin reading as preferred reading methods to help students learn content area material. The objective of this study was to test reader's theater…

  9. Precocious Readers: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn A.; Evans, James R.; Keckler, Wade T.

    2006-01-01

    Precocious readers represent a small portion of children who enter school each year. Researchers have investigated the environmental characteristics, acquisition process, psycholinguistic and neuropsychological characteristics, and academic skills of these children. Despite the research findings in the area, researchers and clinicians are still…

  10. Using a Barcode Reader with Interactive Videodiscs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mac; Gustafson, Kent

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a barcode reader, rather than a computer, to control an interactive videodisc for presentations and self-paced tutorials. Highlights include hardware and software used; remote and direct communication; a HyperCard-based program to make barcodes; and converting an existing program. (LRW)

  11. Readers' Responses to Brief News Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Ernest T.; And Others

    A study extended the investigation of readers' imaginative processes (spontaneous imagery and emotional response) to a new genre of texts: newspaper articles. A sample of 25 articles was randomly selected from a well-defined population of naturally occurring texts (articles with one or more subheadings and three to five paragraphs before the first…

  12. Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

  13. Measuring Reader Failure at the Catalogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Carol A.; Schofield, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Library Management Research Unit tested a survey design to measure and evaluate author catalogue use in four varying libraries. Readers were asked to note details of items not found in the catalogue and the source of the reference. Items were checked to discover the cause of failure.'' (9 references) (Author/DH)

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports from international research correspondents on the topic of emergent reading. The report includes 14 separate reports on Nigeria, China, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Estonia, Italy, Canada, Mexico, United States, Argentina, and Chile. Overall, reports on the topic of emergent readers have…

  15. Project Physics Reader 1, Concepts of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 1, 21 articles are presented in this reader. Concepts of motion are discussed under headings: motion, motion in words, representation of movement, introducing vectors, Galileo's discussion of projectile motion, Newton's laws of dynamics, the dynamics of a golf club, report on Tait's lecture on force, and bad…

  16. KURDISH READERS. PART I, NEWSPAPER KURDISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    ASSUMING A MASTERY OF THE CONTENTS OF THE "BASIC COURSE IN KURDISH" (BY THE SAME AUTHORS), THIS READER PRESENTS A VARIETY OF 28 ARTICLES SELECTED FROM THE IRAQI NEWSPAPERS "ZHIN" AND "KHEBAT." EACH LESSON BEGINS WITH A SELECTION WRITTEN IN KURDISH (MODIFIED ARABIC-PERSIAN) SCRIPT, FOLLOWED BY PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION (IN THE FIRST 15 LESSONS), A…

  17. The Author as Reader and Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article presents contemporary commentary on the previously published articles "Writing for the Reader: A Problem-Solution Approach" and "Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities." Having been out of the field of English as a foreign language for several years, the author was surprised and pleased when he was asked to write some…

  18. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  19. Project Physics Reader 6, The Nucleus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 6, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Five excerpts are concerned with the nuclear energy revolution, the 20th birthday and possible consequences of the atomic age, a scientist's view of science, and relations between mathematics and physics. Six book passages are…

  20. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  1. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  2. Guiding Young Readers to Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…

  3. Reflections on Teaching Struggling Middle School Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay

    1999-01-01

    Shares four working generalizations on what it takes for middle school students with persistent reading difficulties to become successful readers: (1) access to materials that span the gamut of interests and difficulty levels; (2) opportunities to share reading experiences with teachers and classmates; (3) real purposes for reading; and (4)…

  4. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  5. An Urdu Newspaper Reader. Key to an Urdu Newspaper Reader. (2 vol).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman; And Others

    This Reader is the second of a four-volume series in Urdu prepared by the Institute of Islamic Studies at McGill University. (See "A Course in Urdu," ED 013 435-7; "A Reader of Modern Urdu Poetry," ED 022 163; and "An Urdu Newspaper Word Count," AL 002 059.) This volume is intended for use at the second-year level of a comprehensive program of…

  6. Visual repetition priming for words relies on access to the visual input lexicon: evidence from a dyslexic patient.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, G A; Fadda, L; Sabbadini, M; Caltagirone, C

    1994-09-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that visual repetition priming for words depends upon the accessibility of lexical units in the visual input lexicon. For this purpose, we investigated a dyslexic patient, A.M., whose neuropsychological performances suggested an impaired access to the lexical route of reading. According to the predictions, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated deficient priming in tests involving the visual presentation of words (Word Identification and Stem Completion). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that A.M.'s deficient priming was specific for visually presented words, in that the auditory presentation elicited a normal priming effect (auditory Stem Completion). These data are discussed in the light of a theoretical framework suggesting a fractionation of the modalities by which repetition priming can be elicited, each mediated by a particular memory subsystem. PMID:7991076

  7. Reading between the Lines: Societal Norms in Sierra Leonean Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brams, Patricia

    1980-01-01

    A content analysis of primary school readers of Sierra Leone revealed that the particular modern and traditional normative aspirations expressed in the National Development Plan for 1974/75-1978/79 were also generally reflected in the children's readers. (Editor)

  8. Readers Use Black Newspapers for Health/Cancer Information

    PubMed Central

    Len-Ríos, María E.; Cohen, Elisia; Caburnay, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of readers of black newspapers shows that whether readers depend on black newspapers for cancer and health information depends on their black newspaper use, black self-identity and general media dependency. PMID:21833156

  9. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  10. Which Tasks Best Discriminate between Dyslexic University Students and Controls in a Transparent Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The need for a battery for testing adult dyslexia, and especially university students, is being increasingly recognized in view of the increased number of adult requests for a dyslexia examination in relation to both assistance and protection from discrimination. The present study examines the discriminative validity of a battery we have…

  11. Directional Radio-Frequency Identification Tag Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John D.; Henderson, John J.

    2004-01-01

    A directional radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag reader has been designed to facilitate finding a specific object among many objects in a crowded room. The device could be an adjunct to an electronic inventory system that tracks RFID-tagged objects as they move through reader-equipped doorways. Whereas commercial RFID-tag readers do not measure directions to tagged objects, the device is equipped with a phased-array antenna and a received signal-strength indicator (RSSI) circuit for measuring direction. At the beginning of operation, it is set to address only the RFID tag of interest. It then continuously transmits a signal to interrogate that tag while varying the radiation pattern of the antenna. It identifies the direction to the tag as the radiation pattern direction of peak strength of the signal returned by the tag. An approximate distance to the tag is calculated from the peak signal strength. The direction and distance can be displayed on a screen. A prototype containing a Yagi antenna was found to be capable of detecting a 915.5-MHz tag at a distance of approximately equal to 15 ft (approximately equal to 4.6 m).

  12. E-Readers and Visual Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Simone; Drai-Zerbib, Véronique; Pedrotti, Marco; Tissier, Geoffrey; Baccino, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The mass digitization of books is changing the way information is created, disseminated and displayed. Electronic book readers (e-readers) generally refer to two main display technologies: the electronic ink (E-ink) and the liquid crystal display (LCD). Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages, but the question whether one or the other triggers less visual fatigue is still open. The aim of the present research was to study the effects of the display technology on visual fatigue. To this end, participants performed a longitudinal study in which two last generation e-readers (LCD, E-ink) and paper book were tested in three different prolonged reading sessions separated by - on average - ten days. Results from both objective (Blinks per second) and subjective (Visual Fatigue Scale) measures suggested that reading on the LCD (Kindle Fire HD) triggers higher visual fatigue with respect to both the E-ink (Kindle Paperwhite) and the paper book. The absence of differences between E-ink and paper suggests that, concerning visual fatigue, the E-ink is indeed very similar to the paper. PMID:24386252

  13. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  18. Tester automatically checks paper tape punch and reader after maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, L.; Mc Murchy, D. D.

    1967-01-01

    Device automatically bench tests paper tape punches and readers in a simulated operating environment following routine maintenance. The reader and punch operate back-to-back and the paper tape output feeds the reader. The tape leader is prepunched with an arbitrary pattern that is continuously reproduced during the check.

  19. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...