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Sample records for adult ecstasy users

  1. Young adult Ecstasy users' enhancement of the effects of their Ecstasy use.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E

    2009-06-01

    This study examines drug effect-enhancing behaviors practiced by young adult users of the drug, Ecstasy. Between August 2002 and August 2004, 283 face-to-face interviews were conducted with active Ecstasy users. Study participants were recruited in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a targeted sampling approach. The large majority of study participants (87%) engaged in at least one behavior specifically designed to bolster the effects of their Ecstasy use, with 61% of the study participants reporting having engaged in at least three such behaviors during the past 30 days. Taking steps to boost one's Ecstasy-related high was associated with binging on Ecstasy and a variety of adverse outcomes, such as experiencing a greater number of negative consequences resulting from Ecstasy use and experiencing more Ecstasy-related drug dependency symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed several factors associated with greater involvement in effects-boosting behaviors, including race (not being African American), spending time with other drug users, using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, enjoyment of the music-and-Ecstasy-use experience, and childhood maltreatment experiences. The implications of these findings for treatment, prevention, and intervention for drug problems among Ecstasy users are discussed. PMID:19705673

  2. Factors associated with condom use among young adult ecstasy users

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper examines the prevalence of and the factors associated with condom use in a sample of 283 young adult ecstasy users. Methods The study, which relied upon targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping, took place between 2002 and 2004. It entailed conducting two-hour-long, face-to-face interviews in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Results Condom use was inconsistent; only 35.2% of all sex acts were protected. Using multiple regression, five factors were related to condom use: race (Caucasians used condoms less than other groups), income (lower income = greater condom use), relationship status (persons involved in relationships reported less condom use than those who were not “involved”), multiple sex partners (multiple sex partners = more condom use), and condom use self-efficacy (higher efficacy level = more condom use). Conclusions Condom use rates were not optimal in this population. In particular, targeted interventions are needed for Caucasian ecstasy users. Intervention efforts ought to address relationship (in)fidelity as it pertains to engaging in safer sex practices, especially among persons involved in relationships. Intervention efforts also need to work to increase condom use self-efficacy. PMID:20517633

  3. Self-esteem and HIV risk practices among young adult ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the role that self-esteem plays in HIV-related risk taking among users of the drug, Ecstasy. The first part of the analysis focuses on the relationship of self-esteem to HIV risk-taking. The second part examines predictors of self-esteem in this population. Conducted between 2002 and 2004, the research is based on a sample of 283 young adult Ecstasy users who completed approximately two-hour-long, face-to-face interviews via computer-assisted structured interviews. Study participants were recruited in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping. Results indicated that self-esteem is associated with a variety of risky practices, including: the number of sex partners that people had, individuals' likelihood of having multiple sex partners, the number of different illegal drugs people used, and their condom use self-efficacy. The multivariate analysis conducted to ascertain the factors that impact participants' levels of self-esteem yielded six factors: educational attainment (positive), coming from a family-of-origin whose members got along well (positive), the extent of alcohol problems (negative), the number of positive effects experienced as a result of Ecstasy use (positive), the number of negative effects experienced as a result of Ecstasy use (negative), and the extent of experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (negative). PMID:21305909

  4. Young adult Ecstasy users and multiple sexual partners: understanding the factors underlying this HIV risk practice.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2008-09-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19004415

  5. Young Adult Ecstasy Users and Multiple Sexual Partners: Understanding the Factors Underlying this HIV Risk Practice†

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire E.; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19004415

  6. Young Adult Ecstasy Users Who Forego Necessary Medical Care: A Fairly Common Occurrence with Important Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the practice of foregoing necessary medical care in a population of young adult Ecstasy users. The objectives of the paper are to (1) investigate how the failure to receive needed medical care is related to drug-related outcomes, and (2) identify factors that are associated with receiving versus foregoing needed medical care. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 283 active young adult Ecstasy users in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and October 2007. Study participants were recruited using a targeted sampling approach. Results indicated that almost one-third of the young adult Ecstasy users interviewed did not receive the medical care that they needed during the preceding year. Foregoing such care was associated with a variety of adverse drug-related outcomes, including experiencing a greater number of negative effects from using Ecstasy, experiencing a larger number of drug dependency symptoms, a greater likelihood of ever having binged on Ecstasy, and a greater likelihood of being classified as a “high end” polydrug abuser. Several factors were found to be associated with a greater tendency not to receive the medical care they needed, including race (not being African American), educational attainment (having completed at least high school), self-identification as belonging to the lowest socioeconomic status grouping, low self-esteem, and having experienced sexual abuse during one’s formative years. PMID:20464807

  7. Past 12-month and lifetime comorbidity and poly-drug use of ecstasy users among young adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecstasy use is prevalent among young people and often co-occurs with other drug use, but little is known about the past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and specific additional drug abuse among young adult ecstasy users in the general population. To provide this information, we compared current ecstasy users to former users, other illicit drug users, and non-illicit drug users. Method Data were gathered in a face-to-face survey of the United States conducted in the 2001–2002 (NESARC). Participants were household and group quarters residents aged 18–29 years (n = 8666). We measured current ecstasy use defined as any use in the past year; former ecstasy use as use prior to the past year only; other lifetime drug use included any drug other than ecstasy; lifetime non-illicit drug use as no illicit drug use. Associations were determined for nine other classes of illicit drugs, eight personality disorders, and seven mood and anxiety disorders. Results Of current ecstasy users, 44% used >3 other classes of illicit drugs in the past year, compared to 1.6% of non-ecstasy drug users. Current ecstasy use was associated with current anxiety (OR = 3.7), specifically panic disorder (OR = 7.7) and specific phobia (OR = 4.1), also alcohol abuse (OR = 21.6) and dependence (OR = 4.1) and any personality disorder (OR = 5.1) compared to non-illicit drug users. Conclusions Results indicate important differences in comorbidities of current and former ecstasy users compared to other drug users and lifetime non-illicit drug users that may affect phenotype definitions and etiologic studies. Ecstasy use may represent a distinct population of drug users for which unique treatments may be necessary. PMID:18524499

  8. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  9. Differences between Ecstasy-using and nonusing methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Mary-Lynn; von Mayrhauser, Christina

    2002-01-01

    There have been recent alarming increases in Ecstasy use and growing evidence of possible long-term neurological and cognitive effects. This article considers Ecstasy use within its common polydrug context (specifically with methamphetamine [MA]), examining differences between Ecstasy-using and nonusing subgroups of clients treated for MA use, and exploring the relationship of Ecstasy use to selected treatment outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression showed Ecstasy+MA users differing from MA users who have not used Ecstasy primarily in terms of sociodemographics (higher income, fewer children), substance abuse behaviors and motivators (lifetime history of more types of drugs, more likely to report use of Ecstasy to enhance sex, more drug-related problems), lifestyle (more likely to have had same-sex sex partners), and treatment characteristics (younger at admission, less likely to complete treatment). A lower rate of treatment completion was predicted by Ecstasy use, even when controlling for other Ecstasy-related characteristics; however, time to relapse was not significantly related to Ecstasy use. These results distinguishing subgroups of stimulant users may help guide additional research into specific behavioral causes and correlates of Ecstasy use, which could in turn guide specialization of promising MA-related treatment approaches for Ecstasy users. PMID:12691212

  10. Neuroimaging in human MDMA (Ecstasy) users.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Ronald L; Roberts, Deanne M; Joers, James M

    2008-10-01

    MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) has been used by millions of people worldwide as a recreational drug. The terms "MDMA" and "Ecstasy" are often used synonymously, but it is important to note that the purity of Ecstasy sold as MDMA is not certain. MDMA use is of public health concern, not so much because MDMA produces a common or severe dependence syndrome, but rather because rodent and nonhuman primate studies have indicated that MDMA (when administered at certain dosages and intervals) can cause long-lasting reductions in markers of brain serotonin (5-HT) that appear specific to fine-diameter axons arising largely from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Given the popularity of MDMA, the potential for the drug to produce long-lasting or permanent 5-HT axon damage or loss, and the widespread role of 5-HT function in the brain, there is a great need for a better understanding of brain function in human users of this drug. To this end, neuropsychological, neuroendocrine, and neuroimaging studies have all suggested that human MDMA users may have long-lasting changes in brain function consistent with 5-HT toxicity. Data from animal models leads to testable hypotheses regarding MDMA's effects on the human brain. Because neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings have focused on the neocortex, a cortical model is developed to provide a context for designing and interpreting neuroimaging studies in MDMA users. Aspects of the model are supported by the available neuroimaging data, but there are controversial findings in some areas and most findings have not been replicated across different laboratories and using different modalities. This paper reviews existing findings in the context of a cortical model and suggests directions for future research. PMID:18991874

  11. Impulsivity, inhibition and negative priming in ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Dafters, Richard I

    2006-08-01

    A modified Stroop color-word interference paradigm was used to investigate the effects of recreational ecstasy (MDMA) use on central executive inhibitory processes. Ecstasy users who also used cannabis were compared with non-users matched for cannabis consumption and with non-drug users on a Stroop task in which standard color-word interference trials were interspersed with trials in which the target color was the same as the distractor word on the immediately preceding trial. Ecstasy's effects on standard inhibition (conscious suppression of a prepotent response pattern--responsible for Stroop interference) could thus be contrasted with its effect on the short-term, unconscious, inhibitory process responsible for suppression of the preceding distractor word (negative priming). Neither drug group differed from the non-drug users in level of Stroop interference but ecstasy users showed reduced negative priming compared to the cannabis users and non-drug users. The loss of inhibition in the ecstasy users was not related to impulsivity assessed by two standard scales since these were similar in both drug-user groups and raised relative to the non-drug users. It is argued that previous failures to demonstrate loss of inhibition could be partly due to the fact that standard executive function tests, such as the Stroop, are unable to differentiate between sub-types of inhibition, only some of which may be affected by ecstasy use. PMID:16242244

  12. Do adolescent Ecstasy users have different attitudes towards drugs when compared to Marijuana users?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. We examine associations between adolescents’ attitudes and beliefs towards ecstasy use; because most ecstasy users have a history of marijuana use, we estimate the association for three groups of adolescents: non-marijuana/ecstasy users, marijuana users (used marijuana at least once but never used ecstasy) and ecstasy users (used ecstasy at least once). Methods Data from 5,049 adolescents aged 12–18 years old who had complete weighted data information in Round 2 of the Restricted Use Files (RUF) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY). Data were analyzed using jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Results Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to approve of marijuana and ecstasy use as compared to non-drug using youth. Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to have close friends who approved of ecstasy as compared to non-drug using youth. The magnitudes of these two associations were stronger for ecstasy use than for marijuana use in the final adjusted model. Our final adjusted model shows that approval of marijuana and ecstasy use was more strongly associated with marijuana and ecstasy use in adolescence than perceived risk in using both drugs. Conclusion Information about the risks and consequences of ecstasy use need to be presented to adolescents in order to attempt to reduce adolescents’ approval of ecstasy use as well as ecstasy experimentation. PMID:18068314

  13. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress. PMID:25014666

  14. Poly-Drug Use among Ecstasy Users: Separate, Synergistic, and Indiscriminate Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, M.; Sterk, C.; Bahora, M.; Elifson, K.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to explore poly-drug use among young adult ecstasy users. This phenomenon of using multiple substances within a specific time period is multi-faceted. In this paper, we focus on the various patterns of poly-drug use and the reasons for combining multiple drugs among ecstasy users. Using a mixed-methods design, we conducted interviews with young adults who used ecstasy and other licit and illicit drugs in the past 90 days. Based on the qualitative analyses, we define three distinct types of poly-drug experiences: separate, synergistic, and indiscriminate use. While separate and synergistic poly-drug use tended to be intentional, indiscriminate poly-drug use often was unintentional. These findings show the importance of recognizing poly-drug use as a common phenomenon. The findings presented here suggest areas for further research aimed at identifying risk and protective behaviors and risk reduction strategies. PMID:23913981

  15. Ecstasy-induced recurrent toxic hepatitis in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge Ecmel; Akoglu, Haldun; Denizbasi, Arzu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), otherwise known as “ecstasy,” is a synthetic amphetamine that produces euphoria, increases sociability and energy, and is often used as a “weekend” recreational drug by young adults. CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old male (height, 184 cm; weight, 68 kg) presented to the emergency department of Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, with jaundice and nausea lasting for 6 days. The patient reported that he had been a chronic user of MDMA for 2 years. He also reported that 1 week before presenting, he had ingested twice (2 tablets) the usual amount (1 tablet) of the drug at the same time. Blood tests were performed and hematologic findings were as follows: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1423 U/L (reference range, 10–37 U/L); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 2748 U/L (10–40 U/L); alkaline phosphatase, 271 U/L (0–270 U/L); γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, 124 U/L (7–49 U/L); total bilirubin, 13.23 mg/dL (0.2–1 mg/dL); direct bilirubin, 8.75 mg/dL (0–0.3 mg/dL); amylase, 80 U/L (0–220 U/L); prothrombin time, 21.2 sec; activated partial thromboplastin time, 37.3 sec; and international normalized ratio, 1.66. Liver enzymes and bilirubin levels were found to be extremely high (AST = 40x normal, ALT = 70x normal, and bilirubin = 13x normal). Viral, autoimmune, and metabolic causes were excluded. Serologic tests for hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, and HIV infection were all negative. A diagnosis of ecstasy-induced toxic hepatitis was made. The patient's medical history further revealed that the current incident was actually his second occurrence of jaundice and acute hepatitis associated with the ingestion of higher amounts (twice the usual amount of MDMA he ingested at the same time). Supportive therapy (IV saline and vital sign monitoring) was initiated and liver enzymes, bilirubin levels, and prothrombin times were monitored daily. All had returned to normal

  16. The effects of concurrent cannabis use among ecstasy users: neuroprotective or neurotoxic?

    PubMed

    Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Wareing, Michelle; Murphy, Philip N

    2006-08-01

    The research evidence regarding the potential effects of ecstasy suggests that it may be neurotoxic and that its use is associated with cognitive impairment. In recent years evidence has emerged suggesting that cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis, can be neuroprotective under certain conditions. Given that many ecstasy users also consume cannabis at the same time, the possibility emerges that these individuals might be less susceptible to ecstasy-related impairment. The present paper reanalyses the data from a number of previous studies, contrasting the performance of those individuals who generally consume cannabis and ecstasy at the same time with those who generally consume ecstasy on its own. The two ecstasy-using groups are compared with non-ecstasy users on a range of measures including processing speed, random letter generation, verbal and visuo-spatial working memory span, reasoning and associative learning. The two ecstasy user groups did not differ significantly from each other on any of the measures. Both user groups were significantly worse than non-ecstasy users on measures of associative learning, verbal and visuo-spatial working memory and reasoning. The results suggest that consuming cannabis at the same time as ecstasy does not reduce the likelihood of cognitive impairment. PMID:16915582

  17. Verbal Memory Impairment in Polydrug Ecstasy Users: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kuypers, Kim P. C.; Theunissen, Eef L.; van Wel, Janelle H. P.; de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B.; Linssen, Anke; Sambeth, Anke; Schultz, Benjamin G.; Ramaekers, Johannes G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecstasy use has been associated with short-term and long-term memory deficits on a standard Word Learning Task (WLT). The clinical relevance of this has been debated and is currently unknown. The present study aimed at evaluating the clinical relevance of verbal memory impairment in Ecstasy users. To that end, clinical memory impairment was defined as decrement in memory performance that exceeded the cut-off value of 1.5 times the standard deviation of the average score in the healthy control sample. The primary question was whether being an Ecstasy user (E-user) was predictive of having clinically deficient memory performance compared to a healthy control group. Methods WLT data were pooled from four experimental MDMA studies that compared memory performance during placebo and MDMA intoxication. Control data were taken from healthy volunteers with no drug use history who completed the WLT as part of a placebo-controlled clinical trial. This resulted in a sample size of 65 E-users and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy drug-naïve controls. All participants were recruited by similar means and were tested at the same testing facilities using identical standard operating procedures. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models, Bayes factor, and logistic regressions. Results Findings were that verbal memory performance of placebo-treated E-users did not differ from that of controls, and there was substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. History of use was not predictive of memory impairment. During MDMA intoxication of E-users, verbal memory was impaired. Conclusion The combination of the acute and long-term findings demonstrates that, while clinically relevant memory impairment is present during intoxication, it is absent during abstinence. This suggests that use of Ecstasy/MDMA does not lead to clinically deficient memory performance in the long term. Additionally, it has to be investigated whether the current findings apply to more

  18. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  19. A prospective cohort study on sustained effects of low-dose ecstasy use on the brain in new ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    de Win, Maartje M L; Reneman, Liesbeth; Jager, Gerry; Vlieger, Erik-Jan P; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; Lavini, Cristina; Bisschops, Ivo; Majoie, Charles B L M; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2007-02-01

    It is debated whether ecstasy use has neurotoxic effects on the human brain and what the effects are of a low dose of ecstasy use. We prospectively studied sustained effects (>2 weeks abstinence) of a low dose of ecstasy on the brain in ecstasy-naive volunteers using a combination of advanced MR techniques and self-report questionnaires on psychopathology as part of the NeXT (Netherlands XTC Toxicity) study. Outcomes of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and questionnaires on depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking were compared in 30 subjects (12M, 21.8+/-3.1 years) in two sessions before and after first ecstasy use (1.8+/-1.3 tablets). Interval between baseline and follow-up was on average 8.1+/-6.5 months and time between last ecstasy use and follow-up was 7.7+/-4.4 weeks. Using 1H-MRS, no significant changes were observed in metabolite concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), and creatine (Cr), nor in ratios of NAA, Cho, and mI relative to Cr. However, ecstasy use was followed by a sustained 0.9% increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontoparietal white matter, a 3.4% decrease in apparent diffusion (ADC) in the thalamus and a sustained decrease in relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) in the thalamus (-6.2%), dorsolateral frontal cortex (-4.0%), and superior parietal cortex (-3.0%) (all significant at p<0.05, paired t-tests). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the rrCBV decrease in the dorsolateral frontal cortex remained significant. We also observed increased impulsivity (+3.7% on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and decreased depression (-28.0% on the Beck Depression Inventory) in novel ecstasy users, although effect sizes were limited and clinical relevance questionable. As no indications were found for structural neuronal damage with the currently used techniques, our data do not support the concern that

  20. Electrophysiological evidence of atypical processing underlying mental set shifting in ecstasy polydrug and polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Carl A; Fairclough, Stephen H; McGlone, Francis P; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine

    2013-12-01

    Executive functioning deficits are reported in ecstasy users. However research into mental set switching has been equivocal, with behavioral studies suggesting the function is preserved. The current study sought to address the issue of switching deficits in ecstasy users by combining behavioral performance with electrophysiological correlates (electroencephalography; EEG). Twenty ecstasy polydrug users, 20 nonecstasy polydrug users, and 20 drug naive controls were recruited. Participants completed questionnaires about their drug use, sleep quality, fluid intelligence, and current mood state. Each participant completed a mental set switching task (the number-letter task) while EEG measures were recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no between-group differences on performance of the task; however a regression suggested that ecstasy use was a significant predictor for performance, after controlling for cannabis use. Mixed ANOVA revealed a significant effect of group on the P3, with significant differences between both drug groups and naives. There was also an interaction between electrode and group on the P2 component, with ecstasy users differing from both other groups. On the P3 component the results suggest a reduction in positivity at parieto-occipital electrodes for drug users compared to controls. Furthermore a significant increase in negativity in ecstasy users compared to control groups could be observed in several occipito-parietal electrodes at an N2 component as well as observable atypicalities in early processing (P2) displayed by ecstasy users and polydrug controls. The present study provides evidence of atypical processing of attentional shifting in ecstasy and polydrug users. Deficits in this executive function could reflect cognitive inflexibility and paucity of rapid behavioral adjustment, which may be problematic in real world situations. PMID:24080019

  1. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users.

    PubMed

    de Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained effects of ecstasy use on the brain in novel ecstasy users using repeated measurements with a combination of different neuroimaging parameters of neurotoxicity. At baseline, 188 ecstasy-naive volunteers with high probability of first ecstasy use were examined. After a mean period of 17 months follow-up, neuroimaging was repeated in 59 incident ecstasy users and 56 matched persistent ecstasy-naives and their outcomes were compared. Neuroimaging included [(123)I]beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (CIT) SPECT to measure serotonin transporter densities as indicators of serotonergic function; (1)H-MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure brain metabolites as indicators of neuronal damage; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusional motion of water molecules in the brain as indicators of axonal integrity; and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) to measure regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) which indicates brain perfusion. With this approach, both structural ((1)H-MRS and DTI) and functional ([(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT and PWI) aspects of neurotoxicity were combined. Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the globus pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in globus pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus. No changes in serotonin transporter densities and brain metabolites were observed. These findings suggest sustained effects of ecstasy on brain microvasculature, white

  2. Meta-analysis of executive functioning in ecstasy/polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C A; Jones, A; Montgomery, C

    2016-06-01

    Ecstasy/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is proposed to cause damage to serotonergic (5-HT) axons in humans. Therefore, users should show deficits in cognitive processes that rely on serotonin-rich, prefrontal areas of the brain. However, there is inconsistency in findings to support this hypothesis. The aim of the current study was to examine deficits in executive functioning in ecstasy users compared with controls using meta-analysis. We identified k = 39 studies, contributing 89 effect sizes, investigating executive functioning in ecstasy users and polydrug-using controls. We compared function-specific task performance in 1221 current ecstasy users and 1242 drug-using controls, from tasks tapping the executive functions - updating, switching, inhibition and access to long-term memory. The significant main effect demonstrated overall executive dysfunction in ecstasy users [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.26 to -0.11, Z = 5.05, p < 0.001, I 2 = 82%], with a significant subgroup effect (χ 2 = 22.06, degrees of freedom = 3, p < 0.001, I 2 = 86.4%) demonstrating differential effects across executive functions. Ecstasy users showed significant performance deficits in access (SMD = -0.33, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.19, Z = 4.72, p < 0.001, I 2 = 74%), switching (SMD = -0.19, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.02, Z = 2.16, p < 0.05, I 2 = 85%) and updating (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.15, Z = 4.49, p < 0.001, I 2 = 82%). No differences were observed in inhibitory control. We conclude that this is the most comprehensive analysis of executive function in ecstasy users to date and provides a behavioural correlate of potential serotonergic neurotoxicity. PMID:26966023

  3. Meta-analysis of molecular imaging of serotonin transporters in ecstasy/polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Carl Alexander; Jones, Andrew; Montgomery, Catharine

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the available data from studies investigating SERTs in ecstasy users and polydrug using controls. From 7 studies we compared data from 157 ecstasy users and 148 controls across 14 brain regions. The main effect suggested ecstasy/MDMA related SERT reductions (SMD=0.52, 95% CIs [0.40, 0.65]; Z=8.36, p<.01, I(2)=89%). A significant effect of subgroups (X(2)=37.41, df=13, p<.01, I(2)=65.3%) suggested differential effects across brain ROIs. Ecstasy users showed significant SERT reductions in 11 out of the 14 regions, including every neocortical and limbic region analysed. Greatest effects were observed in the occipital cortex (SMD=1.09, 95% CIs [0.70, 1.48]). No group effects were observed in subcortical areas of the caudate, putamen and midbrain. Literature on Postsynaptic 5HT2A receptor imaging was synthesised with these results. We conclude that, in line with preclinical data, serotonin axons with the longest projections from the raphe nuclei appear to be most affected by ecstasy/MDMA use. PMID:26855234

  4. Cannabis and Ecstasy/ MDMA: empirical measures of creativity in recreational users.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katy A; Blagrove, M; Parrott, A C

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the associations between chronic cannabis and Ecstasy/MDMA use and one objective and two subjective measure of creativity. Fifteen abstinent Ecstasy users, 15 abstinent cannabis users, and 15 nondrug-user controls, completed three measures of creativity: the Consequences behavioral test of creativity, self-assessed performance on the Consequences test, and Gough's Trait Self-Report Creative Adjective Checklist. The Consequences test involved five scenarios where possible consequences had to be devised; scoring was conducted by the standard blind rating (by two independent judges) for "remoteness" and "rarity," and by a frequency and rarity of responses method. Cannabis users had significantly more "rare-creative" responses than controls (Tukey, p < 0.05); this effect remained significant with gender as a covariate. There were no significant differences between the groups on the number of standard scoring "remote-creative" ideas or for fluency of responses. On self-rated creativity, there was a significant ANOVA group difference (p < 0.05), with Ecstasy users tending to rate their answers as more creative than controls (Tukey comparison; p = 0.058, two-tailed). Ecstasy users did not differ from controls on the behavioral measures of creativity, although there was a borderline trend for self-assessment of greater creativity. Cannabis users produced significantly more "rare-creative" responses, but did not rate themselves as more creative. PMID:20235438

  5. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; p<0.001). Hence the regular use of Ecstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed. PMID:24333019

  6. Ecstasy Exposure & Gender: Examining Components of Verbal Memory Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890

  7. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natasha E.; Strong, Judith A.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence. Method Data were collected from 116 young adults (18–25 years-old), including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels. Results MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03) such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05), short (p = .008) and long delay free recall (p = .01), and recognition (p = .006), with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02); short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype. Conclusions 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy’s impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption. PMID:26231032

  8. How to find future ecstasy-users: targeted and snowball sampling in an ethically sensitive context.

    PubMed

    Vervaeke, Hylke K E; Korf, Dirk J; Benschop, Annemieke; van den Brink, Wim

    2007-08-01

    This article documents the design and the sampling procedures of a prospective longitudinal multidisciplinary study on the neurotoxicity of ecstasy (MDMA): the Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT). Targeted and snowball sampling was used to recruit 188 respondents who were ecstasy-naive at baseline. All respondents completed baseline questionnaires and underwent medical and neuropsychological examinations. At the end of a 11- to 26- month follow-up period in which they completed four additional questionnaires, 160 respondents remained (85.1%). A total of 65 participants (40.6%) took ecstasy for the first time during the follow-up period. This paper discusses the ethical dilemmas inherent in a study of this type and the specific problems and solutions that emerged in the sampling. The sampling was tightly constrained by our need to locate respondents who were potential future ecstasy users while also meeting strict medical and technical criteria. The 'intention to use' criterion proved to be a clear-cut inclusion rule that was practical to apply in the fieldwork. PMID:17188817

  9. Coping with Loneliness: Young Adult Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami; Orzeck, Tricia

    Since there appears to be a connection between substance use (and abuse) and loneliness it is of theoretical and clinical interest to explore the differences of coping with loneliness which drug users employ. The present study examined the manner in which MDMA (Ecstasy) users in comparison with non-MDMA (Non-Ecstasy) users and the general…

  10. Assessment of cognitive brain function in ecstasy users and contributions of other drugs of abuse: results from an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jager, Gerry; de Win, Maartje M L; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Schilt, Thelma; Kahn, Rene S; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M; Ramsey, Nick F

    2008-01-01

    Heavy ecstasy use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits in various behavioral and brain imaging studies. However, this association is not conclusive owing to the unavoidable confounding factor of polysubstance use. The present study, as part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity study, investigated specific effects of ecstasy on working memory, attention, and associative memory, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A large sample (n=71) was carefully composed based on variation in the amount and type of drugs that were used. The sample included 33 heavy ecstasy users (mean 322 pills lifetime). Neurocognitive brain function in three domains: working memory, attention, and associative memory, was assessed with performance measures and fMRI. Independent effects of the use of ecstasy, amphetamine, cocaine, cannabis, alcohol, tobacco, and of gender and IQ were assessed and separated by means of multiple regression analyses. Use of ecstasy had no effect on working memory and attention, but drug use was associated with reduced associative memory performance. Multiple regression analysis showed that associative memory performance was affected by amphetamine much more than by ecstasy. Both drugs affected associative memory-related brain activity, but the effects were consistently in opposite directions, suggesting that different mechanisms are at play. This could be related to the different neurotransmitter systems these drugs predominantly act upon, that is, serotonin (ecstasy) vs dopamine (amphetamine) systems. PMID:17460617

  11. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict implementation of harm reduction strategies among MDMA/ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to test whether the variables proposed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were associated with baseline intention to implement and subsequent use of 2 MDMA/ecstasy-specific harm reduction interventions: preloading/postloading and pill testing/pill checking. Using targeted Facebook advertisements, an international sample of 391 recreational ecstasy users were recruited to complete questionnaires assessing their ecstasy consumption history, and their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, habit strength (past strategy use), and intention to use these two strategies. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significantly associated with baseline intention to preload/postload and pill test/pill check. Out of the 391 baseline participants, 100 completed the two-month follow-up assessment. Baseline habit strength and frequency of ecstasy consumption during the three months prior to baseline were the only significant predictors of how often participants used the preloading/postloading strategy during the follow-up. Baseline intention to pill test/pill check was the only significant predictor of how often participants used this strategy during the follow-up. These findings provide partial support for TPB variables as both correlates of baseline intention to implement and predictors of subsequent use of these two strategies. Future investigations could assess whether factors related to ecstasy consumption (e.g., subjective level of intoxication, craving, negative consequences following consumption), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility and availability of harm reduction resources) improve the prediction of how often ecstasy users employ these and other harm reduction strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322805

  12. Symptomatological Features of Patients with and without Ecstasy Use during Their First Psychotic Episode

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Fabio; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rovai, Luca; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Deltito, Joseph; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ecstasy use is generally chosen by adolescents and young adults for its entactogenic properties (the production of feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others.) Despite this desired and frequently realized outcome, Ecstasy use has often resulted in the genesis of psychotic symptoms and aggressive behaviors, particularly after chronic and/or intensive use. Methods: To explore the negative consequences of Ecstasy use and to examine the aggressive nature oftentimes seen in many Ecstasy users we employed a case-control study model. We compared, by means of validated psychometric tests, the psychopathological symptoms (BPRS), the aggressiveness (OAS) and the social adjustment (DSM-GAF) of psychotic patients with (n = 23) and without (n = 46) recent user of Ecstasy, during their first psychotic episode and hospitalization. All 23 Ecstasy users were Ecstasy users only. Results: Almost all of the psychotic symptoms were of similar severity in both groups. Blunted affect was milder in users than in non-users, whereas hostility and aggressive behavior was significantly more severe in users than in non-users. Conclusions: psychosis with a high level of aggressiveness and violence constitutes an important ‘side-effect’ that surely runs counter to the expected entactogenic action of Ecstasy. At a patient psycho-educational level, this study suggests that the use of Ecstasy may be counterproductive with respect to user expectations. PMID:22851941

  13. Sleep deprivation differentially impairs cognitive performance in abstinent methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") users.

    PubMed

    McCann, Una D; Wilson, Michael J; Sgambati, Francis P; Ricaurte, George A

    2009-11-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug and brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. Neuroimaging data indicate that some human MDMA users develop persistent deficits in brain 5-HT neuronal markers. Although the consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity are not fully understood, abstinent MDMA users have been found to have subtle cognitive deficits and altered sleep architecture. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that sleep disturbance plays a role in cognitive deficits in MDMA users. Nineteen abstinent MDMA users and 21 control subjects participated in a 5 d inpatient study in a clinical research unit. Baseline sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory. Cognitive performance was tested three times daily using a computerized cognitive battery. On the third day of admission, subjects began a 40 h sleep deprivation period and continued cognitive testing using the same daily schedule. At baseline, MDMA users performed less accurately than controls on a task of working memory and more impulsively on four of the seven computerized tests. During sleep deprivation, MDMA users, but not controls, became increasingly impulsive, performing more rapidly at the expense of accuracy on tasks of working and short-term memory. Tests of mediation implicated baseline sleep disturbance in the cognitive decline seen during sleep deprivation. These findings are the first to demonstrate that memory problems in MDMA users may be related, at least in part, to sleep disturbance and suggest that cognitive deficits in MDMA users may become more prominent in situations associated with sleep deprivation. PMID:19890014

  14. Reasons for not using ecstasy: a qualitative study of non-users, ex-light users and ex-moderate users

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although ecstasy is often consumed in the electronic music scene, not everyone with the opportunity to use it chooses to do so. The objective of this study was to understand the reasons for non-use or the cessation of use, which could provide information for public health interventions. Methods A qualitative reference method was used. Our “snowball” sample group consisted of 53 people who were split into three subgroups: non-users (NU, n = 23), ex-light users (EX-L, n = 12) and ex-moderate users (EX-M, n = 18). Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed and subjected to content analysis with the aid of NVivo8. Results Adverse health effects and personal values were given as reasons for non-use in the three groups. Non-users (NU) and ex-light users (EX-L) provided reasons that included fear of possible effects as well as moral, family and religious objections. Ex-moderate users (EX-M) cited reasons related to health complications and concomitant withdrawal from the electronic music scene. However, most of the ex-moderate users did not rule out the possibility of future use. Conclusions Potential effects and undesirable consequences appear to guide the decisions within the different groups. Prevention might target these motivations. Individuals who have used ecstasy indicate that social and environmental factors are the most important factors. PMID:22583984

  15. Ecstasy and Gateway Drugs: Initiating the Use of Ecstasy and Other Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Lesley W.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The main purposes of this study are to examine if, and to what extent, ecstasy use serves as a gateway to the use of hard drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine and to compare the age of onset of alcohol and marijuana use and subsequent use of cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine among young adult ecstasy users. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 268 young adult ecstasy users in Atlanta, Georgia. Subjects were solicited using the community identification process, including targeted sampling and guided recruitment. Data analysis involved discrete-time, event history analysis. Results Results suggest that the age of onset of ecstasy use influences the initiation of cocaine and methamphetamine for our sample of active ecstasy users. In addition, alcohol and marijuana use precedes the initiation of cocaine and methamphetamine, but only marijuana influences the initiation of heroin. Conclusions The sequential progression of drug use proposed in the gateway literature is not immutable. Researchers must take into account the changing popularity of drugs over time, such as the emergence of ecstasy use, when identifying patterns of drug use onset. PMID:17140814

  16. Ecstasy (MDMA) and oral health.

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Dun, S N; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2008-01-26

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as 'ecstasy' or XTC, is frequently used by young adults in the major cities. Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals who use ecstasy. This review describes systemic and oral effects of ecstasy. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatraemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include xerostomia, bruxism, and an increased risk of developing dental erosion. Mucosal changes have also been reported. Recent use of ecstasy may interfere with dental treatment. Finally, the potential use of saliva for non-invasive detection of ecstasy is discussed. PMID:18268544

  17. The Role of MDMA (Ecstasy) in Coping with Negative Life Situations Among Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moonzwe, Lwendo S.; Schensul, Jean J.; Kostick, Kristin M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of Ecstasy (MDMA or 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) as a drug used for self-medication and coping with both short- and long-term negative life situations. We show that urban youth who do not have a specific diagnosed mental illness are more likely than those who have been diagnosed and have received treatment to use Ecstasy to cope with both situational stress and lifetime trauma. Diagnosed and treated youth sometimes self-medicate with other drugs, but do not choose Ecstasy for mediation of their psychological stress. We discuss the implications of self-medication with Ecstasy for mental health services to urban youth experiencing mental health disparities, and for the continued testing and prescription of MDMA for therapeutic use in controlled clinical settings. PMID:22111403

  18. Decreased cerebral cortical serotonin transporter binding in ecstasy users: a positron emission tomography/[11C]DASB and structural brain imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Jason; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Tong, Junchao; McCluskey, Tina; Wilkins, Diana; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey; Mundo, Emanuela; Wilson, Alan A.; Rusjan, Pablo M.; Saint-Cyr, Jean A.; Guttman, Mark; Collins, D. Louis; Shapiro, Colin; Warsh, Jerry J.; Boileau, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Animal data indicate that the recreational drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) can damage brain serotonin neurons. However, human neuroimaging measurements of serotonin transporter binding, a serotonin neuron marker, remain contradictory, especially regarding brain areas affected; and the possibility that structural brain differences might account for serotonin transporter binding changes has not been explored. We measured brain serotonin transporter binding using [11C] N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio) benzylamine in 50 control subjects and in 49 chronic (mean 4 years) ecstasy users (typically one to two tablets bi-monthly) withdrawn from the drug (mean 45 days). A magnetic resonance image for positron emission tomography image co-registration and structural analyses was acquired. Hair toxicology confirmed group allocation but also indicated use of other psychoactive drugs in most users. Serotonin transporter binding in ecstasy users was significantly decreased throughout all cerebral cortices (range –19 to –46%) and hippocampus (–21%) and related to the extent of drug use (years, maximum dose), but was normal in basal ganglia and midbrain. Substantial overlap was observed between control and user values except for insular cortex, in which 51% of ecstasy user values fell below the lower limit of the control range. Voxel-based analyses confirmed a caudorostral gradient of cortical serotonin transporter binding loss with occipital cortex most severely affected. Magnetic resonance image measurement revealed no overall regional volume differences between groups; however, a slight left-hemispheric biased cortical thinning was detected in methamphetamine-using ecstasy users. The serotonin transporter binding loss was not related to structural changes or partial volume effect, use of other stimulant drugs, blood testosterone or oestradiol levels, major serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphisms, gender, psychiatric status, or self

  19. No difference in brain activation during cognitive performance between ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users and control subjects: a [H2(15)O]-positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Gamma, A; Buck, A; Berthold, T; Vollenweider, F X

    2001-02-01

    The long-term use of the serotonin-releaser and uptake-inhibitor 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") has been associated with memory impairments and increased liability to depressive mood and anxiety attacks. It is unclear, however, whether these psychologic deviations are reflected in alterations of the underlying neurophysiologic substrate. The authors compared mood and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) profiles between regular polytoxic Ecstasy users and Ecstasy-naive controls. Brain activity as indexed by rCBF was measured during cognitive activation by an attentional task using positron emission tomography and [H2(15)O]. Mood was assessed by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the EWL Mood Rating Scale. Statistical parametric mapping revealed that brain activity did not differ between the two groups. Both groups also performed equally on the cognitive task requiring sustained attention. However, significantly higher levels of depressiveness as determined by the HAM-D and EWL scales were found in Ecstasy-using subjects. These data indicate that, despite differences in mood, polytoxic Ecstasy users do not differ from Ecstasy-naive controls in terms of local brain activity. Heightened depressiveness in the Ecstasy group was consistent with results from previous studies and could be related to serotonergic hypofunction resulting from repeated MDMA consumption. However, this study cannot exclude the possibility that the observed differences are preexisting rather than a result of Ecstasy use. PMID:11199950

  20. Acute, sub-acute and long-term subjective consequences of 'ecstasy' (MDMA) consumption in 430 regular users.

    PubMed

    Verheyden, Suzanne L; Henry, John A; Curran, H Valerie

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the reported psychological effects of different patterns of MDMA use in men and women, and how they are modified by use of other psychoactive substances. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 466 regular MDMA users, exploring the perceived acute, sub-acute and long-term subjective effects of this drug. Factor analysis established three main categories of acute effects of MDMA: (i) positive and (ii) negative effects on mental health, and (iii) physical effects. In terms of subacute effects, 83% of participants reported experiencing low mood and 80% reported impaired concentration between ecstasy-taking sessions. Factors affecting these effects included age, gender, extent of MDMA use and concomitant use of cocaine or amphetamine. The long-term effects most frequently reported included the development of tolerance to MDMA (59%), impaired ability to concentrate (38%), depression (37%) and 'feeling more open towards people' (31%). In terms of what might persuade users to stop using MDMA, their most prominent concern was the drug's long-term effects on mental health. PMID:14533132

  1. Self-Esteem and HIV Risk Practices among Young Adult “Ecstasy” Users

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role that self-esteem plays in HIV-related risk taking among users of the drug, ecstasy. The first part of the analysis focuses on the relationship of self-esteem to HIV risk-taking. The second part of the analysis examines predictors of self-esteem in this population. The research is based on a sample of 283 young adult ecstasy users. The study took place between August 2002 and August 2004 and entailed face-to-face interviews that were completed with the use of computer-assisted structured interviews. Study participants were recruited in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that self-esteem is associated with a variety of risky practices, including: the number of sex partners that people reported having, individuals’ likelihood of having multiple sex partners, the number of different types of illegal drugs that people reported using, and their condom use self-efficacy. The multivariate analysis conducted to ascertain the factors that impact young adult ecstasy users’ levels of self-esteem yielded six such factors: educational attainment (positive), coming from a family-of-origin whose members got along well (positive), the extent of alcohol problems experienced recently (negative), the number of positive effects experienced recently as a result of ecstasy use (positive), the number of negative effects experienced recently as a result of ecstasy use (negative), and the extent of experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (negative). PMID:21305909

  2. Predicting ecstasy use among young people at risk: a prospective study of initially ecstasy-naive subjects.

    PubMed

    Vervaeke, Hylke K E; Benschop, Annemieke; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J

    2008-01-01

    Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged > or = 18 who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in the near future. After an 11- to 26-month follow-up period, 160 respondents remained (85.1%; mean age 21.0 years, 58.1% females): 65 who took ecstasy at least once (ecstasy users) and 95 non-users. At baseline and four times during follow-up, respondents completed self-report questionnaires. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the effects of baseline respondent characteristics on incident ecstasy use. Development of peer group ecstasy use was analyzed by logistic regression. Intention to use ecstasy, low education, and current weekly cannabis use independently increased the hazard rate for first ecstasy use. Although ecstasy use among peers at baseline was not a predictor, the proportion of ecstasy users with ecstasy-using peers increased markedly during the study. Our results suggest that targeted prevention activities should focus in particular on young people who have strong intentions to take ecstasy, especially if they are also regular smokers of cannabis. PMID:18724654

  3. Ecstasy (MDMA) exposure and neuropsychological functioning: a polydrug perspective.

    PubMed

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Shear, Paula K; Corcoran, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) is a popular drug that can act as a selective serotonin neurotoxin in several species. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between ecstasy exposure and cognitive functioning after controlling for other drug use and demographic variables. Furthermore, we assessed whether gender was a moderator of the relationship between cognitive functioning and ecstasy use. Data were collected from 31 men and 34 women with a wide range of ecstasy use (17 marijuana users with no ecstasy use and 48 ecstasy users ranging from low to heavy use). Participants were interviewed and administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. The primary finding was that ecstasy exposure was significantly related to poorer verbal learning and memory ability in a dose-dependent manner, while no such relationship was observed between ecstasy exposure and executive functioning or attentional ability. Gender was found to significantly moderate the relationship between ecstasy consumption and design fluency. These results suggest primary memory dysfunction among abstinent recreational ecstasy users. This finding is consistent with reports of hippocampal vulnerability, particularly among heavy users. PMID:16248911

  4. Evidence for Significant Polydrug Use among Ecstasy-Using College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wish, Eric D.; Fitzelle, Dawn Bonanno; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Hsu, Margaret H.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2006-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) has been added to the spectrum of illicit drugs used by college students. In this study, the authors estimated the prevalence of ecstasy use within a large college student sample and investigated the polydrug-use history of those ecstasy users. They administered an anonymous questionnaire to college students (N = 1,206) in…

  5. The Recreational Drug Ecstasy Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Reproductive Axis in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Walker, Deena M.; Reveron, Maria E.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive function involves an interaction of three regulatory levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad. The primary drive upon this system comes from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells, which receive afferent inputs from other neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system to result in the proper coordination of reproduction and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that the recreational drug ±-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “ecstasy”), which acts through several of the neurotransmitter systems that affect GnRH neurons, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis of male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered saline or MDMA or saline either once (acute) or for 20 days (chronic), and were euthanized 7 days following last administration. We quantified hypothalamic GnRH mRNA, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, and serum testosterone levels, as indices of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions, respectively. The results indicate that the hypothalamic and gonadal levels of the HPG axis are significantly altered by MDMA, with GnRH mRNA and serum testosterone levels suppressed in rats administered MDMA compared to saline. Furthermore, our finding that hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels are suppressed in the context of low testosterone concentrations suggests that the central GnRH neurosecretory system may be a primary target of inhibitory regulation by MDMA usage. PMID:18309234

  6. Is ecstasy a drug of dependence?

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Bruno, Raimondo; Topp, Libby

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the evidence for an MDMA or "ecstasy" dependence syndrome. Animal evidence suggests that MDMA may be a less potent reinforcer than other drugs, but that it does have dependence potential. This suggests that (a) ecstasy dependence might be less likely than dependence upon other drugs; and (b) factors related to the behavioural and psychological aspects of reward and dependence may make a relatively greater contribution for ecstasy than for other drugs, where physically centred (and better understood) features of dependence may be more salient. Human evidence supports this proposition. Some people report problems with their use, but the literature suggests that physical features play a more limited role than psychological ones. Tolerance is apparent, and withdrawal is self-reported, but it is unclear whether these reports distinguish sub-acute effects of ecstasy intoxication from symptoms reflective of neuroadaptive processes underlying a "true" withdrawal syndrome. Studies examining the structure of dependence upon ecstasy suggest it may be different from drugs such as alcohol, methamphetamine and opioids. Consistent with studies of hallucinogens, a two-factor structure has been identified with factors suggestive of "compulsive use" and "escalating use". Regardless of the nature of any dependence syndrome, however, there is evidence to suggest that a minority of ecstasy users become concerned about their use and seek treatment. Further controlled studies are required to investigate this phenomenon. PMID:19836170

  7. Thizzin'-Ecstasy use contexts and emergent social meanings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juliet P; Battle, Robynn S; Soller, Brian; Brandes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The drug "Ecstasy" has been most commonly associated with raves, or electronic music dance events, and attributed with sexual disinhibition. In an ethnographic investigation of drug use among second-generation Southeast Asian youth in Northern California (2003), respondents described little use of or interest in using Ecstasy; yet in a second study, Ecstasy was the fourth most commonly-used substance. This paper investigates the social contexts for this change in use patterns. Respondents were second-generation Southeast Asian youths and young adults between the ages of 15 and 26 who were currently or recently drug-involved. We compared qualitative data from the two studies and found emerging patterns of meaning and context related to the observed change in use patterns. Ecstasy use among co-resident African American youth within the context of the local "hyphy" hip-hop music subculture had influenced Southeast Asian youths' uptake of the drug, known as "thizz." Respondents referred to the effects of the drug as "thizzin'," described as energizing, disinhibiting, numbing, and emotion enhancing. Reported consequences of "thizzin'" included violence and aggression as well as fun, while sexual disinhibition was rarely mentioned. The meanings assigned to drugs, including the effects ascribed to them, may be relative to the social contexts within which users are exposed to and consume drugs. The findings indicate the susceptibility of youths to local trends in drug use, particularly associated with popular cultural movements and music. Second-generation youths may be particularly susceptible relative to the conditions of their immigration and processes of identity formation unique to them. PMID:22025908

  8. MDMA (Ecstasy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... synthetic, meaning it's manmade. MDMA works by altering chemical reactions in the brain. Most users take it as a pill or capsule. The effects usually last about 3 to 6 hours. Short-Term ... of serotonin, a "feel-good" chemical that plays a role in mood, sleep, sexual ...

  9. Modifiable risk factors of ecstasy use: risk perception, current dependence, perceived control, and depression

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit Sang; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Cottler, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Risk perception, perceived behavioral control of obtaining ecstasy (PBC-obtaining), current ecstasy dependence, and recent depression have been associated with past ecstasy use, however, their utility in predicting ecstasy use has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine whether these four modifiable risk factors could predict ecstasy use after controlling for socio-demographic covariates and recent polydrug use. Data from 601 ecstasy users in the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded TriCity Study of Club Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Participants were interviewed twice within a 2-week period using standardized instruments. Thirteen percent (n=80) of the participants reported using ecstasy between the two interviews. Low risk perception, high PBC-obtaining (an estimated ecstasy procurement time < 24 hours), and current ecstasy dependence were statistically associated with ecstasy use between the two interviews. Recent depression was not a significant predictor. Despite not being a target predictor, recent polydrug use was also statistically associated with ecstasy use. The present findings may inform the development of interventions targeting ecstasy users. PMID:19880258

  10. Risky Behavior, Ecstasy, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callier, Heather H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…

  11. The Correlation between the Communication of the Health Risks of Ecstasy (MDMA) and the Drug's Use among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campe, Brian; Frye, Kristin; Hood, Caitlin; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey; Parsons, Michael

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between college students and their awareness of the hazardous effects of the drug Ecstasy. Ecstasy use has risen among college students even though readily available research shows Ecstasy use having extremely hazardous effects on its users. Research also shows a lack of communication about…

  12. Interview as intervention: The case of young adult multidrug users in the club scene

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Buttram, Mance E.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Chen, Minxing

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on changes in substance use and substance dependence symptoms - without intervention - among young adult multidrug users in the club scene, ages 18–29, (N=444) who participated in a natural history study. Computer-assisted personal interviews at baseline and 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups included well-tested measures of substance use and dependence. Changes in substance dependence symptoms and drug use frequencies were calculated using the Cohen’s d statistic. Mean age was 22; 40% were female; 58% Hispanic, 17% White, and 21% Black. At 18-month follow-up assessment, participants reported significantly fewer days of cocaine (d= −.85 at 18 months), ecstasy (d= −.93), benzodiazepine (d= −.82), and prescription opioid (d= −.81) use, as well as reduced substance dependence symptoms (d= −.42). These results, together with data from focus groups with completers, suggest that comprehensive health and social risk assessments may have quite strong intervention effects among young adult multidrug users. PMID:22971689

  13. Thizzin’—Ecstasy use contexts and emergent social meanings

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Robynn S.; Soller, Brian; Brandes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The drug “Ecstasy” has been most commonly associated with raves, or electronic music dance events, and attributed with sexual disinhibition. In an ethnographic investigation of drug use among second-generation Southeast Asian youth in Northern California (2003), respondents described little use of or interest in using Ecstasy; yet in a second study, Ecstasy was the fourth most commonly-used substance. This paper investigates the social contexts for this change in use patterns. Respondents were second-generation Southeast Asian youths and young adults between the ages of 15 and 26 who were currently or recently drug-involved. We compared qualitative data from the two studies and found emerging patterns of meaning and context related to the observed change in use patterns. Ecstasy use among co-resident African American youth within the context of the local “hyphy” hip-hop music subculture had influenced Southeast Asian youths’ uptake of the drug, known as “thizz.” Respondents referred to the effects of the drug as “thizzin’,” described as energizing, disinhibiting, numbing, and emotion enhancing. Reported consequences of “thizzin’” included violence and aggression as well as fun, while sexual disinhibition was rarely mentioned. The meanings assigned to drugs, including the effects ascribed to them, may be relative to the social contexts within which users are exposed to and consume drugs. The findings indicate the susceptibility of youths to local trends in drug use, particularly associated with popular cultural movements and music. Second-generation youths may be particularly susceptible relative to the conditions of their immigration and processes of identity formation unique to them. PMID:22025908

  14. Saturday night fever in ecstasy/MDMA dance clubbers: Heightened body temperature and associated psychobiological changes

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Andrew C; Young, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Aims and rationale: to investigate body temperature and thermal self-ratings of Ecstasy/MDMA users at a Saturday night dance club. Methods: 68 dance clubbers (mean age 21.6 years, 30 females and 38 males), were assessed at a Saturday night dance club, then 2–3 d later. Three subgroups were compared: 32 current Ecstasy users who had taken Ecstasy/MDMA that evening, 10 abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users on other psychoactive drugs, and 26 non-user controls (predominantly alcohol drinkers). In a comparatively quiet area of the dance club, each unpaid volunteer had their ear temperature recorded, and completed a questionnaire on thermal feelings and mood states. A similar questionnaire was repeated 2–3 d later by mobile telephone. Results: Ecstasy/MDMA users had a mean body temperature 1.2°C higher than non-user controls (P < 0.001), and felt significantly hotter and thirstier. The abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA polydrug user group had a mean body temperature intermediate between the other 2 groups, significantly higher than controls, and significantly lower than current Ecstasy/MDMA users. After 2–3 d of recovery, the Ecstasy/MDMA users remained significantly ‘thirstier’. Higher body temperature while clubbing was associated with greater Ecstasy/MDMA usage at the club, and younger age of first use. Higher temperature also correlated with lower elation and poor memory 2–3 d later. It also correlated positively with nicotine, and negatively with cannabis. Conclusions: Ecstasy/MDMA using dance clubbers had significantly higher body temperature than non-user controls. This heightened body temperature was associated with a number of adverse psychobiological consequences, including poor memory.

  15. Application of the Passionate Attachment Model to Recreational Use of MDMA/Ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Those who are not addicted to ecstasy, but who use it persistently over time, could be viewed as having a "passionate attachment" to a highly valued activity. To evaluate the associations of obsessive and harmonious passion with psychological and behavioral aspects of ecstasy consumption, we recruited a community sample of ecstasy users to complete a modified version of the Passion Scale (Vallerand et al. 2003) and other questionnaires assessing their substance use history, self-efficacy to refuse ecstasy, and use of ecstasy to cope with worries and problems. Both Obsessive and Harmonious passion scores were negatively correlated with self-efficacy to refuse ecstasy and positively correlated with using ecstasy to cope with worries and problems. The findings also provided partial support for our hypotheses that scores on the Obsessive Passion subscale would be associated with number of times participants had used ecstasy, the frequency of use, and the typical number of pills consumed. Participants agreed more strongly with statements indicative of Harmonious Passion to consume ecstasy, but Harmonious subscale scores were not associated with several measures of consumption. As a supplemental measure, the modified questionnaire could provide a more comprehensive picture of the psychology of one's ecstasy use. PMID:25715069

  16. Clubbing with ecstasy

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn

    2014-01-01

    In this issue, Parrot and Young present the results of temperature measurements in young individuals “partying” with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy). This editorial commentary briefly summarizes the main findings of their study, provides background gained from previous animal experiments, and reviews the implications for the development of future pharmacotherapies and harm reduction strategies.

  17. Hazards associated with the recreational drug 'ecstasy'.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B

    The amphetamine analogue 'ecstasy' is a popular 'designer' drug and is perceived by its users to be relatively harmless. However, it has been associated with several fatalities through a disorder of thermoregulation, and severe reactions have been reported across many disciplines. This article emphasises the hazardous nature of the drug and highlights the urgency and nature of treatment in the acutely toxic state. PMID:7858800

  18. Maximising the Highs and Minimising the Lows: Harm Reduction Guidance within Ecstasy Distribution Networks

    PubMed Central

    Duterte, Micheline; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about how users build and share knowledge concerning the highs and lows of Ecstasy and the role that Ecstasy sellers play in the exchange of this information. Methods These findings are based on a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project, “An Exploratory Study of Ecstasy Distribution,” conducted between 2003 and 2006. We completed in-depth interviews with 120 men and women in the San Francisco Bay Area who had sold 5 or more doses 5 or more times in the 6 months prior to the interview. The research focused on buyer-seller relationships and the influence of these relationships on users’ health. Results Users constructed harm reduction strategies in attempts to maximise the Ecstasy high and minimise the risks. The social context of Ecstasy use allowed for the exchange of harm reduction information and advice on how to maximise the pleasurable aspects of Ecstasy. Some participants served as “guides” to ensure that their customers had safe and enjoyable experiences while using Ecstasy. Conclusion These findings suggest that Ecstasy sellers are important points of intervention for the dissemination of harm reduction information as friendship networks were the primary link in creating awareness of safer Ecstasy use. PMID:17964771

  19. Ecstasy: as harmful as heroin?

    PubMed

    Scott, Russ

    2009-12-01

    There is evidence that the use of MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), colloquially known as "ecstasy" particularly among late adolescents and young adults is increasing in Australia. Despite recent government-sponsored public education programs, there is a perception that recreational use of MDMA is much less harmful than other illicit substances like heroin. Recent seizures by police in Australia underline the extent of the demand for MDMA and how lucrative trafficking in MDMA has become. In two recent Australian cases, appellate courts considered the legislative intent of both State and Commonwealth legislation and held that a quantity-based penalty regime applied which distinguished between "traffickable" and "commercial" quantities of illicit drugs and that no distinction turned on the relative "harmfulness" of MDMA. In examining the question of harmfulness, this column summarises the pharmacology and morbidity of MDMA and considers the links between MDMA and other substances of abuse and the implications for further prevention programs. PMID:20169795

  20. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)-related hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish M; Belson, Martin G; Longwater, Adam B; Olson, Kent R; Miller, Michael A

    2005-11-01

    MDMA (or 3, 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) was first manufactured in the 1920s and found to have structural similarities to both mescaline and amphetamines. Used briefly by some therapists in the 1970s and early 1980s as an adjunct to psychotherapy, it is now primarily abused by teenagers and young adults as an illicit recreational drug known as "ecstasy." As its popularity has increased, so have the number of fatalities and adverse events related to its use. We report six patients suffering fatal or life-threatening hyperthermia after MDMA use. These cases illustrate that hyperthermia associated with MDMA use cannot be solely attributed to rave parties (high ambient temperatures, excessive dancing, dehydration, and overcrowded conditions), drug contaminants, or co-ingestants. A better understanding of the etiology of hyperthermia after MDMA use is needed so that appropriate harm-reduction measures can be developed and instituted. PMID:16243206

  1. The Agony and Ecstasy of Workplace Creativity: A Qualitative Study of How Facilitators View Affect in Helping Adults Learn Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Kirk D.

    2012-01-01

    The business world is constantly striving for new, better, more efficient products and services. As such, the call for innovation rings out loud and clear throughout every industry and every workplace environment. As a foundation for innovation, creativity is typically positioned as a valued attribute, skill or behavior for adults in the…

  2. A fluorescent probe for ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Masseroni, D; Biavardi, E; Genovese, D; Rampazzo, E; Prodi, L; Dalcanale, E

    2015-08-18

    A nanostructure formed by the insertion in silica nanoparticles of a pyrene-derivatized cavitand, which is able to specifically recognize ecstasy in water, is presented. The absence of effects from interferents and an efficient electron transfer process occurring after complexation of ecstasy, makes this system an efficient fluorescent probe for this popular drug. PMID:26166808

  3. Tri-city Study of Ecstasy Use Problems: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Inciardi, James A.; Copeland, Jan; Cottler, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis to examine distinctive subtypes of Ecstasy users based on 24 abuse and dependence symptoms underlying standard DSM-IV criteria. Data came from a three-site, population-based, epidemiological study to examine diagnostic nosology for Ecstasy use. Subject inclusion criteria included lifetime Ecstasy use exceeding five times and once in the past year, with participants ranging in age between 16 to 47 years of age from St. Louis, Miami, U.S. and Sydney, Australia. A satisfactory model typified four latent classes representing clearly differentiated diagnostic clusters including: (1) A group of sub-threshold users endorsing few abuse and dependence symptom (negatives), (2) A group of ‘diagnostic orphans’ who had characteristic features of dependence for a select group of symptoms (mild dependent), (3) a ‘transitional group’ mimicking the orphans with regard to their profile of dependence also but reporting some abuse symptoms (moderate dependent), and (4) a ‘severe dependent’ group with a distinct profile of abuse and dependence symptoms. A multinomial logistic regression model indicated that certain latent classes showed unique associations with external non-diagnostic markers. Controlling for demographic characteristics and lifetime quantity of Ecstasy pill use, criminal behavior and motivational cues for Ecstasy use were the most efficient predictors of cluster membership. This study reinforces the heuristic utility of DSM-IV criteria applied to Ecstasy but with a different collage of symptoms that produced four distinct classes of Ecstasy users. PMID:18674872

  4. Lhermitte's sign, electric shock sensations and high dose ecstasy consumption: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Boland, B; Mitcheson, L; Wolff, K

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to perform a preliminary investigation into the nature of electric shock-like experiences reported in association with the use of ecstasy tablets thought to contain methylenedioxymethamphetamines (MDMA). This included exploration of reports of electric shock-like experiences from the user's perspectives and identification of other variables that may be associated with their development. Furthermore we aimed to examine whether the well-recognised electric shock-like symptom, Lhermitte's sign (LS), is associated with ecstasy tablet use in some drug users. A single measure, cross-sectional survey was used incorporating mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology. A select group of ecstasy users (n = 35) recruited through a dance, music and lifestyle magazine completed a telephone interview. Lifetime prevalence of LS in the study population was 18% (n = 6). Development of LS was associated with use of more ecstasy tablets before a typical incident. This study indicates a relationship may exist between the use of ecstasy tablets and LS. The relationship may be dose dependent. The majority of the study population used other substances including alcohol when experiencing electrical shock sensations. LS may explain only a proportion of all electrical shock experiences among ecstasy users. PMID:19240087

  5. Religiosity and exposure to users in explaining illicit drug use among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Palamar, Joseph J; Kiang, Mathew V; Halkitis, Perry N

    2014-06-01

    Religiosity is a protective factor against illicit drug use, but further investigation is needed to delineate which components of religiosity are protective against use. A racially diverse sample (N = 962) was surveyed about religiosity, exposure to users, and recent use of marijuana, powder cocaine, ecstasy, and nonmedical use of opioids and amphetamine. Results suggest that identifying as Agnostic increased odds of use for each of the five drugs; however, this effect disappeared when controlling for religious importance and attendance. High levels of religious attendance were protective against recent use of marijuana and cocaine, but protective effects diminished when controlling for exposure to users, which was a robust predictor of use of every drug. Religion is a protective mechanism against drug use, but this effect may diminish in light of exposure to users. Alternative preventative methods need to be directed toward individuals who are not religious or are highly exposed to users. PMID:23114835

  6. Differential effects of ecstasy on short-term and working memory: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nulsen, Claire E; Fox, Allison M; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of studies examining the effect of ecstasy on short-term and working memory in the verbal and visuo-spatial domain was undertaken. Thirty verbal short-term memory, 22 verbal working memory, 12 visuospatial short-term memory and 9 visuospatial working memory studies met inclusion criteria. Ecstasy users performed significantly worse in all memory domains, both in studies using drug-naïve controls and studies using polydrug controls. These results are consistent with previous meta-analytic findings that ecstasy use is associated with impaired short-term memory function. Lifetime ecstasy consumption predicted effect size in working memory but not in short-term memory. The current meta-analysis adds to the literature by showing that ecstasy use in humans is also associated with impaired working memory, and that this impairment is related to total lifetime ecstasy consumption. These findings highlight the long-term, cumulative behavioral consequences associated with ecstasy use in humans. PMID:20157852

  7. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed. PMID:26561887

  8. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs." PMID:18720674

  9. The role of peers in the initiation and continuation of ecstasy use.

    PubMed

    Vervaeke, Hylke K E; van Deursen, Lonneke; Korf, Dirk J

    2008-01-01

    This study is a supplement to the Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), funded by grants from the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development as part of its Addiction Programme. To better understand the processes of peer influence and peer selection, in a field study 106 Ecstasy users (67M/39F, average age 25.4 years) were interviewed face-to-face in Amsterdam in 2005. In the initiation of Ecstasy use, peer influence emerged as the dominating mechanism; peer selection was uncommon. In the continuation of Ecstasy use, peer influence and peer selection occurred reciprocally in a dynamic process, although peer influence made a greater relative contribution. Our study confirms that peer influence is a multidimensional process: influence was quite often reciprocal (with respondents both exerting and undergoing influence) and it could have both restraining and encouraging effects on ecstasy use. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:18393081

  10. Characteristics and determinants of music appreciation in adult CI users.

    PubMed

    Philips, Birgit; Vinck, Bart; De Vel, Eddy; Maes, Leen; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the associations between self-reported listening habits and perception of music and speech perception outcomes in quiet and noise for both unilateral cochlear implant (CI) users and bimodal (CI in one ear, hearing aid in contra-lateral ear) users. Information concerning music appreciation was gathered by means of a newly developed questionnaire. Moreover, audiological data (pure-tone audiometry, speech tests in noise and quiet) were gathered and the relationship between speech perception and music appreciation is studied. Bimodal users enjoy listening to music more in comparison with unilateral CI users. Also, music training within rehabilitation is still uncommon, while CI recipients believe that music training might be helpful to maximize their potential with current CI technology. Music training should not be exclusively reserved for the good speech performers. Therefore, a music training program (MTP) that consists of different difficulty levels should be developed. Hopefully, early implementation of MTP in rehabilitation programs can enable adult CI users to enjoy and appreciate music and to maximize their potential with commercially available technology. Furthermore, because bimodal users consider the bimodal stimulation to be the most enjoyable way to listen to music, CI users with residual hearing in the contra-lateral ear should be encouraged to continue wearing their hearing aid in that ear. PMID:21847672

  11. The economics of faking ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Mialon, Hugo M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a signaling model of rational lovemaking. In the act of lovemaking, a man and a woman send each other possibly deceptive signals about their true state of ecstasy. For example, if one of the partners is not in ecstasy, then he or she may decide to fake it. The model predicts that (1) a higher cost of faking lowers the probability of faking; (2) middle-aged and old men are more likely to fake than young men; (3) young and old women are more likely to fake than middle-aged women; and (4) love, formally defined as a mixture of altruism and demand for togetherness, increases the likelihood of faking. The predictions are tested with data from the 2000 Orgasm Survey. Besides supporting the model's predictions, the data also reveal an interesting positive relationship between education and the tendency to fake in both men and women. PMID:22329055

  12. [Asceticism and ecstasy in Freud].

    PubMed

    Düe, M

    1993-05-01

    Contrasting concepts like "denial" and "fulfillment" are indicative of conflicting pulls in Freudian theory that can also be described in terms of the tension between "asceticism" and "ecstasy". The author divides Freud's thinking into three distinct phases--demonological speculation, labyrinthine speculation, cosmogonical speculation--and demonstrates that in each of these phases the relative emphasis on the ascetic and the ecstatic differs. Further, Düe points out that on the formal level Freud's theories are affected by those phenomena which he defines as being ascetic or ecstatic in nature. In terms of the history of ideas, the author sets the opposition between asceticism and ecstasy against the broader horizon of the opposition between Enlightenment and Romanticism. PMID:8511324

  13. Factors Associated with Teenage Ecstasy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this article was to investigate the factors associated with ecstasy use in school-aged teenagers. Methods: This was a longitudinal study of adolescent drug use, which was undertaken in three towns in Northern Ireland. A questionnaire was administered annually to participants. In this article ecstasy use patterns amongst a cohort…

  14. Audio-vocal responses elicited in adult cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Torrey M.; Suneel, Deepa; Aronoff, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory deprivation experienced prior to receiving a cochlear implant could compromise neural connections that allow for modulation of vocalization using auditory feedback. In this report, pitch-shift stimuli were presented to adult cochlear implant users to test whether compensatory motor changes in vocal F0 could be elicited. In five of six participants, rapid adjustments in vocal F0 were detected following the stimuli, which resemble the cortically mediated pitch-shift responses observed in typical hearing individuals. These findings suggest that cochlear implants can convey vocal F0 shifts to the auditory pathway that might benefit audio-vocal monitoring. PMID:26520350

  15. Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Herman, Debra S.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult female. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18–29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of 2 sessions of MI-MM or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). Participants’ marijuana use was assessed at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months post-treatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = −2.42, p=.015), 7.81 (z = −2.78, p=.005), and 6.83 (z = −2.23, p=.026) fewer days at months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136

  16. Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco; Soto-Félix, Selene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use. PMID:22317567

  17. Ecstasy-induced acute coronary syndrome: something to rave about.

    PubMed

    Hoggett, Kerry; McCoubrie, David; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2012-06-01

    Ecstasy or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a commonly used illicit recreational drug, enjoying popularity for its stimulant effects. Although acute coronary syndrome is recognized after cocaine and methamphetamine use, association with Ecstasy use has rarely been reported. We report three cases of significantly delayed acute coronary syndrome and ST elevation myocardial infarction related to ingestion of Ecstasy. PMID:22672176

  18. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Ecstasy

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Drugs: Ecstasy KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Ecstasy Print A A A Text Size en español Lo que necesitas saber sobre las drogas: El Éxtasis What It Is: Ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine, or MDMA) is a drug that is illegally ...

  19. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  20. Predicting Ecstasy Use among Young People at Risk: A Prospective Study of Initially Ecstasy-Naive Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervaeke, Hylke K.E.; Benschop, Annemieke; Van Den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged up to 18 years who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in the near future. After an 11- to…

  1. Comparing Intervention Strategies among Rural, Low SES, Young Adult Tobacco Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanis, David A.; Hollm, Ronald E.; Derr, Daniel; Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Collins, Bradley N.; Coviello, Donna; Melochick, Jennifer Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate 3-month tobacco quit rates of young adult tobacco users randomized to 2 intervention conditions. Methods: Overall 192 non-treatment-seeking 18-to-24-year-old tobacco users received educational information and advice to quit smoking. Participants were then block randomized to 2 brief intervention conditions: (1) a telephone…

  2. Involving Adult Service Users with Learning Disabilities in the Training of Speech and Language Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Celia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff,…

  3. National Household Education Survey. Adult and Course Data Files User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, J. Michael; And Others

    This manual provides documentation and guidance for users of the public release data files (adult file and course file) for Adult Education (AE) component of the 1991 National Household Education Survey (NHES:91). The NHES:91 was a random-digit dial telephone survey developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and conducted by…

  4. Evaluating Websites for Older Adults: Adherence to "Senior-Friendly" Guidelines and End-User Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, T. A.; Chaparro, B. S.; Halcomb, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Older adults in the US are the fastest-growing demographic, and also the largest-growing group of internet users. The aim of this research was to evaluate websites designed for older adults in terms of (1) how well they adhere to "senior-friendly" guidelines and (2) overall ease of use and satisfaction. In Experiment I, 40 websites designed for…

  5. Characteristics and Outcomes of Young Adult Opiate Users Receiving Residential Substance Abuse Treatment.

    PubMed

    Morse, Siobhan; MacMaster, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Opiate use patterns, user characteristics, and treatment response among young adults are of interest due to current high use prevalence and historical low levels of treatment engagement relative to older populations. Prior research in this population suggests that overall, young adults present at treatment with different issues. In this study the authors investigated potential differences between young adult (18-25 years of age) and older adult (26 and older) opiate users and the impact of differences relative to treatment motivation, length and outcomes. Data for this study was drawn from 760 individuals who entered voluntary, private, residential treatment. Study measures included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Treatment Service Review (TSR), and University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Interviews were conducted at program intake and 6-month post-discharge. Results indicate that older adults with a history of opiate use present at treatment with higher levels of severity for alcohol, medical, and psychological problems and young adults present at treatment with greater drug use and more legal issues. Significant improvement for both groups was noted at 6 months post treatment; there were also fewer differences between the two age groups of opiate users. Results suggest different strategies within treatment programs may provide benefit in targeting the disparate needs of younger opiate users. Overall, however, results suggest that individualized treatment within a standard, abstinence-based, residential treatment model can be effective across opiate users at different ages and with different issues, levels of severity, and impairment at intake. PMID:25879396

  6. Modified Assessment for Adult Readers: Collage. User's Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Gaie Isett

    A project was conducted to design an alternative assessment tool for use with adult learners traditionally identified as reading below fifth-grade level. This assessment allows for the creation of a goal-oriented Individual Education Plan that is personalized to the learner's needs and educational goals. The approach, analogous to the art…

  7. Timbral recognition and appraisal by adult cochlear implant users and normal-hearing adults.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, K; Knutson, J F; Woodworth, G; Witt, S; DeBus, B

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the appraisal and recognition of timbre (four different musical instruments) by recipients of Clarion cochlear implants (CIS strategy, 75- or 150-microsec pulse widths) and to compare their performance with that of normal-hearing listeners. Twenty-eight Clarion cochlear implant users and 41 normal-hearing listeners were asked to give a subjective assessment of the pleasantness of each instrument using a visual analog scale with anchors of "like very much" to "dislike very much," and to match each sound with a picture of the instrument they believed had produced it. No significant differences were found between the two different pulse widths for either appreciation or recognition; thus, data from the two pulse widths following 12 months of Clarion implant use were collapsed for further analyses. Significant differences in appraisal were found between normal-hearing listeners and implant recipients for two of the four instruments sampled. Normal-hearing adults were able to recognize all of the instruments with significantly greater accuracy than implant recipients. Performance on timbre perception tasks was correlated with speech perception and cognitive tasks. PMID:9493937

  8. Neurotoxicity of drugs of abuse - the case of methylenedioxy amphetamines (MDMA, ecstasy ), and amphetamines

    PubMed Central

    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA, 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine) and the stimulants methamphetamine (METH, speed) and amphetamine are popular drugs among young people, particularly in the dance scene. When given in high doses both MDMA and the stimulant amphetamines are clearly neurotoxic in laboratory animals. MDMA causes selective and persistent lesions of central serotonergic nerve terminals, whereas amphetamines damage both the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. In recent years, the question of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity and possible functional sequelae has been addressed in several studies in drug users. Despite large methodological problems, the bulk of evidence suggests residual alterations of serotonergic transmission in MDMA users, although at least partial recovery may occur after long-term abstinence. However, functional sequelae may persist even after longer periods of abstinence. To date, the most consistent findings associate subtle cognitive impairments with ecstasy use, particularly with memory. In contrast, studies on possible long-term neurotoxic effects of stimulant use have been relatively scarce. Preliminary evidence suggests that alterations of the dopaminergic system may persist even after years of abstinence from METH, and may be associated with deficits in motor and cognitive performance. In this paper, we will review the literature focusing on human studies. PMID:19877498

  9. Residual Neural Processing of Musical Sound Features in Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Agrawal, Deepashri; Debener, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittfoth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing in general and music perception in particular are hampered in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. To examine the residual music perception skills and their underlying neural correlates in CI users implanted in adolescence or adulthood, we conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral study comparing adult CI users with normal-hearing age-matched controls (NH controls). We used a newly developed musical multi-feature paradigm, which makes it possible to test automatic auditory discrimination of six different types of sound feature changes inserted within a musical enriched setting lasting only 20 min. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants’ attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to five feature changes but not to changes of rhythm, whereas we obtained MMNs for all the feature changes in the NH controls. Furthermore, the MMNs to deviants of pitch of CI users were reduced in amplitude and later than those of NH controls for changes of pitch and guitar timber. No other group differences in MMN parameters were found to changes in intensity and saxophone timber. Furthermore, the MMNs in CI users reflected the behavioral scores from a respective discrimination task and were correlated with patients’ age and speech intelligibility. Our results suggest that even though CI users are not performing at the same level as NH controls in neural discrimination of pitch-based features, they do possess potential neural abilities for music processing. However, CI users showed a disrupted ability to automatically discriminate rhythmic changes compared with controls. The current behavioral and MMN findings highlight the residual neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood. Highlights: -Automatic brain responses to musical feature changes

  10. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  11. The effects of perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt; Loverseed, Anne-Claire; Charlton, Sarah; Sumnall, Harry R

    2008-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that non-dependent polydrug users are willing to pay more money to buy good quality drugs as their income increased. This study sought to examine whether altering the perceived quality of controlled drugs would affect drug purchases if the monetary price remained fixed. A random sample of 80 polydrug users were recruited. All participants were administered an anonymous questionnaire consisting of the Drug Abuse Screening Test for Adolescents (DAST-A), the Severity of Dependence Scale for cannabis (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and questions about their drug use. Participants then completed a simulation of controlled drug purchases where the price of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy remained the same but their perceived quality changed (i.e. unit price increased as the perceived quality decreased). The demand for alcohol was quality inelastic and alcohol quality had no effects on the purchase of any other controlled drug. Demand for cannabis was quality elastic and alcohol substituted for cannabis as its unit price increased. Demand for cocaine was quality elastic and alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy substituted for cocaine as its unit price increased. Demand for ecstasy was quality elastic and alcohol and cocaine both substituted for ecstasy as its unit price increased. These results suggest that perceived quality influences the demand for controlled drugs and that monitoring the perceived quality of controlled drugs may provide a warning of potential public health problems in the near future. PMID:18201842

  12. Psychosocial Correlates of Recreational Ecstasy Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tiffanie; Jordan-Green, Lisa; Lee, Jieun; Wolfman, Jade; Jahangiri, Ava

    2005-01-01

    College students' ecstasy (MDMA) use increased significantly in recent years, yet little is known about these students. In this study, the authors used the Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Studies (CORE) survey to compare 29 college students who had used ecstasy and other illicit drugs with 90 students who had used marijuana and no other illicit…

  13. Campuses and the Club Drug Ecstasy. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Although alcohol is the drug that college students use most frequently and in greatest quantity, the designer drug ecstasy has generated both curiosity and concern in recent years. This Fact Sheet offers an overview of ecstasy, possible effects of its use, and implications for institutions of higher education. Although the number of students…

  14. Power mobility with collision avoidance for older adults: user, caregiver, and prescriber perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rosalie H; Korotchenko, Alexandra; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Mortenson, W Ben; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Collision avoidance technology has the capacity to facilitate safer mobility among older power mobility users with physical, sensory, and cognitive impairments, thus enabling independence for more users. Little is known about consumers' perceptions of collision avoidance. This article draws on interviews (29 users, 5 caregivers, and 10 prescribers) to examine views on design and utilization of this technology. Data analysis identified three themes: "useful situations or contexts," "technology design issues and real-life application," and "appropriateness of collision avoidance technology for a variety of users." Findings support ongoing development of collision avoidance for older adult users. The majority of participants supported the technology and felt that it might benefit current users and users with visual impairments, but might be unsuitable for people with significant cognitive impairments. Some participants voiced concerns regarding the risk for injury with power mobility use and some identified situations where collision avoidance might be beneficial (driving backward, avoiding dynamic obstacles, negotiating outdoor barriers, and learning power mobility use). Design issues include the need for context awareness, reliability, and user interface specifications. User desire to maintain driving autonomy supports development of collaboratively controlled systems. This research lays the groundwork for future development by illustrating consumer requirements for this technology. PMID:24458968

  15. Technical Report and Data File User's Manual for the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Norris, Norma; Rock, Donald; Jungeblut, Ann; O'Reilly, Patricia; Berlin, Martha; Mohadjer, Leyla; Waksberg, Joseph; Goksel, Huseyin; Burke, John; Rieger, Susan; Green, James; Klein, Merle; Campbell, Anne; Jenkins, Lynn; Kolstad, Andrew; Mosenthal, Peter; Baldi, Stephane

    Chapter 1 of this report and user's manual describes design and implementation of the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). Chapter 2 reviews stages of sampling for national and state survey components; presents weighted and unweighted response rates for the household component; and describes non-incentive and prison sample designs. Chapter…

  16. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods Adult cocaine and methamphetamine users (N=544) in rural Arkansas and Kentucky were interviewed. Data were analyzed using both bivariate analyses and multiple logistic and log-linear regression models, with dependent variables being any substance abuse/dependence, stimulant abuse/dependence, total number of arrests since age 18 and days incarcerated since age 18. Findings One-third reported three or more conduct disorder problems prior to age 15; half reported initiation of substances (excluding alcohol) before age 15; and 60% reported family history of substance problems. All three variables were associated with adult substance abuse/dependence but only the latter two were associated with stimulant abuse/dependence. Conclusions This study highlights early risk factors for adult substance abuse/dependence among rural stimulant users. PMID:19166561

  17. [Ecstasy use and oral health].

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Dun, S N; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2007-02-01

    Ecstacy is a frequently used drug, especially by young adults in the big cities.Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals that use XTC. This review of the literature describes the systemic and oral effects of XTC. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatreaemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include mucosal changes, xerostomia and an increased risk of developing dental erosion and bruxism. Finally, the potential use of saliva for detection of XTC is discussed. PMID:17361788

  18. Risk perceptions of smokeless tobacco among adolescents and adult users and nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sherry T.; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth in smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has raised questions about consumer risk perceptions of ST products, especially in high-risk vulnerable populations. This qualitative study examined risk perceptions of ST among adolescent and adult users and non-users in Ohio Appalachia. Focus groups and interviews were held with adolescents (n=53; mean age of 17 years) and adults (n=63; mean age of 34 years) from four Ohio Appalachian counties. Participants were asked about their perceptions of ST-related health risks, ST safety, and the relative safety of ST compared to cigarettes. Transcriptions were coded independently by two individuals. Overall, participants were knowledgeable about health problems from ST use (e.g., oral cancers, periodontal disease). Nearly all participants stated that ST use is not safe; however, there was disagreement about its relative safety. Some perceived all tobacco products as equally harmful; others believed that ST is safer than cigarettes for either the user or those around the user. Disagreements about ST relative safety may reflect mixed public health messages concerning the safety of ST. Comprehensive consumer messages about the relative safety of ST compared to cigarettes are needed. Messages should address the effect of ST on the health of the user as well as those exposed to the user. PMID:25832126

  19. Optimizing Performance in Adult Cochlear Implant Users through Clinician Directed Auditory Training.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff; Bernstein, Claire Marcus; Levitt, Harry

    2015-11-01

    Clinician-directed auditory training using the KTH Speech Tracking Procedure can be a powerful approach for maximizing outcomes with adult cochlear implant (CI) users. This article first reviews prior research findings from an 8-week clinician-directed auditory training (AT) program using speech tracking that yielded significant gains in speech tracking rate and sentence recognition scores following training. The second focus of the article is to illustrate the value of intensive face-to-face long-term AT using speech tracking with adult CI users. A detailed case study report is presented that demonstrates major ongoing and progressive gains in tracking rate, sentence recognition, and improvements in self-perceived competence and confidence over the course of intensive long-term training. Given the potential of both short- and long-term clinician-directed auditory training via KTH speech tracking to help CI users reach their optimal performance level, consideration for more widespread clinical use is proposed in the overall rehabilitation of adult CI users. PMID:27587916

  20. Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) or 'ecstasy' and self-focused compassion: Preliminary steps in the development of a therapeutic psychopharmacology of contemplative practices.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Kilford, Emma J; Minchin, Stephanie; Moss, Abigail; Lawn, Will; Das, Ravi K; Falconer, Caroline J; Gilbert, Paul; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

    2015-09-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) produces diverse pro-social effects. Cognitive training methods rooted in Eastern contemplative practices also produce these effects through the development of a compassionate mindset. Given this similarity, we propose that one potential mechanism of action of MDMA in psychotherapy is through enhancing effects on intrapersonal attitudes (i.e. pro-social attitudes towards the self). We provide a preliminary test of this idea. Recreational MDMA (ecstasy) users were tested on two occasions, having consumed or not consumed ecstasy. Self-critical and self-compassionate responses to self-threatening scenarios were assessed before (T1) and after (T2) ecstasy use (or non-use), and then after compassionate imagery (T3). Moderating roles of dispositional self-criticism and avoidant attachment were examined. Separately, compassionate imagery and ecstasy produced similar sociotropic effects, as well as increases in self-compassion and reductions in self-criticism. Higher attachment-related avoidance was associated with additive effects of compassionate imagery and ecstasy on self-compassion. Findings were in line with MDMA's neuropharmacological profile, its phenomenological effects and its proposed adjunctive use in psychotherapy. However, although conditions were balanced, the experiment was non-blind and MDMA dose/purity was not determined. Controlled studies with pharmaceutically pure MDMA are still needed to test these effects rigorously. PMID:25990558

  1. National Assessment of Adult Literacy, 2003: Public-Use Data File User's Guide. NCES 2007-464

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; White, Sheida

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics has updated the household and prison public-use data files for the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy and the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The accompanying 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy Public-Use Data File User's Guide explains how the data…

  2. A preliminary report of music-based training for adult cochlear implant users: rationales and development

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Guthe, Emily; Driscoll, Virginia; Brown, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper provides a preliminary report of a music-based training program for adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Included in this report are descriptions of the rationale for music-based training, factors influencing program development, and the resulting program components. Methods Prior studies describing experience-based plasticity in response to music training, auditory training for persons with hearing impairment, and music training for cochlear implant recipients were reviewed. These sources revealed rationales for using music to enhance speech, factors associated with successful auditory training, relevant aspects of electric hearing and music perception, and extant evidence regarding limitations and advantages associated with parameters for music training with CI users. This information formed the development of a computer-based music training program designed specifically for adult CI users. Results Principles and parameters for perceptual training of music, such as stimulus choice, rehabilitation approach, and motivational concerns were developed in relation to the unique auditory characteristics of adults with electric hearing. An outline of the resulting program components and the outcome measures for evaluating program effectiveness are presented. Conclusions Music training can enhance the perceptual accuracy of music, but is also hypothesized to enhance several features of speech with similar processing requirements as music (e.g., pitch and timbre). However, additional evaluation of specific training parameters and the impact of music-based training on speech perception of CI users are required. PMID:26561884

  3. Young adult stimulant users' increased striatal activation during uncertainty is related to impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Leland, David S.; Arce, Estibaliz; Feinstein, Justin S.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2006-01-01

    Background Young adults who use stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) are at particular risk of transitioning to dependence. Previously, we demonstrated increased risk-taking in young adults who had used stimulants (Leland and Paulus, 2005). Since outcome uncertainty is a critical element of risk, we investigated whether such individuals have different neural responses to uncertainty than their stimulant-naïve peers. Method Eleven young adults (age 18–25) who had used stimulants were compared with 11 age- and education-matched stimulant-naïve controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a card prediction task with relatively certain/uncertain outcome conditions. Results The caudate, an area involved in processing salient events, was among those regions more active in users than controls in response to uncertainty. Personality measures revealed that users were more impulsive than controls, and that neural response to uncertainty in a number of areas including the thalamus/caudate was positively correlated with impulsivity. Conclusions These results are consistent with the idea that young adults who have used stimulant find uncertainty particularly salient, due in part to preexisting differences in impulsivity, and may be subject to more “action pressure” when making decisions under uncertainty. This neural and personality profile may constitute a marker for increased risk of stimulant use. PMID:16959497

  4. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users.

    PubMed

    Uys, Marinda; van Dijk, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research was twofold: firstly, to develop a music perception test (MPT) for hearing-aid users, and secondly, to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of the MPT. To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing-aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. As hearing-aid technology has improved, interest has grown in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing-aid users' quality of life. The MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design-based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording, while phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n = 15) and hearing-aid users (n = 4). Based on the findings of phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n = 4) and 20 hearing-aid users. Results proved that adults with normal hearing as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT, although hearing-aid users scored lower on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing-aid users; for the timbre section the scores were 83% versus 62.3% respectively. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section, compared with the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing-aid users. This implies that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing-aid users within the South African context and may therefore result in

  5. High risk and little knowledge: Overdose experiences and knowledge among young adult nonmedical prescription opioid users

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Bennett, Alex; Wendel, Travis; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid-involved overdoses in the United States have dramatically increased in the last 15 years, largely due to a rise in prescription opioid (PO) use. Yet few studies have examined the overdose knowledge and experience of nonmedical PO users. Methods In depth, semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were conducted with 46 New York City young adults (ages 18–32) who reported using POs nonmedically within the past 30 days. Verbatim interview transcripts were coded for key themes in an analytic process informed by grounded theory. Results Despite significant experience with overdose (including overdose deaths), either personally or within opioid-using networks, participants were relatively uninformed about overdose awareness, avoidance and response strategies, in particular the use of naloxone. Overdose experiences typically occurred when multiple pharmaceuticals were used (often in combination with alcohol) or after participants had transitioned to heroin injection. Participants tended to see themselves as distinct from traditional heroin users, and were often outside of the networks reached by traditional opioid safety/overdose prevention services. Consequently, they were unlikely to utilize harm reduction services, such as syringe exchange programs (SEPs), that address drug users' health and safety. Conclusions These findings suggest that many young adult nonmedical PO users are at high risk of both fatal and non-fatal overdose. There is a pressing need to develop innovative outreach strategies and overdose prevention programs to better reach and serve young PO users and their network contacts. Prevention efforts addressing risk for accidental overdose, including opioid safety/overdose reversal education and naloxone distribution, should be tailored for and targeted to this vulnerable group. PMID:25151334

  6. The Next Generation of Users: Prevalence and Longitudinal Patterns of Tobacco Use Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Valerie; Rath, Jessica; Villanti, Andrea C.; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We monitored the prevalence and patterns of use of the array of tobacco products available to young adults, who are at risk for initiation and progression to established tobacco use. Methods. We used data from waves 1 to 3 of GfK’s KnowledgePanel (2011–2012), a nationally representative cohort of young adults aged 18 to 34 years (n = 2144). We examined prevalence and patterns of tobacco product use over time, associated demographics, and state-level tobacco policy. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine predictors of initiation of cigarettes as well as noncombustible and other combustible products. Results. The prevalence of ever tobacco use rose from 57.28% at wave 1 to 67.43% at wave 3. Use of multiple products was the most common pattern (66.39% of tobacco users by wave 3). Predictors of initiation differed by product type and included age, race/ethnicity, policy, and use of other tobacco products. Conclusions. Tobacco use is high among young adults and many are using multiple products. Efforts to implement policy and educate young adults about the risks associated with new and emerging products are critical to prevent increased initiation of tobacco use. PMID:24922152

  7. Using the NIATx Model to Implement User-Centered Design of Technology for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Maus, Adam; Judkins, Julianne; Dinauer, Susan; Isham, Andrew; Johnson, Roberta; Landucci, Gina; Atwood, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    What models can effectively guide the creation of eHealth and mHealth technologies? This paper describes the use of the NIATx model as a framework for the user-centered design of a new technology for older adults. The NIATx model is a simple framework of process improvement based on the following principles derived from an analysis of decades of research from various industries about why some projects fail and others succeed: (1) Understand and involve the customer; (2) fix key problems; (3) pick an influential change leader; (4) get ideas from outside the field; (5) use rapid-cycle testing. This paper describes the use of these principles in technology development, the strengths and challenges of using this approach in this context, and lessons learned from the process. Overall, the NIATx model enabled us to produce a user-focused technology that the anecdotal evidence available so far suggests is engaging and useful to older adults. The first and fourth principles were especially important in developing the technology; the fourth proved the most challenging to use. PMID:27025985

  8. Using the NIATx Model to Implement User-Centered Design of Technology for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Adam; Judkins, Julianne; Dinauer, Susan; Isham, Andrew; Johnson, Roberta; Landucci, Gina; Atwood, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    What models can effectively guide the creation of eHealth and mHealth technologies? This paper describes the use of the NIATx model as a framework for the user-centered design of a new technology for older adults. The NIATx model is a simple framework of process improvement based on the following principles derived from an analysis of decades of research from various industries about why some projects fail and others succeed: (1) Understand and involve the customer; (2) fix key problems; (3) pick an influential change leader; (4) get ideas from outside the field; (5) use rapid-cycle testing. This paper describes the use of these principles in technology development, the strengths and challenges of using this approach in this context, and lessons learned from the process. Overall, the NIATx model enabled us to produce a user-focused technology that the anecdotal evidence available so far suggests is engaging and useful to older adults. The first and fourth principles were especially important in developing the technology; the fourth proved the most challenging to use. PMID:27025985

  9. Profiling of Ecstasy Tablets Seized in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh

    2011-01-01

    In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simon’s test, Chen’s test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96–308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60–180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient. PMID:24250345

  10. A structured review of reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviours: pointers for future research

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-01-01

    Background While the health risks of using ecstasy warrant intervention development, a recent meta-analysis of determinants of ecstasy use identified a number of lacunae in the literature. Specifically, no studies were included that address behaviours other than 'using ecstasy' (e.g. 'trying out ecstasy' or 'ceasing ecstasy use'). However, because meta-analyses aim to integrate study results quantitatively, the resulting rigid exclusion criteria cause many studies to be discarded on the basis of their qualitative methodology. Such qualitative studies may nonetheless provide valuable insights to guide future research. To provide an overview of these insights regarding ecstasy use, the current study summarizes and combines what is known from qualitative and exploratory quantitative literature on ecstasy use. Methods The databases PsycINFO and MedLine were searched for publications reporting reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviour, and the results were structured and discussed per behaviour and compared over behaviours. Results Two main categories of reasons were found. The first category comprised reasons to start using ecstasy, use ecstasy, use ecstasy more often, and refrain from ceasing ecstasy use. The second category comprised reasons to refrain from starting to use ecstasy, use less ecstasy, and cease using ecstasy. Reasons for related behaviours within each of these two categories appear to differ, but not as substantially as between the two categories. A large number of reasons that were not yet explored in quantitative research emerged. Conclusion The current summary and combination of exploratory studies yields useful lists of reasons for each behaviour. Before these lists can inform interventions, however, they beg quantitative verification. Also, similarity of determinant configurations of different behaviours can be assessed by addressing determinants of several behaviours in one study. Another important finding is that meta-analytical integration

  11. Periodontal status of adult Sudanese habitual users of miswak chewing sticks or toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Darout, I A; Albandar, J M; Skaug, N

    2000-02-01

    Miswak chewing sticks are prepared from the roots or twigs of Salvadora persica plants. They are widely used as a traditional oral hygiene tool in several African and Middle Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the periodontal status of adult Sudanese habitual miswak and toothbrush users. The study population comprised male miswak users (n = 109) and toothbrush users (n = 104) with age range 20-65 years (mean 36.6 years) having 18 or more teeth present. They were recruited among employees and students at the Medical Sciences Campus in Khartoum, Sudan. One examiner used the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) to score gingival bleeding, supragingival dental calculus, and probing pocket depth of the index teeth of each sextant. In addition, the attachment level was measured, which, along with the CPI, was used to assess the periodontal status of the two test groups. Gingival bleeding and dental calculus were highly prevalent in the study population. Approximately 10% of the subjects had > or =4 mm probing depth and 51% had > or =4 mm attachment loss in one or more sextants. Subjects in the age group 40-65 years had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of sextants with gingival bleeding and with > or =4 mm probing depth and attachment loss than the 30-39 years group. Miswak users had significantly (p < 0.05) lower dental calculus and > or =4 mm probing depth and higher > or =4 mm attachment loss as well as a tendency (p = 0.09) to lower gingival bleeding in the posterior sextants than did toothbrush users. These differences were not significant in the anterior sextants. It is concluded that the periodontal status of miswak users in this Sudanese population is better than that of toothbrush users, suggesting that the efficacy of miswak use for oral hygiene in this group is comparable or slightly better than a toothbrush. Given the availability and low cost of miswak, it should be recommended for use in motivated persons in developing

  12. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy—having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet—has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. Methods The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. Results We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis

  13. Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-04-16

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043

  14. Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J.

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043

  15. Cannabis coadministration potentiates the effects of "ecstasy" on heart rate and temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    Dumont, G J; Kramers, C; Sweep, F C; Touw, D J; van Hasselt, J G; de Kam, M; van Gerven, J M; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the acute physiologic effects over time of (co)administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) (the main psychoactive compound of cannabis) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") in 16 healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular, temperature, and catecholamine responses were assessed over time. Both single-drug conditions robustly increased heart rate, and coadministration showed additive effects. MDMA increased epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations, whereas THC did not affect the catecholamine response. Coadministration of MDMA and THC attenuated the increase of norepinephrine concentrations relative to administration of MDMA alone. These results show that THC mediates heart rate increase independent of sympathetic (catecholaminergic) activity, probably through direct cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)) agonism in cardiac tissue. Furthermore, THC coadministration did not prevent MDMA-induced temperature increase, but it delayed the onset and prolonged the duration of temperature elevation. These effects may be of particular relevance for the cardiovascular safety of ecstasy users who participate in energetic dancing in nightclubs with high ambient temperature. PMID:19440186

  16. Effect of illicit recreational drugs upon sleep: cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna

    2008-10-01

    The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome. PMID:18313952

  17. Death from a possible anaphylactic reaction to ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Sauvageau, Anny

    2008-02-01

    Ecstasy (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA) is a recreational drug widely used among young people in discos or rave parties (1,2). MDMA is taken because it gives a feeling of euphoria, enhances energy and sociability, and heightens sensations and sexual arousal. However, several side effects have been described: headache, nausea, anorexia, xerostomia, insomnia, myalgia, trismus, and bruxism (2,3). More serious complications have also been reported, sometimes even leading to death: hyperthermia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, liver failure, and water intoxication (2,3). We report the unusual case of a death due to an apparent allergic reaction following ecstasy ingestion. PMID:18259964

  18. Evaluating User Perceptions of Mobile Medication Management Applications With Older Adults: A Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication nonadherence has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of individuals with chronic disease. Several mobile medication management applications are available to help users track, remember, and read about their medication therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the usability and usefulness of existing medication management applications for older adults. Methods We recruited 35 participants aged 50 and over to participate in a 2-hour usability session. The average age ranged from 52-78 years (mean 67 years) and 71% (25/35) of participants were female. Each participant was provided with an iPad loaded with four medication management applications: MyMedRec, DrugHub, Pillboxie, and PocketPharmacist. These applications were evaluated using the 10 item System Usability Scale (SUS) and visual analog scale. An investigator-moderated 30-minute discussion followed, and was recorded. We used a grounded theory (GT) approach to analyze qualitative data. Results When assessing mobile medication management applications, participants struggled to think of a need for the applications in their own lives. Many were satisfied with their current management system and proposed future use only if cognition and health declined. Most participants felt capable of using the applications after a period of time and training, but were frustrated by their initial experiences with the applications. The early experiences of participants highlighted the benefits of linear navigation and clear wording (eg, “undo” vs “cancel”) when designing for older users. While there was no order effect, participants attributed their poor performance to the order in which they tried the applications. They also described being a part of a technology generation that did not encounter the computer until adulthood. Of the four applications, PocketPharmacist was found to be the least usable with a score of 42/100 (P<.0001) though it offered a drug interaction

  19. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  20. Fear, Rationality and Opportunity: Reasons and Motives for Not Trying Ecstasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervaeke, Hylke Karen Eva; Benschop, Annemieke; Korf, Dirk Jan

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To gain more insight into the reasons and motives why people do not start taking ecstasy. Method: As part of the NeXT Study, we prospectively monitored 188 subjects who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to take ecstasy (MDMA) of their own accord during the course of the study. After an 11- to 26-month follow-up period, 160…

  1. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. Objective This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Methods Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Results In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over

  2. Marijuana use motives: A confirmatory test and evaluation among young adult marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Marshall, Erin C; Leyro, Teresa M

    2007-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated the measurement model and construct validity of marijuana use motives as measured by the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM; [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., and Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 265-273]). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and incremental tests of validity of marijuana use motives were conducted on a sample of young adult marijuana users (n=227, 127 women; M(age)=20.11, SD=4.30 years). As hypothesized, CFA analysis of marijuana use motives, as indexed by the MMM, demonstrated support for a multidimensional measurement model; specifically, a five-factor solution denoting Enhancement, Conformity, Expansion, Coping, and Social motives for marijuana use, each with satisfactory levels of internal consistency. Subsequent tests of incremental validity suggested that only certain motives were uniquely related to current substance use and cognitive-affective factors. Results are discussed in relation to refining the scientific understanding of marijuana use motives. PMID:17602842

  3. What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands†

    PubMed Central

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular “Blue Dolphin” tablets to the powdered form called “Molly.” We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees’ descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers’ ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy’s purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships. PMID:19455907

  4. The variability of ecstasy tablets composition in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Togni, Loraine R; Lanaro, Rafael; Resende, Rodrigo R; Costa, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The content of ecstasy tablets has been changing over the years, and nowadays 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is not always present in the tablets. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition in the seized tablets labeled as ecstasy. We analyzed samples from 150 different seizures made by Sao Paulo's State Police by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MDMA was present in 44.7% of the analyzed samples, and another twenty different active substances were identified in these tablets, such as caffeine, 2C-B, piperazines, amphetamines, phencyclidine, and others. Methamphetamine was present in 22% of these samples. The results demonstrate a huge shift in the pattern of trafficking of synthetic drugs, where MDMA has been replaced in tablets mostly by illicit psychoactive substances, in a clear attempt to bypass the law. The great variability in the tablets composition may lead to an increased risk of drug poisoning. PMID:25125149

  5. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  6. Assessing the user experience of older adults using a neural network trained to recognize emotions from brain signals.

    PubMed

    Meza-Kubo, Victoria; Morán, Alberto L; Carrillo, Ivan; Galindo, Gilberto; García-Canseco, Eloisa

    2016-08-01

    The use of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies as a means to cope with problems that arise due to an increasing and aging population is becoming usual. AAL technologies are used to prevent, cure and improve the wellness and health conditions of the elderly. However, their adoption and use by older adults is still a major challenge. User Experience (UX) evaluations aim at aiding on this task, by identifying the experience that a user has while interacting with an AAL technology under particular conditions. This may help designing better products and improve user engagement and adoption of AAL solutions. However, evaluating the UX of AAL technologies is a difficult task, due to the inherent limitations of their subjects and of the evaluation methods. In this study, we validated the feasibility of assessing the UX of older adults while they use a cognitive stimulation application using a neural network trained to recognize pleasant and unpleasant emotions from electroencephalography (EEG) signals by contrasting our results with those of additional self-report and qualitative analysis UX evaluations. Our study results provide evidence about the feasibility of assessing the UX of older adults using a neural network that take as input the EEG signals; the classification accuracy of our neural network ranges from 60.87% to 82.61%. As future work we will conduct additional UX evaluation studies using the three different methods, in order to appropriately validate these results. PMID:27392644

  7. Developing a User-Centred Planning Tool for Young Adults with Development Disorders: A Research-Based Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    Ribu, Kirsten; Patel, Tulpesh

    2016-01-01

    People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process. At Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) we conducted a research-based teaching project in co-operation with the Department of Neuro-habilitation at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) with two employees acting as project managers and students as developers. Three groups of Computer Science bachelor students developed digital prototypes for a planning tool for young adults with pervasive development disorders, who live either with their families or in supervised residences, and do not receive extensive public services. The students conducted the initial planning phase of the software development process, focusing on prototyping the system requirements, whilst a professional software company programmed the end solution. The goal of the project was to develop flexible and adaptive user-oriented and user-specific app solutions for tablets that can aid this diverse user group in structuring daily life, whereby, for example, photos of objects and places known to the individual user replace general pictures or drawings, and checklists can be elaborate or sparse as necessary. The three student groups worked independently of each other and created interactive working prototypes based on tests, observations and short interviews with end users (both administrators and residents) and regular user feedback from the project managers. Three very different solutions were developed that were of high enough quality that an external software company were able to

  8. Toward an Ecstasy and Other Club Drug (EOCD) Prevention Intervention for Rave Attendees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Miller, Sarah; Pianim, Selwyn; Kunz, Michael; Orrick, Erin; Link, Tanja; Palacios, Wilson R.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of recent research has identified that "rave" attendees are at high risk for the use of "club drugs," such as 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"). Rave attendees, however, comprise only one of several club-going populations. In the current study, we explore the prevalence of ecstasy and other club drug (EOCD) use…

  9. Whats the Rap about Ecstasy? Popular Music Lyrics and Drug Trends among American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sarah; Bermudez, Rey; Schensul, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Trends in ecstasy use in America during the past decade were reflected in mainstream, American rap-music lyrics between 1996 and 2003. Drawing on communication and cultural studies theory, this article provides a content analysis of 69 rap songs mentioning the club drug ecstasy. The songs are coded according to whether they contain positive, mixed…

  10. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  11. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  12. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors mediate the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide and MDMA/ecstasy on memory retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Marzieh; Rezayof, Ameneh; Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-04-01

    A combination of cannabis and ecstasy may change the cognitive functions more than either drug alone. The present study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors in the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) and ecstasy/MDMA on memory retrieval. Adult male Wistar rats were cannulated into the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus (intra-CA1) and memory retrieval was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective CB1 receptor agonist, ACPA (0.5-4ng/rat) immediately before the testing phase (pre-test), but not after the training phase (post-training), impaired memory retrieval. In addition, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.5-1μg/rat) dose-dependently decreased step-through latency, indicating an amnesic effect of the drug by itself. Interestingly, pre-test microinjection of a higher dose of MDMA into the CA1 regions significantly improved ACPA-induced memory impairment. Moreover, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective NMDA receptor antagonist, D-AP5 (1 and 2μg/rat) inhibited the reversal effect of MDMA on the impairment of memory retrieval induced by ACPA. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of D-AP5 had no effect on memory retrieval alone. These findings suggest that ACPA or MDMA consumption can induce memory retrieval impairment, while their co-administration improves this amnesic effect through interacting with hippocampal glutamatergic-NMDA receptor mechanism. Thus, it seems that the tendency to abuse cannabis with ecstasy may be for avoiding cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26612394

  13. How do researchers categorize drugs, and how do drug users categorize them?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers drug classifications and terms widely used in US survey research, and compares these to classifications and terms used by drug users. We begin with a critical review of drug classification systems, including those oriented to public policy and health services as well as survey research. We then consider the results of a pile sort exercise we conducted with 76 respondents within a mixed method study of Southeast Asian American adolescent and young adult drug users in urban Northern California, USA. We included the pile sort to clarify how respondents handled specific terms which we understood to be related to Ecstasy and methamphetamines. Results of the pile sort were analyzed using graphic layout algorithms as well as content analysis of pile labels. Similar to the national surveys, our respondents consistently differentiated Ecstasy terms from methamphetamine terms. We found high agreement between some specific local terms (thizz, crystal) and popular drug terms, while other terms thought to be mainstream (crank, speed) were reported as unknown by many respondents. In labeling piles, respondents created taxonomies based on consumption method (in particular, pill) as well as the social contexts of use. We conclude by proposing that divergences between drug terms utilized in survey research and those used by drug users may reflect two opposing tendencies: the tendency of survey researchers to utilize standardized language that constructs persons and experiences as relatively homogeneous, varying only within measurable degrees, and the tendency of drug users to utilize specialized language (argot) that reflects their understandings of their experiences as hybrid and diverse. The findings problematize the validity of drug terms and categories used in survey research. PMID:24431475

  14. Human Ecstasy use is associated with increased cortical excitability: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Dietrich, Mary S; Blackford, Jennifer U; Charboneau, Evonne J; Lillevig, James G; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Woodward, Neil D; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan; Di Iorio, Christina R; Cascio, Carissa; Salomon, Ronald M; Cowan, Ronald L

    2011-05-01

    The serotonergic neurotoxin, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/Ecstasy), is a highly popular recreational drug. Human recreational MDMA users have neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric impairments, and human neuroimaging data are consistent with animal reports of serotonin neurotoxicity. However, functional neuroimaging studies have not found consistent effects of MDMA on brain neurophysiology in human users. Several lines of evidence suggest that studying MDMA effects in visual system might reveal the general cortical and subcortical neurophysiological consequences of MDMA use. We used 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging during visual stimulation to compare visual system lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and Brodmann Area (BA) 17 and BA 18 activation in 20 long abstinent (479.95±580.65 days) MDMA users and 20 non-MDMA user controls. Lifetime quantity of MDMA use was strongly positively correlated with blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in bilateral LGN (r(s)=0.59; p=0.007), BA 17 (r(s)=0.50; p=0.027), and BA 18 (r(s)=0.48; p=0.031), and with the spatial extent of activation in BA 17 (r(s)=0.059; p=0.007) and BA 18 (r(s)=0.55; p=0.013). There were no between-group differences in brain activation in any region, but the heaviest MDMA users showed a significantly greater spatial extent of activation than controls in BA 17 (p=0.031) and BA 18 (p=0.049). These results suggest that human recreational MDMA use may be associated with a long-lasting increase in cortical excitability, possibly through loss of serotonin input to cortical and subcortical regions. When considered in the context of previous results, cortical hyper-excitability may be a biomarker for MDMA-induced serotonin neurotoxicity. PMID:21326196

  15. Validation and User Evaluation of a Sensor-Based Method for Detecting Mobility-Related Activities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Geraedts, Hilde A. E.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Van Keeken, Helco G.; Zhang, Wei; Stevens, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is essential for older adults to stay healthy and independent. However, daily physical activity is generally low among older adults and mainly consists of activities such as standing and shuffling around indoors. Accurate measurement of this low-energy expenditure daily physical activity is crucial for stimulation of activity. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a necklace-worn sensor-based method for detecting time-on-legs and daily life mobility related postures in older adults. In addition user opinion about the practical use of the sensor was evaluated. Twenty frail and non-frail older adults performed a standardized and free movement protocol in their own home. Results of the sensor-based method were compared to video observation. Sensitivity, specificity and overall agreement of sensor outcomes compared to video observation were calculated. Mobility was assessed based on time-on-legs. Further assessment included the categories standing, sitting, walking and lying. Time-on-legs based sensitivity, specificity and percentage agreement were good to excellent and comparable to laboratory outcomes in other studies. Category-based sensitivity, specificity and overall agreement were moderate to excellent. The necklace-worn sensor is considered an acceptable valid instrument for assessing home-based physical activity based upon time-on-legs in frail and non-frail older adults, but category-based assessment of gait and postures could be further developed. PMID:26361009

  16. 'Ecstasy' as a social drug: MDMA preferentially affects responses to emotional stimuli with social content.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Margaret C; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-08-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is used recreationally to improve mood and sociability, and has generated clinical interest as a possible adjunct to psychotherapy. One way that MDMA may produce positive 'prosocial' effects is by changing responses to emotional stimuli, especially stimuli with social content. Here, we examined for the first time how MDMA affects subjective responses to positive, negative and neutral emotional pictures with and without social content. We hypothesized that MDMA would dose-dependently increase reactivity to positive emotional stimuli and dampen reactivity to negative stimuli, and that these effects would be most pronounced for pictures with people in them. The data were obtained from two studies using similar designs with healthy occasional MDMA users (total N = 101). During each session, participants received MDMA (0, 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg oral), and then rated their positive and negative responses to standardized positive, negative and neutral pictures with and without social content. MDMA increased positive ratings of positive social pictures, but reduced positive ratings of non-social positive pictures. We speculate this 'socially selective' effect contributes to the prosocial effects of MDMA by increasing the comparative value of social contact and closeness with others. This effect may also contribute to its attractiveness to recreational users. PMID:24682132

  17. Principles and Principals: A Dictionary of Contemporary Adult Education Terms and Their Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiskums, Bernadine W.

    This document, which is designed to help individuals entering adult education graduate programs in North America, contains definitions of nearly 538 contemporary adult education-related terms and practitioners. The terms included were selected based on a review of more than half of the 139 papers published in the proceedings of the 41st Annual…

  18. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  19. Characterisation of User-Defined Health Status in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, J. M.; Marsden, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Older adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) have an excess disease burden that standard health assessments are designed to detect. Older adults with ID have a broader concept of health with dimensions of well being in addition to absence of disease in line with the World Health Organization's health definition. We sought to…

  20. Multivitamin Use and Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Older-Adult Metformin Users in REGARDS, 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Garn, Joshua V.; Zakai, Neil A.; Williamson, Rebecca S.; Cashion, Winn T.; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Judd, Suzanne E.; Oakley, Godfrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug, is a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with subsequent reductions in vitamin B12 concentrations. The objective of our study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations in older adults, and whether concurrent use of multivitamins modifies this association. We examined 2,510 participants aged 50 years and over, participating in the national population-based Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between multivitamin use and serum vitamin B12 concentrations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR)s and confidence intervals (CI)s. Results were stratified by three metformin/diabetes sub-groups: 1) participants with diabetes who were metformin users; 2) participants with diabetes who were not metformin users; and 3) participants without diabetes. We found that diabetic metformin users had significantly lower geometric mean serum B12 concentrations (409 pmol/L) than the group with diabetes not taking metformin (485 pmol/L; P<0.01), and the group without diabetes (445 pmol/L; P = 0.02). The geometric mean serum B12 concentrations were greater for multivitamin users (509 pmol/L) compared to those who did not use multivitamins (376 pmol/L; p<0.01). Among the participants with diabetes who were on metformin therapy, multivitamin use was associated with geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations that were 50% (or 161 pmol/L) higher, compared to those not using multivitamins. Among metformin users, multivitamin use was associated with lower prevalence of combined low and borderline vitamin B12 concentrations (aOR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54) compared to those not using multivitamins. In conclusion, metformin use was associated with lower geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations among diabetic older

  1. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. PMID:25240105

  2. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  3. Diabetic ketoacidosis complicated by the use of ecstasy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamin), a hallucinogenic amphetamine, is often used by young people, especially at 'raves'. This illicit drug can cause many metabolic changes and its use, when associated with prolonged exercise, may exacerbate ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetic patients. Case presentation This is a case of ketoacidosis complicated by the use of ecstasy in a 19-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic Caucasian woman. Conclusion The use of ecstasy may trigger diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with a preexisting metabolic disorder PMID:20682062

  4. Minimal effects of visual memory training on auditory performance of adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Oba, Sandra I; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Auditory training has been shown to significantly improve cochlear implant (CI) users' speech and music perception. However, it is unclear whether posttraining gains in performance were due to improved auditory perception or to generally improved attention, memory, and/or cognitive processing. In this study, speech and music perception, as well as auditory and visual memory, were assessed in 10 CI users before, during, and after training with a nonauditory task. A visual digit span (VDS) task was used for training, in which subjects recalled sequences of digits presented visually. After the VDS training, VDS performance significantly improved. However, there were no significant improvements for most auditory outcome measures (auditory digit span, phoneme recognition, sentence recognition in noise, digit recognition in noise), except for small (but significant) improvements in vocal emotion recognition and melodic contour identification. Posttraining gains were much smaller with the nonauditory VDS training than observed in previous auditory training studies with CI users. The results suggest that posttraining gains observed in previous studies were not solely attributable to improved attention or memory and were more likely due to improved auditory perception. The results also suggest that CI users may require targeted auditory training to improve speech and music perception. PMID:23516087

  5. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

  6. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  7. Methamphetamine and MDMA (ecstasy) neurotoxicity: 'of mice and men'.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Yossef; Achat-Mendes, Cindy

    2004-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-meythylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') are currently major drugs of abuse. One of the major concerns of amphetamines abuse is their potential neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Although data from human studies are somewhat limited, compelling evidence suggests that these drugs cause neurotoxicity in rodents and primates. Recent studies in transgenic and knockout mice identified the role of dopamine transporters, nitric oxide, apoptotic proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in amphetamines neurotoxicity. Further research into the mechanisms underlying the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity and the behavioral corollaries of these neuronal insults could facilitate our understanding of the consequences of human abuse of METH and MDMA on cognition, drug-seeking behavior, extinction and relapse. PMID:15370888

  8. MDMA (ecstasy) modulates locomotor and prefrontal cortex sensory evoked activity.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Kristal; Burks, Tilithia; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-12-11

    Ingestion of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to heightened response to sensory stimulation; thus, MDMA is referred to as "ecstasy" because it produces pleasurable enhancement of such sensation. There have been no electrophysiological studies that report the consequences of MDMA on sensory input. The present study was initiated to study the effects of acute and chronic MDMA on locomotor activity and sensory evoked field potential from freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The main findings of this study are that: (1) acute MDMA augments locomotor behavior and attenuates the incoming sensory input, (2) chronic treatment of MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization, (3) chronic administration of MDMA results in attenuation of the baseline activity of the sensory evoked field potential, and (4) administration of rechallenge MDMA result in enhancement of the PFC sensory evoked field potential. PMID:19769950

  9. Objective color classification of ecstasy tablets by hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda; Lopatka, Martin; Aalders, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    The general procedure followed in the examination of ecstasy tablets for profiling purposes includes a color description, which depends highly on the observers' perception. This study aims to provide objective quantitative color information using visible hyperspectral imaging. Both self-manufactured and illicit tablets, created with different amounts of known colorants were analyzed. We derived reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images of these tablets, and successfully determined the most likely colorant used in the production of all self-manufactured tablets and four of five illicit tablets studied. Upon classification, the concentration of the colorant was estimated using a photon propagation model and a single reference measurement of a tablet of known concentration. The estimated concentrations showed a high correlation with the actual values (R(2) = 0.9374). The achieved color information, combined with other physical and chemical characteristics, can provide a powerful tool for the comparison of tablet seizures, which may reveal their origin. PMID:23683098

  10. A death due to ecstasy - a case report.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Yp Girish; Shetty, Akshith R; Jayanth, S H; Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, S; Harish, S

    2016-03-01

    Drug addicts face the dangers of accidental overdose, fatal intoxication, reduced tolerance and carelessness in consuming drugs. There is an increasing use of designer drugs in many cities. The body of a 29 year-old male, an event manager by profession with an alleged history of consumption of ecstasy tablets, was subjected to autopsy. The cause of death was found to be disseminated intravascular coagulation consequent upon consumption of methylenedioxymethamphetamine. This was based on the brief history, autopsy features and a chemical analysis report. This case is discussed with the background of the existing literature about the interplay of the actions of methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the hyperthermia that would result from physical exertion as in dancing in rave parties leading to hyponatremia and the causes of disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:26733334

  11. [Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Traebert, Jefferson; Loguercio, Alessandro; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha

    2010-05-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State) aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322) of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p <0.001), in people under 39 years old (p =0.007), occurring predominantly with ones working comparing to the ones not working, (p <0.001), have more than 8 years of education (p <0.001) and with income greater than 1738.00 reais - Brazilian currency (p <0.001). The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006), also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013). The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047). PMID:20464180

  12. Persistent Psychosis and Medical Complications After a Single Ingestion of MDMA "Ecstasy": A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Potash, Mordecai N; Gordon, Kimberly A; Conrad, Kristy L

    2009-07-01

    We describe a case report of persistent psychosis and severe medical complications in a previously healthy, 19-year-old African-American man after a single ingestion of what was purported to be "Ecstasy." We detail the psychiatric symptoms and medical complications that resulted in several weeks of hospitalization in both medical intensive care and psychiatric units. Furthermore, we describe changes in the demographics of the use of Ecstasy and present the current understanding of the cause of neurotoxicity after Ecstasy use when it occurs. We conclude by suggesting actions clinicians can take to ameliorate the negative consequences of Ecstasy use. PMID:19724769

  13. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9 % reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8 % sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends or sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half the IDUs reported unsafe injection practices. Our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs' perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  14. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9% reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8% sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends, sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half IDUs reported unsafe injection practices, and our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs’ perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  15. Neural mechanisms of sensitivity to peer information in young adult cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Schuster, Randi M; Curran, Max T; Calderon, Vanessa; van der Kouwe, Andre; Evins, A Eden

    2016-08-01

    Though social influence is a critical factor in the initiation and maintenance of marijuana use, the neural correlates of influence in those who use marijuana are unknown. In this study, marijuana-using young adults (MJ; n = 20) and controls (CON; n = 23) performed a decision-making task in which they made a perceptual choice after viewing the choices of unknown peers via photographs, while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The MJ and CON groups did not show differences in the overall number of choices that agreed with versus opposed group influence, but only the MJ group showed reaction time slowing when deciding against group choices. Longer reaction times were associated with greater activation of frontal regions. The MJ goup, compared to CON, showed significantly greater activation in the caudate when presented with peer information. Across groups, caudate activation was associated with self-reported susceptibility to influence. These findings indicate that young adults who use MJ may exhibit increased effort when confronted with opposing peer influence, as well as exhibit greater responsivity of the caudate to social information. These results not only better define the neural basis of social decisions, but also suggest that marijuana use is associated with exaggerated neural activity during decision making that involves social information. PMID:27068178

  16. Multivariate Predictors of Music Perception and Appraisal by Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Oleson, Jacob; Knutson, John F.; Breheny, Patrick; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The research examined whether performance by adult cochlear implant recipients on a variety of recognition and appraisal tests derived from real-world music could be predicted from technological, demographic, and life experience variables, as well as speech recognition scores. A representative sample of 209 adults implanted between 1985 and 2006 participated. Using multiple linear regression models and generalized linear mixed models, sets of optimal predictor variables were selected that effectively predicted performance on a test battery that assessed different aspects of music listening. These analyses established the importance of distinguishing between the accuracy of music perception and the appraisal of musical stimuli when using music listening as an index of implant success. Importantly, neither device type nor processing strategy predicted music perception or music appraisal. Speech recognition performance was not a strong predictor of music perception, and primarily predicted music perception when the test stimuli included lyrics. Additionally, limitations in the utility of speech perception in predicting musical perception and appraisal underscore the utility of music perception as an alternative outcome measure for evaluating implant outcomes. Music listening background, residual hearing (i.e., hearing aid use), cognitive factors, and some demographic factors predicted several indices of perceptual accuracy or appraisal of music. PMID:18669126

  17. Multivariate predictors of music perception and appraisal by adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Kate; Oleson, Jacob; Knutson, John F; Breheny, Patrick; Driscoll, Virginia; Olszewski, Carol

    2008-02-01

    The research examined whether performance by adult cochlear implant recipients on a variety of recognition and appraisal tests derived from real-world music could be predicted from technological, demographic, and life experience variables, as well as speech recognition scores. A representative sample of 209 adults implanted between 1985 and 2006 participated. Using multiple linear regression models and generalized linear mixed models, sets of optimal predictor variables were selected that effectively predicted performance on a test battery that assessed different aspects of music listening. These analyses established the importance of distinguishing between the accuracy of music perception and the appraisal of musical stimuli when using music listening as an index of implant success. Importantly, neither device type nor processing strategy predicted music perception or music appraisal. Speech recognition performance was not a strong predictor of music perception, and primarily predicted music perception when the test stimuli included lyrics. Additionally, limitations in the utility of speech perception in predicting musical perception and appraisal underscore the utility of music perception as an alternative outcome measure for evaluating implant outcomes. Music listening background, residual hearing (i.e., hearing aid use), cognitive factors, and some demographic factors predicted several indices of perceptual accuracy or appraisal of music. PMID:18669126

  18. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  19. The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J

    2013-01-01

    Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e., feelings of being in control). PMID:23950748

  20. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module in Australian secondary schools: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ecstasy is a public health problem and is associated with a range of social costs and harms. In recent years, there has been growing concern about the availability and misuse of new and emerging drugs designed to mimic the effects of illicit drugs, including ecstasy. This, coupled with the fact that the age of use and the risk factors for using ecstasy and emerging drugs are similar, provides a compelling argument to implement prevention for these substances simultaneously. The proposed study will evaluate whether a universal Internet-based prevention program, known as the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, can address and prevent the use of ecstasy and emerging drugs among adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among Year 10 students (aged 15–16 years) from 12 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the Climate Schools intervention group or the control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-, 12- and 24-months post-baseline. The primary outcome measures will include ecstasy and emerging drug-related knowledge, intentions to use these substances in the future, and the patterns of use of ecstasy and emerging drugs. A range of secondary outcomes will also be assessed, including beliefs and attitudes about ecstasy and emerging drugs, peer pressure resistance, other substance use and mental health outcomes. Discussion To our knowledge, this will be the first evaluation of an Internet-based program designed to specifically target ecstasy and NED use among adolescents. If deemed effective, the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module will provide schools with an interactive and novel prevention program for ecstasy and emerging drugs that can be readily implemented by teachers. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  1. Predictors of quitting behaviour with special reference to nicotine dependence among adult tobacco-users in a slum of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Kamirul; Saha, Indranil; Saha, Rajib; Khan, Sufi Abdul Samim; Thakur, Rupali; Shivam, Swapnil

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information on predictors of quitting behaviour in adult tobacco users is scarce in Indian context. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the intention of tobacco-users towards quitting and its predictors with reference to nicotine dependence. Methods: A community-based observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 128 adult tobacco-users (89.8% male) with mean age of 41.1 ± 15.7 yr selected by complete enumeration method. Data were collected by interview using pre-designed, pre-tested schedule. Nicotine dependence was assessed by Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire. Result: Of the 128 users, 63.3 per cent had intention to quit. Majority of the tobacco users who did not intend to quit belonged to the age group of >40 yr (66.0%), were illiterate (55.3%), started tobacco use at 11 – 15 yr of age (57.4%), had been using tobacco for 20 yr or more (70.2%), were daily tobacco users (91.5%), and highly dependent on nicotine (80.9%). Tobacco users having high FTND score and who started tobacco use early in life were 1.83 and 3.30 times more unintended to quit, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Suitable plan for quitting should be developed depending on the FTND score of an individual, the most important determinant of quitting that would be beneficial for categorization of the treatment leading to successful quitting. PMID:24927353

  2. [From alcohol to liquid ecstasy (GHB)--a survey of old and modern knockout agents. Part 3: gamma-hydroxybutyric acid ("liquid ecstasy")].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Harald; Jansen, Malin; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    Currently, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB/"liquid ecstasy") is frequently abused as a knockout substance. Its detection and the interpretation of the results present numerous problems which are illustrated by case reports. In this context, hair analysis and the increasing significance of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are also discussed. PMID:22276366

  3. Identifying the Prevalence and Correlates of Ecstasy Use among High School Seniors Surveyed through 2002 Monitoring the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2005-01-01

    Media reports have suggested that the use of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a significant problem across the United States. To date, however, available evidence has shown that the use of ecstasy has been concentrated among "rave" attendees, with mainstream youth remaining relative-immune from its proliferation. In the…

  4. Illicit Use of Buprenorphine in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is growing evidence about illicit use of buprenorphine in the U.S. The study aims to: 1) identify prevalence and predictors of illicit buprenorphine use in a community sample of 396 young adult (18-23 years old) non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids; 2) describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviors linked to illicit buprenorphine use as reported by a qualitative sub-sample (n=51). METHODS Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Qualitative interview participants were selected from the larger sample. The sample (n=396) was 54% male and 50% white; 7.8% reported lifetime illicit use of buprenorphine. RESULTS Logistic regression analysis results indicate that white ethnicity, intranasal inhalation of pharmaceutical opioids, symptoms of opioid dependence, and a greater number of pharmaceutical opioids used in lifetime were statistically significant predictors of illicit buprenorphine use. Qualitative interviews revealed that buprenorphine was more commonly used by more experienced users who were introduced to it by their “junkie friends.” Those who used buprenorphine to self-medicate withdrawal referred to it as a “miracle pill.” When used to get high, reported experiences ranged from “the best high ever” to “puking for days.” Participants reported using buprenorphine/naloxone orally or by intranasal inhalation. Injection of buprenorphine without naloxone was also reported. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that illicit buprenorphine use is gaining ground primarily among whites and those who are more advanced in their drug use careers. Continued monitoring is needed to better understand evolving patterns and trends of illicit buprenorphine use. PMID:22036303

  5. How could MDMA (ecstasy) help anxiety disorders? A neurobiological rationale.

    PubMed

    Johansen, P Ø; Krebs, T S

    2009-06-01

    Exposure therapy is known to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, exposure is not used as much as it should be, and instead patients are often given supportive medications such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines, which may even interfere with the extinction learning that is the aim of treatment. Given that randomized controlled trials are now investigating a few doses of +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') in combination with psychotherapy for treatment-resistant anxiety disorders, we would like to suggest the following three mechanisms for this potentially important new approach: 1) MDMA increases oxytocin levels, which may strengthen the therapeutic alliance; 2) MDMA increases ventromedial prefrontal activity and decreases amygdala activity, which may improve emotional regulation and decrease avoidance and 3) MDMA increases norepinephrine release and circulating cortisol levels, which may facilitate emotional engagement and enhance extinction of learned fear associations. Thus, MDMA has a combination of pharmacological effects that, in a therapeutic setting, could provide a balance of activating emotions while feeling safe and in control, as described in case reports of MDMA-augmented psychotherapy. Further clinical and preclinical studies of the therapeutic value of MDMA are indicated. PMID:19273493

  6. Developing the climate schools: ecstasy module--a universal Internet-based drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Kathyrn L

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Schools: Ecstasy module is a universal harm-minimisation school-based prevention program for adolescents aged 14 to 16 years. The program was developed to address the need for Ecstasy prevention given the increasing use of Ecstasy use among young Australians. The core content of the program is delivered over the Internet using cartoon storylines to engage students, and the teacher-driven activities reinforce the core information. The three-lesson program is embedded within the school health curriculum and is easy to implement with minimal teacher training required. The program was developed in 2010 through extensive collaboration with students (n = 8), teachers (n = 10) and health professionals (n = 10) in Sydney, Australia. This article describes the formative research and process of planning that formed the development of the program and the evidence base underpinning the approach. PMID:23457888

  7. Characteristics of drivers testing positive for heroin or ecstasy in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hausken, A M; Skurtveit, S; Christophersen, A S

    2004-06-01

    An increasing number of heroin and ecstasy seizures were recorded by the Norwegian police and customs authorities in the 1990s. The number of apprehended drivers in whom heroin and ecstasy were detected also rose in the same period (Heroin, 1991: n = 17, 1999: n = 320. Ecstasy, 1995: n = 6, 1999: n = 123). Drivers who tested positive for heroin (detected in urine as the metabolite 6-monoacetyl-morphine, 6-MAM) or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine, MDMA, detected in blood) were characterized with regard to age distribution, drug use pattern, and earlier arrests. In 1998-1999, the police apprehended 9013 drivers on suspicion of being under the influence of drugs other than alcohol. Blood and urine samples from the drivers were sent to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse and analyzed for the most commonly abused drugs. 6-MAM was detected in urine in 7% of the cases (n = 637), representing 542 different drivers (male: 85%, n = 463, female: 15%, n = 79) as some drivers were rearrested several times during the selection period. MDMA was detected in 2% of the cases (n = 190), representing 177 drivers (male: 90%, n = 160, female: 10%, n = 17). The median ages of drivers who tested positive for 6-MAM or MDMA were 32 and 24 years, respectively. Multi-drug use was very common in both groups (83% and 98% for the heroin and ecstasy group, respectively). Drivers in both groups were followed back to 1985 to detect earlier arrests for the same offence. Of the heroin group, 78% (n = 417) had earlier been arrested for drunken or drugged driving. Alcohol was the drug most frequently detected on first arrest. Of the ecstasy group, 47% (n = 83) had earlier been arrested, and amphetamine was most frequently found on first arrest. PMID:15203944

  8. Active and passive MDMA ('ecstasy') intake induces differential transcriptional changes in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Castillo, N; Orejarena, M J; Ribasés, M; Blanco, E; Casas, M; Robledo, P; Maldonado, R; Cormand, B

    2012-02-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is a recreational drug widely used by adolescents and young adults. Although its rewarding effects are well established, there is controversy on its addictive potential. We aimed to compare the consequences of active and passive MDMA administration on gene expression in the mouse brain since all previous studies were based on passive MDMA administration. We used a yoked-control operant intravenous self-administration paradigm combined with microarray technology. Transcriptomic profiles of ventral striatum, frontal cortex, dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus were analysed in mice divided in contingent MDMA, yoked MDMA and yoked saline groups, and several changes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The comparison of contingent MDMA and yoked MDMA vs. yoked saline mice allowed the identification of differential expression in several genes, most of them with immunological and inflammatory functions, but others being involved in neuroadaptation. In the comparison of contingent MDMA vs. yoked MDMA administration, hippocampus and the dorsal raphe nucleus showed statistically significant changes. The altered expression of several genes involved in neuroadaptative changes and synapse function, which may be related to learning self-administration behaviour, could be validated in these two brain structures. In conclusion, our study shows a strong effect of MDMA administration on the expression of immunological and inflammatory genes in all the four brain regions studied. In addition, experiments on MDMA self-administration suggest that the dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus may be involved in active MDMA-seeking behaviour, and show specific alterations on gene expression that support the addictive potential of this drug. PMID:21951708

  9. Technical Report and Data File User's Manual: For the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2009-476

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldi, Stephane, Ed.; Kutner, Mark; Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Baer, Justin; Moore, Elizabeth; Dunleavy, Eric; Berlin, Martha; Mohadjer, Leyla; Binzer, Greg; Krenzke, Thomas; Hogan, Jacqueline; Amsbary, Michelle; Forsyth, Barbara; Clark, Lyn; Annis, Terri; Bernstein, Jared; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of more than 19,000 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in households and correctional institutions. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). The…

  10. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy')-induced immunosuppression: a cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Boyle, Noreen T; Connor, Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') is a ring-substituted amphetamine and a popular drug of abuse. In addition to ability to induce euphoria, MDMA abuse is associated with a range of acute and long-term hazardous effects. This paper is focused on once such adverse effect: its ability to negatively impact on functioning of the immune system. Research demonstrates that MDMA has immunosuppressive properties, with both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system being affected. The ability of MDMA to suppress innate immunity is indicated by impaired neutrophil phagocytosis and reduced production of dendritic cell/macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-12 and IL-15. MDMA also suppresses innate IFN-gamma production, and considering the role of IFN-gamma in priming antigen-presenting cells, it is not surprising that MDMA reduces MHC class II expression on dendritic cells and macrophages, and inhibits co-stimulatory molecule expression. Paradoxically, studies demonstrate that MDMA elicits pro-inflammatory actions in the CNS by activating microglia, the resident innate immune cells in the brain. In terms of adaptive immunity, MDMA reduces circulating lymphocyte numbers, particularly CD4(+) T-cells; suppresses T-cell proliferation; and skews cytokine production in a Th(2) direction. For the most part, the immunosuppressive effects of MDMA cannot be attributed to a direct action of the drug on immune cells, but rather due to the release of endogenous immunomodulatory substances. In this regard, peripheral beta-adrenoceptors and cholinergic receptors have been shown to mediate some immunosuppressive effects of MDMA. Finally, we discuss emerging evidence indicating that MDMA-induced immunosuppression can translate into significant health risks for abusers. PMID:20718737

  11. The association between psychopathology and substance use: adolescent and young adult substance users in inpatient treatment in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan; Laubscher, Ria; London, Leslie; Morojele, Neo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that comorbid psychopathology can negatively affect treatment outcomes in substance users. In South Africa, limited information exists regarding the prevalence, nature and role of psychiatric comorbidity in substance users. This study examined psychiatric comorbidity and its association with specific substance use, and young adult substance users in treatment for substance use. Methods Male and female inpatient substance users (n=95; ages 17-30 years) were sampled consecutively in order of admission from three clinics in Cape Town. An interview schedule was administered to elicit patients’ sociodemographic and substance use history details. The computer-assisted Diagnostic Interview Schedule DSM IV (C-DIS IV) was administered to screen patients for current psychiatric disorders. Resuls The sample was largely male, Coloured, Muslim and single. Cannabis (51.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (17.9%) were the most common first substances of use. Heroin (53.7%) and crystal methamphetamine (33.7%) were the most common substances for which treatment was sought (primary substances). The most common comorbid psychopathologies were anti-social personality disorder (ASPD 87.4%) and conduct disorder (CD 67.4%). Regression analyses showed a marginally significant association between specific phobia and first use of cannabis, but indicated no statistically significant associations between psychopathology and substance use. Conclusion The results demonstrated a high proportion of previously unidentified comorbid psychopathology in inpatient substance users. Further research is needed to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in inpatient substance users. PMID:24643118

  12. Tracking Ecstasy Trends in the United States with Data from Three National Drug Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have suggested that the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a prodigious problem across the United States. Unfortunately, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this contention. In the current study, data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), Monitoring the Future (MTF), and National…

  13. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  14. [Entactogenic drugs "ecstasy" (MDMA), "eve" (MDE) and other ring-substituted methamphetamine derivatives. A new class of substances among illegal designer drugs?].

    PubMed

    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E; Hermle, L; Kovar, K A; Sass, H

    1996-05-01

    The widely used recreational drugs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDE, Eve) occupy an intermediate position between stimulants and hallucinogens. Besides stimulation similar to that caused by amphetamines, they usually induce a pleasant, easily controllable emotional state with relaxation, fearlessness and feelings of happiness, but they sometimes also have stronger, hallucinogenic, effects. A number of pharmacological studies support the hypothesis that these drugs make up a distinct class of psychoactive substances, which have been designated "entactogens." On the drug scene, MDMA and MDE are considered "safe." However, this view must be corrected. Complications are rare, but potentially devastating ([long-lasting anxiety and depressive syndromes in chronic users, fatalities with hyperpyrexia, rhabdomyolysis and DIC syndrome (disseminated instravascular coagulation), possible hepatotoxicity]. Moreover, the clinical relevance of animal studies showing neurotoxic effects of MDMA on central serotonergic pathways is still not clear. PMID:9005345

  15. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  16. Ethanol, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and their combination: long-term behavioral, neurochemical and neuropharmacological effects in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Riegert, Céline; Rutz, Susanne; Koenig, Julie; Rothmaier, Katharina; Cosquer, Brigitte; Lazarus, Christine; Birthelmer, Anja; Jeltsch, Hélène; Jones, Byron C; Jackisch, Rolf

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated long-term behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropharmacological effects of ethanol-(+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) combinations. Over 4 consecutive days, male Long-Evans rats received 1.5 g/kg ethanol and/or 10 mg/kg MDMA, or saline. Rectal temperatures were taken in some rats. Starting 4 days after the last injection, we tested working memory, sensory-motor coordination, and anxiety. Subsequently, we measured cortical, striatal, septal, and hippocampal monoamines (last MDMA injection-euthanasia delay: 20 days), or electrically evoked release of serotonin (5-HT) in cortical and hippocampal slices, and its modulation in the presence of CP 93,129 (3-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrid-4-yl)pyrrollo[3,2-b]pyrid-5-one) or methiotepin (last MDMA injection-euthanasia delays: 3-6 weeks). Ethanol attenuated the MDMA-induced hyperthermia, but only on the first day. In the long-term, MDMA reduced 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in most brain regions. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of the ethanol-MDMA combination were comparable to those of MDMA alone; sensory-motor coordination was altered after ethanol and/or MDMA. In hippocampal slices from rats given ethanol and MDMA, the CP 93,129-induced inhibition and methiotepin-induced facilitation of 5-HT release were stronger and weaker, respectively, than in the other groups. This is the first study addressing long-term effects of repeated MDMA and EtOH combined treatments in experimental animals. Whereas the drug combination produced the same behavioral and neurochemical effects as MDMA alone, our neuropharmacological results suggest that MDMA-EtOH interactions may have specific long-term consequences on presynaptic modulation of hippocampal 5-HT release, but not necessarily related to MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT. Thus, it is likely that the psycho(patho)logical problems reported by ecstasy users drinking alcohol are not solely due to the consumption of MDMA

  17. Typologies of cannabis users and associated characteristics relevant for public health: a latent class analysis of data from a nationally representative Canadian adult survey.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Irving, Hyacinth; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Fallu, Jean-Sebastien; Patra, Jayadeep

    2010-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used illicit drug in Canada. Current policy consists primarily of universal use prohibition rather than interventions targeting specific risks and harms relevant for public health. This study aimed to identify distinct groups of cannabis users based on defined use characteristics in the Canadian population, and examine the emerging groups' associations with differential risk and harm outcomes. One thousand three hundred and three current (i.e. use in the past three months) cannabis users, based on data from the representative cross-sectional 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey (N = 13,909), were statistically assessed by a 'latent class analysis' (LCA). Emerging classes were examined for differential associations with socio-demographic, health and behavioral indicators on the basis of chi-square and analysis of variance techniques. Four distinct classes based on use patterns were identified. The class featuring earliest onset and highest frequency of use [22% of cannabis user sample or 2.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.7%) of the Canadian adult population] was disproportionately linked to key harms, including other illicit drug use, health problems, cannabis use and driving, and cannabis use problems. A public health framework for cannabis use is needed in Canada, meaningfully targeting effective interventions towards the minority of users experiencing elevated levels of risks and harms. PMID:20506447

  18. Patterns of User Engagement with Mobile- and Web-Delivered Self-Care Interventions for Adults with T2DM: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lyndsay A; Coston, Taylor D; Cherrington, Andrea L; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2016-07-01

    Technology-delivered interventions can improve the health behaviors and clinical outcomes of persons with diabetes, but only if end users engage with these interventions. To summarize the current knowledge on engagement with technology-based interventions, we conducted a review of recent mobile- and web-delivered intervention studies for adults with type 2 diabetes published from 2011 to 2015. Among 163 identified studies, 24 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. There was substantial variation in how intervention engagement was reported across studies. Engagement rates were lower among interventions with a longer duration, and engagement decreased over time. In several studies, older age and lower health literacy were associated with less engagement, and more engagement was associated with intervention improvement in at least one outcome, including glycemic control. Future technology-based intervention studies should report on engagement, examine and report on associations between user characteristics and engagement, and aim to standardize how this is reported, particularly in longer trials. PMID:27255269

  19. Impact of Pharmaceutical Impurities in Ecstasy Tablets: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Study.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Amir; Hatamie, Amir; Saferpour, Tahere; Khajeamiri, Alireza; Safa, Tahere; Buazar, Foad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a simple and reliable method by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the fast and regular identification of 3, 4-MDMA impurities in ecstasy tablets. In so doing, 8 samples of impurities were extracted by diethyl ether under alkaline condition and then analyzed by GC-MS. The results revealed high MDMA levels ranging from 37.6% to 57.7%. The GC-MS method showed that unambiguous identification can be achieved for MDMA from 3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), Amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA) and ketamine (Keta) compounds, respectively. The experimental results indicated the acceptable time window without interfering peaks. It is found that GC-MS was provided a suitable and rapid identification approach for MDMA (Ecstacy) tablets, particularly in the Forensic labs. Consequently, the intense MDMA levels would support the police to develop a simple quantification of impurity in Ecstasy tablets. PMID:27610162

  20. Impact of Pharmaceutical Impurities in Ecstasy Tablets: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Amir; Hatamie, Amir; Saferpour, Tahere; Khajeamiri, Alireza; Safa, Tahere; Buazar, Foad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a simple and reliable method by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed for the fast and regular identification of 3, 4-MDMA impurities in ecstasy tablets. In so doing, 8 samples of impurities were extracted by diethyl ether under alkaline condition and then analyzed by GC–MS. The results revealed high MDMA levels ranging from 37.6% to 57.7%. The GC-MS method showed that unambiguous identification can be achieved for MDMA from 3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), Amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA) and ketamine (Keta) compounds, respectively. The experimental results indicated the acceptable time window without interfering peaks. It is found that GC-MS was provided a suitable and rapid identification approach for MDMA (Ecstacy) tablets, particularly in the Forensic labs. Consequently, the intense MDMA levels would support the police to develop a simple quantification of impurity in Ecstasy tablets. PMID:27610162

  1. Relations between anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations to coping and conformity marijuana use motives among young adult marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Marshall, Erin C; Johnson, Kirsten; Hogan, Julianna; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2009-02-01

    The present investigation examines anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations in relation to Coping and Conformity marijuana use motives among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 135; 46.7% women; Mage = 20.45, SD = 5.0). After controlling for current marijuana use frequency (past 30 days), daily cigarette smoking rate, average volume of alcohol used over the past year, negative affectivity, and other marijuana use motives, anxiety sensitivity was significantly and uniquely associated with Coping and Conformity motives for marijuana use. Distress tolerance evidenced significant and unique incremental relations to Coping motives, whereas fear reactivity to bodily sensations was unrelated to any marijuana use motive. These results provide novel information related to the role of emotional sensitivity and tolerance factors as they pertain to specific types of motives for marijuana use among young adults. PMID:19186932

  2. Cross-Modal Functional Reorganization of Visual and Auditory Cortex in Adult Cochlear Implant Users Identified with fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Jeremy D.; Bleichner, Martin G.; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users show higher auditory-evoked activations in visual cortex and higher visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex compared to normal hearing (NH) controls, reflecting functional reorganization of both visual and auditory modalities. Visual-evoked activation in auditory cortex is a maladaptive functional reorganization whereas auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex is beneficial for speech recognition in CI users. We investigated their joint influence on CI users' speech recognition, by testing 20 postlingually deafened CI users and 20 NH controls with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Optodes were placed over occipital and temporal areas to measure visual and auditory responses when presenting visual checkerboard and auditory word stimuli. Higher cross-modal activations were confirmed in both auditory and visual cortex for CI users compared to NH controls, demonstrating that functional reorganization of both auditory and visual cortex can be identified with fNIRS. Additionally, the combined reorganization of auditory and visual cortex was found to be associated with speech recognition performance. Speech performance was good as long as the beneficial auditory-evoked activation in visual cortex was higher than the visual-evoked activation in the auditory cortex. These results indicate the importance of considering cross-modal activations in both visual and auditory cortex for potential clinical outcome estimation. PMID:26819766

  3. Factors associated with prevalent hepatitis C: differences among young adult injection drug users in lower and upper Manhattan, New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, T; Des Jarlais, D C; Vlahov, D; Perlis, T E; Edwards, V; Friedman, S R; Rockwell, R; Hoover, D; Williams, I T; Monterroso, E R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined correlates of prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adult injection drug users in 2 neighborhoods in New York City. METHODS: Injection drug users aged 18 to 29 years were street recruited from the Lower East Side and Harlem. Participants were interviewed about drug use and sex practices; venipuncture was performed for hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV serologies. RESULTS: In both sites, testing positive for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was associated with having injected for more than 3 years. Additionally, HCV infection was positively associated with injecting with someone known to have had hepatitis (but the association was significant only in the Lower East Side) and with sharing cotton (but the association was statistically significant only in Harlem). Being in drug treatment and older than 24 years were associated with HCV in the Lower East Side but not in Harlem. Receiving money for sex was associated with anti-HCV positivity in Harlem but not in the Lower East Side. CONCLUSIONS: Several differences in factors associated with prevalent HCV infection existed among 2 populations of young injection drug users from the same city. Indirect transmission of HCV may occur. PMID:11189819

  4. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin T; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one's drug use history. PMID:26241170

  5. Early Onset of Drug and Polysubstance Use as Predictors of Injection Drug Use Among Adult Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Trenz, Rebecca C.; Scherer, Michael; Harrell, Paul; Zur, Julia; Sinha, Ashish; Latimer, William

    2012-01-01

    Early onset of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use is an indicator of later substance use problems in adulthood such as alcohol or other drug dependence. This paper seeks to address the association between early onset alcohol, marijuana, cigarette, and polysubstance use with injection drug use among recent illicit drug users. The current study used baseline data from the Baltimore site of the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study, an investigation of neuropsychological and social-behavioral risk factors of HIV, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C among both injection and non-injection drug users in Baltimore Maryland. The present study used a subset (N = 651) of the larger parent study that identified as White or Black, and reported any drug use in the past 6 months. In the full sample slightly more than half (52.5%) of study participants were IDUs. IDUs differed from non-IDUs on age of initiation for cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol, with IDUs initiating the use of all three substances significantly earlier than non-IDUs. IDUs also had significantly greater proportions of early onset of alcohol (χ2 = 19.71, p < .01), cigarette (χ2 = 11.05, p < .01), marijuana (χ2 = 10.83, p < .01), and polysubstance use (χ2 = 23.48, p < .01) than non-IDUs. After adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, only participants identified as early onset alcohol users (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00-2.18) and early onset polysubstance users (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10-2.38) were more likely to have IDU status than those who reported initiating substance use later. IDU status was then stratified by race/ethnicity. After controlling for age and gender, only early polysubstance use was a significant predictor of IDU status for Whites (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.07-3.93). Consistent with literature on early substance initiation and later illicit substance use, early onset alcohol and polysubstance use is an important risk factor for IDU in adulthood. PMID:22172686

  6. A study on the mechanisms by which minocycline protects against MDMA ('ecstasy')-induced neurotoxicity of 5-HT cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Orio, Laura; Llopis, Noemi; Torres, Elisa; Izco, Maria; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, M Isabel

    2010-08-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is a selective 5-HT neurotoxin in rat brain which has been shown to produce acute neuroinflammation characterized by activation of microglia and release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). We aimed to determine whether or not minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic capable of inhibiting microglial activation, could prevent the inflammatory response and reduce the toxicity induced by MDMA. Adult male Dark Agouti rats were given minocycline twice a day for 2 days (45 mg/kg on the first day and 90 mg/kg on the second day; 12-h apart, i.p.). MDMA (12.5 mg/kg; i.p.) was given after the third minocycline injection and animals were killed either 1 h later for the determination of NFkappaB binding activity, 3 h later for the determination of IL-1beta, 24 h later for the determination of microglial activation or 7 days later for the determination of [(3)H]-paroxetine binding as a measure of 5-HT neurotoxicity. MDMA increased NFkappaB activation, IL-1beta release and microglial activation both in the frontal cortex and in the hypothalamus and 7 days later produced a reduction in the density of 5-HT uptake sites in both these brain areas. Minocycline prevented the MDMA-induced increase in NFkappaB activation, IL-1beta release and microglial activation in the frontal cortex and prevented the 5-HT neurotoxicity 7 days later. However, in the hypothalamus, in spite of preventing MDMA-induced microglial activation, minocycline failed to prevent MDMA-induced NFkappaB activation, IL-1beta release and neurotoxicity. This suggests that the protective mechanism of minocycline against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in frontal cortex involves inhibition of MDMA-induced NFkappaB activation possibly through a reduction in IL-1beta signalling. PMID:19777321

  7. Comparing the Trend of Physical Activity and Caloric Intake between Lipid-Lowering Drug Users and Nonusers among Adults with Dyslipidemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jin-Young; Chekal, Lan; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Jee-Yon

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and caloric intake trends of lipid-lowering drug users with those of non-users among Korean adults with dyslipidemia. Methods This study was a repeated cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,635 Korean adults with dyslipidemia based on the 2010–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and caloric intake was estimated through 24-hour dietary recall. All statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). The changes in physical activity and caloric intake were investigated for lipid-lowering drug users and non-users using generalized linear models. Results The proportion of lipid-lowering drug users in the 2010–2013 survey population increased from 3.5% to 5.0% (P<0.001). Among adults of dyslipidemia, total of 1,562 participants (56.6%) reported taking lipid-lowering drugs, and 1,073 (43.4%) reported not taking lipid-lowering drugs. Drug users were more likely to be older and less educated and to have a diagnosis of diabetes, higher body mass index, and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Physical activity trends were tested separately for the lipid-lowering drug users and non-users, and a significant decrease was found among the drug users during the study period. Physical activity among the drug users in 2013 was 38% lower (1,357.3±382.7 metabolic equivalent [MET]; P for trend=0.002) than in 2010 (2,201.4±442.6 MET). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between drug users and non-users in the trend of caloric intake during the same period. Conclusion Physical activity significantly decreased among lipid-lowering drug users between 2010 and 2013, which was not observed among non-users. The importance of physical activity may need to be re-emphasized for lipid-lowering drug users

  8. Pigment Identification on "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa" Painting by Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, D.; Marmontelli, M.; De Benedetto, G. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Vona, F.

    A study of the pigments of "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa," a seventeenth century oil painting on canvas, was performed by Raman microscopy. Lazurite was identified in both Jesus Christ's and St. Theresa's mantles as the pigment responsible for the blue coloration. Litharge was identified inside the black bitumen layer. Usually the bitumen needed a lot of time to dry in the air when mixed with drying oil. Litharge was used by the artist to decrease the oil drying time. A complementary study, using micro-Raman and SEM, allowed us to identify red ochre as the pigment responsible for the red coloration in the altar on the left side of the painting.

  9. Analysis of ecstasy tablets using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Suely K S S; Nogueira, Thiago; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Sabino, Bruno D; do Lago, Claudimir L; Angnes, Lúcio

    2014-11-01

    A method for the identification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D). Sample extraction, separation, and detection of "Ecstasy" tablets were performed in <10 min without sample derivatization. The separation electrolyte was 20 mm TAPS/Lithium, pH 8.7. Average minimal detectable amounts for MDMA and mCPP were 0.04 mg/tablet, several orders of magnitude lower than the minimum amount encountered in a tablet. Seven different Ecstasy tablets seized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by CE-C(4) D and compared against routine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The CE method demonstrated sufficient selectivity to discriminate the two target drugs, MDMA and mCPP, from the other drugs present in seizures, namely amphepramone, fenproporex, caffeine, lidocaine, and cocaine. Separation was performed in <90 sec. The advantages of using C(4) D instead of traditional CE-UV methods for in-field analysis are also discussed. PMID:25039689

  10. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: direct toxicological screening and analysis of illicit Ecstasy tablets.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Luc Alexis; Mandscheff, Jean-François; Fathi, Marc; Giroud, Christian; Augsburger, Marc; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2006-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was used as a simple and rapid way to analyze drug tablets and powders without sample preparation. Experiments were performed with a home-made DESI source coupled to a triple-quadrupole linear-ion trap (QqQ(LIT)) mass spectrometer. Twenty-one commercial drugs as well as some illicit Ecstasy tablets and powders were analyzed. MS spectra almost exclusively showed the protonated or deprotonated ion of the drug after directing the pneumatically assisted electrospray onto the tablet's surface. With some tablets, inhomogeneity of the surface resulted in different spectra depending on the spot analyzed, thus showing that DESI could be used for imaging. Directly triggered MS/MS spectra were used for confirmatory analysis, with analysis times often below 10 s per tablet. For illicit Ecstasy tablets, DESI-MS, GC/MS and LC/MS analyses provided similar qualitative results for the main analytes. With MS/MS spectra library comparison or exact mass measurements, this technique could become very powerful for the rapid analysis of unknown tablets and shows the great potential of desorption techniques as an alternative to solution-based analysis. PMID:16331738

  11. High Suicide Risk after the Development of Cognitive and Working Memory Deficits Caused by Cannabis, Cocaine and Ecstasy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of attempted suicide by a 30-year-old man who had significant cognitive deficits that developed after at least three years of polysubstance use with cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and cocaine. The patient reported increasing difficulties in his professional and interpersonal life which may have been…

  12. Club Drug Use among Young Adults Frequenting Dance Clubs and Other Social Venues in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Bimbi, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A convenience sample of young adults (ages 18-25) in New York City was recruited to complete anonymous surveys in social venues (either dance clubs or other social settings, such as coffee shops and university "hangouts") regarding their use of "club drugs" (e.g., MDMA/Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, and LSD).…

  13. Chronic exposure to MDMA (Ecstasy) elicits behavioral sensitization in rats but fails to induce cross-sensitization to other psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Gunjan M; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2006-01-01

    Background The recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) among adolescents and young adults has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. While evidence suggests that the long-term consequences of MDMA use include neurodegeneration to serotonergic and, possibly, dopaminergic pathways, little is known about susceptibility, such as behavioral sensitization, to MDMA. Methods The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-response characteristics of acute and chronic MDMA administration in rats and to determine whether MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization and whether it cross-sensitizes with amphetamine and methylphenidate. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three MDMA dosage groups (2.5 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 10.0 mg/kg) and a saline control group (N = 9/group). All three MDMA groups were treated for six consecutive days, followed by a 5-day washout, and subsequently re-challenged with their respective doses of MDMA (day 13). Rats were then given an additional 25-day washout period, and re-challenged (day 38) with similar MDMA doses as before followed by either 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine or 2.5 mg/kg methylphenidate on the next day (day 39). Open-field locomotor activity was recorded using a computerized automated activity monitoring system. Results Acute injection of 2.5 mg/kg MDMA showed no significant difference in locomotor activity from rats given saline (control group), while animals receiving acute 5.0 mg/kg or 10.0 mg/kg MDMA showed significant increases in locomotor activity. Rats treated chronically with 5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg MDMA doses exhibited an augmented response, i.e., behavioral sensitization, on experimental day 13 in at least one locomotor index. On experimental day 38, all three MDMA groups demonstrated sensitization to MDMA in at least one locomotor index. Amphetamine and methylphenidate administration to MDMA-sensitized animals did not elicit any significant change in locomotor activity

  14. Correlates of unprotected sex in a sample of young club drug users

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Lysa; Narvaez, Joana; Sordi, Anne; Guimarães, Luciano S. P.; Von Diemen, Lisia; Surratt, Hilary; Kurtz, Steven; Pechansky, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the demographic characteristics, psychiatric symptoms, substance use patterns, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of club drug users to identify factors associated with unprotected sex during the 12 months prior to the interview. METHODS: This cross-sectional study employed the targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approaches via face-to-face interviews conducted at bars and electronic music festivals using an adapted, semi-structured version of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs questionnaire. The sample comprised 240 male and female young adults who had used ecstasy and/or LSD in the 90 days prior to the interview and who were not receiving treatment for alcohol or drug abuse. RESULTS: Of the 240 subjects selected (mean age: 22.9±4.5 years), 57.9% were men; of the male subjects, 52.5% reported having had unprotected sex in the previous 12 months. Of the total sample, 63.33% reported having had unprotected sex. Multivariate regression analysis showed that anal sex (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.044–1.543; p = 0.017) and the use of alcohol/drugs to make sex last longer (PR = 1.430; 95% CI: 1.181–1.732; p<0.001) are associated with unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of intervention strategies aimed at reducing sexually risky behaviors should take into consideration the specific characteristics of drug users and should include the development of safer sex negotiation skills. PMID:24270948

  15. “It’s not smoke. It’s not tar. It’s not 4000 chemicals. Case closed”: Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and perceived social norms of e-cigarette use among adult users

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Blair N.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Tessman, Greta K.; Tworek, Cindy; Alexander, Jennifer; Dickinson, Denise M.; Rath, Jessica; Green, Kerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing among adults in the U.S. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore consumer perceptions about e-cigarettes, including knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived social norms. Methods A total of 14 focus groups (N = 116) were conducted with current adult e-cigarette users in five U.S. cities from March through May, 2014. Focus groups were segmented by age (young adults aged 18–29 and older adults aged 30 and older) as well as by e-cigarette use status (exclusive e-cigarette users and non-exclusive e-cigarette users). Focus group discussions lasted approximately 60-min and were audio-recorded and transcribed; data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Results Participants expressed many positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and simultaneously reported a lack of information and knowledge about the products. Focus group participants overwhelmingly felt as though the ingredients of e-cigarettes were likely less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Additionally, many described positive reactions from family and friends, especially when e-cigarettes were used in place of conventional cigarettes. Conclusions Findings from this qualitative study provide insight into consumer knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about e-cigarettes increasing our understanding of why and how they are being used. Such information will help provide insight into the potential public health impact of these emerging products. PMID:26708706

  16. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity: an overview.

    PubMed

    Capela, João Paulo; Carmo, Helena; Remião, Fernando; Bastos, Maria Lourdes; Meisel, Andreas; Carvalho, Félix

    2009-06-01

    "Ecstasy" [(+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC, X, E] is a psychoactive recreational hallucinogenic substance and a major worldwide drug of abuse. Several reports raised the concern that MDMA has the ability to induce neurotoxic effects both in laboratory animals and humans. Despite more than two decades of research, the mechanisms by which MDMA is neurotoxic are still to be fully elucidated. MDMA induces serotonergic terminal loss in rats and also in some mice strains, but also a broader neuronal degeneration throughout several brain areas such as the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Meanwhile, in human "ecstasy" abusers, there are evidences for deficits in seronergic biochemical markers, which correlate with long-term impairments in memory and learning. There are several factors that contribute to MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, namely, hyperthermia, monoamine oxidase metabolism of dopamine and serotonin, dopamine oxidation, the serotonin transporter action, nitric oxide, and the formation of peroxinitrite, glutamate excitotoxicity, serotonin 2A receptor agonism, and, importantly, the formation of MDMA neurotoxic metabolites. The present review covered the following topics: history and epidemiology, pharmacological mechanisms, metabolic pathways and the influence of isoenzyme genetic polymorphisms, as well as the acute effects of MDMA in laboratory animals and humans, with a special focus on MDMA-induced neurotoxic effects at the cellular and molecular level. The main aim of this review was to contribute to the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in MDMA neurotoxicity, which can help in the development of therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat the long-term neuropsychiatric complications of MDMA abuse in humans. PMID:19373443

  17. Usage and Users of Online Self-Management Programs for Adult Patients With Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Leent- de Wit, Ilse; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Knulst, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Two online self-management programs for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) or food allergy (FA) were developed with the aim of helping patients cope with their condition, follow the prescribed treatment regimen, and deal with the consequences of their illness in daily life. Both programs consist of several modules containing information, personal stories by fellow patients, videos, and exercises with feedback. Health care professionals can refer their patients to the programs. However, the use of the program in daily practice is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use and characteristics of users of the online self-management programs “Living with eczema,” and “Living with food allergy,” and to investigate factors related to the use of the trainings. Methods A cross-sectional design was carried out in which the outcome parameters were the number of log-ins by patients, the number of hits on the system’s core features, disease severity, quality of life, and domains of self-management. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize sample characteristics and to describe number of log-ins and hits per module and per functionality. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the relation between the number of log-ins and patient characteristics. Results Since the start, 299 adult patients have been referred to the online AD program; 173 logged in for at least one occasion. Data from 75 AD patients were available for analyses. Mean number of log-ins was 3.1 (range 1-11). Linear regression with the number of log-ins as dependent variable showed that age and quality of life contributed most to the model, with betas of .35 ( P=.002) and .26 (P=.05), respectively, and an R 2 of .23. Two hundred fourteen adult FA patients were referred to the online FA training, 124 logged in for at least one occasion and data from 45 patients were available for analysis. Mean number of log-ins was 3.0 (range 1-11). Linear regression

  18. Correlates of the Use of Different Tobacco Cessation Methods by Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users According to Their Socio-Demographic Characteristics: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10

    PubMed Central

    Ruhil, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco control has two aspects. One involves preventing non-tobacco users from using tobacco and the second involves tobacco cessation (quitting) by existing tobacco users. There are various methods of tobacco cessation. Pharmacotherapy [e.g., nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and medications such as bupropion] and behavioral counselling are some of the internationally approved methods of tobacco cessation. Objective: This paper intends to study how age, gender, residence (rural/urban), education, and occupation influence the use of various tobacco cessation methods by smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010. There were 3725 smokers and 6354 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who made attempts to quit in the 12 months prior to the survey by use of different cessation methods (NRT, drugs such as bupropion, counselling, and other methods). Results: A significant association was demonstrated between increasing educational attainment and use of cessation methods for all the methods among smokers. Being employed (Govt. or non-Govt.) was positively associated with the use of NRT as a cessation method by smokers. Students and homemakers had higher odds of using pharmacotherapy methods among smokers. A significant association was demonstrated for the gender and age of tobacco users with the use of counselling as a cessation method among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusion: The findings of this study have important implications for tobacco cessation service providers in view of supporting their decision of choosing a particular tobacco cessation method for tobacco users according to certain kinds of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:27385871

  19. Involvement of autophagy upregulation in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy')-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Hsun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Lin, Yang-Yi; Weng, Shao-Ju; Yen, Ting-Yin; Chen, Lih-Chi; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that autophagy plays pathogenetic roles in cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is an illicit drug that causes long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. Apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but the role of autophagy in MDMA-elicited serotonergic toxicity has not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine the contribution of autophagy to neurotoxicity in serotonergic neurons in in vitro and in vivo animal models challenged with MDMA. Here, we demonstrated that in cultured rat serotonergic neurons, MDMA exposure induced LC3B-densely stained autophagosome formation, accompanying by a decrease in neurite outgrowth. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly attenuated MDMA-induced autophagosome accumulation, and ameliorated MDMA-triggered serotonergic neurite damage and neuron death. In contrast, enhanced autophagy flux by rapamycin or impaired autophagosome clearance by bafilomycin A1 led to more autophagosome accumulation in serotonergic neurons and aggravated neurite degeneration. In addition, MDMA-induced autophagy activation in cultured serotonergic neurons might be mediated by serotonin transporter (SERT). In an in vivo animal model administered MDMA, neuroimaging showed that 3-MA protected the serotonin system against MDMA-induced downregulation of SERT evaluated by animal-PET with 4-[(18)F]-ADAM, a SERT radioligand. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MDMA triggers upregulation of autophagy in serotonergic neurons, which appears to be detrimental to neuronal growth. PMID:26610922

  20. The origin of MDMA ("ecstasy")--separating the facts from the myth.

    PubMed

    Bernschneider-Reif, S; Oxler, F; Freudenmann, R W

    2006-11-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine), better known as "Ecstasy", is a synthetic drug with psychedelic and stimulant effects which has gained great popularity. It is closely tied to the underground scene, but has also been used therapeutically as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Both scientific as well as newspaper articles communicate faulty or incomplete information on the origin of MDMA and the role of the German pharmaceutical-chemical company Merck in its development. One of the most common misconceptions is that the substance was synthesized with the goal of creating an anorectic but was not marketed by Merck because of side effects. It was our aim to clarify the circumstances of MDMA's discovery at Merck. An interdisciplinary working group conducted a comprehensive analysis of the original documents in Merck's historical archive in Darmstadt, Germany. It could be revealed that MDMA was in fact mentioned for the first time in files from 1912, but not under this name. In the lab journals it was called "Methylsafrylamin". In a patent certificate it was mentioned only with its chemical structure. Merck applied for this patent to protect an alternative chemical method for synthesizing the styptic hydrastinine, not appetite suppressants. MDMA was not the key substance in this patent, only a precursor. Archive documents revealed that Merck's scientists did not perform basic pharmacological tests with MDMA (now called "Safrylmethylamin") before 1927. These tests were halted for economic reasons. In the 1950s, primitive toxicological studies were conducted but MDMA was not tested in humans. PMID:17152992

  1. Mechanisms of MDMA (ecstasy)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Lee, Insong J

    2010-08-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage. PMID:20420575

  2. A Comparison of the Effects of Classroom and Multi-User Virtual Environments on the Perceived Speaking Anxiety of Adult Post-Secondary English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abal, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    The population of English Language Learners (ELLs) globally has been increasing substantially every year. In the United States alone, adult ELLs are the fastest growing portion of learners in adult education programs (Yang, 2005). There is a significant need to improve the teaching of English to ELLs in the United States and other English-speaking…

  3. The Influence of Genetic and Environmental Factors among MDMA Users in Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Khymenets, Olha; Rodríguez, Joan; Cuenca, Aida; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Torrens, Marta; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to clarify the association between MDMA cumulative use and cognitive dysfunction, and the potential role of candidate genetic polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in the cognitive effects of MDMA. Gene polymorphisms related to reduced serotonin function, poor competency of executive control and memory consolidation systems, and high enzymatic activity linked to bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites may contribute to explain variations in the cognitive impact of MDMA across regular users of this drug. Sixty ecstasy polydrug users, 110 cannabis users and 93 non-drug users were assessed using cognitive measures of Verbal Memory (California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT), Visual Memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCFT), Semantic Fluency, and Perceptual Attention (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT). Participants were also genotyped for polymorphisms within the 5HTT, 5HTR2A, COMT, CYP2D6, BDNF, and GRIN2B genes using polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan polymerase assays. Lifetime cumulative MDMA use was significantly associated with poorer performance on visuospatial memory and perceptual attention. Heavy MDMA users (>100 tablets lifetime use) interacted with candidate gene polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in cognitive performance between MDMA users and controls. MDMA users carrying COMT val/val and SERT s/s had poorer performance than paired controls on visuospatial attention and memory, and MDMA users with CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers performed worse than controls on semantic fluency. Both MDMA lifetime use and gene-related individual differences influence cognitive dysfunction in ecstasy users. PMID:22110616

  4. Evidence that MDMA ('ecstasy') increases cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in microglial cells: role in the neuroinflammatory response in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elisa; Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Borcel, Erika; Peraile, Ines; Mayado, Andrea; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, Maria Isabel

    2010-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') produces selective long-lasting serotonergic neurotoxicity in rats. The drug also produces acute hyperthermia which modulates the severity of the neurotoxic response. In addition, MDMA produces signs of neuroinflammation reflected as microglial activation and an increase in the release of interleukin-1beta, the latter of which appears to be a consequence of the hyperthermic response and to be implicated in the neurotoxicity induced by the drug. Over-expression of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in microglia during non-immune and immune pathological conditions is thought to be aimed at controlling the production of neurotoxic factors such as proinflammatory cytokines. Our objective was to study the pattern of CB2 receptor expression following MDMA and to examine the effect of JWH-015 (a CB2 agonist) on the MDMA-induced neuroinflammatory response as well as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxicity. Adult Dark Agouti rats were given MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and killed 3 h or 24 h later for the determination of CB2 receptor expression. JWH-015 was given 48 h, 24 h and 0.5 h before MDMA and 1 h and/or 6 h later and animals were killed for the determination of microglial activation (3 h and 24 h) and 5-HT neurotoxicity (7 days). MDMA increased CB2 receptor expression shortly after administration and these receptors were found in microglia. JWH-015 decreased MDMA-induced microglial activation and interleukin-1beta release and slightly decreased MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. In conclusion, CB2 receptor activation reduces the neuroinflammatory response following MDMA and provides partial neuroprotection against the drug. PMID:20067581

  5. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jason; Collins, Rick; Darkes, Jack; Gwartney, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS) use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States. Methods U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955) were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation. Results The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations. Conclusion The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s) and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and education. PMID:17931410

  6. Risky Car Following in Abstinent Users of MDMA

    PubMed Central

    Dastrup, Elizabeth; Lees, Monica; Bechara, Antoine; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use raises concerns because of its association with risky driving. We evaluated driving performance and risk taking in abstinent recreational MDMA users in a simulated car following task that required continuous attention and vigilance. Drivers were asked to follow two car lengths behind a lead vehicle (LV). Three sinusoids generated unpredictable LV velocity changes. Drivers could mitigate risk by following further behind the erratic LV. From vehicle trajectory data we performed a Fourier analysis to derive measures of coherence, gain, and delay. These measures and headway distance were compared between the different groups. All MDMA drivers met coherence criteria indicating cooperation in the car following task. They matched periodic changes in LV velocity similar to controls (abstinent THC users, abstinent alcohol users, and non-drug users), militating against worse vigilance. While all participants traveled approximately 55mph (89kph), the MDMA drivers followed 64m closer to the LV and demonstrated 1.04s shorter delays to LV velocity changes than other driver groups. The simulated car following task safely discriminated between driving behavior in abstinent MDMA users and controls. Abstinent MDMA users do not perform worse than controls, but may assume extra risk. The control theory framework used in this study revealed behaviors that might not otherwise be evident. PMID:20380914

  7. Neurotoxicity of Ecstasy metabolites in rat cortical neurons, and influence of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Capela, João Paulo; Meisel, Andreas; Abreu, Artur Reis; Branco, Paula Sério; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Lobo, Ana Maria; Remião, Fernando; Bastos, Maria Lurdes; Carvalho, Félix

    2006-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "Ecstasy") is a widely abused, psychoactive recreational drug. There is growing evidence that the MDMA neurotoxic profile may be highly dependent on both its hepatic metabolism and body temperature. Metabolism of MDMA involves N-demethylation to 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), which is also a drug of abuse. MDMA and MDA are O-demethylenated to N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (N-Me-alpha-MeDA) and alpha-methyldopamine (alpha-MeDA), respectively, both of which are catechols that can undergo oxidation to the corresponding ortho-quinones. In the presence of glutathione (GSH), ortho-quinones may be conjugated with GSH to form glutathionyl adducts. In this study, we evaluated the neurotoxicity of MDMA and three of its metabolites obtained by synthesis, N-Me-alpha-MeDA, alpha-MeDA, and 5-(GSH)-alpha-MeDA [5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine] in rat cortical neuronal serum-free cultures under normal (36.5 degrees C) and hyperthermic (40 degrees C) conditions. Cell viability was assessed, and the mechanism of cell death was also evaluated. Our study shows that these metabolites are more neurotoxic [5-(GSH)-alpha-MeDA being the most toxic] than the parent compound MDMA. The neurotoxicity of MDMA metabolites was partially prevented by the antioxidants N-acetylcystein and also, in a minor extent, by alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone. All the tested compounds induced apoptotic cell death in cortical neurons, and their neurotoxic effect was potentiated under hyperthermic conditions. These data suggest that MDMA metabolites, especially under hyperthermic conditions, contribute to MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:16183702

  8. Pro-oxidant effects of Ecstasy and its metabolites in mouse brain synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Daniel José; Capela, João Paulo; Oliveira, Jorge MA; Silva, Renata; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Siopa, Filipa; Branco, Paula Sério; Fernandes, Eduarda; Duarte, José Alberto; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ‘Ecstasy’) is a worldwide major drug of abuse known to elicit neurotoxic effects. The mechanisms underlying the neurotoxic effects of MDMA are not clear at present, but the metabolism of dopamine and 5-HT by monoamine oxidase (MAO), as well as the hepatic biotransformation of MDMA into pro-oxidant reactive metabolites is thought to contribute to its adverse effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using mouse brain synaptosomes, we evaluated the pro-oxidant effects of MDMA and its metabolites, α-methyldopamine (α-MeDA), N-methyl-α-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA) and 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-α-methyldopamine [5-(GSH)-α-MeDA], as well as those of 5-HT, dopamine, l-DOPA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). KEY RESULTS 5-HT, dopamine, l-DOPA, DOPAC and MDMA metabolites α-MeDA, N-Me-α-MeDA and 5-(GSH)-α-MeDA, concentration- and time-dependently increased H2O2 production, which was significantly reduced by the antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid and melatonin. From experiments with MAO inhibitors, it was observed that H2O2 generation induced by 5-HT was totally dependent on MAO-related metabolism, while for dopamine, it was a minor pathway. The MDMA metabolites, dopamine, l-DOPA and DOPAC concentration-dependently increased quinoproteins formation and, like 5-HT, altered the synaptosomal glutathione status. Finally, none of the compounds modified the number of polarized mitochondria in the synaptosomal preparations, and the compounds’ pro-oxidant effects were unaffected by prior mitochondrial depolarization, excluding a significant role for mitochondrial-dependent mechanisms of toxicity in this experimental model. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS MDMA metabolites along with high levels of monoamine neurotransmitters can be major effectors of neurotoxicity induced by Ecstasy. PMID:21506960

  9. National Household Education Surveys of 2003: Data File User's Manual, Volume III. Adult Education for Work-Related Reasons Survey. NCES 2004-103

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Mary; Montaquila, Jill; Vaden-Kiernan, Nancy; Kim, Kwang; Roth, Shelley Brock; Chapman, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This manual provides documentation and guidance for users of the public-use data file for the AEWR-NHES:2003 survey. This volume contains a description of the content and organization of the data file, including useful information regarding questionnaire items and the various derived variables found on the file. The reader should especially note…

  10. Cocaine-dependent adults and recreational cocaine users are more likely than controls to choose immediate unsafe sex over delayed safer sex.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Johnson, Matthew W; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Wesley, Michael J; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P Read; Bickel, Warren K

    2016-08-01

    Cocaine users have a higher incidence of risky sexual behavior and HIV infection than nonusers. Our aim was to measure whether safer sex discount rates-a measure of the likelihood of having immediate unprotected sex versus waiting to have safer sex-differed between controls and cocaine users of varying severity. Of the 162 individuals included in the primary data analyses, 69 met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for cocaine dependence, 29 were recreational cocaine users who did not meet the dependence criteria, and 64 were controls. Participants completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which measures a person's likelihood of using a condom when one is immediately available and how that likelihood decreases as a function of delay to condom availability with regard to 4 images chosen by the participants of hypothetical sexual partners differing in perceived desirability and likelihood of having a sexually transmitted infection. When a condom was immediately available, the stated likelihood of condom use sometimes differed between cocaine users and controls, which depended on the image condition. Even after controlling for rates of condom use when one is immediately available, the cocaine-dependent and recreational users groups were more sensitive to delay to condom availability than controls. Safer sex discount rates were also related to intelligence scores. The Sexual Discounting Task identifies delay as a key variable that impacts the likelihood of using a condom among these groups and suggests that HIV prevention efforts may be differentially effective based on an individual's safer sex discount rate. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454677

  11. Estimation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) co-consumption in serum samples of drivers positive for amphetamine or ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Lott, S; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2012-09-10

    There is no toxicological analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) applied routinely in cases of driving under influence (DUI); therefore the extent of consumption of this drug might be underestimated. Its consumption is described as occurring often concurrently with amphetamine or ecstasy. This study examines 196 serum samples which were collected by police during road side testing for GHB. The samples subject to this study have already been found to be positive for amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and/or 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA). Analysis has been performed by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Due to its polarity, chromatographic separation of GHB was achieved by a HILIC column. To differentiate endogenous and exogenous levels of GHB, a cut-off concentration of 4μg/ml was applied. Of the 196 samples, two have been found to be positive for GHB. Of these samples, one sample was also positive for amphetamine and one for MDMA. Whilst other amphetamine derivates were not detected in these samples, both samples were found to be positive for cannabinoids. These results suggest that co-consumption of GHB with amphetamine or ecstasy is relatively low (1%) for the collective of this study. PMID:22554869

  12. Dinosaur girls, Candy girls, and Trinity: Voices of Taiwanese Club Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit-Sang; Li, Jih-Heng; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Callahan, Catina; Liu, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Jui; Hoffer, Lee; Cottler, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    Research among Asian MDMA users is rare. To evaluate the feasibility of a study on abuse/dependence on Ecstasy, two focus groups with users (n=12) and one with health professionals (n=7) were conducted in Taiwan. Major results included blatant human testing with “candy/dinosaur girls” and a specific sequence of use called “Trinity” (MDMA, Ketamine, and marijuana). “Head-shaked bars” and “KTVs” were public places where illegal behaviors were implicitly allowed. Depression after MDMA use was not reported. For future studies, participants suggested that MRI could be a strong incentive for young users to enhance willingness to participate. Cultural issues are discussed. PMID:19042808

  13. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  14. Constructing the ecstasy of MDMA from its component mental organs: Proposing the primer/probe method.

    PubMed

    Ray, Thomas S

    2016-02-01

    The drug MDMA, commonly known as ecstasy, produces a specific and distinct open hearted mental state, which led to the creation of a new pharmacological class, "entactogens". Extensive literature on its mechanisms of action has come to characterize MDMA as a "messy" drug with multiple mechanisms, but the consensus is that the distinctive entactogenic effects arise from the release of neurotransmitters, primarily serotonin. I propose an alternative hypothesis: The entactogenic mental state is due to the simultaneous direct activation of imidazoline-1 (I1) and serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors by MDMA. This hypothesis emerges from "mental organ" theory, which embodies many hypotheses, the most relevant of which are: "Mental organs" are populations of neurons that all express their defining metabotropic receptor, and each mental organ plays a distinct role in the mind, a role shaped by evolution as mental organs evolve by duplication and divergence. Mental organs are the mechanism by which evolution sculpts the mind. Mental organs can be in or out of consciousness. In order for a mental organ to enter consciousness, three things must happen: The mental organ must be activated directly at its defining receptor. 5-HT2 must be simultaneously activated. One of the functions of activated 5-HT2 is to load other simultaneously activated mental organs fully into consciousness. In some cases THC must be introduced to remove long-term blocks mediated by the cannabinoid system. I propose the "primer/probe" method to test these hypotheses. A "primer" is a drug that selectively activates 5-HT2 (e.g. DOB or MEM) or serotonin-1 (5-HT1) and 5-HT2 (e.g. DOET or 2C-B-fly). A "probe" is a drug that activates a receptor whose corresponding mental organ we wish to load into consciousness in order to understand its role in the mind. The mental organ is loaded into consciousness when the primer and probe are taken together, but not when taken separately. For example, the blood pressure

  15. Performance measures, hours of caregiving assistance, and risk of adverse care outcomes among older adult users of Medicaid home and community-based services

    PubMed Central

    Danilovich, Margaret K; Corcos, Daniel M; Marquez, David X; Eisenstein, Amy R; Hughes, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study used validated physical performance measures to examine function, risk of adverse health outcomes, and the relationship with allocated hours of weekly caregiving assistance among older adults receiving home and community-based services through a Medicaid waiver program. Methods: Older adults (n = 42) completed physical performance measures including grip strength, 30-s chair rise, Timed Up and Go, and gait speed. Demographic information including age, gender, and allocated hours of weekly caregiving assistance were also collected. Results: A majority, 72% of females and 86% of males, had weak grip strength, 57% met criteria for fall risk based on their Timed Up and Go score, 83% had lower extremity strength impairments, and 98% were unable to ambulate more than 1.0 m/s. Frailty was prevalent in the sample with 72% of clients meeting Fried’s frailty criteria. The most significant predictors of allocated hours of weekly caregiving assistance approved for clients were race and gait speed. Conclusion: Based on scores on physical performance measures, clients are at risk of falls, hospitalization, and mortality, and scores indicate an urgent need to assess performance in addition to self-reported activities of daily living limitations for this population. Performance measures associated with quantifiable risk of adverse outcomes can be critical indicators for referrals and services needed to enhance the safety and improve care outcomes for homebound older adults. PMID:27092257

  16. Determination of the role of calcium on instability of neurotoxic metabolite of ecstasy by HPTLC-mass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecstasy is one of the popular illicit drugs in the world and its usage has been recently increased in Iran. This compound can destroy the serotonergic neurons and produces cognitive and psychopathology diseases. 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) which is the main metabolite of this compound, seems to be responsible for this effect. However, no consensus has been reached among the researchers about its role. This disagreement between the researches may be due to failure in determination of HHMA as free form in physiological fluids. In this study, the stability of this crucial metabolite of ecstasy was examined in different mediums. Methods The stability of HHMA was studied in the perfusion medium and water at 100 and 10 ng/mL concentrations. Moreover, the effect of temperature (0–25°C), pH (3–10), calcium chloride (0–150 g/L) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the stability of HHMA was also examined. Results Our result suggested that the free form of HHMA could be degraded in the perfusion medium. The rate of this degradation has direct proportion to temperature (at 25°C = 0.037 min-1 and at 0°C = 0.002 min-1). Calcium chloride and sodium bicarbonate are two responsible components in this instability. Moreover, the alkaline pHs and increasing the shaking time can accelerate this effect. Although, while degradation was prevented at pH=3, EDTA could only reduce this rate about 30%. Conclusions Calcium cation can act as an accelerator of HHMA degradation. Therefore, the perfusion medium should not contain Ca2+ and the pH of medium is better to be adjusted at acidic range. Since, the internal cellular source of calcium is endoplasmic reticulum system, it can be assumed that, this cation may change HHMA and dopamine to reactive compounds that can bind covalently to the cysteinyl group of biological compounds and damage cellular components. PMID:23351707

  17. Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of “Daath”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the “Hungarian Psychedelic Community”, an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath’s user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and – if found useful – adapted and applied

  18. Online drug user-led harm reduction in Hungary: a review of "Daath".

    PubMed

    Móró, Levente; Rácz, József

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction has been increasingly finding its way into public drug policies and healthcare practices worldwide, with successful intervention measures justifiably focussing on the highest-risk groups, such as injecting drug users. However, there are also other types of drug users in need for harm reduction, even though they pose less, low, or no public health risk. Occasionally, drug users may autonomously organise themselves into groups to provide advocacy, harm reduction, and peer-help services, sometimes online. The http://www.daath.hu website has been operated since 2001 by the "Hungarian Psychedelic Community", an unorganised drug user group with a special interest in hallucinogenic and related substances. As of today, the website serves about 1200 visitors daily, and the online community comprises of more than 8000 registered members. The Daath community is driven by a strong commitment to the policy of harm reduction in the form of various peer-help activities that aim to expand harm reduction without promoting drug use. Our review comprehensively summarises Daath's user-led harm reduction services and activities from the last ten years, firstly outlining the history and growth phases of Daath, along with its self-set guidelines and policies. Online services (such as a discussion board, and an Ecstasy pill database) and offline activities (such as Ecstasy pill field testing, and a documentary film about psychedelics) are described. In order to extend its harm reduction services and activities in the future, Daath has several social, commercial, and legislative challenges to face. Starting with a need to realign its focus, outlooks for the upcoming operation of Daath are pondered. Future trends in harm reduction, such as separating harm-decreasing from benefit-increasing, are also discussed. We aim to share these innovative harm reduction measures and good practices in order to be critically assessed, and--if found useful--adapted and applied elsewhere

  19. A Mobile/Web App for Long Distance Caregivers of Older Adults: Functional Requirements and Design Implications from a User Centered Design Process

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Steven S.; Gorman, Paul N.; Jimison, Holly B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults. PMID:25954469

  20. A mobile/web app for long distance caregivers of older adults: functional requirements and design implications from a user centered design process.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Steven S; Gorman, Paul N; Jimison, Holly B

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults. PMID:25954469

  1. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use and Risk of Fractures: A new-user cohort study among US adults aged 50 and older

    PubMed Central

    Lanteigne, Amy; Sheu, Yi-han; Stürmer, Til; Pate, Virginia; Azrael, Deb; Swanson, Sonja A.; Miller, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Antidepressants may increase the risk of fractures by disrupting sensory-motor function, thereby increasing the risk of falls, and by decreasing bone mineral density and consequently increasing the fall- or impact-related risk of fracture. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants appear to increase fracture risk relative to no treatment, while less is known about the effect of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressants, despite SNRIs being prescribed with increasing frequency. No prior study has directly examined how fracture risk differs among patients initiating SNRIs versus those initiating SSRIs. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SNRI vs. SSRI initiation on fracture rates. Data source Data came from a PharMetrics claims database, 1998–2010, which is comprised of commercial health plan information obtained from managed care plans throughout the US. Methods We constructed a cohort of patients aged 50 years or older initiating either of the two drug classes (SSRI, N=335,146; SNRI, N=61,612). Standardized mortality weighting and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to estimate hazard ratios for fractures by antidepressant class. Results In weighted analyses, the fracture rates were approximately equal in SNRI and SSRI initiators: hazard ratios for the first one and five-year periods following initiation were, respectively, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.92–1.36) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.90–1.26). For the sub-group of patients with depression who initiated on either SNRIs or SSRIs, those initiating SNRIs had a modestly, but not significantly elevated fracture risk, compared with those who initiated on SSRIs, hazard ratio = 1.31 (95% CI: 0.95–1.79). Conclusions We found no evidence that initiating SNRIs rather than SSRIs materially influenced fracture risk among a cohort of middle-aged and older adults. PMID:25708711

  2. Self-reported ecstasy (MDMA) use and past occurrence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a cohort juvenile detainees in the USA.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Torrance; Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Jarboe, Jerriyauna

    2015-04-01

    The current study was designed to determine the extent to which self-reported ecstasy use in a population of juvenile adolescent detainees in a southern state is associated with high-risk health behaviors pertaining to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptomology and past history of STI occurrence. Participants were 2,260 juvenile offenders housed at selected Youth Development Campuses in the state of Georgia. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Juveniles who reported having used ecstasy previously were more likely to report that they had sore bumps of blisters near their sex organs before (OR 1.28, 95 % CI 0.74-2.21), with males who had used ecstasy prior incarceration being more than two times more likely to indicated that they had experienced having a drip or drainage from the penis (OR 1.76, 95 % CI 0.72-4.32), having vaginal discharge or odor from their vagina (OR 2.33, 95 % CI 1.16-4.65). PMID:25160467

  3. Caffeine provokes adverse interactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and related psychostimulants: mechanisms and mediators.

    PubMed

    Vanattou-Saïfoudine, N; McNamara, R; Harkin, A

    2012-11-01

    Concomitant consumption of caffeine with recreational psychostimulant drugs of abuse can provoke severe acute adverse reactions in addition to longer term consequences. The mechanisms by which caffeine increases the toxicity of psychostimulants include changes in body temperature regulation, cardiotoxicity and lowering of the seizure threshold. Caffeine also influences the stimulatory, discriminative and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we consider our current understanding of such caffeine-related drug interactions, placing a particular emphasis on an adverse interaction between caffeine and the substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy'), which has been most recently described and characterized. Co-administration of caffeine profoundly enhances the acute toxicity of MDMA in rats, as manifested by high core body temperature, tachycardia and increased mortality. In addition, co-administration of caffeine enhances the long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. Observations to date support an interactive model of drug-induced toxicity comprising MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release coupled to a caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors in addition to inhibition of PDE. These experiments are reviewed together with reports of caffeine-related drug interactions with cocaine, d-amphetamine and ephedrine where similar mechanisms are implicated. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will guide appropriate intervention strategies for the management of severe reactions and potential for increased drug-related toxicity, resulting from concomitant caffeine consumption. PMID:22671762

  4. Blue-yellow colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in occasional and dependent stimulant users.

    PubMed

    Hulka, Lea M; Wagner, Michael; Preller, Katrin H; Jenni, Daniela; Quednow, Boris B

    2013-04-01

    Specific blue-yellow colour vision impairment has been reported in dependent cocaine users and it was postulated that drug-induced changes in retinal dopamine neurotransmission are responsible. However, it is unclear whether these changes are confined to chronic cocaine users, whether they are specific for dopaminergic stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine and whether they are related to cognitive functions such as working memory, encoding and consolidation. In 47 occasional and 29 dependent cocaine users, 23 MDMA (commonly known as 'ecstasy') users and 47 stimulant-naive controls, colour vision discrimination was measured with the Lanthony Desaturated Panel D-15 Test and memory performance with the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Both occasional and dependent cocaine users showed higher colour confusion indices than controls. Users of the serotonergic stimulant MDMA (26%), occasional (30%) and dependent cocaine users (34%) exhibited more frequent blue-yellow colour vision disorders compared to controls (9%). Inferior performance of MDMA users was caused by a subgroup with high amphetamine co-use (55%), while MDMA use alone was not associated with decreased blue-yellow discrimination (0%). Cognitive performance was worse in cocaine users with colour vision disorder compared to users and controls with intact colour vision and both colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits were related to cocaine use. Occasional cocaine and amphetamine use might induce blue-yellow colour vision impairment, whereas the serotonergic stimulant MDMA does not impair colour vision. The association between colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in cocaine users may reflect that retinal and cerebral dopamine alterations are linked to a certain degree. PMID:22704223

  5. Impaired Inhibitory Control in Recreational Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed. PMID:17989775

  6. MDMA (Ecstasy) association with impaired fMRI BOLD thalamic coherence and functional connectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Ronald M.; Karageorgiou, John; Dietrich, Mary S.; McLellan, Jessica Y.; Charboneau, Evonne J.; Blackford, Jennifer U.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Background MDMA exposure is associated with chronic serotonergic dysfunction in preclinical and clinical studies. A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) comparison of past MDMA users to non-MDMA-using controls revealed increased spatial extent and amplitude of activation in the supplementary motor area during motor tasks (Karageorgiou et al., 2009). Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data from that study were reanalyzed for intraregional coherence and for inter-regional temporal correlations between time series, as functional connectivity. Methods Fourteen MDMA users and ten controls reporting similar non-MDMA abuse performed finger taps during fMRI. Fourteen motor pathway regions plus a pontine raphé region were examined. Coherence was expressed as percent of voxels positively correlated with an intraregional index voxel. Functional connectivity was determined using wavelet correlations. Results Intraregional thalamic coherence was significantly diminished at low frequencies in MDMA users compared to controls (p=0.009). Inter-regional functional connectivity was significantly weaker for right thalamo - left caudate (p=0.002), right thalamo - left thalamus (p=0.007), right caudate - right postcentral (p=0.007) and right supplementary motor area - right precentral gyrus (p=0.011) region pairs compared to controls. When stratified by lifetime exposure, significant negative associations were observed between cumulative MDMA use and functional connectivity in seven other region-pairs, while only one region-pair showed a positive association. Conclusions Reported prior MDMA use was associated with deficits in BOLD intraregional coherence and inter-regional functional connectivity, even among functionally robust pathways involving motor regions. This suggests that MDMA use is associated with long-lasting effects on brain neurophysiology beyond the cognitive domain. PMID:21807471

  7. Concurrent and Simultaneous Polydrug Use: Latent Class Analysis of an Australian Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Lake-Hui; Chan, Gary C. K.; White, Angela; Connor, Jason P.; Baker, Peter J.; Saunders, John B.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use and illicit drug use peak during young adulthood (around 18–29 years of age), but comparatively little is known about polydrug use in nationally representative samples of young adults. Drawing on a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey), this study examines polydrug use patterns and associated psychosocial risk factors among young adults (n = 3,333; age 19–29). Method: The use of a broad range of licit and illicit drugs were examined, including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, inhalants, steroids, barbiturates, meth/amphetamines, heroin, methadone/buprenorphine, other opiates, painkillers, and tranquilizers/sleeping pills. Latent class analysis was employed to identify patterns of polydrug use. Results: Polydrug use in this sample was best described using a 5-class solution. The majority of young adults predominantly used alcohol only (52.3%), alcohol and tobacco (34.18%). The other classes were cannabis, ecstasy, and licit drug use (9.4%), cannabis, amphetamine derivative, and licit drug use (2.8%), and sedative and alcohol use (1.3%). Young adult males with low education and/or high income were most at risk of polydrug use. Conclusion: Almost half of young adults reported polydrug use, highlighting the importance of post-high school screening for key risk factors and polydrug use profiles, and the delivery of early intervention strategies targeting illicit drugs. PMID:24350230

  8. CHEMFORM user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoreen, A.; Toran, L.

    1996-01-01

    CHEMFORM is a DOS-based program which converts geochemical data files into the format read by the U.S. Geological Survey family of models: WATEQ4F, PHREEQE, or NETPATH. These geochemical models require data formatted in a particular order, which typically does not match data storage. CHEMFORM converts geochemical data that are stored in an ASCII file to input files that can be read by these models, without being re-entered by hand. The data may be in any order and format in the original file, as long as they are separated by blanks. The location of each data element in the input file is entered in CHEMFORM. Any required data that are not present in your file may also be entered. The positions of the data in the input file are saved to be used as defaults for the next run. CHEMFORM runs in two modes. In the first mode, it will read one input file and write one output file. The input file may contain data on multiple lines, and the user will specify both line number and position of each item in CHEMFORM. This mode facilitates the conversion of the input from one model to the format needed by another model. In the second mode, the CHEMFORM input files contains more than one water analysis. All the geochemical data for a given sample are stored on one line, and CHEMFORM writes an output file for each line. This mode is useful when many samples are available for a site in the same format (different monitoring points or samples taken at different times from one monitoring point).

  9. The ugly side of amphetamines: short- and long-term toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy'), methamphetamine and D-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Steinkellner, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H; Montgomery, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamine ('Speed'), methamphetamine ('Ice') and its congener 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are illicit drugs abused worldwide for their euphoric and stimulant effects. Despite compelling evidence for chronic MDMA neurotoxicity in animal models, the physiological consequences of such toxicity in humans remain unclear. In addition, distinct differences in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of MDMA between species and different strains of animals prevent the rationalisation of realistic human dose paradigms in animal studies. Here, we attempt to review amphetamine toxicity and in particular MDMA toxicity in the pathogenesis of exemplary human pathologies, independently of confounding environmental factors such as poly-drug use and drug purity. PMID:21194370

  10. Reckless behaviour related to the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy): apropos of a fatal accident during car-surfing.

    PubMed

    Hooft, P J; van de Voorde, H P

    1994-01-01

    A 26-year-old man died from severe brain contusion after falling from a moving car during an attempt at car-surfing. Toxicological urine screening was positive for amphetamines, the blood analysis revealed a MDMA level of 0.63 mg/l and a blood alcohol concentration of 1.23 g/l. The case is another example of the bizarre and reckless behaviour which may result from the euphorogenic activity of ecstasy and the circumstances in which it is commonly used. PMID:7947342

  11. Ecstasy (MDMA) Alters Cardiac Gene Expression and DNA Methylation: Implications for Circadian Rhythm Dysfunction in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Christopher A; Ludlow, Ivan; Hight, Robert S; Jiao, Zhe; Fields, Earl; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Torres, Rebecca A; Lewis, William

    2015-11-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is an illicit drug that stimulates monoamine neurotransmitter release and inhibits reuptake. MDMA's acute cardiotoxicity includes tachycardia and arrhythmia which are associated with cardiomyopathy. MDMA acute cardiotoxicity has been explored, but neither long-term MDMA cardiac pathological changes nor epigenetic changes have been evaluated. Microarray analyses were employed to identify cardiac gene expression changes and epigenetic DNA methylation changes. To identify permanent MDMA-induced pathogenetic changes, mice received daily 10- or 35-day MDMA, or daily 10-day MDMA followed by 25-day saline washout (10 + 25 days). MDMA treatment caused differential gene expression (p < .05, fold change >1.5) in 752 genes following 10 days, 558 genes following 35 days, and 113 genes following 10-day MDMA + 25-day saline washout. Changes in MAPK and circadian rhythm gene expression were identified as early as 10 days. After 35 days, circadian rhythm genes (Per3, CLOCK, ARNTL, and NPAS2) persisted to be differentially expressed. MDMA caused DNA hypermethylation and hypomethylation that was independent of gene expression; hypermethylation of genes was found to be 71% at 10 days, 68% at 35 days, and 91% at 10 + 25 days washout. Differential gene expression paralleled DNA methylation in 22% of genes at 10-day treatment, 17% at 35 days, and 48% at 10 + 25 days washout. We show here that MDMA induced cardiac epigenetic changes in DNA methylation where hypermethylation predominated. Moreover, MDMA induced gene expression of key elements of circadian rhythm regulatory genes. This suggests a fundamental organism-level event to explain some of the etiologies of MDMA dysfunction in the heart. PMID:26251327

  12. Acute Effects of Ecstasy on Memory Are more Extensive than Chronic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shariati, Mohamad Bakhtiar Hesam; Sohrabi, Maryam; Shahidi, Siamak; Nikkhah, Ali; Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Medizadeh, Mehdi; Asl, Sara Soleimani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to 3, 4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) could lead to serotonergic system toxicity in the brain. This system is responsible for learning and memory functions. Studies show that MDMA causes memory impairment dose-dependently and acutely. The present study was designed to evaluate the chronic and acute effects of MDMD on spatial memory and acquisition of passive avoidance. Methods Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were given single or multiple injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg, IP). Using passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tasks, learning and spatial memory functions were assessed. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results Our results showed that there were significant differences in latency to enter the dark compartment (STL) between sham and MDMA- treated groups. Acute group significantly showed more STL in comparison with chronic group. Furthermore, MDMA groups spent more time in dark compartment (TDS) than the sham group. Administration of single dose of MDMA significantly caused an increase in TDS compared with the chronic group. In the MWM, MDMA treatment significantly increased the traveled distance and escaped latency compared to the sham group. Like to passive avoidance task, percentage of time spent in the target quadrant in MDMA- treated animals impaired in MWM compared with sham group. Discussion These data suggest that MDMA treatment impairs learning and memory functions that are more extensive in acute- treated rats. PMID:25337384

  13. Ecstasy Use Rises: What More Needs To Be Done by the Government To Combat the Problem? Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (July 30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    This document presents witness testimonies addressing the growing problem of Ecstasy use among American youth. All accounts point to the fact that youth are increasingly experimenting with the drug and experiencing seizures and other adverse affects at an alarming rate. Opening statements from Senators Lieberman, Bunning, and Akaka related the…

  14. Distribution of temperature changes and neurovascular coupling in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") exposure.

    PubMed

    Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Jiang, Lihong; Hyder, Fahmeed; Behar, Kevin L

    2015-10-01

    (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is an abused psychostimulant that produces strong monoaminergic stimulation and whole-body hyperthermia. MDMA-induced thermogenesis involves activation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), primarily a type specific to skeletal muscle (UCP-3) and absent from the brain, although other UCP types are expressed in the brain (e.g. thalamus) and might contribute to thermogenesis. Since neuroimaging of brain temperature could provide insights into MDMA action, we measured spatial distributions of systemically administered MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in rat cortex and subcortex using a novel magnetic resonance method, Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS), with an exogenous temperature-sensitive probe (thulium ion and macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (DOTMA(4-))). The MDMA-induced temperature rise was greater in the cortex than in the subcortex (1.6 ± 0.4 °C versus 1.3 ± 0.4 °C) and occurred more rapidly (2.0 ± 0.2 °C/h versus 1.5 ± 0.2 °C/h). MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in the cortex and body were correlated, although the body temperature exceeded the cortex temperature before and after MDMA. Temperature, neuronal activity, and blood flow (CBF) were measured simultaneously in the cortex and subcortex (i.e. thalamus) to investigate possible differences of MDMA-induced warming across brain regions. MDMA-induced warming correlated with increases in neuronal activity and blood flow in the cortex, suggesting that the normal neurovascular response to increased neural activity was maintained. In contrast to the cortex, a biphasic relationship was seen in the subcortex (i.e. thalamus), with a decline in CBF as temperature and neural activity rose, transitioning to a rise in CBF for temperature above 37 °C, suggesting that MDMA affected CBF and neurovascular coupling differently in subcortical regions

  15. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  16. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  17. Making Informed Decisions: How Attitudes and Perceptions Affect the Use of Crystal, Cocaine and Ecstasy among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Although the use of illicit substances, particularly those commonly categorized as “club drugs”, among men who have sex with men (MSM), is well established in the literature, little is known about the decision making process that is used in deciding whether or not to use a particular substance. In this study, we examine the positive and negative attitudes and perceptions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in regards to three specific drugs: crystal methamphetamine, cocaine and ecstasy. The findings reported here emerged from the baseline quantitative interviews and an accompanying qualitative phase of the Healthy Young Men’s study (HYM), a longitudinal study examining risk and protective factors for substance use and sexual risk among an ethnically diverse sample of YMSM. Findings are discussed in relation to framing how service providers and others can design new and innovative interventions to prevent young men from initiating substance use. PMID:18852843

  18. [What doctors hardly talk about: trance and ecstasy at the scene of childbirth. Dissident experiences and perceptions of health and welfare in contemporary times].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Rosamaria

    2013-08-01

    For the groups of women devotees of ways of giving birth other than cesarean section and the technocratic hospital model, the pain of labor seems to operate at another register, quite different from disorder and something to be avoided. Fully prepared to "experience the birth," they seem to eagerly embrace the contractions, the emotions and lack of control, giving expression to perceptions of health that appear to be permeated by sexuality and spirituality and by elements of ecstasy and trance. Therefore, the scope of this paper is to explore whether and in what ways these experiences and perceptions have dislodged the medical practice of "biopolitics," thereby examining their impressions and attitudes in light of the logic of the intense emotions and affection, namely of new modes of subjectivity and possibility of other moralities, other than hysteria and the fragility of women's bodies. PMID:23896919

  19. NASCAP user's manual, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. J., III

    1978-01-01

    NASCAP simulates the charging process for a complex object in either tenuous plasma (geosynchronous orbit) or ground test (electron gun source) environment. Program control words, the structure of user input files, and various user options available are described in this computer programmer's user manual.

  20. Atmoshperic Science User Forum

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-26

    article title:  Atmospheric Science User Forum     View Larger Image ... ASDC is pleased to announce the release of the Atmospheric Science User Forum. The purpose of this forum is to improve user service, quality, and efficiency of NASA atmospheric science data by providing a quick and easy way to facilitate scientific ...

  1. Alcohol and Illegal Drug Use Behaviors and Prescription Opioids Use: How do Nonmedical and Medical Users Compare, and Does Motive to Use Really Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Ghandour, Lilian A.; El Sayed, Donna S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The study compared illegal drug and alcohol use behaviors between medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids (PO) and nonmedical users with distinct motives to use. Method An ethically-approved cross-sectional study (2010) was conducted on a representative sample of private university students (n=570), using a self-filled anonymous questionnaire. Results About 25% reported using PO only medically and 15% nonmedically. The prevalence of alcohol and illegal drug use was consistently higher among nonmedical than medical PO users. Adjusting for age and gender, lifetime medical users of PO were more likely to use marijuana only (OR=1.8, 95%CI= 1.1, 2.8), while nonmedical users were at higher odds of using marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine/crack, and alcohol problematically. Compared to non-users, students who took PO nonmedically for non-therapeutic reasons were more likely to use various illegal drugs, but nonmedical users who took PO to relieve pain/help in sleep were only more likely to use marijuana (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.1, 5.4) and alcohol (e.g., alcohol abuse, OR=3.8, 95%CI= 1.4, 10.1). Conclusion Youth who use PO nonmedically to self-treat have a different alcohol and illegal drug-using profile than those who take it for non-therapeutic reasons. PMID:23391856

  2. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)

    MedlinePlus

    ... neurotransmitters (the chemical messengers of brain cells): serotonin , dopamine , and norepinephrine . Serotonin —plays a role in controlling ... a heightened sense of emotional closeness and empathy. Dopamine —helps to control movement, motivation, emotions, and sensations ...

  4. MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception (awareness of surrounding objects and conditions). It is ... pleasure, emotional warmth, and distorted sensory and time perception. MDMA was initially popular in the nightclub scene ...

  5. Ecstasy and suicide.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Tarini; Gilbert, John D; Carroll, Christine M; Byard, Roger W

    2012-07-01

    Deaths due to the ring-derivative amphetamines are not common and are usually accidental involving dehydration and hyperthermia. Suicides from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and related ring-derivative amphetamines overdose are rare. A 15-year-old female who had a history of depression and previous suicide attempts was found dead with a suicide note. Toxicology demonstrated lethal serum concentrations of MDMA (9.3 mg/L), with 34 mg/kg of MDMA in the liver, 2.4 mg/L in the urine, and 530 mg/kg in the stomach. The cause of death was MDMA toxicity, the manner suicide. While MDMA may be detected in victims in other drug-related or traumatic deaths, it is only rarely used in isolation in suicide, with a predominance in the 21- to 25-year-old range. Despite the rarity of such events, the possibility of a nonaccidental manner of death should be considered when high levels of MDMA and associated amphetamines are found at autopsy. PMID:22372646

  6. MADS Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  7. User Registration in EOSDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the lifetime of EOSDIS the topic of user registration has received varied attention. Initially, for example, users ordering data from the Earth Science Data Gateway were required to register for delivery of media orders, to check order status and save profile information for future interactions. As EOSDIS embraced evolution of its data systems, the mostly centralized search and order system was replaced with a more diverse set of interfaces allowing (mostly) anonymous online access to data, tools and services. The changes to EOSDIS were embraced by users but the anonymous nature of the interaction made it more difficult to characterize users, capture metrics and provide customized services that benefit users. Additionally, new tools and interfaces have been developed without a centralized registration system. Currently a patchwork of independent registration systems exists throughout EOSDIS for ordering data and interacting with online tools and services. Each requires a separate username and password that must be managed by users. A consolidation of registration systems presents an opportunity to improve not only the user experience through tool customization and simplification of password management, but the understanding of users. This work discusses the options for implementing a common user registration for the EOSDIS, anticipated benefits and pitfalls.

  8. Preliminary ISIS users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Interactive Software Invocation (ISIS), an interactive data management system, was developed to act as a buffer between the user and host computer system. The user is provided by ISIS with a powerful system for developing software or systems in the interactive environment. The user is protected from the idiosyncracies of the host computer system by providing such a complete range of capabilities that the user should have no need for direct access to the host computer. These capabilities are divided into four areas: desk top calculator, data editor, file manager, and tool invoker.

  9. SERV user`s guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, M.D.; Bakhsh, H.; Lee, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Sizing of Energy Recovery Ventilator (SERV) software described in this manual is intended to size an energy recovery ventilator in new and existing single-family residences, based on ASHRAE guidelines for the rate at which outdoor air is to be delivered to an indoor space to ensure acceptable air quality. The user is asked to select a city that has climatic conditions most representative of the house under consideration. Other inputs required from the user include: (1) house leakiness and terrain sheltering factors; (2) estimated annual house energy costs; (3) number, capacity and weekly operation hours for vented exhaust fans; and (4) HVAC system COP/efficiency values. Default values (which the user can override) are provided for most input parameters, and help screens are provided to assist the user in determining appropriate input values. The program estimates the average air infiltration rates for summer and winter, and combines these calculations with estimates of ventilation due to intermittent use of exhaust fans in determining the baseline ventilation rate. An energy recovery ventilator is sized to provide any supplemental ventilation necessary to satisfy air change requirements imposed by ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 (Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality). The program then calculates (1) the annual energy and associated cost for providing the supplemental ventilation, and (2) the relative impact of the added ventilation on indoor concentrations of four pollutants--carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and radon.

  10. Crack/cocaine users show more family problems than other substance users

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Helena Ferreira; Benzano, Daniela; Pechansky, Flavio; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate family problems among crack/cocaine users compared with alcohol and other substance users. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study selected 741 current adult substance users from outpatient and inpatient Brazilian specialized clinics. Subjects were evaluated with the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index, and 293 crack users were compared with 126 cocaine snorters and 322 alcohol and other drug users. RESULTS: Cocaine users showed more family problems when compared with other drug users, with no significant difference between routes of administration. These problems included arguing (crack 66.5%, powder cocaine 63.3%, other drugs 50.3%, p = 0.004), having trouble getting along with partners (61.5%×64.6%×48.7%, p = 0.013), and the need for additional childcare services in order to attend treatment (13.3%×10.3%×5.1%, p = 0.002). Additionally, the majority of crack/cocaine users had spent time with relatives in the last month (84.6%×86.5%×76.6%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian treatment programs should enhance family treatment strategies, and childcare services need to be included. PMID:25029583

  11. Comparative neuroscience of stimulant-induced memory dysfunction: role for neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Canales, Juan J

    2010-09-01

    The discovery that the addictive drugs impair neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has prompted the elaboration of new biological hypotheses to explain addiction and drug-induced cognitive dysfunction. Considerable evidence now implicates the process of adult neurogenesis in at least some critical components of hippocampal-dependent memory function. In experimental models, psychomotor stimulant drugs produce alterations in the rate of birth, survival, maturation and functional integration of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Thus some of the deleterious consequences of drug abuse on memory could result from the neurotoxic actions of drugs on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this review, we will first summarize preclinical and clinical literature on the disruptive effects of drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy in the areas of learning, memory and attention. We will also summarize data that document the widespread effects of stimulant drugs on progenitor activity and precursor incorporation in the adult dentate gyrus. Finally, we will examine evidence that supports the involvement of hippocampal neurogenesis in specific aspects of learning and memory function and we will consider critically the hypothesis that some of the negative consequences of drug abuse on cognition might be ascribed to deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Evidence suggests that stimulant abuse impacts negatively on at least four areas of memory/cognitive function that may be influenced by adult hippocampal neurogenesis: contextual memory, spatial memory, working memory and cognitive flexibility. PMID:20700045

  12. MIRADS-2 user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An on-line data storage and retrieval system which allows the user to extract and process information from stored data bases is described. The capabilities of the system are provided by a general purpose computer program containing several functional modules. The modules contained in MIRADS are briefly described along with user terminal operation procedures and MIRADS commands.

  13. LANES 1 Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.

    1985-01-01

    This document is intended for users of the Local Area Network Extensible Simulator, version I. This simulator models the performance of a Fiber Optic network under a variety of loading conditions and network characteristics. The options available to the user for defining the network conditions are described in this document. Computer hardware and software requirements are also defined.

  14. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ... formal activity and status reports to ASDC and EOSDIS management as appropriate.  UWG members are expected to attend the UWG ...

  15. KDYNA user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Levatin, J.A.L.; Attia, A.V.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1990-09-28

    This report is a complete user's manual for KDYNA, the Earth Sciences version of DYNA2D. Because most features of DYNA2D have been retained in KDYNA much of this manual is identical to the DYNA2D user's manual.

  16. NASTRAN: Users' experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

  17. User's Guide for SKETCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgley, David R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program SKETCH is presented on this disk. SKETCH solves a popular problem in computer graphics-the removal of hidden lines from images of solid objects. Examples and illustrations are included in the guide. Also included is the SKETCH program, so a user can incorporate the information into a particular software system.

  18. The PANTHER User Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Coram, Jamie L.; Morrow, James D.; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  19. MFIX documentation: User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, M.

    1994-11-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) is a general-purpose hydro-dynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. MFIX calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. This report, which is the MFIX User`s Manual, gives an overview of the numerical technique, and describes how to install the MFIX code and post-processing codes, set up data files and run MFIX, graphically analyze MFIX results, and retrieve data from the output files. Two tutorial problems that highlight various features of MFIX are also discussed.

  20. User`s guide to MIDAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C.; Chun, K.C.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  1. Quality user support: Supporting quality users

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

  2. Aztec user`s guide. Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Aztec is an iterative library that greatly simplifies the parallelization process when solving the linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. Aztec is intended as a software tool for users who want to avoid cumbersome parallel programming details but who have large sparse linear systems which require an efficiently utilized parallel processing system. A collection of data transformation tools are provided that allow for easy creation of distributed sparse unstructured matrices for parallel solution. Once the distributed matrix is created, computation can be performed on any of the parallel machines running Aztec: nCUBE 2, IBM SP2 and Intel Paragon, MPI platforms as well as standard serial and vector platforms. Aztec includes a number of Krylov iterative methods such as conjugate gradient (CG), generalized minimum residual (GMRES) and stabilized biconjugate gradient (BICGSTAB) to solve systems of equations. These Krylov methods are used in conjunction with various preconditioners such as polynomial or domain decomposition methods using LU or incomplete LU factorizations within subdomains. Although the matrix A can be general, the package has been designed for matrices arising from the approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In particular, the Aztec package is oriented toward systems arising from PDE applications.

  3. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  4. Examining the role of oxytocin in the interoceptive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') using a drug discrimination paradigm in the rat.

    PubMed

    Broadbear, Jillian H; Tunstall, Brendan; Beringer, Katherine

    2011-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') use results in distinctive mood changes of a prosocial nature, most likely through its enhancement of serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission. Activation of 5HT-1A postsynaptic receptors has been shown to stimulate the release of oxytocin in the central nervous system where it regulates aspects of mood and behavior. Using a drug discrimination paradigm, we examined whether modulation of oxytocin receptor activity would affect conditioned behavioral responses to MDMA. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were trained to reliably differentiate between MDMA and a related stimulant, amphetamine (AMP), and saline using a three-lever drug discrimination paradigm. The extent to which substitution with carbetocin (an oxytocin analog) or co-administration with atosiban (an oxytocin receptor antagonist) affected drug-appropriate responding was evaluated. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine was included as a negative control. The results supported the hypotheses that substitution with an oxytocin analog (carbetocin) would partially generalize to the MDMA training cue, whereas blocking oxytocin receptors with atosiban would result in a selective disruption of MDMA--but not AMP-appropriate responding. These findings were specific to the oxytocin receptor ligands as imipramine pre-treatment did not affect drug-appropriate responding. The results of this study implicate oxytocin receptor activation as a key MDMA-specific interoceptive cue in male and female rats and support the conclusion that this is one of the features of MDMA's subjective effects that distinguishes it from AMP. PMID:21070509

  5. Radiological Toolbox User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, KF

    2004-07-01

    A toolbox of radiological data has been assembled to provide users access to the physical, chemical, anatomical, physiological and mathematical data relevant to the radiation protection of workers and member of the public. The software runs on a PC and provides users, through a single graphical interface, quick access to contemporary data and the means to extract these data for further computations and analysis. The numerical data, for the most part, are stored within databases in SI units. However, the user can display and extract values using non-SI units. This is the first release of the toolbox which was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  6. Learning and memory after neonatal exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) in rats: interaction with exposure in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Martha A; Skelton, Matthew R; Schaefer, Tori L; Gudelsky, Gary A; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2005-09-01

    This study determined whether developmental and adult 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposures in rats have interactive effects on body temperature, learning, other behaviors, and monoamine concentrations in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. Learning was assessed in the Cincinnati water maze (CWM), Morris water maze (MWM), and novel object recognition (NOR). On acquisition trials in the MWM, significant differences from developmental MDMA exposure were found on latency, cumulative distance, path length, and angle of first bearing to the goal, but the early and adult MDMA exposure group performed no worse than the developmental-only MDMA group. In the reversal trials, however, an interaction was seen: latency to the goal, cumulative distance, and angle of first bearing were increased in animals treated both developmentally and in adulthood with MDMA compared with those treated only developmentally. Other tests (elevated zero maze, CWM, NOR, and open-field activity) did not show an interaction, nor did hippocampal concentrations of serotonin or dopamine. However, several behavioral tests showed neonatal MDMA effects, including increased errors in the CWM, reduced time spent with a new object in the NOR test, and reduced locomotor activity in the open-field. By contrast, adult MDMA decreased the number of entries into open quadrants of the elevated zero maze. Litter effects were controlled by treating litter as the experimental unit and using mixed models repeated measures analyses. Correlational analyses suggested that the MWM reversal interaction involves multiple monoamine changes. The results indicate that developmental MDMA exposure can interact with adult exposure to interfere with some aspects of learning. PMID:15945064

  7. Interactive Office user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  8. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  9. Bevalac user's handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment.

  10. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  11. ULDA user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Charleen; Driessen, Cornelius; Pasian, Fabio

    1989-01-01

    The Uniform Low Dispersion Archive (ULDA) is a software system which, in one sitting, allows one to obtain copies on one's personal computer of those International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) low dispersion spectra that are of interest to the user. Overviews and use instructions are given for two programs, one to search for and select spectra, and the other to convert those spectra into a form suitable for the user's image processing system.

  12. FAST User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  13. Hanford inventory program user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-09-12

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS.

  14. Metadata: A user`s view

    SciTech Connect

    Bretherton, F.P.; Singley, P.T.

    1994-12-31

    An analysis is presented of the uses of metadata from four aspects of database operations: (1) search, query, retrieval, (2) ingest, quality control, processing, (3) application to application transfer; (4) storage, archive. Typical degrees of database functionality ranging from simple file retrieval to interdisciplinary global query with metadatabase-user dialog and involving many distributed autonomous databases, are ranked in approximate order of increasing sophistication of the required knowledge representation. An architecture is outlined for implementing such functionality in many different disciplinary domains utilizing a variety of off the shelf database management subsystems and processor software, each specialized to a different abstract data model.

  15. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  16. User Localization During Human-Robot Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Martín, F.; Gorostiza, Javi F.; Malfaz, María; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented. PMID:23012577

  17. TWEAT `95: User`s documentation update

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, B.; Lambert, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report is designed to be a supplement to TWEAT`94 (PVTD-C94-05.01K Rev.1). It is intended to describe the primary features of the Ternary Waste Envelope Assessment Tool software package that have been added in FY`95 and how to use them. It contains only minimal duplication of information found in TWEAT`94 even though all features of TWEAT`94 will still be available. Emphasis on this Update is the binary plotting capability and the OWL Import modifications. Like it`s predecessors, this manual does not provide instructions for modifying the program code itself. The user of TWEAT`95 is expected to be familiar with the basic concepts and operation of the TWEAT software as discussed in TWEAT`94. Software and hardware requirements have not changed since TWEAT`94. TWEAT has now been tested using Macintosh System software versions 6.05 through 7.5.

  18. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  19. GRSAC Users Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  20. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  1. Reasoning deficits among illicit drug users are associated with aspects of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Fisk, John E; Morley, Andy M; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Montgomery, Catharine

    2014-11-01

    Deficits in deductive reasoning have been observed among ecstasy/polydrug users. The present study seeks to investigate dose-related effects of specific drugs and whether these vary with the cognitive demands of the task. One hundred and five participants (mean age 21.33, SD 3.14; 77 females, 28 males) attempted to generate solutions for eight one-model syllogisms and one syllogism for which there was no valid conclusion. All of the one-model syllogisms generated at least one valid conclusion and six generated two valid conclusions. In these six cases, one of the conclusions was classified as common and the other as non-common. The number of valid common inferences was negatively associated with the aspects of short-term cannabis use and with measures of IQ. The outcomes observed were more than simple post-intoxication effects since cannabis use in the 10 days immediately before testing was unrelated to reasoning performance. Following adjustment for multiple comparisons, the number of non-common valid inferences was not significantly associated with any of the drug-use measures. Recent cannabis use appears to impair the processes associated with generating valid common inferences while not affecting the production of non-common inferences. It is possible, therefore, that the two types of inference may recruit different executive resources, which may differ in their susceptibility to cannabis-related effects. PMID:24723099

  2. PALP -- a user manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Knapp, Johanna; Scheidegger, Emanuel; Skarke, Harald; Walliser, Nils-Ole

    2013-10-01

    This article provides a complete user's guide to version 2.1 of the toric geometry package PALP by Maximilian Kreuzer and others. In particular, previously undocumented applications such as the program Nef.X are discussed in detail. New features of PALP 2.1 include an extension of the program mori.x which can now compute Mori cones and intersection rings of arbitrary dimension and can also take specific triangulations of reflexive polytopes as input. Furthermore, the program nef.x is enhanced by an option that allows the user to enter reflexive Gorenstein cones as input. The present documentation is complemented by a Wiki which is available online.

  3. CARE 3 User's Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A user's workshop for CARE 3, a reliability assessment tool designed and developed especially for the evaluation of high reliability fault tolerant digital systems, was held at NASA Langley Research Center on October 6 to 7, 1987. The main purpose of the workshop was to assess the evolutionary status of CARE 3. The activities of the workshop are documented and papers are included by user's of CARE 3 and NASA. Features and limitations of CARE 3 and comparisons to other tools are presented. The conclusions to a workshop questionaire are also discussed.

  4. MERBoard User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Shab, Ted; Vera, Alonso; Gaswiller, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An important goal of MERBoard is to allow users to quickly and easily share information. The front-end interface is physically a large plasma computer display with a touch screen, allowing multiple people to interact shoulder-to-shoulder or in a small meeting area. The software system allows people to interactively create digital whiteboards, browse the web, give presentations and connect to personal computers (for example, to run applications not on the MERBoard computer itself). There are four major integrated applications: a browser; a remote connection to another computer (VNC); a digital whiteboard; and a digital space (MERSpace), which is a digital repository for each individual user.

  5. TIA Software User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Syed, Hazari I.

    1995-01-01

    This user's manual describes the installation and operation of TIA, the Thermal-Imaging acquisition and processing Application, developed by the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. TIA is a user friendly graphical interface application for the Macintosh 2 and higher series computers. The software has been developed to interface with the Perceptics/Westinghouse Pixelpipe(TM) and PixelStore(TM) NuBus cards and the GW Instruments MacADIOS(TM) input-output (I/O) card for the Macintosh for imaging thermal data. The software is also capable of performing generic image-processing functions.

  6. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  7. Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) after repeated doses taken 4 h apart Human pharmacology of MDMA after repeated doses taken 4 h apart.

    PubMed

    Farré, Magí; Tomillero, Angels; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Yubero, Samanta; Papaseit, Esther; Roset, Pere-Nolasc; Pujadas, Mitona; Torrens, Marta; Camí, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular psychostimulant, frequently associated with multiple administrations over a short period of time. Repeated administration of MDMA in experimental settings induces tolerance and metabolic inhibition. The aim is to determine the acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics resulting from two consecutive 100mg doses of MDMA separated by 4h. Ten male volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. The four conditions were placebo plus placebo, placebo plus MDMA, MDMA plus placebo, and MDMA plus MDMA. Outcome variables included pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic parameters. After a second dose of MDMA, most effects were similar to those after a single dose, despite a doubling of MDMA concentrations (except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time). After repeated MDMA administration, a 2-fold increase was observed in MDMA plasma concentrations. For a simple dose accumulation MDMA and MDA concentrations were higher (+23.1% Cmax and +17.1% AUC for MDMA and +14.2% Cmax and +10.3% AUC for MDA) and HMMA and HMA concentrations lower (-43.3% Cmax and -39.9% AUC for HMMA and -33.2% Cmax and -35.1% AUC for HMA) than expected, probably related to MDMA metabolic autoinhibition. Although MDMA concentrations doubled after the second dose, most pharmacological effects were similar or slightly higher in comparison to the single administration, except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time which were greater than predicted. The pharmacokinetic-effects relationship suggests that when MDMA is administered at a 4h interval there exists a phenomenon of acute tolerance to its effects. PMID:26073279

  8. A one-generation reproductive toxicity study of 3,4-methylenedioxy-n-methamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy), an amphetamine derivative, in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Yoon, Kyung Sil; Lim, Seong Kwang; Gwak, Hyo-Min; Kim, Ji Yun; Um, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jung Dae; Hyeon, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is an amphetamine derivative and is a popular type of drug that is abused due to its effects on the central nervous system (CNS), including alertness and euphoria. However, life-threatening (brain edema, heart failure, and coma) and fatal hyperthermia sometimes occur in some individuals taking MDMA. In a one-generation reproductive toxicity study, the potential toxicity of chronic exposure of MDMA was investigated on the reproductive capabilities of parental mice (F0), as well as the survival/development of their subsequent offspring (F1). Male and female C57BL/6 mice were administered orally MDMA at 0, 1.25, 5 or 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) throughout the study, beginning at the premating period, through mating, gestation, and lactation periods. MDMA did not produce any apparent clinical signs in F0 or F1 mice, and produced no significant changes in body weight, feed/water intake, or organ weights. In contrast, administration of MDMA produced external abnormalities in fetuses, stillbirth and labored delivery, and diminished viability and weaning indices in offspring, but these data were not significant. In addition, physical development of F1 mice was not markedly influenced by MDMA treatment. Nonetheless, serum biochemistry markers showed that levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were markedly elevated in a dose-dependent manner from 5 mg and higher MDMA/kg b.w., whereas levels of triglycerides (TG), potassium (K), and uric acid (UA) were reduced. Data suggest that MDMA may exert a weak reproductive and developmental toxicity, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of MDMA is estimated to be 1.25 mg/kg b.w./d. PMID:25343292

  9. Mechanisms and environmental factors that underlying the intensification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy)-induced serotonin syndrome in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rui; Shokry, Ibrahim M.; Callanan, John J.; Adams, H. Daniel; Ma, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Illicit use of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; Ecstasy) may cause a mild or severe form of the serotonin syndrome. The syndrome intensity is not just influenced by drug doses but also by environmental factors. Objectives Warm environmental temperatures and physical activity are features of raves. The purpose of this study was to assess how these two factors can potentially intensify the syndrome. Methods Rats were administered MDMA at doses of 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg, and examined in the absence or presence of warm temperature and physical activity. The syndrome intensity was estimated by visual scoring for behavioral syndrome and also instrumentally measuring changes in symptoms of the syndrome. Results Our results showed that MDMA at 3 mg/kg, but not 0.3 or 1 mg/kg, caused a mild serotonin syndrome in rats. Each environmental factor alone moderately intensified the syndrome. When the two factors were combined, the intensification became more severe than each factor alone highlighting a synergistic effect. This intensification was blocked by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907, competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CGS19755, autonomic ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, and the benzodiazepine-GABAA receptor agonist midazolam, but not by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 or nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine. Conclusions Our data suggest that, in the absence of environmental factors, the MDMA-induced syndrome is mainly mediated through the serotonergic transmission (5HT-dependent mechanism), and therefore, is relatively mild. Warm temperature and physical activity facilitate serotonergic and other neural systems such as glutamatergic and autonomic transmissions, resulting in intensification of the syndrome (non-5HT mechanisms). PMID:25300903

  10. The mechanisms involved in the long-lasting neuroprotective effect of fluoxetine against MDMA (‘ecstasy')-induced degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, V; Camarero, J; Esteban, B; Peter, M J; Green, A R; Colado, M I

    2001-01-01

    It has been reported that co-administration of fluoxetine with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') prevents MDMA-induced degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings in rat brain. The mechanisms involved have now been investigated. MDMA (15 mg kg−1, i.p.) administration produced a neurotoxic loss of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in cortex, hippocampus and striatum and a reduction in cortical [3H]-paroxetine binding 7 days later. Fluoxetine (10 mg kg−1, i.p., ×2, 60 min apart) administered concurrently with MDMA or given 2 and 4 days earlier provided complete protection, and significant protection when given 7 days earlier. Fluvoxamine (15 mg kg−1, i.p., ×2, 60 min apart) only produced neuroprotection when administered concurrently. Fluoxetine (10 mg kg−1, ×2) markedly increased the KD and reduced the Bmax of cortical [3H]-paroxetine binding 2 and 4 days later. The Bmax was still decreased 7 days later, but the KD was unchanged. [3H]-Paroxetine binding characteristics were unchanged 24 h after fluvoxamine (15 mg kg−1, ×2). A significant cerebral concentration of fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine was detected over the 7 days following fluoxetine administration. The fluvoxamine concentration had decreased markedly by 24 h. Pretreatment with fluoxetine (10 mg kg−1, ×2) failed to alter cerebral MDMA accumulation compared to saline pretreated controls. Neither fluoxetine or fluvoxamine altered MDMA-induced acute hyperthermia. These data demonstrate that fluoxetine produces long-lasting protection against MDMA-induced neurodegeneration, an effect apparently related to the presence of the drug and its active metabolite inhibiting the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine does not alter the metabolism of MDMA or its rate of cerebral accumulation. PMID:11522596

  11. A study of the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic action of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') on dopamine neurones in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Colado, M Isabel; Camarero, Jorge; Mechan, Annis O; Sanchez, Veronica; Esteban, Blanca; Elliott, J Martin; Green, A Richard

    2001-01-01

    Administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') to mice produces acute hyperthermia and long-term degeneration of striatal dopamine nerve terminals. Attenuation of the hyperthermia decreases the neurodegeneration. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in producing the neurotoxic loss of striatal dopamine. MDMA produced a dose-dependent loss in striatal dopamine concentration 7 days later with 3 doses of 25 mg kg−1 (3 h apart) producing a 70% loss. Pretreatment 30 min before each MDMA dose with either of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists AR-R15896AR (20, 5, 5 mg kg−1) or MK-801 (0.5 mg kg−1×3) failed to provide neuroprotection. Pretreatment with clomethiazole (50 mg kg−1×3) was similarly ineffective in protecting against MDMA-induced dopamine loss. The free radical trapping compound PBN (150 mg kg−1×3) was neuroprotective, but it proved impossible to separate neuroprotection from a hypothermic effect on body temperature. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor 7-NI (50 mg kg−1×3) produced neuroprotection, but also significant hypothermia. Two other NOS inhibitors, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (10 mg kg−1×3) and AR-R17477AR (5 mg kg−1×3), provided significant neuroprotection and had little effect on MDMA-induced hyperthermia. MDMA (20 mg kg−1) increased 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid formation from salicylic acid perfused through a microdialysis tube implanted in the striatum, indicating increased free radical formation. This increase was prevented by AR-R17477AR administration. Since AR-R17477AR was also found to have no radical trapping activity this result suggests that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity results from MDMA or dopamine metabolites producing radicals that combine with NO to form tissue-damaging peroxynitrites. PMID:11739248

  12. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  13. Perspectives on User Satisfaction Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena

    2001-01-01

    Discusses academic libraries, digital environments, increasing competition, the relationship between service quality and user satisfaction, and user surveys. Describes the SERVQUAL model that measures service quality and user satisfaction in academic libraries; considers gaps between user expectations and managers' perceptions of user…

  14. User Oriented Product Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Wingard, Joseph

    While the educational product development field has expanded tremendously over the last 15 years, there is a paucity of conveniently assembled and readily interpretable information that would enable users to make accurate and informed evaluations of different, but comparable, instructional products. Minimum types of validation data which should be…

  15. User Requirements, April 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Dept. of Physical Planning and Construction.

    In July 1964, the University of California Board of Regents authorized the project now known as URBS-The University Residential Building System Project. The initial stage in the development of the building system was the determination of the user requirements for the building type in question. This report is the result of investigation undertaken…

  16. EREP users handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Revised Skylab spacecraft, experiments, and mission planning information is presented for the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) users. The major hardware elements and the medical, scientific, engineering, technology and earth resources experiments are described. Ground truth measurements and EREP data handling procedures are discussed. The mission profile, flight planning, crew activities, and aircraft support are also outlined.

  17. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  18. Empowering the User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Terrence J.; Mechley, Victor P.

    With respect to the college's information systems, there were three major challenges facing Ohio's Cincinnati Technical College (CTC) in 1991. The expanding use of personal computers (PC's) and non-integrated systems often duplicated efforts and data on CTC's existing computer systems, users were demanding more access to data and more integration…

  19. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  20. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  1. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  2. Stigma towards Marijuana Users and Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124

  3. Little Cigars and Cigarillos: Users, Perceptions, and Reasons for Use

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Amy L.; Sterling, Kymberle L.; Weaver, Scott R.; Majeed, Ban A.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) adult user characteristics, perceived addictiveness, use and importance of flavors, intentions to continue use, and reasons for use to inform prevention efforts and regulatory policy. Methods Data come from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a national probability sample of 5717 US adults, conducted online, June–November, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 141 current LCC users. Results Current LCC smokers were more likely to be male, younger, black or Hispanic, lower SES, current cigarette smokers, and to report poorer health than non-smokers. Perceived addictiveness was low overall, with 73.6% considering themselves “not at all” addicted, although female LCC users and dual users of cigarettes were more likely to consider themselves addicted to LCCs. Use of flavored LCCs was widespread. Flavors were cited as important reasons for use, especially among younger users, as were favorable comparisons with affordability and burn time of cigarettes. Conclusions Most LCC users do not perceive themselves addicted to LCCs. Users report being influenced most by flavorings and affordability, indicating that appropriate regulations and education to improve health perceptions could help reduce use of these harmful products. PMID:27413772

  4. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  5. Enabling User to User Interactions in Web Lectures with History-Aware User Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Wiesen, Christoph; Vornberger, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a user interface for web lectures for engaging with other users while working with video based learning content. The application allows its users to ask questions about the content and to get answers from those users that currently online are more familiar with it. The filtering is based on the…

  6. Designing a Facebook interface for senior users.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gonçalo; Duarte, Carlos; Coelho, José; Matos, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of social networks by older adults has increased in recent years. However, many still cannot make use of social networks as these are simply not adapted to them. Through a series of direct observations, interviews, and focus groups, we identified recommendations for the design of social networks targeting seniors. Based on these, we developed a prototype for tablet devices, supporting sharing and viewing Facebook content. We then conducted a user study comparing our prototype with Facebook's native mobile application. We have found that Facebook's native application does not meet senior users concerns, like privacy and family focus, while our prototype, designed in accordance with the collected recommendations, supported relevant use cases in a usable and accessible manner. PMID:24672361

  7. Designing a Facebook Interface for Senior Users

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, José

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of social networks by older adults has increased in recent years. However, many still cannot make use of social networks as these are simply not adapted to them. Through a series of direct observations, interviews, and focus groups, we identified recommendations for the design of social networks targeting seniors. Based on these, we developed a prototype for tablet devices, supporting sharing and viewing Facebook content. We then conducted a user study comparing our prototype with Facebook's native mobile application. We have found that Facebook's native application does not meet senior users concerns, like privacy and family focus, while our prototype, designed in accordance with the collected recommendations, supported relevant use cases in a usable and accessible manner. PMID:24672361

  8. Outside users payload model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The outside users payload model which is a continuation of documents and replaces and supersedes the July 1984 edition is presented. The time period covered by this model is 1985 through 2000. The following sections are included: (1) definition of the scope of the model; (2) discussion of the methodology used; (3) overview of total demand; (4) summary of the estimated market segmentation by launch vehicle; (5) summary of the estimated market segmentation by user type; (6) details of the STS market forecast; (7) summary of transponder trends; (8) model overview by mission category; and (9) detailed mission models. All known non-NASA, non-DOD reimbursable payloads forecast to be flown by non-Soviet-block countries are included in this model with the exception of Spacelab payloads and small self contained payloads. Certain DOD-sponsored or cosponsored payloads are included if they are reimbursable launches.

  9. CSTEM User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  10. ASSIST user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all the states and transitions in a complex system model can be devastatingly tedious and error prone. The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) computer program allows the user to describe the semi-Markov model in a high-level language. Instead of listing the individual model states, the user specifies the rules governing the behavior of the system, and these are used to generate the model automatically. A few statements in the abstract language can describe a very large, complex model. Because no assumptions are made about the system being modeled, ASSIST can be used to generate models describing the behavior of any system. The ASSIST program and its input language are described and illustrated by examples.

  11. RELAP-7 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Zou, Ling; Andrs, David; Berry, Ray Alden; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2014-12-01

    The document contains a user's guide on how to run the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. RELAP-7 will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for the LWRS (Light Water Reactor Sustainability) program’s RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) effort and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. A number of example problems and their associated input files are presented in this document to guide users to run the RELAP-7 code starting with simple pipe problems to problems with increasing complexity.

  12. Trilinos users guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Willenbring, James M.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2003-08-01

    The Trilinos Project is an effort to facilitate the design, development, integration and ongoing support of mathematical software libraries. A new software capability is introduced into Trilinos as a package. A Trilinos package is an integral unit usually developed by a small team of experts in a particular algorithms area such as algebraic preconditioners, nonlinear solvers, etc. The Trilinos Users Guide is a resource for new and existing Trilinos users. Topics covered include how to configure and build Trilinos, what is required to integrate an existing package into Trilinos and examples of how those requirements can be met, as well as what tools and services are available to Trilinos packages. Also discussed are some common practices that are followed by many Trilinos package developers. Finally, a snapshot of current Trilinos packages and their interoperability status is provided, along with a list of supported computer platforms.

  13. Magnetic tape user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. B.; Lee, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    This User Guide provides a general introduction to the structure, use, and handling of magnetic tapes at Langley Research Center (LaRC). The topics covered are tape terminology, physical characteristics, error prevention and detection, and creating, using, and maintaining tapes. Supplementary documentation is referenced where it might be helpful. The documentation is included for the tape utility programs, BLOCK, UNBLOCK, and TAPEDMP, which are available at the Central Scientific Computing Complex at LaRC.

  14. IAC user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Gregg, J.

    1984-01-01

    The User Manual for the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) Level 1 system is presented. The IAC system currently supports the thermal, structures, controls and system dynamics technologies, and its development is influenced by the requirements for design/analysis of large space systems. The system has many features which make it applicable to general problems in engineering, and to management of data and software. Information includes basic IAC operation, executive commands, modules, solution paths, data organization and storage, IAC utilities, and module implementation.

  15. ACARA user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnaker, Dale K.

    1993-01-01

    ACARA (Availability, Cost, and Resource Allocation) is a computer program which analyzes system availability, lifecycle cost (LCC), and resupply scheduling using Monte Carlo analysis to simulate component failure and replacement. This manual was written to: (1) explain how to prepare and enter input data for use in ACARA; (2) explain the user interface, menus, input screens, and input tables; (3) explain the algorithms used in the program; and (4) explain each table and chart in the output.

  16. PISCES 2 users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment and set of extensions to Fortran 77 for parallel programming. It is intended to provide a basis for writing programs for scientific and engineering applications on parallel computers in a way that is relatively independent of the particular details of the underlying computer architecture. This user's manual provides a complete description of the PISCES 2 system as it is currently implemented on the 20 processor Flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley Research Center.

  17. Salinas - User's Notes

    SciTech Connect

    ALVIN,KENNETH F.; BHARDWAJ,MANOJ K.; DRIESSEN,BRIAN; REESE,GARTH M.; SEGALMAN,DANIEL J.

    1999-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Salinas. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  18. PARFUME User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Hamman

    2010-09-01

    PARFUME, a fuel performance analysis and modeling code, is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for evaluating gas reactor coated particle fuel assemblies for prismatic, pebble bed, and plate type fuel geometries. The code is an integrated mechanistic analysis tool that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of coated fuel particles (TRISO) and the probability for fuel failure given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise during the fuel fabrication process. Using a robust finite difference numerical scheme, PARFUME is capable of performing steady state and transient heat transfer and fission product diffusion analyses for the fuel. Written in FORTRAN 90, PARFUME is easy to read, maintain, and modify. Currently, PARFUME is supported only on MS Windows platforms. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME User Guide, a supplement to the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report which describes the theoretical aspects of the code. User information is provided including: 1) code development, 2) capabilities and limitations, 3) installation and execution, 4) user input and output, 5) sample problems, and 6) error messages. In the near future, the INL plans to release a fully benchmarked and validated beta version of PARFUME.

  19. AVRAM user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    McGrady, P.W.

    1988-02-01

    This document details the use of the reliability code for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project. This code was designed by Tom Anklam and John Harris. In late 1984 Patrick McGrady and Elena Koontz of C and TD/TA were assigned the task of improving the code and converting it for use on the DEC-10 system. In early 1986, Patric McGrady converted it to the CRAY. The AVRAM code is divided into distinct parts (often referred to as programs in this document). There is a COSMOS file that controls the execution of the FORTRAN code and controls the naming of output datasets and the deletion of temporary datasets created by the code. The FORTRAN code consists of a main program as a driver and of three main subroutines: EDIT, PARAM, and AVRAM. The EDIT program allows the user to create a new user defined system or add to an existing system or to change certain parameters. The PARAM program allows the user to alter system parameters and to select options such as economics run, criticality analysis or sensitivity studies. The AVRAM program does a reliability analysis of the system.

  20. Staradmin -- Starlink User Database Maintainer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Adrian

    The subject of this SSN is a utility called STARADMIN. This utility allows the system administrator to build and maintain a Starlink User Database (UDB). The principal source of information for each user is a text file, named after their username. The content of each file is a list consisting of one keyword followed by the relevant user data per line. These user database files reside in a single directory. The STARADMIN program is used to manipulate these user data files and automatically generate user summary lists.

  1. Profiles of Adolescent Substance Abstainers, Users, and Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    Psychoactive drugs are widely available in the United States. Many, such as coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol, are used commonly and acceptably by adults. For children and adolescents sorting through the complex messages about both licit and illicit drugs is difficult. Previous research examined differences between substance users and abusers with…

  2. Website Physical Activity Interventions: Preferences of Potential Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferney, Shannon L.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (particularly websites and e-mail) have the potential to deliver health behavior change programs to large numbers of adults at low cost. Controlled trials using these new media to promote physical activity have produced mixed results. User-centered development methods can assist in understanding the…

  3. Managing End User Computing for Users with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

    This handbook presents guidelines to assist federal Information Resources Managers in applying computer and related information technology to accommodate users with disabilities. It discusses managing the end user environment, assessing accommodation requirements, and providing end user tools and support. The major portion of the document consists…

  4. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined—and many more needed emergency ...

  5. Prism users guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Weirs, V. Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Prism is a ParaView plugin that simultaneously displays simulation data and material model data. This document describes its capabilities and how to use them. A demonstration of Prism is given in the first section. The second section contains more detailed notes on less obvious behavior. The third and fourth sections are specifically for Alegra and CTH users. They tell how to generate the simulation data and SESAME files and how to handle aspects of Prism use particular to each of these codes.

  6. User Program Performance Monitor

    1983-09-30

    PROGLOOK makes it possible to monitor the execution of virtually any OS/MVT or OS/VS2 Release 1.6 load module. The main reason for using PROGLOOK is to find out which portions of a code use most of the CPU time so that those parts of the program can be rewritten to reduce CPU time. For large production programs, users have typically found it possible to reduce CPU time by 10 to 30 percent without changing themore » program''s function.« less

  7. The SYSGEN user package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The user documentation of the SYSGEN model and its links with other simulations is described. The SYSGEN is a production costing and reliability model of electric utility systems. Hydroelectric, storage, and time dependent generating units are modeled in addition to conventional generating plants. Input variables, modeling options, output variables, and reports formats are explained. SYSGEN also can be run interactively by using a program called FEPS (Front End Program for SYSGEN). A format for SYSGEN input variables which is designed for use with FEPS is presented.

  8. User interface concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redhed, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Three possible goals for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) are: (1) a computational fluid dynamics (as opposed to aerodynamics) algorithm development tool; (2) a specialized research laboratory facility for nearly intractable aerodynamics problems that industry encounters; and (3) a facility for industry to use in its normal aerodynamics design work that requires high computing rates. The central system issue for industry use of such a computer is the quality of the user interface as implemented in some kind of a front end to the vector processor.

  9. SHAFT79 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

    1980-03-01

    SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

  10. User and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The program LP1 calculates outbound and return trajectories between low earth orbit (LEO) and libration point no. 1 (L1). Libration points (LP) are defined as locations in space that orbit the Earth such that they are always stationary with respect to the Earth-Moon line. L1 is located behind the Moon such that the pull of the Earth and Moon together just cancel the centrifugal acceleration associated with the libration point's orbit. The input required from the user to define the flight is described. The contents of the six reports produced as outputs are presented. Also included are the instructions needed to execute the program.

  11. XTV users guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dearing, J.F.; Johns, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    XTV is an X-Windows based Graphical User Interface for viewing results of Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) calculations. It provides static and animated color mapped visualizations of both thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction components in a TRAC model of a nuclear power plant, as well as both on-screen and hard copy two-dimensional plot capabilities. XTV is the successor to TRAP, the former TRAC postprocessor using the proprietary DISSPLA graphics library. This manual describes Version 2.0, which requires TRAC version 5.4.20 or later for full visualization capabilities.

  12. XMGR5 users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Fisher, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    ACE/gr is XY plotting tool for workstations or X-terminals using X. A few of its features are: User defined scaling, tick marks, labels, symbols, line styles, colors. Batch mode for unattended plotting. Read and write parameters used during a session. Polynomial regression, splines, running averages, DFT/FFT, cross/auto-correlation. Hardcopy support for PostScript, HP-GL, and FrameMaker.mif format. While ACE/gr has a convenient point-and-click interface, most parameter settings and operations are available through a command line interface (found in Files/Commands).

  13. Distributed user services for supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1989-01-01

    User-service operations at supercomputer facilities are examined. The question is whether a single, possibly distributed, user-services organization could be shared by NASA's supercomputer sites in support of a diverse, geographically dispersed, user community. A possible structure for such an organization is identified as well as some of the technologies needed in operating such an organization.

  14. User computer system pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Eimutis, E.C.

    1989-09-06

    The User Computer System (UCS) is a general purpose unclassified, nonproduction system for Mound users. The UCS pilot project was successfully completed, and the system currently has more than 250 users. Over 100 tables were installed on the UCS for use by subscribers, including tables containing data on employees, budgets, and purchasing. In addition, a UCS training course was developed and implemented.

  15. BLOCKAGE 2.5 user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D.V.; Brideau, J.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Bernahl, W.

    1996-12-01

    The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code described in this User`s Manual was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate licensee compliance with NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors.`` As such, BLOCKAGE 2.5 provides a generalized framework into which a user can input plant-specific and insulation-specific data for performing analyses in accordance with Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 2. This user`s manual describes the capabilities of BLOCKAGE 2.5 along with a description of the graphics user`s interface provided for data entry. Each input/output dialog is described in detail along with special considerations related to developing and executing BLOCKAGE. Also, several sample problems are provided such that user can easily modify them to suit a particular plant of interest. The models used in BLOCKAGE 2.5 and their validation are presented in the accompanying NUREG/CR-6371. The BLOCKAGE models were designed to be parametric in nature, allowing the user flexibility to examine the impact of several modeling assumptions and to conduct sensitivity analyses. As a result, BLOCKAGE 2.5 results are known to be very sensitive to the user provided input. It is therefore strongly recommended that users become thoroughly familiar with BLOCKAGE models and their limitations as described in NUREG/CR-6224.

  16. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  17. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  18. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  19. The LATDYN user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Mcgowan, P. E.; Abrahamson, A. L.; Powell, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The LATDYN User's Manual presents the capabilities and instructions for the LATDYN (Large Angle Transient DYNamics) computer program. The LATDYN program is a tool for analyzing the controlled or uncontrolled dynamic transient behavior of interconnected deformable multi-body systems which can undergo large angular motions of each body relative other bodies. The program accommodates large structural deformation as well as large rigid body rotations and is applicable, but not limited to, the following areas: (1) development of large flexible space structures; (2) slewing of large space structure components; (3) mechanisms with rigid or elastic components; and (4) robotic manipulations of beam members. Presently the program is limited to two dimensional problems, but in many cases, three dimensional problems can be exactly or approximately reduced to two dimensions. The program uses convected finite elements to affect the large angular motions involved in the analysis. General geometry is permitted. Detailed user input and output specifications are provided and discussed with example runstreams. To date, LATDYN has been configured for CDC/NOS and DEC VAX/VMS machines. All coding is in ANSII-77 FORTRAN. Detailed instructions regarding interfaces with particular computer operating systems and file structures are provided.

  20. User and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The program LIBRATE calculates velocities for trajectories from low earth orbit (LEO) to four of the five libration points (L2, L3, L4, and L5), and from low lunar orbit (LLO) to libration points L1 and L2. The flight to be analyzed departs from a circular orbit of any altitude and inclination about the Earth or Moon and finishes in a circular orbit about the Earth at the desired libration point within a specified flight time. This program produces a matrix of the delta V's needed to complete the desired flight. The user specifies the departure orbit, and the maximum flight time. A matrix is then developed with 10 inclinations, ranging from 0 to 90 degrees, forming the columns, and 19 possible flight times, ranging from the flight time (input) to 36 hours less than the input value, in decrements of 2 hours, forming the rows. This matrix is presented in three different reports including the total delta V's, and both of the delta V components discussed. The input required from the user to define the flight is discussed. The contents of the three reports that are produced as outputs are also described. The instructions are also included which are needed to execute the program.

  1. TRLAN User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Simon, H.

    1999-03-09

    TRLAN is a program designed to find a small number of extreme eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix. Denote the matrix as A, the eigenvalue as {lambda}, and the corresponding eigenvector as x, they are defined by the following equation, Ax = {lambda}x. There are a number of different implementations of the Lanczos algorithm available. Why another one? Our main motivation is to develop a specialized version that only target the case where one wants both eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a large real symmetric eigenvalue problems that can not use the shift-and-invert scheme. In this case the standard non-restarted Lanczos algorithm requires one to store a large number of Lanczos vectors which can cause storage problem and make each iteration of the method very expensive. The underlying algorithm of TRLAN is a dynamic thick-restart Lanczos algorithm. Like all restarted methods, the user can choose how many vectors can be generated at once. Typically, th e user chooses a moderate size so that all Lanczos vectors can be stored in core. This allows the restarted methods to execute efficiently. This implementation of the thick-restart Lanczos method also uses the latest restarting technique, it is very effective in reducing the time required to compute a desired solutions compared to similar restarted Lanczos schemes, e.g., ARPACK.

  2. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  3. ARDS User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Personal computers (PCs) are now used extensively for engineering analysis. their capability exceeds that of mainframe computers of only a few years ago. Programs originally written for mainframes have been ported to PCs to make their use easier. One of these programs is ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) which was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) by Nelson et al. to quickly and accurately analyze rotor steady state and transient response using the method of component mode synthesis. The original ARDS program was ported to the PC in 1995. Several extensions were made at ASU to increase the capability of mainframe ARDS. These extensions have also been incorporated into the PC version of ARDS. Each mainframe extension had its own user manual generally covering only that extension. Thus to exploit the full capability of ARDS required a large set of user manuals. Moreover, necessary changes and enhancements for PC ARDS were undocumented. The present document is intended to remedy those problems by combining all pertinent information needed for the use of PC ARDS into one volume.

  4. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  5. A user's Perspective on Software

    SciTech Connect

    Isadoro T. Carlino

    2006-10-24

    The user is often the most overlooked component of control system design. At Jefferson Lab the control system is almost entirely digital in nature, with little feedback except that which is deliberately designed into the control system. In the complex control room environment a good design can enhance the user's abilities to preform good science. A bad design can leave the user frustrated and contribute significantly to down time, when science is not being done. Key points of use and design from the user's perspective are discussed, along with some techniques which have been adopted at Jefferson Lab to improve the user experience and produce better, more usable software.

  6. Propensity to Work Among Chronically Unemployed Adult Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; DeFulio, Anthony; Long, Lauren; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Analyses were conducted to compare rates of employment before, during, and after employment at the therapeutic workplace, which is a novel employment-based treatment for drug misuse. Participants in two clinical trials attended the therapeutic workplace at higher rates than they worked before intake and six months after discharge. These data suggest that unemployed chronic drug misusers will attend work at higher rates at the therapeutic workplace than in the community when paid modest wages, and that the failure of chronic drug misusers to obtain employment in the community may not result from lack of interest in work. PMID:20964531

  7. Attitudes towards Foreign Accents among Adult Multilingual Language Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; McCloskey, James

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates inter-individual variation (linked to personality traits, multilingualism and sociobiographical variables) in the attitudes that 2035 multilinguals have of their own and others' foreign accent (FA). Data were collected through an online questionnaire. We found that multilinguals who were extraverted, emotionally…

  8. Preparing Technical Communication Students to Function as User Advocates in a Self-Service Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Yvonne; Flammia, Madelyn

    2012-01-01

    The self-service nature of today's society means that technical communicators are needed more than ever before since users may find themselves struggling to make sense of online documentation with minimal support from the institutions that provide it. Certain demographics within the user population (older adults, disabled persons, non-native…

  9. User Preferences for a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Beth C.; Heron, Kristin E.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Magee, Joshua C.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults are more likely to smoke and less likely to seek treatment than older smokers. They are also frequent users of communication technology. In the current study, we conducted focus groups to obtain feedback about preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation program from potential users. Participants ("N" = 21, "M" age = 25.6…

  10. Users, End-Users, and End-User Searchers of Online Information: A Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Miriam; Shoham, Snunith

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the changing relationship between information professionals (vendors, database producers, and searchers) and end users during the last three decades. Examines the concept of the end user, including professionals; libraries; end user searchers; DIALOG and BRS; ease of use issues; search intermediaries; menu-driven systems; and CD-ROM…

  11. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Rocha, Andressa Vital; Honório, Heitor Marques

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1) the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA) users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2) the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women) and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66%) and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%). No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas. PMID:25991994

  12. Rivet user manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  13. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  14. Instructions for minipill users.

    PubMed

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for women who use minipills. Minipills are low dose, progestin only oral contraceptives (OC), which are frequently prescribed for women who 1) experience estrogen related side effects if they take combined OCs; 2) are 35 years of age or older; 3) are 30 years of age or aver and smoke; 4) have a history of headaches, hypertension, or varicose veins; 5) desire immediate postpartum protection; or 6) are lactating. Minipills prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and implantation and by making the cervical mucus more impervious to sperm penetration. Minipills can be effective if they are used properly. Women who take minipills should be advised to carefully read and follow the instructions provided in the OC packet, initiate pill taking on the 1st day of menstrual bleeding, and take 1 pill every day without and breaks. A backup method should be used during the 1st month and subsequently, during each midcycle phase. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take a pill, take her next day's pill at regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation reoccurs. If a woman misses 2 pills, she should immediately, upon remembering, take 2 pills, take 2 pills the following day, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. Women should be advised that many minipill users experience irregular menstural cycles, including amenorrhea and spotting between periods. If menstruation is delayed for 45 days, a pregnancy test is advisable. Women should be advised to immediately seek medical attention if they experience severe chest pain, shortness breath, severe headaches, vision problems, or severe leg pain. Minipill users should let their clinicians know if they experience and changes in mood or sexual drive. These problems can frequently be avoided by switching to another brand of minipills. PMID:12279915

  15. Benefit beliefs about protein supplements: A comparative study of users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of protein supplements among leisure time exercisers is growing. The present study aims to identify factors that motivate protein supplement consumption by comparing users' and non-users' underlying benefit beliefs about protein supplement. The study is based on an online survey of 813 Swiss adults (376 users of protein supplements and 437 non-users). Participants answered questions related to their benefit beliefs regarding protein supplement, their protein supplements consumption frequency, their activity level (GPAQ), and their reasons for taking protein supplement. In women, the most commonly cited reasons were to increase muscles (57.3%) and to regulate their weight (48.6%); and in men to increase muscles (83.7%) and to promote regeneration (53.7%). Furthermore, a principal component analysis revealed four benefit belief factors: (a) restore nutrients/avoid weakness; (b) fitness promotion; (c) health/well-being; (d) muscle modulation/competitive performance. The analysis showed that both users and non-users predominantly perceive protein supplements consumption as a strategy to modulate muscle mass, while beliefs in a health and well-being promoting effect was more prevalent among users (M = 3.2, SD = 1.3) than non-users (M = 2.7, SD = 1.3) (p < 0.001). Moreover, health and wellbeing-related beliefs were associated with an increased likelihood of a higher protein supplements intake frequency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9), while physical activity level was not associated with protein supplements intake frequency. In addition, a negative correlation between physical activity level and beliefs in a fitness-promoting effect of protein supplements (r = -0.14, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that for a subgroup, protein supplements might license lower activity levels. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, consumers of varying activity levels consume protein supplements and believe in its' various positive features. Users should be

  16. The Effect of Temporal Gap Identification on Speech Perception by Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Elad; Kaiser, Adam R.; Meyer, Ted A.; Svirsky, Mario A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the ability of listeners using cochlear implants (CIs) and listeners with normal hearing (NH) to identify silent gaps of different duration and the relation of this ability to speech understanding in CI users. Method: Sixteen NH adults and 11 postlingually deafened adults with CIs identified synthetic vowel-like…

  17. TMAP7 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2008-12-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it was upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT under solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions. That difficulty has been overcome. TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the

  18. TAILSIM Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltner, Dale W.

    2000-01-01

    The TAILSIM program uses a 4th order Runge-Kutta method to integrate the standard aircraft equations-of-motion (EOM). The EOM determine three translational and three rotational accelerations about the aircraft's body axis reference system. The forces and moments that drive the EOM are determined from aerodynamic coefficients, dynamic derivatives, and control inputs. Values for these terms are determined from linear interpolation of tables that are a function of parameters such as angle-of-attack and surface deflections. Buildup equations combine these terms and dimensionalize them to generate the driving total forces and moments. Features that make TAILSIM applicable to studies of tailplane stall include modeling of the reversible control System, modeling of the pilot performing a load factor and/or airspeed command task, and modeling of vertical gusts. The reversible control system dynamics can be described as two hinged masses connected by a spring. resulting in a fifth order system. The pilot model is a standard form of lead-lag with a time delay applied to an integrated pitch rate and/or airspeed error feedback. The time delay is implemented by a Pade approximation, while the commanded pitch rate is determined by a commanded load factor. Vertical gust inputs include a single 1-cosine gust and a continuous NASA Dryden gust model. These dynamic models. coupled with the use of a nonlinear database, allow the tailplane stall characteristics, elevator response, and resulting aircraft response, to be modeled. A useful output capability of the TAILSIM program is the ability to display multiple post-run plot pages to allow a quick assessment of the time history response. There are 16 plot pages currently available to the user. Each plot page displays 9 parameters. Each parameter can also be displayed individually. on a one plot-per-page format. For a more refined display of the results the program can also create files of tabulated data. which can then be used by other

  19. TMAP7 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2006-09-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it has been upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT. That has been removed. Under pre-specified boundary enclosure conditions and solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions, such as Sieverts' law, TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface

  20. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  1. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casajus Ramo, A.; Sapunov, M.

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  2. PROFILE user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L.; Saunders, D.

    1986-01-01

    User information for program PROFILE, an aerodynamics design utility for refining, plotting, and tabulating airfoil profiles is provided. The theory and implementation details for two of the more complex options are also presented. These are the REFINE option, for smoothing curvature in selected regions while retaining or seeking some specified thickness ratio, and the OPTIMIZE option, which seeks a specified curvature distribution. REFINE uses linear techniques to manipulate ordinates via the central difference approximation to second derivatives, while OPTIMIZE works directly with curvature using nonlinear least squares techniques. Use of programs QPLOT and BPLOT is also described, since all of the plots provided by PROFILE (airfoil coordinates, curvature distributions) are achieved via the general purpose QPLOT utility. BPLOT illustrates (again, via QPLOT) the shape functions used by two of PROFILE's options. The programs were designed and implemented for the Applied Aerodynamics Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, and written in FORTRAN and run on a VAX-11/780 under VMS.

  3. AMBER User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.L.; Fawley, W.

    2000-11-08

    AMBER is a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code which models the evolution of a representative slice of a relativistic electron beam in a linear accelerator. The beam is modeled as a steady flow and therefore no electromagnetic waves: all the fields (external and self-fields) are electrostatic and magnetostatic fields (for a complete description, see chapter 5). The possible elements describing the accelerator lattice are solenoids, accelerating gaps, pipes and apertures. Several kinds of beam distribution can be loaded: KV, gaussian, semi-gaussian, etc. Alternatively, the user can reconstruct (or load) a distribution from the output of another codefile, for example, an interface generating the beam distribution from output produced from EGUN or LSP codes is available as an option. This documentation first describes in detail the input files needed to run AMBER and the procedure to start the executable. The possible data files and graphical output are explained in the two following chapters. The last chapter describes the physics model and numerical techniques used. An example of input files and the result obtained with these inputs are also given in the Appendix.

  4. PREDICT User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    YOUNG, LARRY W.; STURGIS, BEVERLY R.

    2002-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a Near Real Time Range Safety Analysis Tool named PREDICT that is based upon a probabilistic range safety analysis process. Probabilistic calculations of risk may be used in place of the total containment of potentially hazardous debris during a missile launch operation. Impact probabilities are computed based upon probabilistic density functions, Monte Carlo trajectories of dispersion events, and missile failure scenarios. Impact probabilities are then coupled with current demographics (land populations, commercial and military ship traffic, and aircraft traffic) to produce expected casualty predictions for a particular launch window. Historically, these calculations required days of computer time to finalize. Sandia has developed a process that utilizes the IBM SP machines at the Maui High Performance Computing Center and at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center to reduce the computation time from days to as little as an hour or two. This analysis tool then allows the Missile Flight Safety Officer to make launch decisions based on the latest information (winds, ship, and aircraft movements) utilizing an intelligent risk management approach. This report provides a user's manual for PREDICT version 3.3.

  5. LCS Users Manual

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Redd; D.W. Ignat

    1998-02-01

    The Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) is a computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field. Details of geometry, plasma profiles, and circuit equations are treated. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment. The LSC was originally written to be a module for lower hybrid current drive called by the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), which is a numerical model of an axisymmetric tokamak plasma and the associated control systems. The TSC simulates the time evolution of a free boundary plasma by solving the MHD equations on a rectangular computational grid. The MHD equations are coupled to the external circuits (representing poloidal field coils) through the boundary conditions. The code includes provisions for modeling the control system, external heating, and fusion heating. The LSC module can also be called by the TRANSP code. TRANSP represents the plasma with an axisymmetric, fixed-boundary model and focuses on calculation of plasma transport to determine transport coefficients from data on power inputs and parameters reached. This manual covers the basic material needed to use the LSC. If run in conjunction with TSC, the "TSC Users Manual" should be consulted. If run in conjunction with TRANSP, on-line documentation will be helpful. A theoretical background of the governing equations and numerical methods is given. Information on obtaining, compiling, and running the code is also provided.

  6. [Fatal outcome of Ecstasy overdose].

    PubMed

    Sticht, Guido; Pluisch, Frank; Bierhoff, Erhard; Käferstein, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of amphetamine derivatives has considerably increased in Germany since the early nineties. Again and again intoxications with lethal outcome have also been reported, especially after physical activities such as intensive dancing. The authors present a case of an obviously suicidal intoxication of a 21-year-old man who was found dead with marked cuts on the right forearm. Toxicological tests showed in particular 3, 4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the hair analysis revealed chronic consumption, but no cellular liver damage could be demonstrated. When examining the body fluids and organs, the highest concentrations by far were measured in the lungs (36.6 mg/kg), the liver (29.7 mg/kg) and the brain (29.1 mg/kg). The concentration in heart blood amounted to 10.8 mg/kg and was thus markedly higher than in peripheral blood (7.2 mg/kg). In the muscles concentrations ranged between 14.3 mg/kg and 20.2 mg/kg. On the basis of these concentrations and the available pharmacokinetic data the amount of MDMA probably consumed is assessed. It is demonstrated that for this assessment the concentrations in the muscular system are of special importance, as redistribution of highly lipophilic substances from the surrounding tissue is possible also in peripheral blood. PMID:12722556

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  8. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful. PMID:26890179

  9. Recent national trends in Salvia divinorum use and substance-use disorders among recent and former Salvia divinorum users compared with nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E; Yang, Chongming; Li, Jih-Heng; Blazer, Dan G

    2011-01-01

    Context Media and scientific reports have indicated an increase in recreational use of Salvia divinorum. Epidemiological data are lacking on the trends, prevalence, and correlates of S. divinorum use in large representative samples, as well as the extent of substance use and mental health problems among S. divinorum users. Objective To examine the national trend in prevalence of S. divinorum use and to identify sociodemographic, behavioral, mental health, and substance-use profiles of recent (past-year) and former users of S. divinorum. Design Analyses of public-use data files from the 2006–2008 United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 166,453). Setting Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 12 years or older were interviewed in their places of residence. Main measures Substance use, S. divinorum, self-reported substance use disorders, criminality, depression, and mental health treatment were assessed by standardized survey questions administered by the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method. Results Among survey respondents, lifetime prevalence of S. divinorum use had increased from 0.7% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008 (an 83% increase). S. divinorum use was associated with ages 18–25 years, male gender, white or multiple race, residence of large metropolitan areas, arrests for criminal activities, and depression. S. divinorum use was particularly common among recent drug users, including users of lysergic acid diethylamide (53.7%), ecstasy (30.1%), heroin (24.2%), phencyclidine (22.4%), and cocaine (17.5%). Adjusted multinomial logistic analyses indicated polydrug use as the strongest determinant for recent and former S. divinorum use. An estimated 43.0% of past-year S. divinorum users and 28.9% of former S. divinorum users had an illicit or nonmedical drug-use disorder compared with 2.5% of nonusers. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that recent and former S. divinorum users had greater odds of having past-year depression and a

  10. SVX4 User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hoff, J.; Kreiger, B.; Rapidis, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Utes, M.; Weber, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and describe the operation of the SVX4 chip. The SVX4 is a custom 128-channel analog to digital converter chip used by D0 and CDF in Run IIb to read out their respective silicon strip detectors. Each channel consists of an integrator (Front-End device, or FE) and a digitize/readout section (Back-End device, or BE). The input to each channel is sampled and temporarily stored in its own storage capacitor. Upon receiving a trigger signal, the relevant pipeline cell is reserved. Subsequent signals cause reserved cells to be digitized by a 128 parallel channel Wilkinson type 8-bit ADC, and then readout in byte-serial mode with optional zero suppression (sparsification). Salient features include (1) operation in either D0 mode or CDF mode (CDF mode features ''dead timeless operation'' or continued acquisition during digitization and readout) with an additional mixed mode of operation, (2) adjustable, loadable control parameters, including the integrator bandwidth and ADC polarity (only one input charge polarity will be used for Run IIb, but this feature remains for diagnostic purposes), (3) sparsified readout with nearest neighbor logic, (4) built-in charge injection with the ability for external voltage overriding for testing and calibration, and (5) a channel mask that is used for either charge injection or for masking of channels with excessive DC current input during chip operation. This document is meant to familiarize the user with the functionality of the SVX4 and goes on to include specifications, pin outs, timings and electrical information. Additional information on the SVX4 can be found in Ref [1].

  11. Scientific customer needs - NASA user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Some requirements for scientific users of the Space Station are considered. The use of testbeds to evaluate design concepts for information systems, and for interfacing between designers and builders of systems is examined. The need for an information system that provides an effective interaction between ground-based users and their space-based equipment is discussed.

  12. Microfiche 1969 -- A User Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Harold

    An informal survey of microfiche users was conducted by correspondence, resulting in over 300 letters. Industrial libraries led all others in their acceptance of fiche, with a ratio of 2:1 in favor. Half of the individual users despised fiche; 25% liked it with some reservations and 25% were strongly in favor. Half of those who liked fiche had…

  13. The TIMS Data User's Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B. (Editor); Abbott, Elsa (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A workshop was held to bring together all users of data from NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS). The purpose was to allow users to compare results, data processing algorithms, and problems encountered; to update the users on the latest instrument changes and idiosyncracies, including distribution of the TIMS investigation guide; to inform the users of the wide range of problems that are currently being tackled by other TIMS investigators; to explore ways to expand the user community; to discuss current areas where more basic research is required; and to discuss the future directions of NASA's thermal infrared remote sensing programs. Also discussed were: geology, land use, archeology; and data processing and noise research.

  14. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users. PMID:23909006

  15. NMG documentation, part 1: user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the first of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the system. It contains an introduction, with an outline of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  16. STS pilot user development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Full exploitation of the STS capabilities will be not only dependent on the extensive use of the STS for known space applications and research, but also on new, innovative ideas of use originating with both current and new users. In recognition of this, NASA has been engaged in a User Development Program for the STS. The program began with four small studies. Each study addressed a separate sector of potential new users to identify techniques and methodologies for user development. The collective results established that a user development function was not only feasible, but necessary for NASA to realize the full potential of the STS. This final report begins with a description of the overall pilot program plan, which involved five specific tasks defined in the contract Statement of Work. Each task is then discussed separately; but two subjects, the development of principal investigators and space processing users, are discussed separately for improved continuity of thought. These discussions are followed by a summary of the primary results and conclusions of the Pilot User Development Program. Specific recommendations of the study are given.

  17. CARE 3 user-friendly interface user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martensen, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    CARE 3 predicts the unreliability of highly reliable reconfigurable fault-tolerant systems that include redundant computers or computer systems. CARE3MENU is a user-friendly interface used to create an input for the CARE 3 program. The CARE3MENU interface has been designed to minimize user input errors. Although a CARE3MENU session may be successfully completed and all parameters may be within specified limits or ranges, the CARE 3 program is not guaranteed to produce meaningful results if the user incorrectly interprets the CARE 3 stochastic model. The CARE3MENU User Guide provides complete information on how to create a CARE 3 model with the interface. The CARE3MENU interface runs under the VAX/VMS operating system.

  18. Inspiring Equal Contribution and Opportunity in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment: Bringing Together Men Gamers and Women Non-Gamers in Second Life[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 3D multi-user virtual environment holds promise to support and enhance student online learning communities due to its ability to promote global synchronous interaction and collaboration, rich multisensory experience and expression, and elaborate design capabilities. Second Life[R], a multi-user virtual environment intended for adult users 18 and…

  19. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and sexual risk behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Luckman, Diana; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically, particularly in young adults. Previous work has noted associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and the use of illicit drugs, and associations between the use of illicit drugs and sexual risk behavior. Investigations examining associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and sexual risk behavior are sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=435) ages 18-25 completed an instrument assessing these behaviors. Overall, 35.6% of participants reported NMUPD. Individuals who reported NMUPD were more likely to also report the use of alcohol, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, and poppers. Participants who indicated they had used prescription medications without a doctor's consent had significantly higher rates of sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners and more instances of unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Results suggest that a significant minority of young adults are using prescription medication recreationally and are risking negative consequences, including the potential for addiction, dangerous interactions between prescription and recreational drugs, and greater risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. PMID:20863626

  1. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    Noting that the Federal adult education program, Adult Performance Level Program (APL), only affects 1% of its target population, the author examines the program and concludes with seven major observations: (1) Increased attention should be given to the admonition, "Users of the instrument should have a general knowledge of the principles of…

  2. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  3. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be…

  4. CPR: Adult

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  5. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  6. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2011-04-26

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  7. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  8. Smoke and Vapor: Exploring the Terminology Landscape among Electronic Cigarette Users

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jennifer P.; Coleman, Blair N.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Tessman, Greta K.; Tworek, Cindy; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We explored the terminology of adult e-cigarette users in describing e-cigarette products and their use. We report how users discuss and differentiate these products and the language and culture surrounding them. Methods Focus groups (N = 12) were held in 5 locations in the United States between March and May, 2014. Participants (N = 99) included young adults or adults who were either exclusive or nonexclusive e-cigarette users. We gathered data on how users identify various types of e-cigarettes and how users understand and describe specific terms. Results Participants were familiar with the attributes of e-cigarettes in general but confused by the variety of products and unable to describe differences between product types. They were familiar with the term “vaping” even when they used “smoking” more frequently, and were clear that e-cigarettes do not produce traditional cigarette smoke. They had varied opinions about what to call regular users of e-cigarettes. Conclusions Findings highlight that conceptual clarity, including using specific and familiar terminology and product descriptions for users and nonusers alike, is challenging and crucial. It is important that surveillance efforts, policy development, messaging, and future research reflect the language understood and used by consumers to enable widespread comprehension. PMID:27430008

  9. Report to users of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the following topics: (1) status of the ATLAS accelerator; (2) progress in R and D towards a proposal for a National ISOL Facility; (3) highlights of recent research at ATLAS; (4) the move of gammasphere from LBNL to ANL; (5) Accelerator Target Development laboratory; (6) Program Advisory Committee; (7) ATLAS User Group Executive Committee; and (8) ATLAS user handbook available in the World Wide Web. A brief summary is given for each topic.

  10. User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

    2013-09-01

    Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n = 16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean = 5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety. PMID:24058385

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Club Drug Use among Club-Going Young Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.

    2006-01-01

    “Club drugs” encompass a diverse range of substances. Although efforts have been made to determine the extent of club drug use among the general population, it is equally important to assess patterns of use among key target populations from which drug trends typically diffuse. This paper describes the results of a survey focused upon club drug use among club-going young adults in NYC. Time-space sampling generated a sample of 1,914 club-going young adults (ages 18–29) who provided data on their use of six key club drugs: ecstasy, ketamine, cocaine, methamphetamine, GHB, and LSD, as well as data on their gender, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Club-going young adults report drug use at high rates—70% report lifetime illicit drug use and 22% report recent club drug use. Rates of club drug use differ by gender, sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. Male gender is predictive of ketamine, GHB, and methamphetamine use, while female gender is predictive of cocaine use. Gay/bisexual orientation and White race are predictive of the use of several club drugs. Greater health promotion efforts are warranted among this population. Intervention programs and campaigns should tailor specific drug messages to differentially target various segments of dance club patrons. PMID:16937088

  12. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  13. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  15. Norplant: users' perspective in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehan, N; Inayatullah, A; Chaudhary, I

    1999-01-01

    Five hundred and eighteen Norplant acceptors (260 ever-users and 258 current users) were interviewed to assess their perceptions about Norplant. The mean age of the acceptors was 32.6+/-5.7 years (mean +/- SD). The mean parity was 4.3 and many of the users (40.2%) were illiterate. The most common reason to choose Norplant was its long duration of action (70.1%) followed by doctor's advice (10.4%) and use by other women (10.1%). Norplant was recommended by family planning workers in 35.3% cases, doctors in 29.2% cases and friends in 17.4% cases. Advertisement did not play any role in the women's choice of Norplant. In 77.3% cases, the decision to use Norplant was a joint decision. Only 15% of the users had fears/anxieties before insertion. Most of these women (44%) were concerned about possible ill-effects of Norplant on their health rather than efficacy. The social acceptance of Norplant was very high (76%) and more than half of the users (52.5%) were satisfied with the method. Among current users, 83.9% wanted to continue Norplant for 5 years. Only 39 users (15.1%) intended to discontinue. The main reason for discontinuation was menstrual disturbance (69.2%), followed by weight gain (12.7%). The study suggests that long duration of effective action and high social acceptance are likely to make Norplant a popular method among Pakistani women. PMID:10997892

  16. GXQ program user`s guide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, B.E.

    1995-05-10

    This report documents the program user`s guide of a general purpose atmospheric dispersion code named GXQ. GXQ is an IBM Compatible microcomputer based program for calculating atmospheric dispersion coefficients using Hanford site specific joint frequency data. It uses the Gaussian straight line model to calculate either an atmospheric dispersion coefficient (X/Q{prime}) or a maximum normalized air concentration (X/Q). Several options are available to the user which alter the standard Gaussian model to allow for plume depletion, building wake, plume meander, sector averaging, gravitational settling and plume rise. Additional options control handling of the joint frequency data and output. Combinations of the above allow calculation of X/Q{prime} in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.145.

  17. User`s guide for the Simplified Risk Model (SRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Peatross, R.G.; Eide, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    SRM can be used to quickly compare relative values relating to risk for many environmental management activities or alternatives at US DOE sites. Purpose of this guide is to provide the user with the essential values and decision points for each model variable. The numerical results are useful for ranking and screening purposes and should not be compared directly against absolute risk numerical results such as in CERCLA baseline risk assessments or Safety Analysis Reports. Implementing the SRM entails performing several preliminary steps, selecting values of the risk elements, calculating the risk equations, and checking the results. SRM considers two types of waste management states: inactive (rest) and active (transition). SRM considers risk from exposures to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, as well as industrial hazards; however this user`s guide does not cover risk from industrial hazards (Section 10 of Eide et al. (1996) must be consulted).

  18. Radcalc for Windows, User`s Manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-09-27

    Radcalc for Windows is a user-friendly menu-driven Windows-compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive waste using NRC-accepted methodology. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as radioactive, Type A or Type B, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled, and fissile excepted using DOT definitions and methodologies, as outlined in 49 CFR Subchapter C. The code has undergone extensive testing and validation. Volume I is a User`s Guide, and Volume II is the Technical Manual for Radcalc for Windows.

  19. Patterns of nutrient intake among dietary supplement users: attitudinal and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Levy, A S; Schucker, R E

    1987-06-01

    A national telephone interview survey of an age-stratified random sample of 2,991 adults, aged 16 and over, provided detailed information from 1,142 vitamin and mineral supplement users about their nutrient intake patterns from dietary supplements. Dietary supplement users were divided into four groups (Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy) on the basis of the type and amount of nutrient intake from supplements. The Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy nutrient intake groups accounted for 42%, 16%, 28%, and 14%, respectively, of the total users. Young supplement users (aged 16 to 25) tended to be in the Light user group. Older adults (aged 41 to 64) and residents of the western United States tended to be in the Heavy and Very Heavy user groups. Users in the Light and Moderate nutrient intake groups generally used only one broad-spectrum vitamin and mineral product. Users in the Heavy and Very Heavy groups were typically taking two or more specialized vitamin and mineral products at a time as part of a personalized supplement regimen. Heavy and Very Heavy nutrient intakes were associated with more frequent visits to health food stores, greater nutrition activity, and less physician involvement. Light and Moderate nutrient intakes were more likely to be associated with a defensive interest in avoiding nutritional deficiencies. The implications of generally different motivations for dietary supplement use are discussed in the context of public information strategies. PMID:3584757

  20. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 2: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume is a user`s manual for an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system. This guide is intended to provide enough information and instruction to allow individuals to the system for their own applications.

  1. Cross-modal perception of rhythm in music and dance by cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Vongpaisal, Tara; Monaghan, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    Two studies examined adult cochlear implant (CI) users' ability to match auditory rhythms occurring in music to visual rhythms occurring in dance (Cha Cha, Slow Swing, Tango and Jive). In Experiment 1, adults CI users (n = 10) and hearing controls matched a music excerpt to choreographed dance sequences presented as silent videos. In Experiment 2, participants matched a silent video of a dance sequence to music excerpts. CI users were successful in detecting timing congruencies across music and dance at well above-chance levels suggesting that they were able to process distinctive auditory and visual rhythm patterns that characterized each style. However, they were better able to detect cross-modal timing congruencies when the reference was an auditory rhythm than when the reference was a visual rhythm. Learning strategies that encourage cross-modal learning of musical rhythms may have applications in developing novel rehabilitative strategies to enhance music perception and appreciation outcomes of child implant users. PMID:24869445

  2. User Demographics for Embodiment Customization

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2002-11-15

    Attempts at interface agent personalization are usually aimed at helping the user perform a task or service. For example,scheduling of appointments, inspection of messages, discovering items of interest and different forms of negotiation. While this is very noble undertaking, it makes assumptions about the level of trust and credibility a user may place in such an agent in a realworld setting. If Microsoft's experiments in social user interfaces teach us anything, it is that a ''one size fits all'' solution does not truly engage the user and encourage reuse. This ''relationship management'' between the user and the character begins when the two first meet. As with human-human relationships, first impressions are essential. Instead of looking at the functional aspects of the relationship, we believe the characters embodiment is the best place to start the personalization process. We describe a study in which participants from several different age ranges,genders and ethnic groups were asked their preference of anthropomorphic character, based on a cooperative computer task. We found that participants generally selected characters from the same ethic group as themselves and that almost all participants selected a young character (instead of a middle aged or elderly character). No significant preference was found for character gender.

  3. Camera assisted multimodal user interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, Olli; Ronkainen, Sami; Alenius, Sakari; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    Since more processing power, new sensing and display technologies are already available in mobile devices, there has been increased interest in building systems to communicate via different modalities such as speech, gesture, expression, and touch. In context identification based user interfaces, these independent modalities are combined to create new ways how the users interact with hand-helds. While these are unlikely to completely replace traditional interfaces, they will considerably enrich and improve the user experience and task performance. We demonstrate a set of novel user interface concepts that rely on built-in multiple sensors of modern mobile devices for recognizing the context and sequences of actions. In particular, we use the camera to detect whether the user is watching the device, for instance, to make the decision to turn on the display backlight. In our approach the motion sensors are first employed for detecting the handling of the device. Then, based on ambient illumination information provided by a light sensor, the cameras are turned on. The frontal camera is used for face detection, while the back camera provides for supplemental contextual information. The subsequent applications triggered by the context can be, for example, image capturing, or bar code reading.

  4. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  5. Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Abrams, David B.; Vallone, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of young adults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for young adults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence. PMID:22666279

  6. The acute effect in rats of 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA, "eve") on body temperature and long term degeneration of 5-HT neurones in brain: a comparison with MDMA ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Colado, M I; Granados, R; O'Shea, E; Esteban, B; Green, A R

    1999-06-01

    Administration of a single dose of the recreationally used drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA or "eve") to Dark Agouti rats resulted in an acute dose-dependent hyperthermic response. The peak effect and duration of hyperthermia of a dose of MDEA of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally was similar to a dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") of 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Seven days later this dose of MDMA produced a marked (approximately 50%) loss of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA in cortex, hippocampus and striatum and a similar loss of [3H]-paroxetine binding in cortex: these losses reflecting the MDMA-induced neurotoxic degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings. In contrast, administration of MDEA (15, 25 or 35 mg/kg), even at the highest dose, produced only a 20% loss in cortex and hippocampus and no decrease in striatum. The neurotoxic effect of MDEA was only weakly dose-dependent. Neither MDEA (35 mg/kg) nor MDMA (15 mg/kg) altered striatal dopamine content 7 days later. MDEA appeared to have about half the potency of MDMA in inducing acute hyperthermia and 25% of the potency in inducing degeneration of cerebral 5-HT neurones. However since higher doses of MDEA (compared to MDMA) are probably necessary to induce mood changing effects, these data do not support any contention that this compound is a "safer" recreational drug than MDMA in terms of either acute toxicity or long term neurodegeneration. PMID:10401727

  7. Intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure alters physiological but not mood related parameters in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Adori, Csaba; Zelena, Dóra; Tímár, Júlia; Gyarmati, Zsuzsa; Domokos, Agnes; Sobor, Melinda; Fürst, Zsuzsanna; Makara, Gábor; Bagdy, György

    2010-01-20

    The recreational party drug "ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) is particularly popular among young adults who are in the childbearing age and thus there is a substantial risk of prenatal MDMA exposure. We applied an intermittent treatment protocol with an early first injection on pregnant Wistar rats (15 mg/kg MDMA s.c. on the E4, E11 and E18 days of gestation) to examine the potential physiological, endocrine and behavioral effects on adult male and female offspring. Prenatal MDMA-treatment provoked reduced body weight of offspring from the birth as far as the adulthood. Adult MDMA-offspring had a reduced blood-glucose concentration and hematocrit, altered relative spleen and thymus weight, had lower performance on wire suspension test and on the first trial of rotarod test. In contrast, no alteration in the locomotor activity was found. Anxiety and depression related behavioral parameters in elevated plus maze, sucrose preference or forced swimming tests were normal. MDMA-offspring had elevated concentration of the ACTH-precursor proopiomelanocortin and male MDMA-offspring exhibited elevated blood corticosterone concentration. No significant alteration was detected in the serotonergic marker tryptophan-hydroxylase and the catcholaminergic marker tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fiber densities in MDMA-offspring. The mothers exhibited reduced densities of serotonergic but not catecholaminergic fibers after the MDMA treatment. Our findings suggest that an intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure with an early first injection and a relatively low cumulative dose provokes mild but significant alterations in physical-physiological parameters and reduces motor skill learning in adulthood. In contrast, these adult offspring do not produce anxiety or depression like behavior. PMID:19782105

  8. Securing the User's Work Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.

  9. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  10. Intelligent user interface for intelligent multimedia repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Phill-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Sim, B. S.; Zhoo, Z. C.; Park, D.-I.

    1997-10-01

    Recently, much effort has been made for efficiency of user interface since the assumption of expertise or well-trained users is nor more valid these days. Today's users of computer systems are expanded to ordinary people. Furthermore, too much network accessible information resources in the form of various media increases rapidly everyday. The primary goal of the intelligent multimedia repository (IMR) is to assist users in accessing multimedia information efficiently. Primary users of the IMR are assumed to be novice users even though the system can be used for users at different levels of expertise. Users are not well-trained people in using computer system. Thus, the semantic gap between users and the system must be mainly reduced form the system site. The technology of intelligent user interface is adopted to minimize the semantic gap. For the intelligent user interface of been designed and developed. Machine learning technologies have been employed to provide user adaptation/intelligent capability to the system. The IUI of the IMR consist user interface manager (UIM), and user model (UM). The UIM performs the function of managing intelligent user interface. The UM stores the behavioral knowledge of the user. The UM stores the history of query and response interactions to absorb communication errors due to semantic gaps between the user and the IMR. The UM is implemented by decision tree based case- based reasoning and back propagation neural networks. Experimental result show the IUI can improve the performance of the IMR.

  11. User Studies: How To Identify Potential and Actual User Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mchombu, Kingo

    This report explores some key problems and issues in the teaching of a course--Identification of User Information Needs--to information professionals. Tentative practical recommendations are offered, largely as they pertain to developing countries, and the following considerations are discussed: (1) manpower needs for information professionals are…

  12. Google Scholar Users and User Behaviors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The University of Mississippi Library created a profile to provide linking from Google Scholar (GS) to library resources in 2005. Although Google Scholar does not provide usage statistics for institutions, use of Google Scholar is clearly evident in looking at library link resolver logs. The purpose of this project is to examine users of Google…

  13. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  14. Design Optimization Toolkit: Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    The Design Optimization Toolkit (DOTk) is a stand-alone C++ software package intended to solve complex design optimization problems. DOTk software package provides a range of solution methods that are suited for gradient/nongradient-based optimization, large scale constrained optimization, and topology optimization. DOTk was design to have a flexible user interface to allow easy access to DOTk solution methods from external engineering software packages. This inherent flexibility makes DOTk barely intrusive to other engineering software packages. As part of this inherent flexibility, DOTk software package provides an easy-to-use MATLAB interface that enables users to call DOTk solution methods directly from the MATLAB command window.

  15. Solar information user priority study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report identifies for each solar technology those members or potential members of the solar community who, either currently or in the future, will require solar information. In addition, it rates each user's relative need for information within the next three years. This information will be used as input for subsequent studies that will identify specific user needs information. These studies, in turn, will be the basis for information product and data base development for the Solar Energy Information Data Bank (SEIDB). In addition, they will be input for the Technical Information Dissemination (TID) Program.

  16. GADRAS-DRF user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Lisa Anne; Mitchell, Dean James; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Harding, Lee T.; Horne, Steve; Bradley, Jon David; Eldridge, Bryce Duncan; Amai, Wendy A.

    2013-09-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software-Detector Response Function (GADRAS-DRF) application computes the response of gamma-ray detectors to incoming radiation. This manual provides step-by-step procedures to acquaint new users with the use of the application. The capabilities include characterization of detector response parameters, plotting and viewing measured and computed spectra, and analyzing spectra to identify isotopes or to estimate flux profiles. GADRAS-DRF can compute and provide detector responses quickly and accurately, giving researchers and other users the ability to obtain usable results in a timely manner (a matter of seconds or minutes).

  17. Patterns, Trends, and Meanings of Drug Use by Dance-Drug Users in Edinburgh, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sarah C. E.; Hayward, Emma

    2004-01-01

    A survey of drug use in the past year was completed by 124 clubbers (50% male, 50% female, age range 14-44, mean 24 years). Participants were self selecting and recruited in clubs and pre-club bars. Prevalence rates for alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy were over 80%; 63% reported cocaine and 53% amphetamine use, 15%-43% used ketamine, psilocybin,…

  18. 14 CFR 1215.113 - User charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User charges. 1215.113 Section 1215.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Use and Reimbursement Policy for Non-U.S. Government Users § 1215.113 User charges. (a) The user shall reimburse NASA the sum of...

  19. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Young Injection Drug Users*

    PubMed Central

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary E.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Ouellet, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of individuals in treatment for substance use have found high rates of psychiatric disorders, however little is known about the mental health of drug users not in treatment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime and recent substance use and psychiatric disorders among young injection drug users (IDU) outside of a treatment setting. Methods Participants were recruited through outreach and respondent-driven sampling. Trained interviewers administered the Psychiatric Research Instrument for Substance and Mental Disorders. Interviews were conducted at two field stations operated by Community Outreach Intervention Projects in Chicago. Participants were 570 young adults (18-25 years) who injected drugs in the previous 30 days. Heroin was the primary drug used in this sample. Past 12-month and lifetime substance use disorders and primary and substance-induced mental disorders were based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Results Nearly all participants met the criteria for heroin dependence. Multiple substance use disorders were common; cannabis was the most common substance involved after heroin, followed by alcohol and cocaine. Major depression, alcohol dependence, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder were highly prevalent. Other psychiatric disorders were observed at levels consistent with other young adult samples. Conclusions Young IDU experience major depression, alcohol dependence, anti-social personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder at high rates, and multiple substance use disorders are common. Anxiety disorders in this population appear to be similar in prevalence to young adults in general. PMID:22226707

  20. Nineteenth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the the Nineteenth NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held April 22 to 26, 1991 are presented. Topics covered include the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre- and postprocessing or auxiliary programs, and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  1. Eighteenth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is the proceedings of the Eighteenth NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Portland, Oregon, April 23-27, 1990. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre- and post-processing or auxiliary programs, and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  2. Sixteenth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the Sixteenth NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Arlington, Virginia from 25 to 29 April, 1988. Technical papers contributed by participants review general application of finite element methodology and the specific application of the NASA Structural Analysis System (NASTRAN) to a variety of static and dynamic structural problems.

  3. The user friendly card catalog.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Ekstrand, N L

    1984-01-01

    The changing roles and relationships of professional staff in Reference and Cataloging departments in the catalog creation process are discussed. Specific examples are given for handling classification, subject headings and cross references. The article stresses the importance of interface between the two departments in making the catalog more accessible to the users of the library. PMID:10268036

  4. Become a Google Power User

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Become a Goggle Power User was developed for incoming students in Sackville High School, Nova Scotia, Canada, in 2003, and has been adapted for use in other local schools and in several universities, it is an instructional program designed for first-year high school students that was integrated into the English Language Arts curriculum, the…

  5. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  6. The real world: The user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchell, J.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite communication is by far the most advanced of all commercial applications of space technology. The past, present, and some future possibilities for the field of public communications are considered. Some serious concerns that are becoming apparent to the user of this technology are examined. Among the specific topics mentioned are digital television, electronic mail, cable television, and systems security.

  7. "Friendly" Catalog Forgives User Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the features and operations of a user-searchable online catalog called PaperChase which was developed and implemented for the retrieval of medical literature by physicians at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. Interaction with the system and use of the catalog during its first year of operation are discussed. (JL)

  8. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  9. Twelfth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    NASTRAN is a large, comprehensive, nonproprietary, general purpose finite element computer code for structural analysis. The Twelfth Users' Colloquim provides some comprehensive papers on the application of finite element methods in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre and post processing or auxiliary programs, and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  10. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  11. Typical errors of ESP users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  12. Charging Users for Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)

  13. User Profiles in Organizational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Claudio; Pinto, Joaquim Sousa; Martins, Joaquim Arnaldo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to describe a project to provide an online web portal that can be used as a front-end for all university users--students, teachers, staff--and services, library, administration, e-learning, and e-mail. Design/methodology/approach: The profile model proposed is mainly inheritable, defined by profile components with…

  14. Subtypes of Nonmedical Opioid Users: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E.; Yang, Chongming; Blazer, Dan G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To identify subtypes of nonmedical opioid users, gender variations in psychiatric disorders, and quality of life in a representative sample of adults. Methods Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=43,093). Latent class analysis (LCA) and multinomial logistic regression procedures examined subtypes of nonmedical opioid users. Results Approximately 5% (n=1,815) of adults used nonmedical opioids. LCA identified four subtypes: opioid–marijuana users (33%), opioid–other prescription drug users (9%), opioid–marijuana–hallucinogen users (28%), and opioid–polydrug users (30%). Subtypes were distinguished by race/ethnicity, gender, familial substance abuse, personal history of substance abuse treatment, and patterns of psychiatric disorders. Whites and men had increased odds of being in the opioid–polydrug and opioid–marijuana–hallucinogen subtypes. The opioid–other prescription drug use subtype had disproportionately affected women who were characterized by high rates of mood/anxiety disorders and low quality of life. Across all subtypes, women and men had similarly problematic substance use disorders; however, women had more major depression and disability in the mental health domain. Conclusions The generally high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among nonmedical opioid users, particularly women, underscores the need for comprehensive assessment and coordinated delivery of services to match needs with treatment, as well as continued monitoring of trends in opioid use and related problems. PMID:20580168

  15. Involving service users in the classroom with social work students.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Rob; Millar, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss issues related to the requirement by the Scottish Social Services Council (SSSC) and the Scottish Government that service users and carers are partners and stakeholders in social work education. This requirement is one of several that are used by the SSSC in the approval of Scottish Universities to deliver social work courses. This paper explains the developmental process of involving service users and carers as partners in the planning of social work courses at the Robert Gordon University (RGU), Aberdeen. This is illustrated with reference to a group made up of young people ('The Voice of Reason') and also in relation to a group made up of adult service users (the Service User Panel). This short paper suggests there are benefits for student learning if we invite service users and carers to become partners in the teaching/learning process. There are also benefits for teaching staff and indeed for the University itself as a public institution on the basis that an ongoing relationship allows for good partnership working. This enables the University and its staff to be viewed positively and from that vantage point further developments are more likely. At the same time this paper has discussed the need to avoid tokenistic moves through ensuring a sound organisational commitment is made to providing effective support and putting in place enabling structures and processes. Lastly it discusses the broader implications for partnership working in relation to the education and training of students for professional practice. The suggestion is made that such a teaching and learning approach equips the students with good partnership skills and attitudes that will help to inform their practice post-qualification. Interest is expressed in the experiences of other professions who have adopted similar approaches to incorporating service users into students' learning experiences. PMID:22035881

  16. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg’s classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. Methods We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946–1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users’ perspectives. Results Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Conclusion Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define “normal” or “acceptable” cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. PMID:25911027

  17. ETPRE User`s Manual Version 3.00

    SciTech Connect

    Roginski, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    ETPRE is a preprocessor for the Event Progression Analysis Code EVNTRE. It reads an input file of event definitions and writes the lengthy EVNTRE code input files. ETPRE`s advantage is that it eliminates the error-prone task of manually creating or revising these files since their formats are quite elaborate. The user-friendly format of ETPRE differs from the EVNTRE code format in that questions, branch references, and other event tree components are defined symbolically instead of numerically. When ETPRE is executed, these symbols are converted to their numeric equivalents and written to the output files using formats defined in the EVNTRE Reference Manual. Revisions to event tree models are simplified by allowing the user to edit the symbolic format and rerun the preprocessor, since questions, branch references, and other symbols are automatically resequenced to their new values with each execution. ETPRE and EVNTRE have both been incorporated into the SETAC event tree analysis package.

  18. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  19. Characteristics of Yoga Users: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Legedza, Anna T.; Saper, Robert B.; Bertisch, Suzanne M.; Eisenberg, David M.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2008-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the characteristics of yoga users in the U.S. Objective To characterize yoga users, medical reasons for use, perceptions of helpfulness, and disclosure of use to medical professionals. Methods Utilizing cross-sectional survey data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Alternative Medicine Supplement (n = 31044), we examined correlates of yoga use for health. The estimated prevalence from 2002 NHIS of yoga for health was 5.1% corresponding to over 10 million adults. Results In 2002, yoga users were predominately Caucasian (85%) and female (76%) with a mean age of 39.5 years. Compared to non-yoga users, yoga users were more likely female (OR 3.76, 95% CI 3.11–4.33); less likely black than white (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53–0.80); tended to be younger; and more likely college educated (OR 2.70, 95% CI 2.37–3.08). Musculoskeletal conditions (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.42–1.83), mental health conditions (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22–1.67), severe sprains in the last 12 months (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22–1.81), and asthma (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05–1.54) were independently associated with higher yoga use, while hypertension (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95) and chronic obstructive lung disease (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.48–1.00) were associated with lower use. Yoga was most commonly used to treat musculoskeletal or mental health conditions, and most users reported yoga to be helpful for these conditions. A majority of yoga users (61%) felt yoga was important in maintaining health, though only 25% disclosed yoga practice to their medical professional. Conclusions We found that yoga users are more likely to be white, female, young and college educated. Yoga users report benefit for musculoskeletal conditions and mental health, indicating that further research on the efficacy of yoga for the treatment and/or prevention of these conditions is warranted. PMID:18651193

  20. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  1. SOWFA + Super Controller User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Johnson, K.; Michalakes, J.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-08-01

    SOWFA + Super Controller is a modification of the NREL's SOWFA tool which allows for a user to apply multiturbine or centralized wind plant control algorithms within the high-fidelity SOWFA simulation environment. The tool is currently a branch of the main SOWFA program, but will one day will be merged into a single version. This manual introduces the tool and provides examples such that a user can implement their own super controller and set up and run simulations. The manual only discusses enough about SOWFA itself to allow for the customization of controllers and running of simulations, and details of SOWFA itself are reported elsewhere Churchfield and Lee (2013); Churchfield et al. (2012). SOWFA + Super Controller, and this manual, are in alpha mode.

  2. AXAF Science Center: User Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, B. J.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of the AXAF Science Center (ASC) is to provide the support required by the science community to realize fully the potential of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). We maintain expertise on all aspects of the AXAF mission from submitting a proposal to the receipt and analysis of data by a guest observer. We interface with the observers and the operations center (co-located in Cambridge) in the planning and scheduling of observations and with the instrument teams on the calibration and status of the detectors. We will develop, export and support portable analysis software to allow users to analyse their own data. The User Support Group is the main interface between the ASC and the astronomical community. The facilities provided by the ASC to help potential guest observers will be reviewed in this presentation, including how to: learn about the satellite and instruments, plan observations, access our help-desk.

  3. User friendly far front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Zagel, J.R.; Chapman, L.J.

    1987-10-01

    For years controls group hardware designers have designed microprocessor systems to accomplish specific functions such as refrigeration control. These systems often require years of software effort. The backlog of requests for even simple additions or modifications to software in embedded controllers has become overwhelming. We discuss the requirements of ''far forward'' controllers. Can we build a system that is modular enough to be configurable for specific applications without sacrificing performance. The hardware and software framework must be complete enough to isolate the end user from the peculiarities of bit and byte manipulation, but still allow system specifics to be implanted by the user. It is time to provide embedded controller systems as easy to use as workstation consoles.

  4. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Benveniste, Jerome; Team Gut

    2016-04-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products.
GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information
and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced
computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations,
and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT
Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development
of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for
oceanography. The GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). During this fall a new GUT version 3 has been released. GUTv3 was further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming
on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy,
Oceanography and Solid earth studies.
Accordingly, the GUT version 3 has:
 - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox,
 - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients,
anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies.
 - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  5. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Knudsen, Per

    2016-07-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products. GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for oceanography. The GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). During this fall a new GUT version 3 has been released. GUTv3 was further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid earth studies. Accordingly, the GUT version 3 has: - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox, - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients, anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies. - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  6. Prototyping user displays using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles P.; Miller, Ross; Krolak, Patrick; Vesty, Matt

    1990-01-01

    CLIPS is being used as an integral module of a rapid prototyping system. The prototyping system consists of a display manager for object browsing, a graph program for displaying line and bar charts, and a communications server for routing messages between modules. A CLIPS simulation of a physical model provides dynamic control of the user's display. Currently, a project is well underway to prototype the Advanced Automation System (AAS) for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  7. ALMA from the Users' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2010-05-01

    After decades of dreaming and preparation, the call for early science with ALMA is just around the corner. The goal of this talk is to illustrate the process of preparing and carrying out a research program with ALMA. This presentation will step through the user interface for proposal preparation, proposal review, project tracking, data acquisition, and post-processing. Examples of the software tools, including the simulator and spectral line catalog, will be included.

  8. Fifteenth LAMPF users group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, D.R.F.

    1982-03-01

    The Fifteenth LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 2-3, 1981 at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physical Facility. The program of papers scheduled to be presented was amended to include a Report from Washington by Clarence R. Richardson, US Department of Energy. The general meeting ended with a round-table working group discussion concerning the Planning for a Kaon Factory. Individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base.

  9. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  10. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Benveniste, Jerome; Team GUT

    2015-04-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products.
GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information
and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced
computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations,
and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT
Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development
of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for
oceanography. The current version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). The GUT will be further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming
on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy,
Oceanography and Solid earth studies.
 The objective of the new GUT project is to further develop GUT by implementing functionalities that have been
requested by the general science community. Accordingly, the GUT version 3 will have:
 - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox,
 - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients,
anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies.
 - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  11. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  12. The Nimbus 4 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatini, R. R. (Editor)

    1970-01-01

    Background information on the Nimbus 4 spacecraft and experiments is provided for potential data users as a basis for selecting, obtaining, and utilizing Nimbus 4 data in research studies. The basic spacecraft system operation and the objectives of the Nimbus 4 flight are outlined, with a detailed discussion of each of the experiments included. The format, archiving, and access to the data are also described. Finally, the contents and format of the Nimbus 4 data catalogs are described.

  13. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, P.; Lucas, B.; Benveniste, J.

    2014-12-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products.GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides informationand guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advancedcomputer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations,and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUTInstall Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the developmentof the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data foroceanography.The current version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth).The GUT will be further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aimingon an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy,Oceanography and Solid earth studies.The objective of the new GUT project is to further develop GUT by implementing functionalities that have beenrequested by the general science community. Accordingly, the GUT version 3 will have:- An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox,- Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients,anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies.- An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  14. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  15. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  16. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  17. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  18. [Decision making in cannabis users].

    PubMed

    Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319

  19. Criminality among Female Drug Users Following an HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theall, Katherine P.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.; Stewart, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of this article are to determine the prevalence of criminality among a sample of female African American drug users and to examine change in criminality over time, including the correlates associated with this change. Data were collected from 336 adult women who participated in an HIV risk-reduction intervention focused on the…

  20. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  1. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  2. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  3. Do You Know Your Music Users' Needs? A Library User Survey that Helps Enhance a User-Centered Music Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Katie; Chan, Kylie

    2010-01-01

    While many surveys aim primarily at measuring general user satisfaction, this survey is dedicated to understanding music users' needs, usage patterns, and preferences towards various collections. Findings showed dissimilar use behavior and perceived importance of materials between academic- and performance-oriented music users. Needs for different…

  4. Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment. PMID:18981280

  5. Heterogeneous Clustering: Operational and User Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salm, Saita Wood

    1999-01-01

    Heterogeneous clustering can improve overall utilization of multiple hosts and can provide better turnaround to users by balancing workloads across hosts. Building a cluster requires both operational changes and revisions in user scripts.

  6. Academic Library User Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ping; Rader, Hannelore B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses user education in China's academic libraries in light of educational reform and the changing role of academic libraries. Describes information technology developments, objectives of user education, and the emphasis on computerbased searching in the Tsinghua University library. (LRW)

  7. MAMA- User Feedback and Training Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B.; Ruggiero, Christy E.

    2014-05-21

    This document describes the current state of the MAMA (Morphological Analysis of Materials) software user identified bugs, issues, and requests for improvements. It also lists Current users and current training methods.

  8. Understanding Active and Passive Users: The Effects of an Active User Using Normal, Hard and Unreliable Technologies on User Assessment of Trust in Technology and Co-User

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Enid; JieXu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how passive users perceive the trustworthiness of active users and technologies under varying technological conditions. An experimental study was designed to vary the functioning of technologies that active users interacted with, while passive users observed these interactions. Active and passive user ratings of technology and partner were collected. Exploratory data analysis suggests that passive users developed perceptions of technologies based on the functioning of the technology and how the active user interacted with the technologies. Findings from this research have implications for the design of technologies in environments where active and passive users interact with technologies in different ways. Future work in this area should explore interventions that lead to enhanced affective engagement and trust calibration. PMID:22192788

  9. User`s guide to ESME v. 8.0

    SciTech Connect

    MacLachlan, J.

    1993-03-08

    ESME is a computer program to calculate the evolution of a distribution of particles in energy and azimuth as it is acted upon by the radio frequency system of a proton synchrotron. It provides for the modeling of multiple rf systems, feedback control, space charge, and many of the effects of longitudinal coupling impedance. The capabilities of the program are described, and the requirements for input data are specified in sufficient detail to permit significant calculations by an uninitiated user. The program is currently at version 8.0 and extensively modified since the previous user documentation. Changes since the 7.xx versions include a new command and associated parameters for mapping phase space flow lines, new names for a few parameters, and a few new parameters for old commands. Special attention has been given to features relating to calculation of the collective potential and the generation of phase space trajectories including its effects. The VAX-based code management convention has been modified slightly to permit EXPAND pre-compile options to be used in the include files as well as the program source files.

  10. User`s guide to ESME v. 8.1

    SciTech Connect

    MacLachlan, J.

    1993-08-26

    ESME is a computer program to calculate the evolution of a distribution of particles in energy and azimuth as it is acted upon by the radio frequency system of a proton synchrotron. It provides for the modeling of multiple rf systems, feedback control, space charge, and many of the effects of longitudinal coupling impedance. The capabilities of the program are described, and the requirements for input data are specified in sufficient detail to permit significant calculations by an uninitiated user. The program is currently at version 8.1 and extensively modified since the previous user documentation. Changes since the 7.xx versions include a new command and associated parameters for mapping phase space flow lines, new names for a few parameters, and a few new parameters for old commands. Special attention has been given to features relating to calculation of the collective potential and the generation of phase space trajectories including its effects. The VAX-based code management convention has been modified slightly to permit pre-compile options to be used in the include files as well as the program source files. The biggest change from v. 8.0 to v. 8.1 is the addition of code for HIGZ-based graphics; the new code and that using DI3000/GRAFMAKER are alternatives selectable at compilation. Other changes relate to improved control of smoothing options in the calculation of collective potential, fourier spectra, and mountain range plots.

  11. Manufactured Home Energy Audit user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA displays a colorful, graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. MHEA stands apart from other building energy analysis tools in many ways. Calculations incorporated into the computer code specifically address manufactured home heating and cooling load trends. The retrofit measures evaluated by MHEA are all applicable to manufactured homes. Help messages describe common manufactured home weatherization practices as well as provide hints on how to install retrofit measures. These and other features help make MHEA easy to use when evaluating energy consumption and the effects of weatherization retrofit measures for manufactured homes.

  12. Xwake 1.0 user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Saewert, G.; Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.

    1994-07-01

    Xwake is a user friendly Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) code for wake potential and impedance calculations of rotationally symmetric structures. Geometry boundaries are automatically meshed, or modeled, by a choice of either of two approximations, the typical {open_quotes}stepped edge{close_quotes} modeling, or the new {open_quotes}contour{close_quotes} modeling. Contouring means geometry boundaries described with curves and angles are not distorted to follow the rectangular grid; rather, the grid is adjusted to follow the contour of the geometry boundaries. It offers computer run time savings for large problems or intricate geometries for a given mesh compared with stepped edge modeling. Using stepped approximations with Xwake, on the other hand, one is able to model materials of any linear media type. Ultimately, three solutions are computed, wake potential versus wake length, wake spectrum versus frequency - a Fourier transform (FFT) of the wake potential, and wake impedance versus frequency. Xwake is an OSF/Motif application providing a graphical user interface (GUI) for ease of use. It is written in ANSI C for portability and currently runs on UNIX platforms.

  13. The role of service-user feedback in undergraduate nursing courses.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sue; Benbow, Judith

    2016-07-14

    There is an increasing expectation that service users should contribute in a meaningful way to student nurse education courses. This article describes how service-user feedback on undergraduate student nurses' performance during practice learning opportunities (PLOs) gives an insight into the qualities service users value in student nurses. At Cardiff University, the new Bachelor of Nursing course, launched in September 2012, took into account the Nursing and Midwifery (NMC) standards for preregistration, implementing a mechanism for service users to feed back on students' clinical performance. To facilitate this service, user/carer feedback pages were inserted into the students' bound clinical practice portfolio. A large sample of the clinical portfolios (n=100) from one cohort across adult, child and mental health nursing fields were examined at the end of year 1, year 2 and again at the end of year 3, and service users' comments collated. In considering the words used by service users, the authors propose that they reflected the six fundamental values-or 6Cs-of care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment that underpin the delivery of excellent care. Conclusions drawn from the feedback were that students exhibited the caring and professional qualities that service users value, and indeed showed the dignity and respect for patients and people that the profession demands. PMID:27409785

  14. User and Performance Impacts from Franklin Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yun

    2009-05-10

    The NERSC flagship computer Cray XT4 system"Franklin" has gone through three major upgrades: quad core upgrade, CLE 2.1 upgrade, and IO upgrade, during the past year. In this paper, we will discuss the various aspects of the user impacts such as user access, user environment, and user issues etc from these upgrades. The performance impacts on the kernel benchmarks and selected application benchmarks will also be presented.

  15. MCRT user's guide and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.J.; Wolery, T.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Delany, J.M.; Moore, R.M.; Clinnick, M.L.; Lundeen, S.R.

    1988-04-14

    MCRT is a FORTRAN computer program used to generate computer files containing thermodynamic data for chemical reactions involving solids, gases, and aqueous species. The MCRT code uses basic thermodynamic and reaction stoichiometry information stored in data and input files to produce an output file containing a grid describing the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants of mineral hydrolysis reactions and aqueous dissociation reactions. These reaction properties comprise a critical portion of the thermodynamic data needed by the geochemical modeling codes in the EQ3/6* software package. The set of files used to store the thermodynamic data for the aqueous, solid, and gaseous species and associated FORTRAN data base manipulation codes are also described in this user's manual. However, the data base structure and use of the data manipulation programs are described only in enough detail to illustrate their relationship to the operation of the MCRT code. This user's guide is designed to acquaint a new user with the MCRT program and its associated data files, and to assist in the use of the code and its various options. The data base processing codes MDAP and DARP are briefly described and several sample runs of the programs are included to illustrate the options available. In addition, the structure of the MCRT code, the coding conventions used in the EQ3/6 package, and the methods used in MCRT to extrapolate thermodynamic data to elevated temperatures are described. Appendices contain descriptions of the important variables defined in MCRT and a glossary of subroutines called by MCRT, along with their purposes. 6 figs.

  16. Orion: a commissioned user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treadwell, P. A.; Allan, P.; Cann, N.; Danson, C.; Duffield, S.; Elsmere, S.; Edwards, R.; Egan, D.; Girling, M.; Gumbrell, E.; Harvey, E.; Hill, M.; Hillier, D.; Hoarty, D.; Hobbs, L.; Hopps, N.; Hussey, D.; Oades, K.; James, S.; Norman, M.; Palmer, J.; Parker, S.; Winter, D.; Bett, T.

    2013-05-01

    The Orion Laser Facility at AWE in the UK consists of ten nanosecond beamlines and two sub-picosecond beamlines. The nanosecond beamlines each nominally deliver 500 J at 351 nm in a 1 ns square temporal profile, but can also deliver a user-definable temporal profile with durations between 0.1 ns and 5 ns. The sub-picosecond beamlines each nominally deliver 500 J at 1053 nm in a 500 fs pulse, with a peak irradiance of greater than 1021 W/cm2. One of the sub-picosecond beamlines can also be frequency-converted to deliver 100 J at 527 nm in a 500 fs pulse, although this is at half the aperture of the 1053 nm beam. Commissioning of all twelve beamlines has been completed, including the 527 nm sub-picosecond option. An overview of the design of the Orion beamlines will be presented, along with a summary of the commissioning and subsequent performance data. The design of Orion was underwritten by running various computer simulations of the beamlines. Work is now underway to validate these simulations against real system data, with the aim of creating predictive models of beamline performance. These predictive models will enable the user's experimental requirements to be critically assessed ahead of time, and will ultimately be used to determine key system settings and parameters. The facility is now conducting high energy density physics experiments. A capability experiment has already been conducted that demonstrates that Orion can generate plasmas at several million Kelvin and several times solid density. From March 2013 15% of the facility operating time will be given over to external academic users in addition to collaborative experiments with AWE scientists.

  17. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  18. MRDAP User/Developer Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua Cogliati; Michael Milvich

    2009-09-01

    The Multi-Reactor Design and Analysis Platform (MRDAP) is designed to simplify the creation, transfer and processing of data between computational codes. MRDAP accomplishes these objectives with three parts: 1. allows each integrated code, through a plugin, to specify the required input for execution and the required output needed, 2. creates an interface for execution and data transfer, 3. enables the creation of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to assist with input preparation and data visualization. Ultimately, the main motivation of this work is to enable analysts (who perform reactor physics calculations routinely), by providing a tool that increases efficiency and minimizes the potential for errors or failed executions.

  19. User's guide to SFTRAN/1100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, W. F.; Fessler, T. E.

    1978-01-01

    Extensions and improvements were made to SFTRAN, a structured programming language. This language was implemented as a precompiler that translates from SFTRAN to FORTRAN. It was available to batch and conversational users of the UNIVAC 1100 computer system. The SFTRAN language and its use are described. In addition, conversational time-sharing system command subroutines were implemented that eliminated the complications of dealing with extra files and processing steps that the use of a precompiler would otherwise require. These command subroutines are reported, and their use is illustrated by examples.

  20. User's guide to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy's research laboratories represent valuable, often unique, resources for university and industrial scientists. It is DOE policy to make these laboratories and facilities available to qualified scientists. The answers to such questions as who are eligible, what and where are the facilities, what is the cost, when can they be used, are given. Data sheets are presented for each facility to provide information such as location, user contact, description of research, etc. A subject index refers to areas of research and equipment available.

  1. IDSE Version 1 User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The integrated development support environment (IDSE) is a suite of integrated software tools that provide intelligent support for information modelling. These tools assist in function, information, and process modeling. Additional tools exist to assist in gathering and analyzing information to be modeled. This is a user's guide to application of the IDSE. Sections covering the requirements and design of each of the tools are presented. There are currently three integrated computer aided manufacturing definition (IDEF) modeling methodologies: IDEF0, IDEF1, and IDEF2. Also, four appendices exist to describe hardware and software requirements, installation procedures, and basic hardware usage.

  2. The IDL astronomy user's library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    IDL (Interactive Data Language) is a commercial programming, plotting, and image display language, which is widely used in astronomy. The IDL Astronomy User's Library is a central repository of over 400 astronomy-related IDL procedures accessible via anonymous FTP. The author will overview the use of IDL within the astronomical community and discuss recent enhancements at the IDL astronomy library. These enhancements include a fairly complete I/O package for FITS images and tables, an image deconvolution package and an image mosaic package, and access to IDL Open Windows/Motif widgets interface. The IDL Astronomy Library is funded by NASA through the Astrophysics Software and Research Aids Program.

  3. Invoking the User from Data to Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelman-Kluit, Nadaleen; Pearce, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    Personas, stemming from the field of user-centered design (UCD), are hypothetical users that represent the behaviors, goals, and values of actual users. This study describes the creation of personas in an academic library. With the goal of leveraging service-generated data, the authors coded a sample of chat reference transcripts, producing two…

  4. Penn State's Visual Image User Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisciotta, Henry A.; Dooris, Michael J.; Frost, James; Halm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Visual Image User Study (VIUS), an extensive needs assessment project at Penn State University, describes academic users of pictures and their perceptions. These findings outline the potential market for digital images and list the likely determinates of whether or not a system will be used. They also explain some key user requirements for…

  5. Syllabus Information Depiction System (SIDS) user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Waterman, D.K.; Skinner, N.L.

    1987-10-01

    The Syllabus Information Depiction System (SIDS) is an automated tool designed to track the aircrew training syllabi of the Marine Corps. This report is the User's Manual for this data base system, providing users with instructions to help them use the system more efficiently. This document contains printed screen layouts that will guide the user step-by-step through the written instructions.

  6. Second Language Users and Emerging English Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jay

    2009-01-01

    As English spreads as an international language, it evolves through diverse users' writing and speaking. However, traditional views of ESL users focus on their distance from fairly static notions of English-language competence. This research uses a grounded theory approach to describe a range of competencies that emerge in ESL users' interactions…

  7. End-Users: Dollars but Doubts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    Identifies existing categories of end users of online information retrieval systems, discusses problems that have been encountered by information providers and customers, and suggests strategies for capturing new end-user markets. Issues discussed include user cordial interfaces, CD-ROM products, ethics involved in information provision, and…

  8. Towards automation of user interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gastner, Rainer; Kraetzschmar, Gerhard K.; Lutz, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to automatic software design in the domain of graphical user interfaces. There are still some drawbacks in existing user interface management systems (UIMS's) which basically offer only quantitative layout specifications via direct manipulation. Our approach suggests a convenient way to get a default graphical user interface which may be customized and redesigned easily in further prototyping cycles.

  9. Development of the User-Computer Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Patrick H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the design and development of the user-computer interface in terms of the personal computer user's psychological needs and physical, perceptual, and conceptual contact with the system. Principles for the development of a user-system dialog that meets the requirements of transparency and visibility are suggested. Twenty-six references are…

  10. User needs: is a survey the answer

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the ramifications of user needs, user satisfaction, and the survey as a shaper of library policy are discussed. The presentation is in three parts: philosophical thinking on user needs and satisfaction, a modest tutorial on survey methodology, and a brief review of the Sandia National Laboratory Technical Library's use of surveys for information gathering and decision making. (RWR)

  11. 14 CFR 1215.113 - User charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false User charges. 1215.113 Section 1215.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Use and Reimbursement Policy for Non-U.S. Government Users § 1215.113 User charges. (a) The...

  12. 14 CFR 1215.113 - User charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false User charges. 1215.113 Section 1215.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Use and Reimbursement Policy for Non-U.S. Government Users § 1215.113 User charges. (a) The...

  13. 14 CFR 1215.113 - User charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true User charges. 1215.113 Section 1215.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Use and Reimbursement Policy for Non-U.S. Government Users § 1215.113 User charges. (a) The...

  14. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  15. Arizona Adult Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout…

  16. Health status of ayahuasca users.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. PMID:22761152

  17. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, P.; Benveniste, J.

    2011-07-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products. GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. GUT has been developed in a collaboration within the GUT Core Group. The GUT Core Group: S. Dinardo, D. Serpe, B.M. Lucas, R. Floberghagen, A. Horvath (ESA), O. Andersen, M. Herceg (DTU), M.-H. Rio, S. Mulet, G. Larnicol (CLS), J. Johannessen, L.Bertino (NERSC), H. Snaith, P. Challenor (NOC), K. Haines, D. Bretherton (NCEO), C. Hughes (POL), R.J. Bingham (NU), G. Balmino, S. Niemeijer, I. Price, L. Cornejo (S&T), M. Diament, I Panet (IPGP), C.C. Tscherning (KU), D. Stammer, F. Siegismund (UH), T. Gruber (TUM),

  18. Body language user interface (BLUI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Arthur W.; Olmsted, Coert

    1998-07-01

    We analyze a 3D skeletal representation of the user in spatial and temporal domains as a tool necessary to recognizing the gestures of drawing, picking and grabbing. The mechanisms of visual perception that are called upon in the imaginative process of artistic creation use those same tactile and kinesthetic pathways and structures in the brain which are employed when we manipulate the 3D world. We see, in fact, with our sensual bodies as well as with our eyes. Our interface is built on an analysis of pointing and gesturing and how they related to the perception of form in space. We report on our progress in implementing a body language user interface for artistic computer interaction, i.e., an human/computer interaction based on an analysis of how an artist uses her body in the act of creation. Using two synchronous TV cameras, we have videotaped an environment into which an artist moves, assumes a canonical (Da Vinci) pose and subsequently makes a series of simple gestures. The video images are processed to generate an animated 3D skeleton that corresponds to the skeleton of the artist. The locus of the path taken by the drawing hand is the source of a trace of particles. Our presentation shows the two simultaneous videos, the associated animated 3D skeleton, that skeleton as an instance of motion capture for a constrained model of a human skeleton and the trace of the path taken by the drawing hand.

  19. 2012 PATRIOT SCRIPT User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Cleland, Timothy J.; Kubicek, Deborah A.; Mathis, Mark M.; Stroud, Phillip D.

    2012-05-31

    PATRIOT Script is an application that executes Patriot batch runs. This document provides a description of this application and how to run it. The basic user access tool PATRIOT Client allows a user to generate several most reliable paths in one run: one can specify a list of sources (origins) and targets, and PATRIOT finds for a given architecture option and one choice of device all the most reliable paths between all these sources and targets. The main objective of PATRIOT Script is to provide a tool for making automatic PATRIOT runs not only for a prespecified set of sources and targets, but also for a pre-specified set of devices and various architecture options. Running PATRIOT Script requires two basic steps that will be explained in more detail next: (1) Pre-preparation of an excel spreadsheet with the information about the desired runs; and (2) Opening the PATRIOT Script application, reading in the excel-spreadsheet and running the desired scenarios. Sections 1 and 2 explain each of these steps, and section 3 describes the output of the PATRIOT Script. For a detail description of the models and data behind PATRIOT and a detailed explanation of all the architecture options see [1]. For instructions of how to run PATRIOT Client see [2].

  20. Groundwater pumping by heterogeneous users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saak, Alexander E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-08-01

    Farm size is a significant determinant of both groundwater-irrigated farm acreage and groundwater-irrigation-application rates per unit land area. This paper analyzes the patterns of groundwater exploitation when resource users in the area overlying a common aquifer are heterogeneous. In the presence of user heterogeneity, the common resource problem consists of inefficient dynamic and spatial allocation of groundwater because it impacts income distribution not only across periods but also across farmers. Under competitive allocation, smaller farmers pump groundwater faster if farmers have a constant marginal periodic utility of income. However, it is possible that larger farmers pump faster if the Arrow-Pratt coefficient of relative risk-aversion is sufficiently decreasing in income. A greater farm-size inequality may either moderate or amplify income inequality among farmers. Its effect on welfare depends on the curvature properties of the agricultural output function and the farmer utility of income. Also, it is shown that a flat-rate quota policy that limits the quantity of groundwater extraction per unit land area may have unintended consequences for the income distribution among farmers.