Science.gov

Sample records for adult educational attainment

  1. The Fiscal Consequences of Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatiwada, Ishwar; McLaughlin, Joseph; Sum, Andrew; Palma, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    This research monograph prepared for the National Commission on Adult Literacy is primarily designed to describe and analyze the net annual fiscal contributions (tax payments minus cash and in-kind transfers and institutionalization costs) of U.S. adults (ages 16-64) by their educational attainment in recent years. The report begins with an…

  2. Educational Attainment of Adult Residents of Tennessee Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data on the educational attainment of Tennessee residents by county, postsecondary degree level, age group, and ethnicity. The report is made available through interactive maps which allow the user to view county-level educational attainment data for different populations. Data for this analysis were drawn from the U.S. Census…

  3. Family Background, Adolescents' Educational Aspirations, and Australian Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian young adults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6,811 (3,547 women and 3,264 men) young adults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis,…

  4. The Attainment of Conservation of Mass, Weight, and Volume in Minimally Educated Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Avis J. Ruthven

    The purpose was to determine whether different levels of education, race, and sex affect the degree of conservation of mass, weight, and volume attained by minimally educated adults. Subjects were 30 white and 30 black females and 30 white and 30 black males enrolled in Adult Basic Education classes, with 40 subjects each at grade levels 0-3, 4-6,…

  5. Adolescents' occupational and educational aspirations and expectations: links to high school activities and adult educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Crockett, Lisa J

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored adolescents' future-oriented cognitions, current activities, and later educational attainment using data from 317 adolescents (55% female; mean age = 14.98 years, SD = 0.85) followed into early adulthood. Aspirations and expectations regarding work and education showed modest stability from year to year. Exploration of the reciprocal relations between these cognitions and adolescents' activities supported both unidirectional and bidirectional effects, with different patterns emerging for aspirations and expectations. In multiple regression analyses, future-oriented cognitions predicted adult educational attainment; follow-up analyses indicated that the effect of adolescents' expectations was partially mediated by participation in extracurricular activities. These results suggest a potentially important influence of adolescents' future-oriented cognitions on their current behavior and future attainments. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The Implications of Adult Identity for Educational and Work Attainment in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of…

  7. The Implications of Adult Identity for Educational and Work Attainment in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of…

  8. Educational Attainment: Limited Implications for Adult Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christine Dunagin; Greenberg, Daphne; Hendrick, Robert C.; Nanda, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Social science research often uses educational qualification as a signifier for characteristics such as abilities, earnings potential, and civic participation in adulthood. This study focused on two types of adult literacy students who were native speakers of English and identified words at the 3rd to 5th grade levels but differed in one key…

  9. General Education Development (GED®) Credential Attainment, Externalizing Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders in Disconnected Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice

    2014-01-01

    There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…

  10. General Education Development (GED®) Credential Attainment, Externalizing Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders in Disconnected Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice

    2014-01-01

    There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…

  11. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  12. Educational attainment and adult literacy: A descriptive account of 31 Sub-Saharan Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2015-11-11

    More than 60 years ago the international community declared literacy a basic human right. Recognition of its intrinsic value and evidence of its social and economic benefits have motivated an expansive international effort to estimate the percentage of adults that can read, especially in low-income countries where educational opportunities are limited. Population data on adults' educational attainment is commonly used to approximate adult literacy rates. Though increasing evidence from school-based studies of pupils confirm literacy achievement is not universal - even at advanced grades - it remains unclear whether adults' educational attainment is reflective of their literacy. This study leverages population-based data that include direct assessments of adults' literacy skills to provide a descriptive account of the proportion of adults that can read at each level of educational attainment. The study focuses on the Sub-Saharan African context, a world region where school participation has expanded rapidly in the last three decades. Because many African adults have discontinued their education at the primary level, the study focuses on basic reading skills at each level of primary school. The study focuses specifically on women, whose literacy has garnered extensive international interest. Demographic and Health Survey data from 31 African countries confirm that there are many instances in which women have several years of primary school but cannot read. In fact, in some countries, large proportions of African women who never went to school can read, even as some of their peers who have completed primary school cannot. The weak correlation between educational attainment and literacy is not specific to older cohorts of women, but is also observed among younger women. The findings demonstrate that educational attainment is generally a poor proxy for literacy, highlighting the need to measure, theorize, and study literacy as empirically distinct from education.

  13. The implications of adult identity for educational and work attainment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Janel E; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies subjective age. Those with older subjective ages and low psychosocial maturation have the lowest attainment at ages 25-29 years, while those with older subjective ages and high psychosocial maturation show considerable progress toward work-related attainment. For those with younger subjective ages, a lower level of psychosocial maturity is not as detrimental to attainment.

  14. The Indirect Influence of Educational Attainment on Loneliness among Unmarried Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the indirect influence of past educational attainment on current feelings of loneliness across a sample of unmarried older adults. Participants in this study included 227 community-dwelling individuals, age 65 to 94, who were never-married, divorced, or widowed. The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin,…

  15. Cumulative Childhood Adversity, Educational Attainment, and Active Life Expectancy Among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998–2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50–100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels. PMID:24281740

  16. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  17. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707

  18. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  19. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  20. Educational attainment and adult mortality in the United States: a systematic analysis of functional form.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hummer, Robert A; Hayward, Mark D

    2012-02-01

    A vast literature has documented the inverse association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality risk but given little attention to identifying the optimal functional form of the association. A theoretical explanation of the association hinges on our ability to describe it empirically. Using the 1979-1998 National Longitudinal Mortality Study for non-Hispanic white and black adults aged 25-100 years during the mortality follow-up period (N = 1,008,215), we evaluated 13 functional forms across race-gender-age subgroups to determine which form(s) best captured the association. Results revealed that the preferred functional form includes a linear decline in mortality risk from 0 to 11 years of education, followed by a step-change reduction in mortality risk upon attainment of a high school diploma, at which point mortality risk resumes a linear decline but with a steeper slope than that prior to a high school diploma. The findings provide important clues for theoretical development of explanatory mechanisms: an explanation for the selected functional form may require integrating a credentialist perspective to explain the step-change reduction in mortality risk upon attainment of a high school diploma, with a human capital perspective to explain the linear declines before and after a high school diploma.

  1. Educational Attainment and Adult Mortality in the United States: A Systematic Analysis of Functional Form*

    PubMed Central

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hummer, Robert A.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    A vast literature has documented the inverse association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality risk, but given little attention to identifying the optimal functional form of the association. A theoretical explanation of the association hinges on our ability to empirically describe it. Using the 1979–1998 National Longitudinal Mortality Study for non-Hispanic white and black adults aged 25–100 years during the mortality follow-up period (N=1,008,215), we evaluated 13 functional forms across race-gender-age subgroups to determine which form(s) best captured the association. Results revealed that a functional form that includes a linear decline in mortality risk from 0–11 years of education, followed by a step-change reduction in mortality risk upon attainment of a high school diploma, at which point mortality risk resumes a linear decline but with a steeper slope than that prior to a high school diploma was generally preferred. The findings provide important clues for theoretical development of explanatory mechanisms: an explanation for the selected functional form may require integrating a credentialist perspective to explain the step-change reduction in mortality risk upon attainment of a high school diploma, with a human capital perspective to explain the linear declines before and after a high school diploma. PMID:22246797

  2. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.

  3. Educational Attainment by Life Course Sexual Attraction: Prevalence and Correlates in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Lindley, Lisa L.; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed. PMID:25382888

  4. Educational Attainment by Life Course Sexual Attraction: Prevalence and Correlates in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Lindley, Lisa L; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V

    2014-08-01

    Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed.

  5. Reading Disability and Adult Attained Education and Income: Evidence from a 30-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain a…

  6. Parental Educational Attainment and Adult Offspring Personality: An Intergenerational Life Span Approach to the Origin of Adult Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Stephan, Yannick; Robins, Richard W; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-03-13

    Why do some individuals have more self-control or are more vulnerable to stress than others? Where do these basic personality traits come from? Although a fundamental question in personality, more is known about how traits are related to important life outcomes than their developmental origins. The present research took an intergenerational life span approach to address whether a significant aspect of the childhood environment-parental educational attainment-was associated with offspring personality traits in adulthood. We tested the association between parents' educational levels and adult offspring personality traits in 7 samples (overall age range 14-95) and meta-analytically combined the results (total N > 60,000). Parents with more years of education had children who were more open, extraverted, and emotionally stable as adults. These associations were small but consistent, of similar modest magnitude to the association between life events and change in personality in adulthood, and were also supported by longitudinal analyses. Contrary to expectations, parental educational attainment was unrelated to offspring Conscientiousness, except for a surprisingly negative association in the younger cohorts. The results were similar in a subsample of participants who were adopted, which suggested that environmental mechanisms were as relevant as shared genetic variants. Participant levels of education were associated with greater conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness and partially mediated the relation between parent education and personality. Child IQ and family income were also partial mediators. The results of this research suggest that parental educational attainment is 1 intergenerational factor associated with offspring personality development in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age…

  8. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age…

  9. Protective connections and educational attainment among young adults with childhood-onset chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2012-08-01

    Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults with COCI. Data were collected from 10,925 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Protective factors present before 18 years of age included mentoring, parent relationship quality, school connectedness, and religious attendance. College graduation was the outcome of interest assessed when participants had a mean age of 28 years. Analysis was stratified by presence of COCI. About 2% of participants (N = 230) had 1 of 4 COCIs (cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, or heart disease). All 4 protective factors were associated with college graduation for youth without COCI. In the final multivariate model, only school connectedness was associated with college graduation for youth with COCI. School connectedness is of particular importance in promoting educational attainment for youth with COCI. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  10. Education and health among U.S. working-age adults: a detailed portrait across the full educational attainment spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Anna; Hummer, Robert A; Rogers, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents detailed estimates of relative and absolute health inequalities among U.S. working-age adults by educational attainment, including six postsecondary schooling levels. We also estimate the impact of several sets of mediating variables on the education-health gradient. Data from the 1997-2009 National Health Interview Survey (N = 178,103) show remarkable health differentials. For example, high school graduates have 3.5 times the odds of reporting "worse" health than do adults with professional or doctoral degrees. The probability of fair or poor health in mid-adulthood is less than 5 percent for adults with the highest levels of education but over 20 percent for adults without a high school diploma. The probability of reporting excellent health in the mid-forties is below 25 percent among high school graduates but over 50 percent for those adults who have professional degrees. These health differences characterize all the demographic subgroups examined in this study. Our results show that economic indicators and health behaviors explain about 40 percent of the education-health relationship. In the United States, adults with the highest educational degrees enjoy a wide array of benefits, including much more favorable self-rated health, compared to their less-educated counterparts.

  11. The Risk for Impaired Learning-related Abilities in Childhood and Educational Attainment Among Adults Born Near-term

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Davey, Charles; Fifer, William P.; Savitz, David A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether near-term births (NTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at high risk for childhood learning-related problems and poor adult educational attainment, and whether poverty amplifies the adverse effects of NTB and SGA on those outcomes. Methods A randomly selected birth cohort (n = 1,619) was followed into adulthood. IQ and learning abilities were measured in childhood and educational attainment was measured in adulthood. Results NTB (n = 226) and SGA (n = 154) were associated with lower educational attainment mediated through learning-related abilities at age 7. Childhood poverty moderated the impact of NTB on educational attainment both directly and mediated through lower learning-related abilities. Poverty did not moderate the effect of SGA. Conclusions Poorer learning-related outcomes and educational attainment were not limited to children born very (<32 weeks) or extremely (<28 weeks) preterm, especially among those living in poverty. Targeted interventions such as remedial learning during childhood among NTB in poor families may yield higher educational attainment. PMID:18794190

  12. Childhood Socioeconomic Position, Educational Attainment, and Adult Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Batty, G. David; Morton, Susan M.B.; Clark, Heather; Macintyre, Sally; Leon, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the associations of childhood socioeconomic position with cardiovascular disease risk factors (smoking, binge alcohol drinking, and being overweight) and examined the roles of educational attainment and cognitive functioning in these associations. Methods. Data were derived from a cohort study involving 7184 individuals who were born in Aberdeen, Scotland, between 1950 and 1956; had detailed records on perinatal characteristics, childhood anthropometry, and cognitive functioning; and responded to a mailed questionnaire when they were aged 45 to 52 years. Results. Strong graded associations existed between social class at birth and smoking, binge drinking, and being overweight. Adjustment for educational attainment completely attenuated these associations. However, after control for adult social class, adult income and other potential confounding or mediating factors, some association remained. Conclusions. Educational attainment is an important mediating factor in the relation between socioeconomic adversity in childhood and smoking, binge drinking, and being overweight in adulthood. PMID:15983276

  13. Unemployment and substance use in young adults: does educational attainment modify the association?

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Elidemir, Gulizar; Galéra, Cédric; Younès, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We studied whether patterns of substance use in relation to unemployment vary depending on educational level. Data come from 1,126 community-based young adults in France (18-35 years of age in 2011) and their parents (TEMPO and GAZEL studies). Tobacco use (≥1 cigarette/day, 22.5% prevalence), nicotine dependence (Fagerström test ≥2, 7.1% prevalence), alcohol use (≥2 units/week, 25.3% prevalence), alcohol abuse (WHO AUDIT ≥7 in women and ≥8 in men, 10.8% prevalence), cannabis use (≥1 time, 16.5% prevalence), and cannabis abuse (CAST ≥2, 5.0% prevalence) were assessed by interview. We conducted logistic regression analyses controlled for inverse probability weights of unemployment, calculated based on demographics, negative life events, health, and juvenile and parental characteristics. Compared to participants who were always employed, those who were unemployed and had no higher education were more likely to smoke tobacco (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.86-4.10), to be nicotine dependent (OR: 5.70, 95% CI: 3.03-10.73), to use cannabis (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.42-3.64), and to abuse cannabis (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.63-7.04). Those who were unemployed and had higher education were especially likely to abuse alcohol (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.16-3.09). Increases in unemployment may impact population levels of substance use, particularly in young adults with low educational attainment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Polygenic Influence on Educational Attainment: New evidence from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Benjamin W.; Belsky, Daniel; Conley, Dalton; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Boardman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have begun to uncover the genetic architecture of educational attainment. We build on this work using genome-wide data from siblings in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We measure the genetic predisposition of siblings to educational attainment using polygenic scores. We then test how polygenic scores are related to social environments and educational outcomes. In Add Health, genetic predisposition to educational attainment is patterned across the social environment. Participants with higher polygenic scores were more likely to grow up in socially advantaged families. Even so, the previously published genetic associations appear to be causal. Among pairs of siblings, the sibling with the higher polygenic score typically went on to complete more years of schooling as compared to their lower-scored co-sibling. We found subtle differences between sibling fixed effect estimates of the genetic effect versus those based on unrelated individuals. PMID:28164148

  15. Level of Educational Attainment Among Deaf Adults Who Attended Bilingual-Bicultural Programs.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Marschark, Marc

    2016-10-01

    In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual-bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the long-term outcomes of bilingual-bicultural education, and several of their findings have raised questions about benefits of the approach. This study examined the level of educational attainment of 408 deaf individuals who attended primary school either before or during the period of bilingual-bicultural education in Denmark, both relative to a comparable hearing cohort. Beyond group comparisons, three logistic regression models were created to evaluate the prediction of educational attainment by a number of relevant variables. Compared to the hearing population, the deaf population had a significantly lower level of educational attainment both before and after the introduction of bilingual-bicultural education. Signed language and spoken language abilities, the kind of school attended, degree of hearing loss, parental hearing loss, and gender were found significantly to explain levels of educational attainment in the deaf population.

  16. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  17. Genetic Variation Associated with Differential Educational Attainment in Adults Has Anticipated Associations with School Performance in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Mary E.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10−10) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10−04 and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  18. The Effect of Postsecondary Education on the Occupational Attainments of Deaf Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William A.; Walter, Gerard G.

    This study examined the work force attainments of three groups of deaf adults: persons with no college degrees, persons with sub-Baccalaureate degrees, and persons with Bachelor degrees. Data were derived from the "Alumni Feedback Questionnaire" of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf and from the "Secondary School Graduate Follow-up…

  19. Degree Attainment among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conor, Maureen A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand understanding and discover knowledge about degree attainment among adult learners. This qualitative inquiry explores what recent non-traditional-age bachelor's degree recipients report contributes to attaining the degree. Professional research and expert material on demographics, motivation, challenges and…

  20. Reading disability and adult attained education and income: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study of a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Margaret J; Speirs, Katherine E; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain a higher level of education and 56% (95% CI: 0.32, 0.61) less likely to attain a higher level of income as an adult than participants with average or above reading achievement at age 7. Attained education was found to mediate the relationship between RD and attained income. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  1. Protective Connections and Educational Attainment among Young Adults with Childhood-Onset Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults…

  2. Promoting the Educational Attainment of Adults: The Potential Role of Youth-Oriented Precollege Outreach Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura; Walsh, Erin; Fester, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study draws on data collected from case studies of four precollege outreach programs and a survey of program administrators to explore the ways that youth-oriented precollege outreach programs may promote the educational attainment of the parents of participating students. The results suggest that precollege outreach programs may expand the…

  3. Protective Connections and Educational Attainment among Young Adults with Childhood-Onset Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults…

  4. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents’ effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23–25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students’ past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  5. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using current population survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  6. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using current population survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  7. Adolescent depressive symptomatology and young adult educational attainment: an examination of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Needham, Belinda L

    2009-08-01

    To examine the association between depressive symptomatology during adolescence and educational attainment in young adulthood and to determine whether this association varies by gender. This study uses data from the first and third waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Symptoms associated with depression are assessed at Wave 1 with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Educational attainment is assessed at Wave 3. Measures include failure to complete high school and failure to enter college (among high school graduates). The analytic sample contains 14,232 respondents aged 11-21 years at Wave 1 and aged 18-28 years at Wave 3. Approximately half the sample is female. Adjusting for individual and family-level characteristics, depressive symptomatology during adolescence is associated with increased odds of failure to complete high school, but only for girls. Among high school graduates of both genders, depressive symptomatology is associated with failure to enter college. This study offers support for the hypothesis that mental health problems experienced early in the life course impair status attainment.

  8. Trends and group differences in the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality: implications for understanding education's causal influence.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Mark D; Hummer, Robert A; Sasson, Isaac

    2015-02-01

    Has the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality changed in recent decades? If so, is it changing consistently across demographic groups? What can changes in the shape of the association tell us about the possible mechanisms in play for improving health and lowering mortality risk over the adult life course? This paper develops the argument that societal technological change may have had profound effects on the importance of educational attainment - particularly advanced education - in the U.S. adult population for garnering health advantages and that these changes should be reflected in changes in the functional form of the association between educational attainment and mortality. We review the historical evidence on the changing functional form of the association, drawing on studies based in the United States, to assess whether these changes are consistent with our argument about the role of technological change. We also provide an updated analysis of these functional form patterns and trends, contrasting data from the early 21st Century with data from the late 20th Century. This updated evidence suggests that the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality appears to be reflecting lower and lower adult mortality for very highly educated Americans compared to their low-educated counterparts in the 21st Century. We draw on this review and updated evidence to reflect on the question whether education's association with adult mortality has become increasingly causal in recent decades, why, and the potential research, policy, and global implications of these changes.

  9. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  10. Educational and career goal attainments in young adult childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa; Breyer, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Examine the educational and career outcomes of young adult childhood cancer survivors. Descriptive study design using a survey sent to 336 survivors. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately. Only 50 completed surveys were returned. Having a central nervous system tumor and radiation were associated with physical impairments. Four themes also emerged: future as medical professionals, dreams fallen short, peer relationships, and positive outlook on life. Pediatric nurses caring for survivors should partner with oncology professionals to support survivors to enrich their educational and career opportunities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Occupational and educational aspirations and attainment of young adults with and without LD 2 years after high school completion.

    PubMed

    Rojewski, J W

    1999-01-01

    A national longitudinal database was used to compare the aspirations and attainment of individuals with and without learning disabilities (LD) 2 years after high school completion. Analyses revealed that individuals with LD reported lower graduation rates, were more likely to aspire to moderate- (men) or low-prestige (women) occupations, and were more likely to be employed and less likely to be enrolled in some type of postsecondary education program than their nondisabled peers. High educational aspirations in Grade 12 and successful completion of an academic or college-prep high school program were equally important in predicting 2-year postsecondary status for adolescents enrolled in postsecondary education regardless of disability status. However, depending on disability status, different predictors were identified for individuals who were either employed or out of the workforce. These results point to a continued need for transition planning and support for young adults with LD and suggest ways in which professionals can anticipate and adjust for identified differences in aspirations and postsecondary attainment.

  12. The Association between Educational Attainment and Patterns of Emergency Department Utilization among Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Jonassaint, C R; Beach, M C; Haythornthwaite, J A; Bediako, S M; Diener-West, M; Strouse, J J; Lanzkron, S; Onojobi, G; Carroll, C P; Haywood, C

    2016-06-01

    Patients with low educational attainment may be at increased risk for unplanned health care utilization. This study aimed to determine what factors are related to emergency department (ED) visits in hopes of guiding treatments and early interventions. At two medical centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States, 258 adults with sickle cell disease aged 19-70 years participated in a retrospective study where we examined whether education level is independently associated with ED visits after accounting for other socioeconomic status (SES) variables, such as pain and disease severity and psychosocial functioning. The data showed that patients without a high school education visited the ED three times as frequently as patients with post secondary education. Controlling for poverty and employment status decreased the effect of education on ED visits by 33.24 %. Further controlling for disease severity and/or psychosocial functioning could not account for the remaining association between education and ED visits, suggesting that education is independently associated with potentially avoidable emergency care. Early interventions addressing disparities in academic performance, especially for those children most at risk, may lead to improved long-term health outcomes in this population.

  13. Education Leaders Applaud ATTAIN Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about Achievement Through Technology and Innovation (ATTAIN) Act, a bill introduced by Senators Bingaman (D-NM), Burr (R-NC), and Murray (D-WA) and applauded by a coalition of education and industry groups. The proposed ATTAIN Act is similar to its companion in the House (HR 2449), and builds upon the Enhancing Education Through…

  14. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  15. The association between father's social class and adult obesity is not explained by educational attainment and an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Heraclides, Alexandros; Witte, Daniel; Brunner, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of father's social class on central and general obesity in adulthood. To test the role of educational attainment and adult health behaviours as mediators in this association. BMI, Waist-hip-ratio, smoking status, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity and dietary intake (semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire) were assessed at phase 5 (1997-1998) of the Whitehall II cohort study. We used retrospective data on educational attainment and father's social class. Our study sample was 4598 participants (3364 men, 1234 women) aged 44-69, with a valid obesity measure and information on father's social class and educational attainment. Father's social class was inversely associated with adult life central (Waist-hip-ratio) and general (BMI) obesity in women but not in men. For example, mean BMI difference between the highest and lowest childhood social class was 2.04 kg/m(2) (95% confidence intervals: 0.90; 3.18). These associations remained robust to adjustment for adult life socioeconomic position. Adjusting for educational attainment resulted in a reduction of 10-15% in the difference in mean obesity measures between lowest and highest father's social class. In our fully adjusted model, adult life health behaviours did not provide further attenuation of the effect of father's social class on adult obesity. We provide evidence for an independent effect of father's social class on adult central and general obesity in women, which is not explained by educational attainment and an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. Policies aiming at reducing inequalities in obesity should tackle the problem of social inequality early in life.

  16. Educating for the Future: Baseline Estimates of Minnesota's Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Meredith; Williams-Wyche, Shaun; Brower, Susan; Egbert, Andi

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the Minnesota Legislature enacted legislation setting a target that 70 percent of Minnesota adults age 25 to 44 will have attained a postsecondary certificate or degree by 2025, both for the general population and by racial/ethnic subgroups. This report fulfills the mandated reporting pursuant to Minnesota's educational attainment goal,…

  17. Trends and Group Differences in the Association between Educational Attainment and U.S. Adult Mortality: Implications for Understanding Education’s Causal Influence*

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Mark D.; Hummer, Robert A.; Sasson, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Has the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality changed in recent decades? If so, is it changing consistently across demographic groups? What can changes in the shape of the association tell us about the possible mechanisms in play for improving health and lowering mortality risk over the adult life course? This paper develops the argument that societal technological change may have had profound effects on the importance of educational attainment – particularly advanced education – in the U.S. adult population for garnering health advantages and that these changes should be reflected in changes in the functional form of the association between educational attainment and mortality. We review the historical evidence on the changing functional form of the association, drawing on studies based in the United States, to assess whether these changes are consistent with our argument about the role of technological change. We also provide an updated analysis of these functional form patterns and trends, contrasting data from the early 21st Century with data from the late 20th Century. This updated evidence suggests that the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality appears to be reflecting lower and lower adult mortality for very highly educated Americans compared to their low-educated counterparts in the 21st Century. We draw on this review and updated evidence to reflect on the question whether education’s association with adult mortality has become increasingly causal in recent decades, why, and the potential research, policy, and global implications of these changes. PMID:25440841

  18. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  19. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  20. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  1. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  2. Educational Attainment and Residential Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2006-01-01

    The effects of residential location at age 16 and current residential location on measures of educational attainment are estimated. Particular attention is given to the effects of migration and family background on educational outcomes. It is shown that central cities and suburbs of large metropolitan areas in the United States have significantly…

  3. The Effect of Microneighborhood Conditions on Adult Educational Attainment in a Subsidized Housing Intervention.

    PubMed

    Tach, Laura; Jacoby, Sara; Wiebe, Douglas J; Guerra, Terry; Richmond, Therese S

    The ACHIEVEability model of affordable housing aims to promote self-sufficiency by requiring enrollment in postsecondary education in exchange for subsidized housing. In this study, we exploit the quasi random assignment of ACHIEVEability participants (N = 84) to subsidized housing units to evaluate whether microneighborhood environments moderated participants' progress in postsecondary education. Participants progressed in their educational pursuits in line with program requirements, earning about 12 college credits per year. Neighborhood block group characteristics moderated this progress. Participants who were assigned to housing located in poorer, more violent, and less educated block groups earned credits at a significantly slower rate than participants assigned housing in more advantaged block groups. Our results suggest that the micro environments immediately surrounding residents of subsidized housing matter, even if they are situated within broader contexts of spatial and personal disadvantage.

  4. The Effect of Microneighborhood Conditions on Adult Educational Attainment in a Subsidized Housing Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tach, Laura; Jacoby, Sara; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Guerra, Terry; Richmond, Therese S.

    2016-01-01

    The ACHIEVEability model of affordable housing aims to promote self-sufficiency by requiring enrollment in postsecondary education in exchange for subsidized housing. In this study, we exploit the quasi random assignment of ACHIEVEability participants (N = 84) to subsidized housing units to evaluate whether microneighborhood environments moderated participants’ progress in postsecondary education. Participants progressed in their educational pursuits in line with program requirements, earning about 12 college credits per year. Neighborhood block group characteristics moderated this progress. Participants who were assigned to housing located in poorer, more violent, and less educated block groups earned credits at a significantly slower rate than participants assigned housing in more advantaged block groups. Our results suggest that the micro environments immediately surrounding residents of subsidized housing matter, even if they are situated within broader contexts of spatial and personal disadvantage. PMID:27570434

  5. Boosting Educational Attainment and Adult Earnings: Does School Spending Matter after All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo; Johnson, Rucker C.; Persico, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses limitations in a study conducted by James Coleman in 1966, which analyzed aspects of educational equality in the United States--including the relationship between school spending and student outcomes--as well as other studies covering the same topic that stemmed from Coleman's Report. Coleman found that variation in school…

  6. Level of Educational Attainment among Deaf Adults Who Attended Bilingual-Bicultural Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Marschark, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual-bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the…

  7. Level of Educational Attainment among Deaf Adults Who Attended Bilingual-Bicultural Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Marschark, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual-bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the…

  8. Boosting Educational Attainment and Adult Earnings: Does School Spending Matter after All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo; Johnson, Rucker C.; Persico, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses limitations in a study conducted by James Coleman in 1966, which analyzed aspects of educational equality in the United States--including the relationship between school spending and student outcomes--as well as other studies covering the same topic that stemmed from Coleman's Report. Coleman found that variation in school…

  9. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003. Population Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    The population in the United States is becoming more educated, but significant differences in educational attainment remain with regard to age, sex, race, and origin. Nevertheless, the educational attainment of young adults (25 to 29 years), which provides a glimpse of our country's future, indicates dramatic improvement by groups who have…

  10. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  11. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  12. Educational attainment in poor comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Jessie; Sperring, Rachael; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To date, only one study has investigated educational attainment in poor (reading) comprehenders, providing evidence of poor performance on national UK school tests at age 11 years relative to peers (Cain and Oakhill, 2006). In the present study, we adopted a longitudinal approach, tracking attainment on such tests from 11 years to the end of compulsory schooling in the UK (age 16 years). We aimed to investigate the proposal that educational weaknesses (defined as poor performance on national assessments) might become more pronounced over time, as the curriculum places increasing demands on reading comprehension. Participants comprised 15 poor comprehenders and 15 controls; groups were matched for chronological age, nonverbal reasoning ability and decoding skill. Children were identified at age 9 years using standardized measures of nonverbal reasoning, decoding and reading comprehension. These measures, along with a measure of oral vocabulary knowledge, were repeated at age 11 years. Data on educational attainment were collected from all participants (n = 30) at age 11 and from a subgroup (n = 21) at 16 years. Compared to controls, educational attainment in poor comprehenders was lower at ages 11 and 16 years, an effect that was significant at 11 years. When poor comprehenders were compared to national performance levels, they showed significantly lower performance at both time points. Low educational attainment was not evident for all poor comprehenders. Nonetheless, our findings point to a link between reading comprehension difficulties in mid to late childhood and poor educational outcomes at ages 11 and 16 years. At these ages, pupils in the UK are making key transitions: they move from primary to secondary schools at 11, and out of compulsory schooling at 16. PMID:24904464

  13. Educational Attainment: Understanding the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Cunningham, Alisa; Tanenbaum, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The level of educational attainment in the United States is a central focus of public policy. The Obama administration, some states, large national foundations, and other organizations have set near-term goals to increase the number of Americans with college degrees. Achieving these goals is likely to involve a combination of increasing…

  14. Educational Attainment: Understanding the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Cunningham, Alisa; Tanenbaum, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The level of educational attainment in the United States is a central focus of public policy. The Obama administration, some states, large national foundations, and other organizations have set near-term goals to increase the number of Americans with college degrees. Achieving these goals is likely to involve a combination of increasing…

  15. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation. IZA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  16. Early emotional and behavioral difficulties and adult educational attainment: an 18-year follow-up of the TEMPO study.

    PubMed

    Zbar, Ariella; Surkan, Pamela J; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Children who experience behavioral difficulties often have short and long-term school problems. However, the relationship between emotional difficulties and later academic achievement has not been thoroughly examined. Using data from the French TEMPO study (n = 666, follow-up 1991, 1999, 2009, mean age = 10.5, sd = 4.9 at baseline), we studied associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms in: (a) childhood and (b) adolescence and educational attainment by young adulthood (< vs. ≥ high school degree), accounting for participants' age, sex, juvenile academic difficulties, and family income. High levels of childhood (but not adolescent) internalizing and externalizing symptoms were associated with low educational attainment; however, in multivariate models only the association with childhood internalizing symptoms remained statistically significant (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.02). Supporting children with internalizing problems early on could help improve their long-term educational attainment.

  17. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319

  18. Literacy Gaps by Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjoon; Kyei, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    Existing cross-national research on educational attainment does not fully address whether the same level of educational attainment generates the same level of literacy skills in different countries. We analyze literacy skills data for young adults from 19 countries in the 1994–1998 International Adult Literacy Survey and find that in all countries, individuals with a higher level of educational attainment tend to have greater literacy skills. However, there is substantial variation across countries in the size of literacy gaps by levels of educational attainment. In particular, young adults in the United States show the largest literacy gaps. Using two-level hierarchical linear models, we find that cross-national differences in the literacy gap between more- and less-educated individuals are systematically linked to the degree of between-school inequality in school resources (instructional materials, class size, teachers’ experience and certification). PMID:21818163

  19. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  20. The association of educational attainment and SBP among older community-living adults: the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Dan K.; Gross, Alden L.; Kim, Dae H.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Educational attainment is inversely associated with SBP level in young adulthood. This association has not been studied in an older cohort, and confounding and mediating factors are not well known. Methods The authors hypothesized that higher education is associated with lower levels of SBP independent of many risk factors for hypertension. This prospective observational study included a sample of 764 older community-living participants in the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study. Results Compared to participants with more than college education, regression analyses showed those with a high school education or less had a SBP value 6.33 mmHg higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55–10.10], and those who had a college education had a SBP value 4.01 mmHg higher (95% CI: 0.77–7.25) independent of many hypothesized confounders and mediators. Discussion Results of a path analysis confirmed that higher level of education was associated with lower SBP even after adjustment for hypothesized mediators. Although slightly attenuated by multivariable adjustment for hypertension risk factors, the significant inverse association between educational attainment and SBP was not entirely mediated by these risk factors. These findings indicate that education is inversely associated with SBP in a diverse cohort of community-living older adults, independent of many known or suspected risk factors. Conclusion This study is the first to report the association between education and SBP in an older sample, representing a population at the highest risk for hypertension-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:22688267

  1. The association of educational attainment and SBP among older community-living adults: the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Dan K; Gross, Alden L; Kim, Dae H; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2012-08-01

    Educational attainment is inversely associated with SBP level in young adulthood. This association has not been studied in an older cohort, and confounding and mediating factors are not well known. The authors hypothesized that higher education is associated with lower levels of SBP independent of many risk factors for hypertension. This prospective observational study included a sample of 764 older community-living participants in the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study. Compared to participants with more than college education, regression analyses showed those with a high school education or less had a SBP value 6.33 mmHg higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-10.10], and those who had a college education had a SBP value 4.01 mmHg higher (95% CI: 0.77-7.25) independent of many hypothesized confounders and mediators. Results of a path analysis confirmed that higher level of education was associated with lower SBP even after adjustment for hypothesized mediators. Although slightly attenuated by multivariable adjustment for hypertension risk factors, the significant inverse association between educational attainment and SBP was not entirely mediated by these risk factors. These findings indicate that education is inversely associated with SBP in a diverse cohort of community-living older adults, independent of many known or suspected risk factors. This study is the first to report the association between education and SBP in an older sample, representing a population at the highest risk for hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

  2. Inequality and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…

  3. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents' education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin.

  4. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Ordoñana, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents’ education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin. PMID:26618539

  5. The Relation Between Adolescent Social Competence and Young Adult Delinquency and Educational Attainment Among At-Risk Youth: The Mediating Role of Peer Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156

  6. Disparity in disability between native-born non-Hispanic white and foreign-born Asian older adults in the United States: effects of educational attainment and age at immigration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2011-04-01

    It is widely known that educational attainment has considerable influence on the prevalence of disability among native-born non-Hispanic older adults in the US. However, few studies have examined whether educational attainment has a similar effect on disability among foreign-born Asian older adults. If it does not have a similar effect on these adults, why not, and is its effect influenced by the age at which they immigrated to the US? This study addresses these questions by using the 2006 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS). Logistic regression analyses reveal that education has differential effects on the two racial groups. Education protects foreign-born Asians less than native-born non-Hispanic whites. In addition, Asian adults who immigrated earlier are less likely to experience disability. Interestingly, the interaction between age at immigration and educational attainment for foreign-born Asian older adults indicates that less educated Asians are more likely to benefit from early immigration. Heterogeneity within the Asian group is also examined. The findings suggest that educational attainment has differential effects not only on the two racial groups but also on the foreign-born Asian group depending on age at immigration.

  7. Educational Attainment. Indicator of the Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet presents data about educational attainment in the United States. The educational attainment of people aged 25 to 29 years increased between 1971 and 1998, and the percentage with a high school diploma or equivalency certificate rose from 78 to 88%. The percentage of high school completers with some college rose from 44% to 66%, and…

  8. Trends in body mass index according to educational attainment for urban Australian adults between 1980 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Gearon, E; Backholer, K; Stevenson, C; Magliano, D J; Keating, C; Ball, K; Beauchamp, A; Peeters, A

    2015-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that between the years 1980 and 2000, the mean body mass index (BMI) of the urban Australian population increased, with greater increases observed with increasing BMI. The current study aimed to quantify trends over time in BMI according to level of education between 1980 and 2007. We compared data from the 1980, 1983 and 1989 National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Studies, 1995 National Nutrition Survey, 2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study and the 2007 National Health Survey. For survey comparability, analyses were restricted to urban Australian residents aged 25-64 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. The education variable was dichotomised at completion of secondary school. Four age-standardised BMI indicators were compared over time by sex and education: mean BMI, mean BMI of the top 5% of the BMI distribution, prevalence of obesity (BMI⩾30 kg m(-)(2)), prevalence of class II(+) obesity (BMI⩾35 kg m(-)(2)). Between 1980 and 2007, the mean BMI among men increased by 2.5 and 1.7 kg m(-)(2) for those with low and high education levels, respectively, corresponding to increases in obesity prevalence of 20 (from 12-32%) and 11 (10-21%) %-points. Among women, mean BMI increased by 2.9 and 2.4 kg m(-)(2) for those with low and high education levels, respectively, corresponding to increases in obesity prevalence of 16 (12-28%) and 12 (7-19%) %-points. The prevalence of class II(+) obesity among men increased by 9 (1-10%) and 4 (1-5%) %-points for those with low and high education levels, and among women increased by 8 (4-12%) and 4 (2-6%) %-points. Absolute and relative differences between education groups generally increased over time. Educational differences in BMI have persisted among urban Australian adults since 1980 without improvement. Obesity prevention policies will need to be effective in those with greatest socio-economic disadvantage if we are to equitably and

  9. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  10. Student Attainment in Relation to Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosby, Arthur G.

    Structural and cultural inequalities hinder the attainment of approximately 25 million rural American youth. A characteristic lack of education and employment opportunities is combined with a restricted realm of attainment in rural areas. Rural people are negatively stereotyped by the mass society, as seen in an examination of linguistic terms…

  11. Disparities in Disability by Educational Attainment Across US States.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    To examine how disparities in adult disability by educational attainment vary across US states. We used the nationally representative data of more than 6 million adults aged 45 to 89 years in the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. We defined disability as difficulty with activities of daily living. We categorized education as low (less than high school), mid (high school or some college), or high (bachelor's or higher). We estimated age-standardized disability prevalence by educational attainment and state. We assessed whether the variation in disability across states occurs primarily among low-educated adults and whether it reflects the socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts. Disparities in disability by education vary markedly across states-from a 20 percentage point disparity in Massachusetts to a 12-point disparity in Wyoming. Disparities vary across states mainly because the prevalence of disability among low-educated adults varies across states. Personal and contextual socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults account for 29% of the variation. Efforts to reduce disparities in disability by education should consider state and local strategies that reduce poverty among low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts.

  12. Institutions, Social Norms, and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Informal institutions are defined as socially shared rules that guide individuals' behaviors outside of officially sanctioned channels. This paper investigates the link between individual educational attainment and education-related informal institutions by examining second-generation immigrants in the USA. I measure the education-related informal…

  13. Educational Attainment. Cuyahoga County Data Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Educational attainment is reported separately for individuals 18-24 and those 25 and over. Many individuals in the 18-24 year old group are still acquiring their education, but it is still of interest to look at their status in 2000 and 2006-2008 to determine whether more of them have completed high school or more advanced education. The number of…

  14. Institutions, Social Norms, and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Informal institutions are defined as socially shared rules that guide individuals' behaviors outside of officially sanctioned channels. This paper investigates the link between individual educational attainment and education-related informal institutions by examining second-generation immigrants in the USA. I measure the education-related informal…

  15. Influence of Educational Attainment on Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning

    2007-01-01

    In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…

  16. Community & Technical College Share of Washington's Educational Attainment Goals for 2023

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Washington Student Achievement Council (WSAC) set a 10 year plan for improving the educational attainment of Washington residents. The Roadmap included two educational attainment goals for 2023: (1) All adults in Washington, ages 25-44, will have a high school diploma or equivalent; and (2) At least 70 percent of Washington adults,…

  17. A Dynamic Analysis of Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Mark; Polk, Kenneth

    1986-01-01

    Traces the educational attainment experiences of 245 Pacific Northwest males aged 16-31 hypothesizing a main path of educational success coinciding with Rosenbaum's tournament metaphor. Indicates that though early academic success did not ensure later success, early academic failure strongly predicted later failure, but some unsuccessful students…

  18. Genetic and Environmental Transactions Underlying Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report used a population-representative longitudinal twin study with two birth cohorts to explore the association between intelligence and education by understanding how genetic and environmental influences on intelligence moderate genetic and environmental influences on school grades and educational attainment. Nonshared environmental…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Transactions Underlying Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report used a population-representative longitudinal twin study with two birth cohorts to explore the association between intelligence and education by understanding how genetic and environmental influences on intelligence moderate genetic and environmental influences on school grades and educational attainment. Nonshared environmental…

  20. Heritability of body height and educational attainment in an international context: comparison of adult twins in Minnesota and Finland.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Krueger, Robert F; Bouchard, Thomas J; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the association between self-reported height and education in Minnesota and Finland. Our data included 1,598 twin pairs in Minnesota and 5,454 twin pairs in Finland born between 1936 and 1955. Correlations between education and height were found in Minnesota (r = 0.09 in men and 0.11 in women) and in Finland (r = 0.17 and 0.14, respectively) after adjustment for age. This trait correlation was mainly because of the correlation between shared environmental factors in Minnesota (r(C) = 0.38 and 0.36, respectively) and in Finland (r(C) = 0.74 and 0.37, respectively). An unshared environmental correlation was found only in Finland (r(E) = 0.13 and 0.06, respectively). Our results indicate that the association between body height and education is overwhelmingly due to the correlation of the shared environmental factors affecting these two traits. The differences between Minnesota and Finland are possibly associated with average higher education in Minnesota, which decreases the effect of the childhood environment on education, seen as a weaker correlation between height and education. Nonfamilial factors affecting education are possibly different in Minnesota than in Finland, since in Finland they are partly associated with the factors affecting height.

  1. Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg; Lee, Kenneth T.H.; Metzger, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal dataset, this study estimates the association between children’s academic skills, anti-social behaviors and attention problems, all averaged across middle childhood, and their long-term educational outcomes. After adjusting for family and individual background measures, we find that high average levels of math and reading achievement, and low average levels of anti-social behavior problems, are positively associated with later attainment. Associations between attention problems and attainment are small. Associations are attenuated somewhat when sibling differences in these skills and behaviors are related to sibling differences in attainment outcomes. PMID:27563151

  2. Groundwater arsenic and education attainment in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael P; Sharmin, Raisa

    2015-10-26

    Thousands of groundwater tube wells serving millions of Bangladeshis are arsenic contaminated. This study investigates the effect of these wells on the education attainment and school attendance of youths who rely on those wells for drinking water. The analysis combines data from the 2006 Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2006 MICS) and the National Hydrochemical Survey (NHS) of Bangladeshi tube wells' contamination conducted between 1998 and 2000. The study uses multiple regression analysis to estimate the differences in education attainment and school attendance among the following: (i) youths who live where tube wells are safe, (ii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who report drinking from an arsenic-free source, and (iii) youths who live where tube wells are unsafe but who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source. Controlling for other determinants of education attainment and school attendance, young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe (by Bangladeshis standards) but who report drinking from arsenic-free sources are found to have the same education attainment (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and school attendance (among 6- to 10-year-olds), on average, as corresponding young Bangladeshi males who live where wells are safe. But young Bangladeshi males who live where tube wells are unsafe and who do not report drinking from an arsenic-free source attain, on average, a half-year less education (among 19- to 21-year-olds) and attend school, on average, five to seven fewer days a year (among 6- to 10-year-olds) than do other Bagladeshi males of those ages. The estimated effects for females are of the same sign but much smaller in magnitude. Bangladeshi public health measures to shift drinking from unsafe to safe wells not only advance good health but also increase males' education attainment.

  3. Educational Attainment, Teacher-Student Ratios, and the Risk of Adult Incarceration among U.S. Birth Cohorts since 1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arum, Richard; LaFree, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between school characteristics, such as teacher-student ratios, and the risk of incarceration in adulthood. Educational skeptics argue that investment in schools has little effect on outcomes, such as criminality or the risk of incarceration, because criminal propensities are fixed at an early age and…

  4. Educational Attainment in 30 Selected Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1970. Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry T.; Johnson, Charles E., Jr.

    Adults who lived in 30 of the nation's large standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) in 1970 had completed a relatively high educational attainment; about 61 percent had completed at least a high school education, including 26 percent who had completed one or more years of college. The data in this report on the educational attainment of…

  5. Orbitofrontal Function and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinella, Marcello; Miley, William M.

    2004-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays important roles in processes of reward and self-regulation. Lesions of OFC induce changes in personality and social conduct characterized by behavioral disinhibition, impulsivity, reduced autonomy, lack of concern with negative consequences, and mood lability. Many of these processes relate to aspects of education,…

  6. Educational Attainment in Southeast Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese

    2010-01-01

    In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…

  7. Orbitofrontal Function and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinella, Marcello; Miley, William M.

    2004-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays important roles in processes of reward and self-regulation. Lesions of OFC induce changes in personality and social conduct characterized by behavioral disinhibition, impulsivity, reduced autonomy, lack of concern with negative consequences, and mood lability. Many of these processes relate to aspects of education,…

  8. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  9. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  10. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  11. Life Cycles, Educational Attainment and Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsborough, H.H., Sweet, J.A.

    Two social changes are cited as particularly important to the projection of college enrollment trends. One is the rising educational attainment of the parents of future potential college attenders; the other is the fact that declines in fertility accompany declines in average family size. Overall, the illustration in this paper suggests that the…

  12. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  13. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  14. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention.

  15. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  16. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-578

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Camille L.; Bauman, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The report examines educational attainment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and disability status, as well as differences in…

  17. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  18. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  19. Assessment of adolescents' motivation for educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-06-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed.

  20. Assessment of Adolescents’ Motivation for Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  1. Trends in Educational Attainment of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Educational attainment of women has risen steadily since the turn of the century. In 1900 about 57,000 girls graduated from high school, and by 1968 the number had increased to 1.4 million. A similar rise occurred in the number of bachelor's degrees received by women. In 1900 about 5,000 graduated from college, and in 1968 the number rose to…

  2. Pursuing Post-Secondary Education in the Host Country and the Occupational Attainment of Highly Educated Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the occupational attainment of highly educated adult immigrants by employing a secondary analysis of three waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada that provide data on immigrant arrivals in 2000-2001. Occupational attainment is described in terms of matching immigrants' pre-migration occupation with the main…

  3. Pursuing Post-Secondary Education in the Host Country and the Occupational Attainment of Highly Educated Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the occupational attainment of highly educated adult immigrants by employing a secondary analysis of three waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada that provide data on immigrant arrivals in 2000-2001. Occupational attainment is described in terms of matching immigrants' pre-migration occupation with the main…

  4. The Relationship of Educational Attainment with Pulmonary Emphysema and Airway Wall Thickness.

    PubMed

    Gjerdevik, Miriam; Grydeland, Thomas B; Washko, George R; Coxson, Harvey O; Silverman, Edwin K; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per S

    2015-06-01

    Low educational attainment is a risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is limited knowledge on the relationship between educational level and computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT). We hypothesized that low educational attainment is associated with increased emphysema and AWT in ever-smokers with and without COPD. We included 462 and 485 ever-smokers with and without COPD in a cross-sectional study, aged 40-86 years. The sample was divided into groups reflecting educational attainment: primary, secondary, and university. We performed linear regression to examine associations between educational attainment and both emphysema and AWT separately for those with and without COPD. We adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, age of onset of smoking, pack-years, height, and body mass index. Compared with university education, in subjects with COPD, primary education was associated with a 68.1% (95% confidence interval = 14.2-147.6%; P = 0.01) relative increase in emphysema and secondary education was associated with a 50.6% (95% confidence interval = 5.7-114.6%; P = 0.02) relative increase. There was a nonsignificant trend toward an association between lower educational attainment and increased emphysema among those without COPD (P = 0.18), yet greater age appeared to modify this association (P = 0.01). We did not detect significant linear relationships between educational attainment and AWT in subjects with or without COPD. Lower educational attainment was associated with increased emphysema among adults with COPD. Among those without COPD, this association was more pronounced with increasing age. No significant linear relationship between educational attainment and AWT was found. Clinicians treating adults with emphysema should keep in mind that factors related to low education beyond that of smoking and occupational dust exposure might be of importance to the disease.

  5. Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets.

    PubMed

    Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-06-01

    Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women

  6. Why Florida's Educational Attainment Is Far Better than It Appears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Ted

    This paper attempts to show that Florida's high percentages of elderly and minority citizens, two groups that show considerably lower than average higher educational attainment, cause simplistic statistical analyses to rank Florida lower in educational attainment than she deserves. Controlling for these demographic factors shows that Florida is…

  7. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  8. Three Essays on the Economics of Higher Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines issues regarding the educational attainment of the U.S. workforce. Specifically, I investigate the impact of various factors on the growth of postsecondary educational attainment. This includes issues pertaining to improving the skill-level of the workforce at the regional or state level, as well as for the domestic…

  9. Adolescent Sexuality, Masculinity-Femininity, and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…

  10. Adolescent Sexuality, Masculinity-Femininity, and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…

  11. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  12. Three Essays on the Economics of Higher Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines issues regarding the educational attainment of the U.S. workforce. Specifically, I investigate the impact of various factors on the growth of postsecondary educational attainment. This includes issues pertaining to improving the skill-level of the workforce at the regional or state level, as well as for the domestic…

  13. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  14. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  15. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  16. The Pivotal Role of Education in the Association between Ability and Social Class Attainment: A Look across Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…

  17. The Pivotal Role of Education in the Association between Ability and Social Class Attainment: A Look across Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…

  18. Differing effects of education on cognitive decline in diverse elders with low versus high educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Stern, Yaakov; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-07-01

    In light of growing debate over whether and how early life educational experiences alter late-life cognitive trajectories, this study sought to more thoroughly investigate the relationship between educational attainment and rates of late-life cognitive decline in a racially, ethnically, and educationally diverse population. Older adults (N = 3,435) in the community-based Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project were administered neuropsychological tests of memory, language, visuospatial function, and processing speed at approximate 24-month intervals for up to 18 years. Second-order latent growth curves estimated direct and indirect (through income) effects of educational attainment on rates of global cognitive decline separately in individuals with low (0-8 years) and high (9-20 years) educational attainment. More years of education were associated with higher cognitive level and slower cognitive decline in individuals with low or high educational attainment. The association between having more than 9 years of education and exhibiting slower cognitive decline was fully mediated by income. Although having additional years of education up to 8 years was also associated with higher income, this did not explain associations between education and cognitive change in the low-education group. Early education (i.e., up to 8 years) may promote aspects of development during a sensitive period of childhood that protect against late-life cognitive decline independent of income. In contrast, later education (i.e., 9 years and beyond) is associated with higher income, which may influence late-life cognitive health through multiple, nonmutually exclusive pathways. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Differing effects of education on cognitive decline in diverse elders with low versus high educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Stern, Yaakov; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In light of growing debate over whether and how early-life educational experiences alter late-life cognitive trajectories, this study sought to more thoroughly investigate the relationship between educational attainment and rates of late-life cognitive decline in a racially, ethnically, and educationally diverse population. Method 3,435 older adults in the community-based Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project were administered neuropsychological tests of memory, language, visuospatial function, and processing speed at approximate 24-month intervals for up to 18 years. Second-order latent growth curves estimated direct and indirect (through income) effects of educational attainment on rates of global cognitive decline separately in individuals with low (0-8 years) and high (9-20 years) educational attainment. Results More years of education was associated with higher cognitive level and slower cognitive decline in individuals with low or high educational attainment. The association between having more than 9 years of education and exhibiting slower cognitive decline was fully mediated by income. While additional years of education up to 8 years was also associated with higher income, this did not explain associations between education and cognitive change in the low-education group. Conclusions Early education (i.e., up to 8 years) may promote aspects of development during a sensitive period of childhood that protect against late-life cognitive decline independent of income. In contrast, later education (i.e., beyond 9 years) is associated with higher income, which may influence late-life cognitive health through multiple, non-mutually exclusive pathways. PMID:25222199

  20. Family dynamics, gender differences and educational attainment in Filipino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between parenting style, marital relationships and subsequent educational attainment is explored among 1428 Filipino adolescents attending school in 1994 and 1096 attending school in 1999. Girls in households where their fathers physically abused their mothers were significantly less likely to complete primary school, and girls who reported parental arguments completed fewer grades. In contrast, girls in households where parents made decisions jointly were more likely to finish secondary school and attain more grades. Boys attained more education if they reported being close to their mothers. Boys with authoritative mothers attained more grades and were more likely to complete secondary school as compared to boys with neglectful mothers. In this context, marital relationships and parent-child relationships are important for understanding adolescent educational attainment.

  1. Black-White Differences in the Educational Attainment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerckhoff, Alan C.; Campbell, Richard T.

    1977-01-01

    The five-stage multivariate "Wisconsin model" was used to explain comparative educational and occupational attainment of blacks and whites in a sample of boys studied in 1969 and again in 1974. Socioeconomic status has little explanatory power for blacks. Ambition and high school performance are stronger predictors of attainment for blacks than…

  2. Social Origins and Attitudinal Effects on Educational Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    Research objectives were to present and analyze a causal model of educational attainment and to include with parental socioeconomic status the number of siblings as an intervening social origin variable impacting on attitudes and attainment. Data were obtained from a three-wave longitudinal study (1966, 1968, and 1972) of 221 white nonmetropolitan…

  3. Gender variation in developmental trajectories of educational and occupational expectations and attainment from adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mello, Zena R

    2008-07-01

    Adolescents' future expectations are a potentially important precursor of adult attainment and may illuminate how males and females vary in schooling and work. Thus, this longitudinal study examined gender variation in developmental trajectories of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood and in connection to corresponding adult attainment. National data (NELS:88) including individuals aged 14 to 26 and hierarchical linear modeling analyses yielded several findings: Males and females had similar developmental trajectories of educational expectations from adolescence to adulthood with the sample average expecting to attend college. Probabilities of expecting a professional occupation were lower for males than females. Adolescent educational and occupational expectations predicted corresponding attainment in adulthood, although the relationship varied by gender. Males who reported high occupational expectations in adolescence had higher occupational attainment in adulthood compared to males with low occupational expectations, whereas females' adult occupational attainment did not vary by their adolescent occupational expectations. Gender variation in expectations and attainment is discussed in light of historical changes, and future directions of research are proposed.

  4. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J.; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W.; Damian, Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Background People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). Methods This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health—including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents’ attractiveness—and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Results Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Conclusions Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged

  5. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W; Damian, Rodica

    2016-01-01

    People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health-including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents' attractiveness-and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds than for people from advantaged

  6. Preparing Educators of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M.; And Others

    Model programs are described for two areas of adult education--the preparation of adult educators and the training conducted by adult educators. In Chapter One, Phyllis Caldwell reviews the literature concerning the preservice training of adult educators, concentrating on the competencies of adult education administrators and teachers. In Chapter…

  7. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  8. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  9. Educational attainment moderates the associations of diabetes education with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes education is a critical element of care for people with diabetes. However, the associations between diabetes education and self-care or health outcomes have not been clearly demonstrated at a national level. The aims of this study were to examine the associations of attendance of diabetes education classes with health behaviours and glycaemic control, and to understand whether these associations were moderated by level of educational attainment. Data were analysed for 456 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, collected from January 2010 to December 2012. No significant differences were observed between patients who had attended diabetes education classes and those who had never attended for factors such as smoking, drinking, exercise, nutrition therapy or glycaemic control. There was a significant interaction effect between receiving diabetes education and level of educational attainment on obtaining optimal glycaemic control. Attending diabetes education was positively associated with optimal glycaemic control among patients with more than a high school education but was negatively associated with it among those with less than middle school education. Diabetes education programmes need to be tailored to the needs and cognitive capacities of the target population.

  10. Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg J.; Lee, Kenneth T. H.; Metzger, Molly W.

    2016-01-01

    Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle-childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal data set, this study estimates the association between children's…

  11. Predicting Young Adult Degree Attainment by Late Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Kloska, Deborah D.; Patrick, Megan E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assess whether infrequent and frequent marijuana use at age 19/20 predicts receipt of educational degrees by the mid 20s, independent of confounding age 18 adolescent risk factors. Methods Data were from the Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally-representative survey of high school seniors followed into adulthood. Thirteen cohorts (1990 to 2002) of high school seniors were followed longitudinally to their mid 20s (n=4,925; 54% female). We used logistic regression and propensity score matching with successive inclusion of age 18 risk factors and substance use to compare age 19/20 frequent marijuana users (6+ occasions in past 30 days) to non-users, frequent users to infrequent users (1 to 6 occasions), and infrequent users to non-users on their likelihood of degree attainment by the mid 20s. Results Frequent marijuana users were less likely than infrequent users and non-users to earn Bachelor’s degrees, even after controlling for a host of age 18 risk factors (e.g., family socioeconomic background, academic performance, educational expectations, truancy). However, these differences were reduced in magnitude to statistical non-significance when we controlled for age 18 substance use. Across analyses, the proportion reaching this educational milestone did not differ significantly between infrequent users and non-users. Conclusions Results support a growing body of work suggesting that frequent marijuana use predicts a lower likelihood of post-secondary educational attainment, and this difference may originate during secondary school. PMID:26206441

  12. The Declining Relative Importance of Ability in Predicting Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo-Rueda, Fernando; Vignoles, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Countries devise policies to encourage higher ability children from low economic backgrounds to attain better education so that they contribute to the nation. A study of the trends in Britain reveal that not withstanding the educational policies, low ability children with high economic status tended to have largest achievements in education.

  13. Understanding Links Between Adolescent Health and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, MARGOT I.

    2009-01-01

    The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents’ health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling. PMID:20084824

  14. A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and Hispanic Adolescents' Educational and Occupational Expectations and Corresponding Attainment in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Anton-Stang, Hilary M.; Monaghan, Patricia L.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about school and work may be key antecedents of adult attainment and this relationship may vary by specific racial, ethnic, and gender groups. This article examines how educational and occupational expectations change in adolescence and how expectations predict corresponding attainment in adulthood. Participants included…

  15. The Educational Attainment Process among Adolescents with Disabilities and Children of Parents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandra, Carrie L.; Hogan, Dennis P.

    2009-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the relationship between disability, parental and youth university expectations in 1997, and youth high school completion and university enrolment by 2003. Results indicate that educational attainment is not equal for young adults with and without…

  16. Expanding Notions of Social Reproduction: Grandparents' Educational Attainment and Grandchildren's Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jason L.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited privilege and status remain powerful factors in the distribution of opportunity in American life. These transfers of socioeconomic resources across generations are facilitated by the links between adult educational attainment and children's cognitive skills. Our current study expands the notion of social reproduction beyond this narrow…

  17. The Educational Attainment Process among Adolescents with Disabilities and Children of Parents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandra, Carrie L.; Hogan, Dennis P.

    2009-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the relationship between disability, parental and youth university expectations in 1997, and youth high school completion and university enrolment by 2003. Results indicate that educational attainment is not equal for young adults with and without…

  18. Investigating the Relationship between the Quality of Education and Level of Educational Attainment in Turkish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    Research in comparative and international education indicates that the quality of education, as measured by standardized tests, and the level of educational attainment have a significant impact on individual earning and national economic growth. However, the relationship between the quality of education and the level of educational attainment has…

  19. Investigating the Relationship between the Quality of Education and Level of Educational Attainment in Turkish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    Research in comparative and international education indicates that the quality of education, as measured by standardized tests, and the level of educational attainment have a significant impact on individual earning and national economic growth. However, the relationship between the quality of education and the level of educational attainment has…

  20. Compulsory Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John, Comp.; Rosenberg, Joel, Comp.

    A preliminary bibliography for a seminar on compulsory adult education is presented. A total of 231 annotated entries are given. Entries are divided into four categories: (1) compulsory adult education in general; (2) concepts significant to adult education, including lifelong education, permanent education, the educative society, the knowledge…

  1. Does a woman's educational attainment influence in vitro fertilization outcomes?

    PubMed

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Berry, Katharine F; Hornstein, Mark D; Cramer, Daniel W; Missmer, Stacey A

    2011-06-30

    The association between educational level and cycle outcomes was quantified by applying multivariable logistic and linear regression within a prospective cohort of 2,569 women commencing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Although a woman's educational attainment was not associated with the likelihood of implantation failure, chemical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, or live birth, the odds of cycle cancellation before egg retrieval were 40% lower among those with an college degree and 48% lower among those with graduate school attendance compared with women who had no college degree, suggesting that educational attainment is inversely associated with the likelihood of cycle cancellation.

  2. Educational attainment and suicide rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relationship between educational attainment and suicide rate in the United States for 2001. Suicide rates, adjusted for age, were compared with percentage of college graduates, median household income, and poverty in 50 states in 2001. The correlations of suicide rates with educational attainment and median household income were both negative and statistically significant. Poverty was not significantly related to suicide rates. We concluded that higher education and income were associated with a decrease in suicide rates in 2001. Data from other years require examination for this conclusion to be generalizable.

  3. Childhood Adversities and Educational Attainment in Young Adulthood: The Role of Mental Health Problems in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Almansa, Josue; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment in young adulthood can be explained by mental health problems in adolescence and whether associations and pathways differ for boys and girls. Data were used of 2,230 participants from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a Dutch prospective cohort study with a 9-year follow-up. Childhood adversities were measured at age 11 years, mental health problems (i.e., externalizing, internalizing and attention problems with Youth Self-Report) at age 16 years, and educational attainment at age 19 years. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data, overall and stratified by gender. Only among boys, childhood adversities were associated with low educational attainment in young adulthood. Externalizing problems in adolescence explained 5% of the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment. Furthermore, for both boys and girls, externalizing problems in adolescence had a direct effect on educational attainment in young adulthood. Among boys, childhood adversities are associated with poorer educational outcomes of young adults. A part of this association runs via adolescent externalizing problems. The results suggest that boys, compared with girls, are less capable to cope with childhood adversities. Monitoring of exposed boys to childhood adversities is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: The Role of Household Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    High intergenerational persistence of educational attainment is an indicator of educational inequality and a barrier to equal opportunities in the labor market and beyond. This study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to generate a sample of two cohorts of children ('84 and '94 cohorts), and it examines whether intergenerational…

  5. The Aspiration-Attainment Gap: Black Students and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample from two waves of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), this research examines the aspiration-attainment gap that exists for Black students (N = 823). This gap is a measure of the difference between the educational level students said they aspired to reach reported in 1988 when attending 8th…

  6. The Relative Impact of Educational Attainment and Fatherlessness on Criminality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    Regression analysis of 40 years of data on median income, education, divorce rate, and female-headed households was conducted to determine their influence on crime rates, especially homicide. Educational attainment had a significant bearing on criminality. Single parenting was less significant than low income. (SK)

  7. The Sports Participation Effect on Educational Attainment of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…

  8. Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1991 and 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, Robert; Adams, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    This report contains data on the educational attainment of persons in the United States from the Current Population Surveys of the Census in March 1990 and 1991. Summary data on years of school completed by: (1) age; (2) sex; (3) race; (4) Hispanic origin; (5) marital status; (6) household relationship; (7) education of spouse; (8) labor force…

  9. The Sports Participation Effect on Educational Attainment of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…

  10. Selection against variants in the genome associated with educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Augustine; Frigge, Michael L.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Stefansson, Hreinn; Young, Alexander I.; Zink, Florian; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A.; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Helgason, Agnar; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and genetic association studies show that genetics play an important role in the attainment of education. Here, we investigate the effect of this genetic component on the reproductive history of 109,120 Icelanders and the consequent impact on the gene pool over time. We show that an educational attainment polygenic score, POLYEDU, constructed from results of a recent study is associated with delayed reproduction (P < 10−100) and fewer children overall. The effect is stronger for women and remains highly significant after adjusting for educational attainment. Based on 129,808 Icelanders born between 1910 and 1990, we find that the average POLYEDU has been declining at a rate of ∼0.010 standard units per decade, which is substantial on an evolutionary timescale. Most importantly, because POLYEDU only captures a fraction of the overall underlying genetic component the latter could be declining at a rate that is two to three times faster. PMID:28096410

  11. A sequence variant associating with educational attainment also affects childhood cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Jónsdóttir, Guðrún A.; Björnsdóttir, Gyða; Konte, Bettina; Sulem, Patrick; Kristmundsdóttir, Snædís; Kehr, Birte; Gústafsson, Ómar; Helgason, Hannes; Iordache, Paul D.; Ólafsson, Sigurgeir; Frigge, Michael L.; Þorleifsson, Guðmar; Arnarsdóttir, Sunna; Stefánsdóttir, Berglind; Giegling, Ina; Djurovic, Srdjan; Sundet, Kjetil S.; Espeseth, Thomas; Melle, Ingrid; Hartmann, Annette M.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kong, Augustine; Guðbjartsson, Daníel F.; Ettinger, Ulrich; Andreassen, Ole A.; Dan Rujescu; Halldórsson, Jónas G.; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Stefánsson, Kári

    2016-01-01

    Only a few common variants in the sequence of the genome have been shown to impact cognitive traits. Here we demonstrate that polygenic scores of educational attainment predict specific aspects of childhood cognition, as measured with IQ. Recently, three sequence variants were shown to associate with educational attainment, a confluence phenotype of genetic and environmental factors contributing to academic success. We show that one of these variants associating with educational attainment, rs4851266-T, also associates with Verbal IQ in dyslexic children (P = 4.3 × 10−4, β = 0.16 s.d.). The effect of 0.16 s.d. corresponds to 1.4 IQ points for heterozygotes and 2.8 IQ points for homozygotes. We verified this association in independent samples consisting of adults (P = 8.3 × 10−5, β = 0.12 s.d., combined P = 2.2 x 10−7, β = 0.14 s.d.). Childhood cognition is unlikely to be affected by education attained later in life, and the variant explains a greater fraction of the variance in verbal IQ than in educational attainment (0.7% vs 0.12%,. P = 1.0 × 10−5). PMID:27811963

  12. Post-Secondary Expectations and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarra, Daniel T.; Ambrosino, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized student, teacher, and parent expectations during high school to analyze their predictive effect on post-secondary education status two years after scheduled graduation. The sample included 5,353 students, parents and teachers who participated in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS; 2002-2006). The researchers analyzed data…

  13. Latinos and Education: Explaining the Attainment Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pew Hispanic Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of The 2009 National Survey of Latinos, which asked Hispanics ages 16 and older about their educational goals, experiences with high schools and colleges, and their opinions about educational institutions. The survey was conducted from Aug. 5 through Sept. 16, 2009, among a randomly selected, nationally…

  14. Educational Attainment and Mortality in the United States: Effects of Degrees, Years of Schooling, and Certification

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Zajacova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented a strong and consistent education gradient for mortality, with more highly educated individuals living longer than those with less education. This study contributes to our understanding of the education-mortality relationship by determining the effects of years of education and degree attainment on mortality, and by including nondegree certification, an important but understudied dimension of educational attainment. We use data from the mortality-linked restricted-use files of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) sample (N=9,821) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk among U.S. adults. Results indicate that more advanced degrees and additional years of education are associated with reduced mortality risk in separate models, but when included simultaneously, only degrees remain influential. Among individuals who have earned a high school diploma only, additional years of schooling (beyond 12) and vocational school certification (or similar accreditation) are both independently associated with reduced risks of death. Degrees appear to be most important for increasing longevity; the findings also suggest that any educational experience can be beneficial. Future research in health and mortality should consider including educational measures beyond a single variable for educational attainment. PMID:27482124

  15. The Effect of Migraine Headache on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…

  16. Doubling Up: Intensive Math Instruction and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena; Goodman, Joshua; Nomi, Takako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the long-run impacts (i.e. on educational attainment) of a freshman math intervention called "double-dose algebra". The intervention was conducted in 2003 and 2004 within the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), a large, poor urban school district. In response to low passing rates in 9th grade algebra,…

  17. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

  18. Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wit, Kurt; Heerwegh, Dirk; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account that universities assume students will have at least some basic knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet, we hypothesize that the command of ICT skills by freshmen could have an influence on their educational attainment. To test this hypothesis an online questionnaire was used, which was answered by a representative…

  19. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  20. Penalized or Privileged? Sexual Identity, Gender, and Postsecondary Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leigh E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature on educational attainment indicates that there is both a female advantage and an LGB bonus: women are more likely to have earned bachelor's degrees than men, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are more likely to have earned a bachelor's degree than heterosexuals. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  1. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years; and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about certain isolated individual resources, disregarding…

  2. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years; and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about certain isolated individual resources, disregarding…

  3. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Educational Attainment in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Mulvey, Charles; Martin, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Data from a large sample of Australian twins indicate that 50 to 65 percent of variance in educational attainments can be attributed to genetic endowments. Only about 25 to 40 percent may be due to environmental factors, depending on adjustments for measurement error and assortative mating. (Contains 51 references.) (MLH)

  4. The Effects of College Type and Characteristics on Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristine L.

    The effects of institutional types and their structural and compositional characteristics on students entering two- or four-year academic programs were examined, with a focus on students' educational attainment. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Individual student variables were considered,…

  5. The Impact of Repealing Sunday Closing Laws on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dara N.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents face daily tradeoffs between human capital investment, labor, and leisure. This paper exploits state variation in the repeal of Sunday closing laws to examine the impact of a distinct and plausibly exogenous rise in the quantity of competing diversions available to youth on their educational attainment. The results suggest that the…

  6. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

  7. Family Dynamics, Gender Differences and Educational Attainment in Filipino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindin, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between parenting style, marital relationships and subsequent educational attainment is explored among 1428 Filipino adolescents attending school in 1994 and 1096 attending school in 1999. Girls in households where their fathers physically abused their mothers were significantly less likely to complete primary school, and girls…

  8. Family Dynamics, Gender Differences and Educational Attainment in Filipino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindin, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between parenting style, marital relationships and subsequent educational attainment is explored among 1428 Filipino adolescents attending school in 1994 and 1096 attending school in 1999. Girls in households where their fathers physically abused their mothers were significantly less likely to complete primary school, and girls…

  9. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  10. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  11. The Effect of Migraine Headache on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…

  12. Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wit, Kurt; Heerwegh, Dirk; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account that universities assume students will have at least some basic knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet, we hypothesize that the command of ICT skills by freshmen could have an influence on their educational attainment. To test this hypothesis an online questionnaire was used, which was answered by a representative…

  13. The Impact of Repealing Sunday Closing Laws on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dara N.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents face daily tradeoffs between human capital investment, labor, and leisure. This paper exploits state variation in the repeal of Sunday closing laws to examine the impact of a distinct and plausibly exogenous rise in the quantity of competing diversions available to youth on their educational attainment. The results suggest that the…

  14. Penalized or Privileged? Sexual Identity, Gender, and Postsecondary Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leigh E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature on educational attainment indicates that there is both a female advantage and an LGB bonus: women are more likely to have earned bachelor's degrees than men, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are more likely to have earned a bachelor's degree than heterosexuals. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  15. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  16. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  17. Adult Education Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Clyde W.

    1975-01-01

    Summarized are speeches dealing with adult education's stiff-necked adherence to middle-class values; the need for upgraded management skills; and a report of a study of adult education in area vocational schools in Georgia. (Author/AJ)

  18. Adult Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains 13 articles that reflect the development of adult education in Israel during recent years. The material relates to the principal areas with which the Division of Adult Education deals: formal and nonformal education for adults, language and cultural absorption of new immigrants, and training of facilitators for parental…

  19. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  20. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  1. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  2. Adult Educators' Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…

  3. Liberal Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toiviainen, Timo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses providers of and the concept of liberal adult education in Finland. Providers include (1) folk high schools, (2) adult education centers, (3) voluntary popular organizations, (4) public libraries, (5) evening schools, (6) cooperative groups formed of universities and other adult education providers, (7) summer universities, and (8)…

  4. Adult Educators' Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…

  5. Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

    Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

  6. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  7. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  8. Anomaly in the education–health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels

    PubMed Central

    Zajacova, Anna; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education-health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group) reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS) diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups. Using the restricted 1999–2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: “some college”, vocational associate degree (AA), and academic AA. The data show that adults with “some college” or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile. This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling. PMID:28580414

  9. The role of mentor type and timing in predicting educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Fruiht, Veronica M; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Having an adult mentor during adolescence has been found to predict academic success. Building on previous work, the present study examined interactions between the type of mentor (i.e., kin, teacher, friend, or community), the time that mentor became important (i.e., before, during, or after high school), and the ethnicity of the protégé in predicting educational attainment in young adulthood. Analyses used Waves III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,409). Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 27 (M = 21.75, SD = 1.79). The sample was 56.7 % female and nationally representative of ethnic diversity. Analyses showed that having a teacher-mentor was more predictive of educational attainment than having other types of mentors and that overall, having a mentor after high school predicts the most educational attainment. Kin- and community-mentors appeared to be more important to educational attainment during and before high school, respectively. Findings were consistent across ethnic groups. Overall, results highlight the value of teacher-mentors throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood and our study further suggests that different types of mentors may be particularly useful at specific points in development.

  10. The Effect of Sibship Size on Educational Attainment in China: Period Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yao; Treiman, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    In industrialized nations, sibship size generally depresses educational attainment: the larger the number of siblings, the lower the educational attainment. This association is much less consistent in developing nations, however. This article examines the effect that the number of siblings has on educational attainment in China, a nation that has…

  11. Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-09-01

    Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60-64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p=.002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function.

  12. Students with reading and spelling disabilities: peer groups and educational attainment in secondary education.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Haverinen, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in reading and spelling disabilities and whether this similarity contributes to subsequent school achievement and educational attainment. The sample consisted of 375 Finnish adolescents whose reading and spelling disabilities were assessed at age 16 with the Finnish dyslexia screening test. The students also completed a sociometric nomination measure that was used to identify their peer groups. Register information on participants' school grades also was available, and educational attainment in secondary education was recorded 5 years after completion of the 9 years of basic education. The results revealed that the members of adolescent peer groups resembled each other in reading disabilities but not in those of spelling. Reading disabilities and academic achievement shared within the peer group also contributed to educational attainment in secondary education. Finally, reading disabilities played a larger role in educational attainment among males than among females.

  13. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…

  14. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…

  15. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry; And Others

    Folk high schools, study circles, labor market training, union education, and municipal adult schools are the major providers of adult education in Sweden. For the most part, these programs are financed by the government and are tuition free. Folk high schools, which are the oldest type, were founded to provide young adults with a general civic…

  16. Navajo Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.

    The objectives of this Special Experimental Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education for the Navajo were: (1) to raise the educational and social level of Navajo adult students who are unable to read, write, and speak English; (2) to assist the Navajo adult students to take advantage of occupational and vocational training programs; (3) to…

  17. Educational Attainment and Motor Burden in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Kotagal, Vikas; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Müller, Martijn L.T.M.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Frey, Kirk A.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Albin, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Greater educational attainment is a protective factor for neurodegenerative dementias. If education earlier in life leads to greater cerebral reserve, it may play a similar protective role in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional clinical-imaging study of 142 subjects with PD. All subjects underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine PET to confirm nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation and brain MRI to estimate adjusted cortical grey matter volume. RESULTS After adjusting for possible confounders including cognitive and dopaminergic covariates, as well as non-specific neurodegeneration covariates (age, disease duration, and total adjusted cortical gray matter volume), lower years of education remained a significant predictor of higher total MDS-UPDRS motor score (t=−3.28, p=0.001). Education level associated inversely with white matter hyperintensities in a post-hoc analysis (n=83). CONCLUSIONS Higher educational attainment is associated with lower severity of motor impairment in PD. This association may reflect an extranigral protective effect upon white matter integrity. PMID:26096339

  18. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education);…

  19. Adult Education for Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, A.

    Section 1 of this study reviews the insufficiency of literacy and basic education programs for adults offered by the colonial Ministry of Education in Zimbabwe prior to independence (1980). While section 2 emphasizes the significance of adult education for the new nation's development, including its implications for manpower training and the…

  20. Trends in Life Expectancy and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment: United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25--the standard deviation of age at death above 25--by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata.

  1. Delirium in elderly patients: association with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Sónia; Paiva, José Artur; Simões, Mário R; Fernandes, Lia

    2017-04-01

    Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment. The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20-9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication. Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.

  2. The Role of Task Persistence in Young Adolescence for Successful Educational and Occupational Attainment in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program…

  3. The Role of Task Persistence in Young Adolescence for Successful Educational and Occupational Attainment in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program…

  4. Sexual orientation disparities in mental health: the moderating role of educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David M; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hamilton, Ava D; Keyes, Katherine M

    2014-09-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals remain inadequately understood, especially across levels of educational attainment. The purpose of the present study was to test whether education modifies the association between sexual orientation and mental disorder. We compared the odds of past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorder prevalence (any Axis-I, any mood, any anxiety, any substance use, and comorbidity) between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual individuals by educational attainment (those with and without a bachelor's degree), adjusting for covariates, and tested for interaction between sexual orientation and educational attainment. Data are drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized US adults (N = 34,653; 577 LGB). Sexual orientation disparities in mental health are smaller among those with a college education. Specifically, the disparity in those with versus those without a bachelor's degree was attenuated by 100 % for any current mood disorder, 82 % for any current Axis-I disorder, 76 % for any current anxiety disorder, and 67 % for both any current substance use disorder and any current comorbidity. Further, the interaction between sexual orientation and education was statistically significant for any current Axis-I disorder, any current mood disorder, and any current anxiety disorder. Our findings for lifetime outcomes were similar. The attenuated mental health disparity at higher education levels underscores the particular risk for disorder among LGBs with less education. Future studies should consider selection versus causal factors to explain the attenuated disparity we found at higher education levels.

  5. The Educational Attainment Process Among Adolescents with Disabilities And Children of Parents with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shandra, Carrie L; Hogan, Dennis P

    2009-11-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the relationship between disability, parental and youth university expectations in 1997, and youth high school completion and university enrolment by 2003. Results indicate that educational attainment is not equal for young adults with and without disabilities in the United States. Parents-but not adolescents-are likely to reduce their educational expectations when adolescents have a mild or serious disability, net of school performance. These parental-but not adolescent-expectations are significantly associated with high school completion. Finally, even after controlling for educational expectations and school performance, youth with serious disabilities are much less likely to graduate from high school than youth without disabilities. Despite the considerable strides made in the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, students with disabilities are not achieving educational parity in graded schooling.

  6. Pathways from parental educational attainment to adolescent blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Man Ki; Schooling, Catherine Mary; Subramanian, Subu V; Leung, Gabriel M; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Lower parental education is associated with higher adolescent blood pressure (BP). We examined the contribution of modifiable risk factors from infancy to adolescence that could potentially explain the link between parental education and SBP and DBP in the offspring. In a prospective Chinese birth cohort, 'Children of 1997' of 5604 adolescents (68% follow-up), we analyzed the relation between parental educational attainment and sex-specific, age-specific and height-specific BP z-scores at ∼13 years. Using mediation analysis, we examined the contribution of household income at birth (both absolute income and relative income deprivation), exposures during infancy (breastfeeding and early life second-hand smoking), lifestyles during childhood (diet, physical activity and screen-time), weight or BMI status during fetal, infancy, childhood and puberty, pubertal stage as well as parental BMI. We found that adolescent BMI, but not birth weight or infant growth or childhood BMI, mediated the inverse association of parental education with adolescent SBP (proportion mediated: 24%), followed by maternal BMI (proportion mediated: 18%). Factors explaining the link between parental education and DBP were less clear. Absolute income, breastfeeding, childhood diet and physical activity, pubertal stage and paternal BMI did not mediate the association between parental education and adolescent BP. Low parental education is a risk factor for high SBP and, to a lesser extent, DBP in adolescents. Important mediators of this relation include adolescent and maternal body weight.

  7. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  8. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  9. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  10. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  11. Impact of Educational Attainment on Health Outcomes in Moderate to Severe CKD.

    PubMed

    Morton, Rachael L; Schlackow, Iryna; Staplin, Natalie; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Haynes, Richard; Emberson, Jonathan; Herrington, William; Landray, Martin J; Baigent, Colin; Mihaylova, Borislava

    2016-01-01

    The inverse association between educational attainment and mortality is well established, but its relevance to vascular events and renal progression in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. This study aims to determine the association between highest educational attainment and risk of vascular events, cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression. Prospective epidemiologic analysis among participants in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), a randomized controlled trial. 9,270 adults with moderate to severe CKD (6,245 not receiving dialysis at baseline) and no history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization recruited in Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Highest educational attainment measured at study entry using 6 levels that ranged from "no formal education" to "tertiary education." Any vascular event (any fatal or nonfatal cardiac, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular event), cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression during 4.9 years' median follow-up. There was a significant trend (P<0.001) toward increased vascular risk with decreasing levels of education. Participants with no formal education were at a 46% higher risk of vascular events (relative risk [RR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.86) compared with participants with tertiary education. The trend for mortality across education levels was also significant (P<0.001): all-cause mortality was twice as high among those with no formal education compared with tertiary-educated individuals (RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.62-2.58), and significant increases were seen for both vascular (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.21-2.81) and nonvascular (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.60-2.89) deaths. Lifestyle factors and prior disease explain most of the excess mortality risk. Among 6,245 participants not receiving dialysis at baseline, education level was not significantly associated with progression to end-stage renal disease or doubling of creatinine level (P for trend = 0.4). No

  12. Are there neighborhood effects on young adult neighborhood attainment? Evidence from mixed-logit models.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio; Pylman, Maureen; Vélez, William

    2017-05-01

    Studies of racial residential attainment show an intergenerational transmission of racial contexts from youth to adulthood, but it is unclear why this transmission is so robust. It is possible that experiences in racial contexts during youth have lasting effects on neighborhood selection in adulthood, but evidence for this claim has come from research using statistical methods that suffer from problems of ecological dependence and conflation of other neighborhood characteristics. In this study, we address these limitations using mixed-logit models, a form of discrete choice analyses, allowing us to control for differences across metropolitan areas and for multiple characteristics of neighborhoods that may affect the selection of destination neighborhoods. Data for the analyses come from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, the 1990 and 2000 Censuses, and other sources. We find that most of the intergenerational process results from young adults moving to neighborhoods short distances from their origin ones, but the models also suggest a contextual effect of youth experiences in racial compositions on neighborhood selection. The latter finding indicates that policies promoting integration among youth can have long-lasting effects on residential attainment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implications of Educational Attainment Trends for Labor Market Outcomes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (7)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Well-educated workers have higher wages, higher wage growth, and lower unemployment rates than workers with lower levels of educational attainment. While earnings have traditionally grown with educational attainment, the gaps have become more pronounced in recent years. While returns to education have increased, this research shows that…

  14. Adolescent depression and educational attainment: results using sibling fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2010-07-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between adolescent depression and educational attainment in several ways. First, while cross-sectional data are normally used, this paper uses longitudinal data in order to defend against the potential of reverse causality. Second, this is the first paper in the literature to control for sibling-fixed effects in examining the relationship between adolescent depressive symptoms and human capital accumulation. Importantly, this eliminates omitted factors such as family and neighborhood characteristics common to siblings that affect both depressive symptoms and educational attainments (e.g. neighborhood crime, and family resources). Third, this paper examines the effects of both an indicator and scale of depressive symptoms and finds important associations with these depressive symptoms and human capital accumulation. Though the results cannot be given a causal interpretation, the findings show a negative relationship between depressive symptoms and years of schooling. The relationship appears to be driven primarily through increasing the chances of dropping out but may have small impacts on the likelihood of college attendance (conditional on high school graduation). In particular, preferred estimates suggest that a standard deviation increase in depressive symptoms is associated with a 25-30% increase in the likelihood of dropping out. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille; Reneflot, Anne; Mykletun, Arnstein; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2016-03-15

    There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression. This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. The sample consisted of 10 149 participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used linear regression to estimate associations between educational attainment, delayed HS completion and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. We found delayed HS completion to be associated with higher symptom levels of both anxiety and depression. There was a dose-response association suggesting that each additional year of delay in HS was associated with higher symptom levels for both anxiety and depression. Mean symptom levels of both anxiety and depression were significantly lower among individuals who completed HS within a normative timeframe vs those who were substantially delayed in their HS completion. For anxiety symptoms, we found a statistically significant interaction between delayed HS completion and later educational attainment. This interaction suggested that individuals with a combination of being delayed in HS and having no higher educational attainment had significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms than all other combinations of later educational attainment and normative/delayed HS completion. For depression, associations between predictors and symptom levels were

  16. Intraindividual neuropsychological test variability in healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Holster, Jessica L; Golden, Charles J

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge of patterns of neuropsychological performance among normal, healthy individuals is integral to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, because clinicians may not always account for intraindividual variability (IIV) before coming to diagnostic conclusions. The IIV was assessed among a sample of 46 healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment, utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition (WMS-IV). The data indicated substantial variability in neurocognitive abilities. All participants were found to demonstrate scores considered impaired by at least 2 standard deviations (SDs). Despite adjusting for outliers, no participant produced a "normal" testing profile with an intraindividual maximum discrepancy (MD) of less than 1 SD in either direction. When WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was considered, participants generally demonstrated cognitive test scores ranging from 2 SDs less than to 1.5 SDs greater than their FSIQ. Furthermore, after demographic corrections, the majority (59%) of participants demonstrated at least 1 impaired cognitive test score, as defined by being 1 to 1.5 SDs below the mean. Overall, results substantiate the need for clinicians to consider FSIQ and educational attainment in interpretation of neuropsychological testing results, given the relevant commonality of "abnormal" test scores within this population. This may ultimately reduce the likelihood of making false-positive conclusions of impairment when educational attainment and intelligence are high, thus improving diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Skin color, sex, and educational attainment in the post-civil rights era.

    PubMed

    Branigan, Amelia R; Freese, Jeremy; Patir, Assaf; McDade, Thomas W; Liu, Kiang; Kiefe, Catarina I

    2013-11-01

    We assess the relationship between skin color and educational attainment for native-born non-Hispanic Black and White men and women, using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. CARDIA is a medical cohort study with twenty years of social background data and a continuous measure of skin color, recorded as the percent of light reflected off skin. For Black men and women, we find a one-standard-deviation increase in skin lightness to be associated with a quarter-year increase in educational attainment. For White women, we find an association approximately equal in magnitude to that found for Black respondents, and the pattern of significance across educational transitions suggests that skin color for White women is not simply a proxy for family background. For White men, any relationship between skin color and attainment is not robust and, analyses suggest, might primarily reflect differences in family background. Findings suggest that discrimination on the basis of skin color may be less specific to race than previously thought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preference for Boys, Family Size, and Educational Attainment in India.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Adriana D; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to be enrolled in school, with larger effects for rural, poorer, and low-caste families as well as for families with illiterate mothers.

  19. Impact of Educational Attainment on Health Outcomes in Moderate to Severe CKD

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Rachael L.; Schlackow, Iryna; Staplin, Natalie; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Haynes, Richard; Emberson, Jonathan; Herrington, William; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; Mihaylova, Borislava

    2016-01-01

    Background The inverse association between educational attainment and mortality is well established, but its relevance to vascular events and renal progression in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. This study aims to determine the association between highest educational attainment and risk of vascular events, cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression. Study Design Prospective epidemiologic analysis among participants in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), a randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants 9,270 adults with moderate to severe CKD (6,245 not receiving dialysis at baseline) and no history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization recruited in Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Predictor Highest educational attainment measured at study entry using 6 levels that ranged from “no formal education” to “tertiary education.” Outcomes Any vascular event (any fatal or nonfatal cardiac, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular event), cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression during 4.9 years’ median follow-up. Results There was a significant trend (P < 0.001) toward increased vascular risk with decreasing levels of education. Participants with no formal education were at a 46% higher risk of vascular events (relative risk [RR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.86) compared with participants with tertiary education. The trend for mortality across education levels was also significant (P < 0.001): all-cause mortality was twice as high among those with no formal education compared with tertiary-educated individuals (RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.62-2.58), and significant increases were seen for both vascular (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.21-2.81) and nonvascular (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.60-2.89) deaths. Lifestyle factors and prior disease explain most of the excess mortality risk. Among 6,245 participants not receiving dialysis at baseline, education level was not significantly associated with

  20. Bridging the Great Divide: Approaches that Help Adults Navigate from Adult Education to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafft, Cynthia K.

    2008-01-01

    America is becoming a less educated nation (National Commission on Adult Literacy, 2008). While this is frequently measured through comparisons of the number of adults with college degrees, strategies to address sagging educational attainment statistics in the United States are typically focused on K-12 reforms--mostly through expanded definitions…

  1. Toward an equal level of educational attainment between deaf and hearing people in Sweden?

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta C; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total population born between 1941 and 1980. Data consist of registered information about the individuals in the year 2005. Results demonstrate that the deaf population has a lower level of educational attainment than the reference population. Women have a higher level of educational attainment than men, and younger people have a higher level than older people in each population. Neither sex, age category, nor immigrant background accounts for the variance in the level of educational attainment between the populations. The educational reforms have not been sufficient to reduce the unequal level of educational attainment between deaf and hearing people.

  2. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  3. The Nexus of Place and Finance in the Analysis of Educational Attainment: A Spatial Econometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Farah

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of educational attainment and then builds upon current predictive frameworks for understanding patterns of educational attainment by applying a spatial econometric method of analysis. The research from this study enables a new approach to the policy discussion on how to improve educational attainment…

  4. An Investigation into Using National Longitudinal Studies to Examine Trends in Educational Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…

  5. The Nexus of Place and Finance in the Analysis of Educational Attainment: A Spatial Econometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Farah

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of educational attainment and then builds upon current predictive frameworks for understanding patterns of educational attainment by applying a spatial econometric method of analysis. The research from this study enables a new approach to the policy discussion on how to improve educational attainment…

  6. Educational Attainment and Women’s Environmental Mastery in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Dorly; Kuh, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 1,184 women in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we estimated associations between education and Ryff’s environmental mastery scale scores at age 52. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated two subscales, here termed mastery skills and mastery accomplishments. Low education was associated with higher mastery skills. This was partly explained by childhood socioeconomic position, as mastery was lower among those with fathers in the most and least advantaged occupational classes. Education was not associated with mastery accomplishments in unadjusted models. Lower ambitions for family/home were associated with higher mastery accomplishments and may have partly suppressed as an association between education and mastery accomplishments. This study highlights childhood as well as adult correlates of mastery and adds to mounting evidence that higher mastery is not universally found among those who are more educated. PMID:27048696

  7. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  8. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  9. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  10. New Thrusts in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert M.

    The Associate Commissioner of the Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education is responsible for two broad and important programs, career education and broader and better services in adult education. Career education is a lifelong educational process beginning in kindergarten and extending through adult and continuing education. Career…

  11. Education in time: cohort differences in educational attainment in African-American twins.

    PubMed

    Szanton, Sarah L; Johnson, Brandon; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith

    2009-10-30

    Educational opportunities for African-Americans expanded throughout the 20(th) century. Twin pairs are an informative population in which to examine changes in educational attainment because each twin has the same parents and childhood socioeconomic status. We hypothesized that correlation in educational attainment of older twin pairs would be higher compared to younger twin pairs reflecting changes in educational access over time and potentially reflecting a "ceiling effect" associated with Jim Crow laws and discrimination. We used data from 211 same-sex twin pairs (98 identical, 113 fraternal) in the Carolina African-American Twin Study of Aging who were identified through birth records. Participants completed an in-person interview. The twins were predominantly female (61%), with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 0.5). We found that older age groups had a stronger intra-twin correlation of attained educational level. Further analysis across strata revealed a trend across zygosity, with identical twins demonstrating more similar educational attainment levels than did their fraternal twin counterparts, suggesting a genetic influence. These findings suggest that as educational opportunities broadened in the 20th century, African-Americans gained access to educational opportunities that better matched their individual abilities.

  12. Subnational Variations in Educational Attainment and Labour Market Outcomes. Education Indicators in Focus. No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…

  13. Impacts of the Universal Primary Education Policy on Educational Attainment and Private Costs in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Mikiko; Yamano, Takashi; Sasaoka, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    While some governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished tuition to achieve universal primary education (UPE), few studies have examined the impacts of the UPE policy beyond school enrolment. This study estimates the impact of the UPE policy in Uganda on overall primary education attainments by using data including 940 rural households. We find…

  14. Subsequent Educational Attainment of High School Dropouts. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berktold, Jennifer; Geis, Sonya; Kaufman, Phillip

    This study uses data from the 1988 National Education Longitudinal Study and its 1994 followup to examine the educational and employment attainment of 1988 eighth graders who dropped out of high school. About half of them ultimately completed high school. By 1994, 16% had completed a high school diploma, 29% had completed a General Educational…

  15. Subnational Variations in Educational Attainment and Labour Market Outcomes. Education Indicators in Focus. No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…

  16. Educational attainment but not literacy is associated with HIV risk behavior among incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Clarke, Jennifer G; Hebert, Megan R; Ray, Moira K; Stein, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    To identify the educational factors associated with HIV risk behaviors among incarcerated women. We evaluated a cohort of female detainees at The Rhode Island Adult Correctional Institute between July and September 2004. Among the 423 women who participated in the study, 55% did not have a high school diploma, 29% had < or = 8th grade reading capacity, 32% had a learning disability, 37% had problem drinking, and 61% (257/423) reported HIV risk behavior. In multiple logistic regression, participants who had completed high school had the lowest likelihood of HIV risk behavior (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-1.00). There was no association between participants? literacy level and HIV risk behavior (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.83-4.92). Correctional education programs to reduce HIV risk behavior should focus on those with low educational attainment irrespective of literacy skills.

  17. Same-Sex Sexuality and Educational Attainment: The Pathway to College.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.

  18. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  19. Learning Projects of Adults of Low Literacy Attainment in Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Jeffrey L.

    In response to implications raised by earlier research in the field, a study investigated the learning projects (as defined by Allen Tough, 1971) of a group of nonliterate and semiliterate adults in a small community. Brown's Town, Jamaica, was chosen as the area of the study because Jamaica is a Third World nation that has recently initiated a…

  20. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  1. Literacy Education in Adult Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruidenier, John

    2002-01-01

    Adult basic education programs, sometimes called adult basic and secondary education programs, typically serve adults over the age of sixteen who do not have a high school diploma and are no longer eligible for traditional secondary education programs. Although adult basic education (ABE) is situated apart from the elementary, secondary, and…

  2. Financing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

  3. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  4. Education for Senior Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Andrew; Aker, George F.

    The major objectives of the Education for Senior Adults Leadership Development Institute were: (1) to give a deeper understanding of the characteristics of senior adults; (2) to give a sense of the richness and variety of activities that could be built into a program for the aging; (3) to provide help in problems of organizing and administering…

  5. Financing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

  6. Gender, family configuration, and the effect of family background on educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Kuo, H H; Hauser, R M

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive model of family influences on educational resemblance of siblings expands the traditional sibling pair model to a full sibship model in order to investigate how gender, gender composition of sibships, and a measure of ordinal position moderate the effect of social origins on educational attainments of siblings. One common family factor is sufficient to explain the variation of educational attainment among brothers and sisters. Although effects of social origins variables on brothers are larger than on sisters, the relative effects of measured social origins are virtually the same among sisters and brothers. The disparity between educational attainments of brothers and sisters persists across sex composition and family size. Ordinal position does not alter the effects of social origins on educational attainment nor does it directly affect educational attainment. Father's and mother's education are equally important for all siblings regardless of birth order, gender composition, and family size.

  7. The State of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Ted

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author looks at the state of adult education in Ireland. He is suggesting that the state here means both the condition in which one now finds adult education and the role of the Irish State in adult education. He briefly outlines some recent developments in adult education, makes some critical comments on the state of adult…

  8. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  9. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  10. Adult Education in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Laurent

    Quebec's history of adult education dates back to informal groups among the early settlers, and has been a continuing tradition since that time. Various groups -- social and religious organizations, labor unions, and societies established specifically to foster education -- have sponsored programs such as night schools and correspondence courses.…

  11. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  12. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

  13. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

  14. Biological and Sociocultural Factors during the School Years Predicting Women's Lifetime Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…

  15. Educational Attainment: A Model for Maximizing Earnings of the Nontraditional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents a model for forecasting earnings of the nontraditional student based on macrolevel changes in educational attainment within the workforce using data from the U.S. Census Bureau. It also presents a theoretical case that illustrates the value of improving one's educational attainment level in order to sustain an annualized…

  16. Changes in Educational Attainment: A Comparison among 1972, 1980, and 1982 High School Seniors. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Carl

    Data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and both cohorts of the 1980 High School and Beyond study were used to analyze trends in postsecondary educational attainment since 1972. The report contains information on educational attainment beyond high school and group differences by sex, high school type, race or…

  17. Sibling Composition and Child Educational Attainment: Evidence from Native Amazonians in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Rubio-Jovel, Karla; Reyes-Garcia; Victoria; Godoy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from industrial nations suggests that sibling composition is associated with children's educational attainment, particularly if parents face resource constraints. If sibling composition is associated with educational attainment, then those associations should be stronger in poor societies of developing nations. We use data from a…

  18. How Taxpayers Benefit when Students Attain Higher Levels of Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    RAND researchers examined how taxpayers benefit from increases in students' educational attainment. Using statistical modeling and national data, they analyzed how increases in educational attainment are associated with tax revenues, funds for social support and insurance programs, and spending on incarceration. The researchers found that, for all…

  19. The Relationship between General Population Suicide Rates and Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2009-01-01

    Suicides are associated with both high and low levels of intelligence and educational attainment in both individual-level and aggregate-level studies. A cross-national study examining the relationship between general population suicide rates ("y") and educational attainment ("x") was undertaken with the "a priori" hypothesis that the relationship…

  20. Educational Attainment: A Model for Maximizing Earnings of the Nontraditional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents a model for forecasting earnings of the nontraditional student based on macrolevel changes in educational attainment within the workforce using data from the U.S. Census Bureau. It also presents a theoretical case that illustrates the value of improving one's educational attainment level in order to sustain an annualized…

  1. How Taxpayers Benefit when Students Attain Higher Levels of Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    RAND researchers examined how taxpayers benefit from increases in students' educational attainment. Using statistical modeling and national data, they analyzed how increases in educational attainment are associated with tax revenues, funds for social support and insurance programs, and spending on incarceration. The researchers found that, for all…

  2. Educational Attainment and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from the 1986 and 1991 Canadian Censuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Pamela; Shannon, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Uses Canadian census data to examine effects of gender differences in educational attainment on the gender earnings gap for full-time, full-year Canadian workers. These educational attainment differences account for virtually none of the gender earnings gap in 1985 and 1990. Gender differences in field of study matter somewhat more. (Contains 17…

  3. Biological and Sociocultural Factors during the School Years Predicting Women's Lifetime Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy and Reliability as a Function of Educational Attainment in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Stephen M.

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between educational attainment in psychology and diagnostic competence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) II and III systems. Five subject groups served to define the variable of educational attainment in psychology: (1) 33 introductory undergraduate psychology…

  5. Social Class and Educational Attainment: A Comparative Study of England, Wales, and Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay; Iannelli, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article examines variations among England, Wales, and Scotland in the association between social origin and educational attainment and the role that different national educational policies may have played in shaping these variations. The findings show that country variation in the association between origins and attainment was mostly or…

  6. Sibling Composition and Child Educational Attainment: Evidence from Native Amazonians in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Rubio-Jovel, Karla; Reyes-Garcia; Victoria; Godoy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from industrial nations suggests that sibling composition is associated with children's educational attainment, particularly if parents face resource constraints. If sibling composition is associated with educational attainment, then those associations should be stronger in poor societies of developing nations. We use data from a…

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy and Reliability as a Function of Educational Attainment in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Stephen M.

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between educational attainment in psychology and diagnostic competence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) II and III systems. Five subject groups served to define the variable of educational attainment in psychology: (1) 33 introductory undergraduate psychology…

  8. Early Marriage as a Career Contingency: The Prediction of Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, George D.; Witt, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed a new definition of early marriage, tested against age at first marriage for ability to predict educational attainment. Using a national probability sample (N=5,601), the index of early marriage was found to be the superior measure. Generally reduced educational attainment was a consequence of early marriage. (JAC)

  9. Achievement goals in adult learners: evidence from distance education.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Richard; Richardson, John T E

    2013-12-01

    There is evidence that learners may adopt different kinds of achievement goals: mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance. In higher education, this evidence has mainly come from young people who have recently gone straight from secondary education to higher education. However, higher education is increasingly populated by older students, and it has been theorised that the relationship between goals and achievement might be very different for adult learners. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationships between achievement, drop-out rate, and goal orientation observed for non-adult populations are mirrored in adult learners. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered to adult learners taking courses by distance learning. Respondents were 195 men and 586 women between the ages of 19 and 87. The results confirmed the reliability of the 2 × 2 version of the AGQ for this distinctive population. As in previous studies of younger students, mastery-approach goals were unrelated to attainment, performance-approach goals tended to facilitate attainment, and performance-avoidance goals tended to impair attainment. In addition, mastery-avoidance goals tended to impair students' attainment and also increased the likelihood that they would drop out of their course altogether. The achievement-goal framework is as appropriate for understanding influences on attainment in adult learners as it is in younger students. Adult learners may be more sensitive to the deleterious effects of adopting mastery-avoidance achievement goals. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  10. EDUCATIONAL AND WORK STRATEGIES FROM ADOLESCENCE TO EARLY ADULTHOOD: CONSEQUENCES FOR EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas sociologists have long recognized that adolescence marks the start of the socioeconomic career, the importance of this period has been attributed to school performance, aspirations, and significant others’ influence that support educational attainment to a greater or lesser degree. The underlying premise of this study is that adolescent work is an expression of instrumental action with consequences for socioeconomic attainment. Using data from the Youth Development Study, we find that part-time work during high school is linked with patterns of schooling and working that persist during the succeeding years and are more or less conducive to the receipt of a BA/BS degree. Moderate work coupled with school appears to especially facilitate the educational attainment of low promise youth. PMID:17468782

  11. Designing an Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Margaret

    Intended for planners of adult education curriculums, this literature review explains the concepts involved in designing an adult education program, provides information about the roles of the people involved in the adult education process, cites some program planning models, and applies the program planning principles to an Adult Basic Education…

  12. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Roy

    1974-01-01

    All educational levels have been attacked by politicians and haunted by suspicion, and adult education has drawn more than its share. Interest groups have had a large effect on adult education. The construction of a theoretical model of the politics of adult education is suggested. (DS)

  13. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Roy

    1974-01-01

    All educational levels have been attacked by politicians and haunted by suspicion, and adult education has drawn more than its share. Interest groups have had a large effect on adult education. The construction of a theoretical model of the politics of adult education is suggested. (DS)

  14. Exploring Motivational System Theory within the Context of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Debra Jean

    2013-01-01

    Adult Basic Education (ABE) and the General Equivalency Diploma (GED) programs serve those students who, for whatever reason, have left the educational system without attaining a regular high school diploma. Because of the manner in which they may have left the school system, many have negative emotions and personal agency beliefs hindering their…

  15. Exploring Motivational System Theory within the Context of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Debra Jean

    2013-01-01

    Adult Basic Education (ABE) and the General Equivalency Diploma (GED) programs serve those students who, for whatever reason, have left the educational system without attaining a regular high school diploma. Because of the manner in which they may have left the school system, many have negative emotions and personal agency beliefs hindering their…

  16. Exploratory Investigation of Drivers of Attainment in Ethnic Minority Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Lara A.; Koutsoubou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that ethnic minority learners in further education in England either under-achieve or are under-represented because they face various inhibitors connected to their ethnicity. Motivators may be in place, however, which increase attainment specifically for some ethnic groups. This exploratory study intends to examine what works and…

  17. Unpacking acculturation: cultural orientations and educational attainment among Mexican-origin youth.

    PubMed

    Roche, Kathleen M; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia

    2012-07-01

    Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated with the educational attainment of second-generation Mexican immigrant youth. The sample included 755 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) in the "Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study." Results from structural equation models indicated that youth reporting greater facility in the English language and a stronger value on familism attained higher levels of education in young adulthood than did other youth. Parents' U.S. social ties and youth's value on early paid work were associated with less educational attainment. Innovative findings from this study indicate the importance of considering both Mexican and American cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation for understanding second-generation immigrant Mexican youth's educational attainment.

  18. Understanding the influence of educational attainment on kidney health and opportunities for improved care.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2015-01-01

    Educational attainment is an important but often overlooked contributor to health outcomes in patients with kidney disease. Those with lower levels of education have an increased risk of ESRD, complications of peritoneal dialysis, worse transplant outcomes, and mortality. Mediators of these associations are poorly understood but involve a complex interplay between health knowledge, behaviors, and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Interventions targeting these aspects of care have the potential to reduce disparities related to educational attainment; however, few programs have been described that specifically address this issue. Future research efforts should not only systematically assess level of educational attainment but also report the differential impact of interventions across educational strata. In addition, routine measurement of health literacy may be useful to identify high-risk patients independent of years of schooling. A better understanding of the influence of educational attainment on kidney health provides an opportunity to improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with kidney disease.

  19. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352

  20. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  1. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  2. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  3. Individualized Adult Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, C. G.

    As the proceedings of a national seminar on individualized adult science education, a total of 13 articles is compiled in this volume concerning the theory and techniques of curriculum development and the individualization process in upgrading Canadian science courses. The topics include: The Characteristics and Formulation of Behavioral…

  4. Educational outcomes in extremely preterm children: neuropsychological correlates and predictors of attainment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Samantha; Wolke, Dieter; Hennessy, Enid; Marlow, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of extremely preterm birth on academic attainment at 11 years of age, investigated neuropsychological antecedents of attainment in reading and mathematics, and examined early predictors of educational outcomes. Children born extremely preterm had significantly poorer academic attainment and a higher prevalence of learning difficulties than their term peers. General cognitive ability and specific deficits in visuospatial skills or phoneme deletion at 6 years were predictive of mathematics and reading attainment at 11 years in both extremely preterm and term children. Phonological processing, attention, and executive functions at 6 years were also associated with academic attainment in children born extremely preterm. Furthermore, social factors, neonatal factors (necrotizing enterocolitis, breech delivery, abnormal cerebral ultrasound, early breast milk provision), and developmental factors at 30 months (head circumference, cognitive development), were independent predictors of educational outcomes at 11 years. Neonatal complications combined with assessments of early cognitive function provide moderate prediction for educational outcomes in children born extremely preterm.

  5. Adult Education and the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Darrell; Niemi, John A.

    The concern of this study was to examine the role of education in altering the social and personal characteristics of disadvantaged adults. Data were collected through a review of the literature and have been limited mainly to research reports on remedial adult education programs. Findings showed that the disadvantaged, who are hampered by…

  6. Adult Education for Social Mobilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeverria, Luis

    1981-01-01

    Suggests some ideas that could stimulate and be incentives for defining programs of adult education in the future. These involve changing priorities, developing a framework which allows adult education programs to be established, and managing decision-making processes. (CT)

  7. Adult Development: Implications for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the literature on adult development and to suggest how this information can be applied to the practice of adult education. The first section discusses the nature of adult development, its definition, and key concepts. Sequential patterns of change in adulthood are examined in section 2,…

  8. The educational attainment of young women: role model effects of female high school faculty.

    PubMed

    Nixon, L A; Robinson, M D

    1999-05-01

    To test for the presence of role model effects of female high school faculty and professional staff on young women in high school, we estimate several models of educational attainment for young women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Exposure to female high school faculty and professional staff has a positive impact on the educational attainment of young women. This result, combined with our finding that female faculty and professional staff have no significant impact on the educational attainment of young men, supports a female role model hypothesis.

  9. Pathways to Boosting the Earnings of Low-Income Students by Increasing Their Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis; Mokher, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Attaining a post-secondary credential has become increasingly important for securing opportunities to get high-return jobs in the United States in the 21st century. Students from low-income families are underrepresented at every milestone in the educational pipeline, limiting their ability to attain post-secondary credentials and break the…

  10. Can Migration Reduce Educational Attainment? Evidence from Mexico. Policy Research Working Paper Series. WPS3952

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of migration on educational attainment in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, we find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainment of 12 to 18 year-old boys and 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit…

  11. Can Migration Reduce Educational Attainment? Evidence from Mexico. Policy Research Working Paper Series. WPS3952

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of migration on educational attainment in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, we find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainment of 12 to 18 year-old boys and 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit…

  12. Black and white differences in the effect of women's educational attainment on age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C D; Houseknecht, S K

    1998-03-01

    "This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."

  13. Adult Education in Israel V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

    This fifth journal edition focuses on the didactics of adult education in Israel. Following a "Preface" (Meir Peretz) discussing the didactics of adult education, three major fields are examined: Learning for Adults; Hebrew Language and Culture for Immigrants; and Special Populations (adults with learning disabilities, senior citizens,…

  14. Limited educational attainment and radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Johnston County (North Carolina) Osteoarthritis Project.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Leigh F; Shreffler, Jack; Siaton, Bernadette C; Helmick, Charles G; Schoster, Britta; Schwartz, Todd A; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M

    2010-01-01

    Applying a cross-sectional analysis to a sample of 2,627 African-American and Caucasian adults aged > or = 45 years from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, we studied the association between educational attainment and prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Age- and race-adjusted associations between education and osteoarthritis outcomes were assessed by gender-stratified logistic regression models, with additional models adjusting for body mass index, knee injury, smoking, alcohol use, and occupational factors. In an analysis of all participants, low educational attainment (<12 years) was associated with higher prevalence of four knee osteoarthritis outcomes (unilateral and bilateral radiographic and symptomatic osteoarthritis). Women with low educational attainment had 50% higher odds of having radiographic knee osteoarthritis and 65% higher odds of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis compared with those with higher educational attainment (> or = 12 years), by using fully adjusted models. In the subset of postmenopausal women, these associations tended to be weaker but little affected by adjustment for hormone replacement therapy. Men with low educational attainment had 85% higher odds of having symptomatic knee osteoarthritis by using fully adjusted models, but the association with radiographic knee osteoarthritis was explained by age. After adjustment for known risk factors, educational attainment, as an indicator of socioeconomic status, is associated with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in both men and women and with radiographic knee osteoarthritis in women.

  15. Toward an Equal Level of Educational Attainment between Deaf and Hearing People in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta C.; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from…

  16. Adult Education through World Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi);…

  17. Act To Promote Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

  18. Tribal People and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redbird-Selam, Helen Marie, Ed.

    Authored by four American Indians, this handbook is concerned with topics directly related to the retention of Indian adult learners in the adult educational process. The topics are aimed at improved understanding of the tribal learner and improved adult educational programs. Topics include: (1) religion (approached from an educational viewpoint…

  19. Adult Education and Development, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education…

  20. Facilitator's Role in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Burton R.

    Since the role of the adult educator has become so widely accepted as that of facilitator of learning rather than of content-transmitter, educators of adults should enhance their facilitating skills. An important concept for adult education then is self-directed learning, in which the learner plays the central role. The need for self-directed…

  1. Adult Education through World Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi);…

  2. Does educational attainment increase the risk of low back pain when genetics are considered? A population-based study of Spanish twins.

    PubMed

    Zadro, Joshua R; Shirley, Debra; Pinheiro, Marina B; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Ordoñana, Juan R; Ferreira, Paulo H

    2017-04-01

    There is limited research investigating educational attainment as a risk factor for low back pain (LBP), with the influence of gender commonly being neglected. Furthermore, genetics and early shared environment explain a substantial proportion of LBP cases and need to be controlled for when investigating risk factors for LBP. To investigate whether educational attainment affects the prevalence and risk of LBP differently in men and women while controlling for the influence of genetics and early shared environment. This is a cross-sectional and prospective twin case-control study. Adult monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from the Murcia Twin Registry, with available data on educational attainment, formed the base sample for this study. The prevalence analysis considered twins with available data on LBP in 2013 (n=1,580). The longitudinal analysis considered twins free of LBP at baseline (2009-2011), with available data on LBP at follow-up (2013) (n=1,077). Data on the lifetime prevalence of activity limiting LBP (outcome) and educational attainment (risk factor) were self-reported. The prevalence analysis investigated the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and LBP, whereas the longitudinal analysis investigated whether educational attainment increased the risk of developing LBP. Both analyses were performed in the following sequence. First, a total sample analysis was performed on all twins (considering them as individuals), adjusting for confounding variables selected by the data. Second, to control for the influence of genetics and early shared environment, a within-pair case-control analysis (stratified by zygosity) was performed on complete twin pairs discordant for LBP (ie, one twin had LBP, whereas the co-twin did not). All analyses were stratified for gender where possible, with an interaction term determining whether gender was a significant moderator of the association between educational attainment and LBP. Women with either

  3. Educational attainment and self-rated health status among single mothers in rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    Zekeri, Andrew A

    2013-08-01

    Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.

  4. Future Participants in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimene, Davice G.

    To establish a procedure for use in examining characteristics of future participants in adult education, a study focused on one characteristic--the highest level of education completed among participants in adult education activities. The process followed was to obtain reports from the National Center for Education Statitstics (NCES) (an official…

  5. Academic Attainment of Students with Disabilities in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation compared attainment in 196,405 students with and without disabilities who were taking courses by distance learning with the Open University in the United Kingdom in 2009. When the effects of demographic variables were statistically controlled, students with mental health difficulties showed poorer course completion than…

  6. The Genetics of Success: How SNPs Associated with Educational Attainment Relate to Life-Course Development

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Corcoran, David L; Domingue, Benjamin; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of >100,000 individuals identified molecular-genetic predictors of educational attainment. We undertook in-depth life-course investigation of the polygenic score derived from this GWAS using the four-decade Dunedin Study (N=918). There were five main findings. First, polygenic scores predicted adult economic outcomes over and above completed education. Second, genes and environments were correlated; children with higher polygenic scores were born into better-off homes. Third, polygenic scores predicted children’s adult outcomes net of social-class origins; children with higher scores tended to be upwardly-socially-mobile. Fourth, polygenic scores predicted behavior across the life-course, from learning to talk earlier to acquiring reading skills more quickly, through geographic mobility and mate choice, on to financial planning for retirement. Fifth, polygenic-score associations were mediated by psychological characteristics including intelligence, self-control, and interpersonal skill. Effects were small. Factors connecting DNA sequence with life outcomes may provide targets for interventions to promote population-wide positive development. PMID:27251486

  7. Adult Education. Annual Report, National Advisory Council on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    Recommendations of the President's National Advisory Council on Adult Education are the subject of this first annual report. The activities of the Council during its first year are listed. Recommendations for Action are: (1) a higher budget priority for adult education in Fiscal Year 1973, and the development of a Comprehensive Adult Education…

  8. Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

  9. Sustainability, Ecojustice, and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Adult education has a significant role to play in creating a just and sustainable world. This chapter explores a continuum of perspectives related to the environment and education and highlights sustainability and ecojustice education theory and practices in this volume.

  10. A goal attainment pain management program for older adults with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gail C; White, Terri L

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a pain management intervention that integrates goal setting with older adults (age > or =65) living independently in residential settings. This preliminary testing of the Goal Attainment Pain Management Program (GAPMAP) included a sample of 17 adults (mean age 79.29 years) with self-reported pain related to arthritis. Specific study aims were to: 1) explore the use of individual goal setting; 2) determine participants' levels of goal attainment; 3) determine whether changes occurred in the pain management methods used and found to be helpful by GAPMAP participants; and 4) determine whether changes occurred in selected pain-related variables (i.e., experience of living with persistent pain, the expected outcomes of pain management, pain management barriers, and global ratings of perceived pain intensity and success of pain management). Because of the small sample size, both parametric (t test) and nonparametric (Wilcoxon signed rank test) analyses were used to examine differences from pretest to posttest. Results showed that older individuals could successfully participate in setting and attaining individual goals. Thirteen of the 17 participants (76%) met their goals at the expected level or above. Two management methods (exercise and using a heated pool, tub, or shower) were used significantly more often after the intervention, and two methods (exercise and distraction) were identified as significantly more helpful. Two pain-related variables (experience of living with persistent pain and expected outcomes of pain management) revealed significant change, and all of those tested showed overall improvement.

  11. Public School Adult Education 1969 Almanac Including Directory of Active Members, Members Emeritus, and Communications Service Subscribers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Public School Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    In the Public School Adult Education 1969 almanac are to be found: (1) details about the National Association for Public School Adult Education (NAPSAE); (2) statistics of public school adult education (for example, state support, educational attainment, teachers' salaries, enrollment data, and expenditures); (3) directories of state associations…

  12. The relationship between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals: A state-level analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yuqi

    The utility patent, as a legal record of invention, is widely believed to be a close proxy for innovation among firms, industries, and economies as a whole. One of the critical drivers of patenting -- and ultimately, innovation -- is education. The science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields in education are of special importance. There is, however, little empirical research to substantiate a connection between STEM education and innovation outcomes. Seeking to fill this gap, this paper finds that, in general, there is no evidence of a meaningful relationship between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals. The relationship of interest, though generally not statistically significant, is stronger for temporary US visa holders than for US citizens or permanent US residents. However, I find a large and statistically significant association between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals for states that have above-average college educational attainment or above-average advanced industries workforce concentration.

  13. Funding and the Attainment of Transformation Goals in South Africa's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The link between the funding of higher education and the attainment of higher education transformation goals in South Africa, especially access by students from previously under-represented communities, is the main focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper examines three questions: (a) How does public funding of higher education encourage (or…

  14. Average Social Spending And Salary By Educational Attainment Level. Systems Accountability & Policy Development. Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This brief outlines a study done by the College Board in October 2004 entitled ?Education Pays 2004: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society.? The study looks at an estimate of how much an average person in each of four educational attainment levels earns annually, and how much the government spends on them annually.

  15. Prenatal health, educational attainment, and intergenerational inequality: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Juho; Kaymakçalan, Hande; Mäki, Pirjo; Taanila, Anja

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we study the effects of prenatal health on educational attainment and on the reproduction of family background inequalities in education. Using Finnish birth cohort data, we analyze several maternal and fetal health variables, many of which have not been featured in the literature on long-term socioeconomic effects of health despite the effects of these variables on birth and short-term health outcomes. We find strong negative effects of mother's prenatal smoking on educational attainment, which are stronger if the mother smoked heavily but are not significant if she quit during the first trimester. Anemia during pregnancy is also associated with lower levels of attained education. Other indicators of prenatal health (pre-pregnancy obesity, mother's antenatal depressed mood, hypertension and preeclampsia, early prenatal care visits, premature birth, and small size for gestational age) do not predict educational attainment. Our measures explain little of the educational inequalities by parents' class or education. However, smoking explains 12%-and all health variables together, 19%-of the lower educational attainment of children born to unmarried mothers. Our findings point to the usefulness of proximate health measures in addition to general ones. They also point to the potentially important role played by early health in intergenerational processes.

  16. Adult Education in Australia: The Council of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley

    Liberal adult education in Victoria, Australia, takes its ideals, if not its form, from the pre-war university and Workers Education Association (WEA) partnerships: the university providing tutors and content, the WEA providing contact with unions and workers. Unique to Victoria is the level to which community-based adult education has been…

  17. Assessment Tools for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra; Forlizzi, Lori

    The Assessment Tools for Adult Education project was designed to provide training and support to staff of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) funded programs to help them use assessment tools and procedures to document the learning gains of the adult students they serve. The following candidate assessment…

  18. The Future of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

  19. Adult Basic Education Library Holdings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Boulder. Extension Div.

    This is an annotated bibliography of books, pamphlets, and adult basic educational materials currently available in the DHEW Region VIII Adult Basic Education Library. It is organized by subject matter categories; the instructional materials in the last section are organized by publishers. Among areas included are administration, adult learning,…

  20. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, social class and major depressive disorder among Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianguo; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Feihu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Junhui; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs) were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25-0.46, logP = 78), social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.87, logP = 13.3) and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86-0.90, logP = 6.8). We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009) and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease), consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype.

  1. The Association Between Educational Attainment and Diabetes Among Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Shanta M; Bowie, Janice V; McCleary, Rachael; Gaskin, Darrell J; LaVeist, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between education and diabetes among men in the United States and whether this relationship differs by race/ethnicity. This study examined whether racial disparities in diabetes existed by educational attainment in 336,746 non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic men 18 years of age and older in the United States. Logistic regression models were specified to examine the odds of reporting diabetes by educational attainment. Within race/ethnicity, both White and Hispanic men who had less than a high school education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.69], and OR = 1.64, 95% CI = [1.22, 2.21], respectively) had consistently higher odds of diabetes than men with a bachelor's degree or higher level of educational attainment. Educational attainment did not appear to be associated with reporting a diagnosis of diabetes in non-Hispanic Black men. Identifying why educational attainment is associated with diabetes outcomes in some racial/ethnic groups but not others is essential for diabetes treatment and management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Small Business Management Volume III: Curriculum. An Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; Swanson, Gordon I.

    The small business management adult education program outlined in this curriculum guide is designed to help small business entrepreneurs solve their business management problems and attain the goals they have established for their businesses and their families. (An instructor's manual and practice problems are in separate volumes.) The 3-year…

  3. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  4. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  5. Journey to International Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her journey to international adult education and shares some lessons learned from her journey. The author developed her interest in international adult education through the Scientific Research Institute of International and Comparative Education (SRIICE) at Beijing Normal University and discovered its…

  6. Adult Education at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudet, Alphonse

    This document, which examines the use of educational technologies for distance education for adults in Canada, consists of five narrative sections and a bibliography. The first section introduces the topic and the document's objectives (to describe those technologies used in Canadian adult distance education, paying particular attention to those…

  7. Curriculum Models in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenbach, Michael

    This book describes several curriculum models currently used in the field of adult education in an effort to assist adult educators who develop curricula as a routine part of their jobs. The book is divided into 14 chapters that are grouped into 7 sections. Each section covers a type of educational program, and each chapter describes a specific…

  8. Sex, Class, and Physical Science Educational Attainment: Portions due to Achievement Versus Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Richard M.; Farkas, George

    Nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study are used to investigate why males (rather than females) and children of parents with advanced degrees (rather than those from less-educated parents) are more highly represented among physical science bachelor's degrees and graduate students. Parental education is measured by three categories: neither parent has a bachelor's degree, at least one parent has a bachelor's degree, or at least one parent has a degree beyond the bachelor's. Physical science is defined as students majoring in physics, engineering, mathematics, or computer science. The effects of mathematics achievement and effects not accounted for by mathematics achievement (what the authors call "recruitment" effects) are isolated for parental education categories and for sex, allowing inequality in physical science degree attainment to be decomposed into portions due to achievement and portions due to recruitment. Additionally, the results from logistic regressions predicting the attainment of a bachelor's degree in physical science as well as the pursuit of a graduate degree in physical science are presented. It is found that for parental education categories, the gaps in physical science educational attainment are nearly entirely accounted for by differences in mathematics achievement, suggesting that if achievement could be equalized, physical science educational attainment differences among parental education categories would disappear. However, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment operates almost entirely independent of achievement effects, suggesting that if the mathematics achievement distributions of males and females were identical, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment would be unchanged from what it is today.

  9. Biological and Sociocultural Factors During the School Years Predicting Women's Lifetime Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, C Emily; Cohen, Alison K; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D

    2016-03-01

    Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (N = 3889), we conducted sequential multivariate linear regression analyses to investigate the influences of macro-level and family-level sociocultural contextual factors in youth (region of country, urbanicity, race/ethnicity, year of birth, household composition, mother's education, and mother's age at first birth) and early menarche, a marker of early pubertal development, on women's educational attainment after age 24. Pubertal timing and all sociocultural factors in youth, other than year of birth, predicted women's lifetime educational attainment in bivariate models. Family factors had the strongest associations. When family factors were added to multivariate models, geographic region in youth, and pubertal timing were no longer significant. Our findings provide additional evidence that family factors should be considered when developing comprehensive and inclusive interventions in childhood and adolescence to promote lifetime educational attainment among girls. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  10. Factors Predictive of Midlife Occupational Attainment and Psychological Functioning in Adults With Mild Intellectual Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Doescher, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The life course of individuals with mild intellectual deficits and the factors that account for heterogeneity in their midlife outcomes were examined. Past research has shown that such individuals are at risk for poor occupational attainment in adulthood and more compromised psychological functioning, including increased depression. Although predictors varied for men and women, in general greater midlife occupational attainment was predicted by continuation of education beyond high school, having role models for achievement, and social participation earlier in adulthood. Midlife psychological functioning was predicted by having role models of achievement, having discussed plans for the future with parents and teachers, and achievement of aspirations set in high school. Implications for contemporary models of transition planning are discussed. PMID:19391672

  11. The Comparative Efficacy of Lifestyle Intervention and Metformin by Educational Attainment in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew J.; Whitaker, Robert C.; Yu, Daohai; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Educational attainment is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but it is unknown whether education impacts individuals’ diabetes prevention efforts. We examined the comparative efficacy of intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), an ongoing U.S. multi-site trial beginning in 1996. Methods We studied 2,910 DPP participants randomized to receive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Stratifying by educational attainment, diabetes incidence and relative risk reductions by treatment assignment were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results 47% of participants had completed college and 53% had not. Compared to placebo, lifestyle participants who had completed college demonstrated a 68% reduction in diabetes incidence (95% CI=56, 77), whereas those with less education experienced a 47% risk reduction (95% CI=29, 61). For metformin participants, college graduates experienced a 49% relative risk reduction (95% CI=33, 62), compared to 23% (95% CI=1, 41) among those with lower educational attainment. There was a statistically significant education-by-treatment interaction with incident diabetes (p=0.03). Conclusions Intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin have greater efficacy among highly educated individuals. Future efforts to deliver these treatments and study their dissemination may be more effective if tailored to individuals’ educational background. PMID:26024851

  12. The comparative efficacy of lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Matthew J; Whitaker, Robert C; Yu, Daohai; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2015-08-01

    Educational attainment is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but it is unknown whether education impacts individuals' diabetes prevention efforts. We examined the comparative efficacy of intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), an ongoing U.S. multi-site trial beginning in 1996. We studied 2,910 DPP participants randomized to receive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Stratifying by educational attainment, diabetes incidence and relative risk reductions by treatment assignment were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. 47% of participants had completed college and 53% had not. Compared to placebo, lifestyle participants who had completed college demonstrated a 68% reduction in diabetes incidence (95% CI=56, 77), whereas those with less education experienced a 47% risk reduction (95% CI=29, 61). For metformin participants, college graduates experienced a 49% relative risk reduction (95% CI=33, 62), compared to 23% (95% CI=1, 41) among those with lower educational attainment. There was a statistically significant education-by-treatment interaction with incident diabetes (p=0.03). Intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin have greater efficacy among highly educated individuals. Future efforts to deliver these treatments and study their dissemination may be more effective if tailored to individuals' educational background. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Teenage Childbearing and Educational Attainment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Timaeus, Ian M; Moultrie, Tom A

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between teenage childbearing and school attainment is investigated using nationally representative longitudinal data drawn from South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 young women who were aged 15-18 and childless in 2008. Controlling for other factors, girls who went on to give birth had twice the odds of dropping out of school by 2010 and nearly five times the odds of failing to matriculate. Few girls from households in the highest-income quintile gave birth. Girls who attended schools in higher-income areas and were behind at school were much more likely to give birth than those who were in the appropriate grade for their age or were in no-fee schools. New mothers were much more likely to have re-enrolled in school by 2010 if they were rural residents, they belonged to relatively well-off households, or their own mother had attended secondary school. These findings suggest that, in South Africa, interventions that address poor school attainment would also reduce teenage childbearing. © 2015 The Population Council, Inc.

  14. The dynamic association between same-sex contact and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Koji; Roach, Teresa A; Peña-Talamantes, Abráham E

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that sexual minorities and heterosexuals differ in the level of success in educational attainment. Because these studies treated sexual orientation as a static trait, they could not address how the dynamic aspect of sexual orientation impacts educational attainment. This study seeks to answer this question while focusing on sexual contact as an indicator of sexual orientation and highest educational degree obtained by young adulthood as an attainment outcome. Ordered logistic regression analysis was conducted using US data (the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health or "Add Health," Waves 1-4). Among women, those who report same-sex contact obtain lower educational degrees than those without such contact regardless of its timing and continuity. Among men, those who report their first same-sex contact in young adulthood obtain higher degrees than others. These associations are explained by self-exploratory attitudes, depressive symptoms, and academic performance and expectations. These results help understand how same-sex sexual development creates opportunities and constraints in the educational attainment process, thereby extending the existing attainment literature, which concentrates on implications of heterosexual development.

  15. Intergenerational transmission of educational attainment: Three levels of parent-child communication as mediators.

    PubMed

    Chi, Liping

    2013-04-01

    Although the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment has been confirmed by many researchers, its mechanism still remains controversial. Parent-child communication has been regarded as one of the important mediators. The present study primarily aimed to examine the potentially mediating role of parent-child communication in the transmission of educational attainment, based on a sample of 366 Chinese fifth and sixth graders. Parent-child communication was measured against the three levels of the parents' communication ability, the quality of the father-child and mother-child communications, and the relation between the two dyadic communications. The results duplicated the positive effect of parents' educational attainment on children's academic achievement. Moreover, it was found that parents' communication ability alone played a mediating role, and that the three levels of parent-child communication constructed a "mediator chain" between the parents' educational attainment and the children's academic achievement. Finally, the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in China and the mediating role of the three levels of parent-child communication were discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Children of Mexican Immigrants' Aspiration-Attainment Gap and Educational Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the aspiration-attainment gap and educational resilience among children of Mexican immigrants in the midst of the post-1965 U.S. demographic transformation. Two widespread theoretical explanations are used to understand the educational disparities faced by this subpopulation: the cultural argument, which emphasizes their…

  17. Staff Helping Attain Relevant Education (Project SHARE): Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranadive, Jyoti

    Project SHARE (Staff Helping Attain Relevant Education), a project funded by Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, was in its third and final year of operation in 1992-93, in eight primary schools in the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan (New York). The project served 141 limited English proficient students from low-income families…

  18. Well "and" Well-Off: Decreasing Medicaid and Health-Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBaun, Bill; Roc, Martens

    2013-01-01

    Cutting the number of high school dropouts in half nationally would save $7.3 billion in annual Medicaid spending, according to a new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education. "Well 'and' Well-Off: Decreasing Medicaid and Health-Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment" examines Medicaid spending for all fifty states and…

  19. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  20. Maternal and Child Predictors of Low-Income Children's Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Porche, Michelle V.; Snow, Catherine E.; Tabors, Patton; Ross, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Much research has investigated maternal and child predictors of educational attainment. This longitudinal study builds on past research by examining how everyday mother-child conversations about decision-making in early adolescence predict adolescents' decisions to drop out of high school, terminate their education with a high school degree, or…

  1. Female Executives in Higher Education: Their Strategies for Success in Attaining the Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Jocelyn Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the strategies female college presidents/chancellors use to attain their executive positions in higher education. A second purpose of this study was to identify the barriers females in executive positions in higher education experienced and how they overcame the barriers. The final…

  2. Studying Educational Attainment among First-Generation Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitani, Terry T.

    2005-01-01

    Although graduating from college may be viewed as a rite of passage for better social mobility in our society, first-generation students, whose parents never graduated from college, face unique challenges to achieve educational success in our country. The purpose of the proposed study is to investigate longitudinal educational attainments of…

  3. Children of Mexican Immigrants' Aspiration-Attainment Gap and Educational Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the aspiration-attainment gap and educational resilience among children of Mexican immigrants in the midst of the post-1965 U.S. demographic transformation. Two widespread theoretical explanations are used to understand the educational disparities faced by this subpopulation: the cultural argument, which emphasizes their…

  4. Educational Attainment of Foster Youth: Achievement and Graduation Outcomes for Children in State Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Mason; Halpern, Mina

    This report summarizes findings from a statewide analysis of the educational attainment of foster youth in Washington's public school system. It analyzes various factors related to educational success, comparing the outcomes of youth in long-term foster care with the state's school-age population. The report merges data from the child welfare…

  5. Exploring the Wealth Returns to Latino Higher Educational Attainment: Estimates of Work-Life Earnings Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant research gap exists in our knowledge of how educational attainment affects wealth building and intergenerational wealth transfers among Latinos. Wealth includes earnings but is a much wider and more fundamental measure of economic mobility. The education-earnings-wealth relationship is explored by constructing estimates of social…

  6. Well "and" Well-Off: Decreasing Medicaid and Health-Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBaun, Bill; Roc, Martens

    2013-01-01

    Cutting the number of high school dropouts in half nationally would save $7.3 billion in annual Medicaid spending, according to a new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education. "Well 'and' Well-Off: Decreasing Medicaid and Health-Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment" examines Medicaid spending for all fifty states and…

  7. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  8. Postsecondary Education Expectations and Attainment of Rural and Nonrural Students. Stated Briefly. REL 2017-233

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molefe, Ayrin; Proger, Amy; Burke, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined rural-nonrural differences in postsecondary educational expectations and the attainment of expectations for grade 10 students attending rural and nonrural high schools in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest region and how these differences compare with rural-nonrural differences in the rest of the nation. For…

  9. Access to Democracy Project: Community Report on Attitudes Regarding Educational Attainment. Grand Rapids (Michigan) Surrounding Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Access to Democracy" project has two broad goals. It is an effort to understand community beliefs, attitudes and conditions that shape educational outcomes for community youth, and it is a way to focus community discussions on efforts that support higher educational attainment for residents. This report focuses on the lessons…

  10. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  11. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  12. Pathways of Intergenerational Transmission of Advantages during Adolescence: Social Background, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Wiebke; Schunck, Reinhard; Diewald, Martin; Johnson, Wendy

    2017-07-25

    Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability. By integrating two strands of research, a clearer picture of the pathways linking the family of origin, cognitive ability, and early educational outcomes can be reached. Using the population-based TwinLife study in Germany, we investigated multidimensional pathways linking parental socioeconomic position to their children's cognitive ability and academic track attendance in the secondary school. The sample included twins (N = 4008), respectively ages 11 and 17, and siblings (N = 801). We observed strong genetic influences on cognitive ability, whereas shared environmental influences were much more important for academic tracking. In multilevel analyses, separate dimensions of socioeconomic resources influenced child cognitive ability, controlling parental cognitive ability. Controlling adolescent cognitive ability and parental cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic resources also directly affected track attendance. This indicated that it is crucial to investigate the intertwined influences on educational outcomes in adolescence of both cognitive ability and the characteristics of the family of origin.

  13. Social Origins, Educational Attainment and the Timing of Marriage and First Birth among Korean Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soung-Yee; Stinner, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Urban residential and Christian religious background and higher levels of educational attainment yield a later marriage age. Findings suggest that benefits accruing from higher social status, greater education, and delayed marriage are lessened by a shorter marriage/first birth interval. (Author)

  14. Relation of Opportunity to Learn Advanced Math to the Educational Attainment of Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew; Byun, Soo-yong; Smiley, Whitney S.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined the relation of advanced math course taking to the educational attainment of rural youth. We used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002. Regression analyses demonstrated that when previous math achievement is accounted for, rural students take advanced math at a significantly lower rate than urban students.…

  15. Parental Cultural Capital and Educational Attainment in the Netherlands: A Refinement of the Cultural Capital Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Graaf, Nan Dirk; De Graff, Paul M.; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2000-01-01

    Examines how parental cultural capital contributes to children's educational attainment in the Netherlands, emphasizing participation in beaux arts and reading behavior. Explores the claims of cultural reproduction theory and cultural mobility theory on the interaction of parents' educational background and their cultural capital. Discusses the…

  16. Exploring the Wealth Returns to Latino Higher Educational Attainment: Estimates of Work-Life Earnings Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant research gap exists in our knowledge of how educational attainment affects wealth building and intergenerational wealth transfers among Latinos. Wealth includes earnings but is a much wider and more fundamental measure of economic mobility. The education-earnings-wealth relationship is explored by constructing estimates of social…

  17. Modeling the Role of Community Colleges in Increasing Educational Attainment and Workforce Preparedness. BHEF Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In light of recent data showing that educational attainment rates in the United States have stagnated, the Obama administration and others have called for renewed efforts to bolster higher education outcomes. Strengthening the role of community colleges is undoubtedly an important component of any plan to dramatically increase the number of…

  18. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  19. Transitions in the Effect of Family Size on Female Educational Attainment: The Case of Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermalin, Albert I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Much previous research in the area of family size effects relies on data from surveys in developed countries. This study of the interrelation between education and fertility over two generations reveals that family size was not related to female educational attainment except within certain sectors of Taiwanese society. (Author/BRR)

  20. The Impact of Participation in Sports on Educational Attainment--New Evidence from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Christian; Corneliszen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of exercising sports during childhood and adolescence on educational attainment. The theoretical framework is based on models of allocation of time and educational productivity. Using the rich information from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we apply generalized ordered probit models to estimate the effect of…

  1. Educational Attainment and Gestational Weight Gain among U.S. Mothers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison K; Kazi, Chandni; Headen, Irene; Rehkopf, David H; Hendrick, C Emily; Patil, Divya; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Education is an important social determinant of many health outcomes, but the relationship between educational attainment and the amount of weight gained over the course of a woman's pregnancy (gestational weight gain [GWG]) has not been established clearly. We used data from 1979 through 2010 for women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) cohort (n = 6,344 pregnancies from 2,769 women). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the association between educational attainment and GWG adequacy (as defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), controlling for diverse social factors from across the life course (e.g., income, wealth, educational aspirations and expectations) and considering effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and prepregnancy overweight status. In most cases, women with more education had increased odds of gaining a recommended amount of gestational weight, independent of educational aspirations and educational expectations and relatively robust to sensitivity analyses. This trend manifested itself in a few different ways. Those with less education had higher odds of inadequate GWG than those with more education. Among those who were not overweight before pregnancy, those with less education had higher odds of excessive GWG than college graduates. Among women who were White, those with less than a high school degree had higher odds of excessive GWG than those with more education. The relationship between educational attainment and GWG is nuanced and nonlinear. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Adult Education Programs. California Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    To assist adult educators in finding meaningful ways to measure the effectiveness of instruction, this monograph provides selected illustrations of specific methods used by adult education instructors to verify student learning. Obtained from teachers in the field, the examples are from programs in (1) dental assisting, (2) instrument pilot ground…

  3. Workplace Education Programs. Adult Education Supervisor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averitt, Sallie Dowling

    This guidebook was designed to be a practical guide in developing workplace education programs. The handbook includes the following three sections: (1) background information, including details and supporting information about workplace education; (2) workplace education worksheets that adult education supervisors can take to the worksite to use…

  4. Why women of lower educational attainment struggle to make healthier food choices: the importance of psychological and social factors.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus; Jackson, Alan; Barker, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about the consequences of eating a nutritious diet. These findings provide a starting point for taking forward the design of an intervention to improve the diets of young women.

  5. Education of Adult Educators in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

    Croatia has still not established a system of adult educator training. A large part of the problem in development of adult education studies is that Croatia retained the idea that andragogy is a pedagogic subject; also, some believed andragogy was an import from the West. Significant progress has been made since the 1950s when Croatia rebelled…

  6. CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR DEAF ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRENG, ALICE H.

    A THREE-YEAR EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR DEAF ADULTS IN WISCONSIN, BEGUN IN 1966 AND FUNDED IN PART UNDER THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965, HAD TWO GOALS--TO PROVIDE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES TO THE DEAF AND TO ENABLE TEACHERS TO GAIN INSIGHTS INTO THE EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS CREATED BY DEAFNESS. NON-CREDIT CLASSES WERE OFFERED IN LANGUAGE,…

  7. Does Higher Education Attained Abroad Lead to International Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the early career of graduates who have studied abroad (mobile students) compared to graduates who have undertaken the entire education at domestic higher education institutions (nonmobile students). The main question is to what extent mobile students get jobs with international assignments compared to nonmobile students.…

  8. Educational Attainment Levels of UK Farmers--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasson, R.

    1998-01-01

    British census and survey data show that at least one-third to one-half of farmers have further or higher education qualifications. Better-educated farmers tend to use more information sources, perceive a need for change, and be receptive to training and responsive to economic demands. (SK)

  9. English Language Learners' Access to and Attainment in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Yasuko; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2013-01-01

    Although English language learners (ELLs) are currently the fastest-growing group among the school-age population in the United States, there is surprisingly little information on their participation in postsecondary education. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a nationally representative sample of eighth graders…

  10. Educational Level Attained & Family Income by Junior College Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior Coll., Perkinston.

    This document consists of two charts indicating the average educational levels and the average yearly family incomes of the populations served by the colleges and junior colleges in l3 areas of Mississippi. Information presented includes a listing of colleges and counties in each area, area population, average educational level, and average annual…

  11. Putting Educational Attainment First: An Interview with Juan Sepulveda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreon, Joe

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Juan Sepulveda. Sepulveda was appointed by U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan to the position of Executive Director of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics on May 19, 2009. In this capacity, Sepulveda is responsible for directing the efforts of the White House Initiative in…

  12. Research Perspectives in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. Randy, Ed.

    This book focuses on understanding the epistemological foundation of adult education, the research process, policy issues, and directions for the future. "An Epistemological Overview of the Field" (Garrison) provides an overview of adult education research: the historical development, issues, the scope of the knowledge base, and approaches to…

  13. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  14. Leisure Styles and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jack; Wenkert, Robert

    1969-01-01

    People with broad and diverse leisure activities are more likely to participate in adult education than people with a passive leisure style. This finding conflicts with a prevailing view that adult education competes with other leisure pursuits for the interest and attention of a potential audience. (SE)

  15. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  16. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Art

    2016-01-01

    Art Ellison is longtime advocate for adult education, having managed numerous advocacy campaigns over the past forty years on the state and national levels. Prior to his employment in 1980 as the NH State Director of Adult Education he worked for many years as a high school teacher and as a community organizer. In this article, Ellison offers some…

  17. Understanding Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

  18. Women, Class and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southampton Univ. (England).

    This collection of working papers deals with the relationship among women, social class, and adult education. In her paper entitled "Women and University Extension," Pat Usher argues that by sustaining the dominant cultural, ideological, and social relationships of production in capitalist Britain, university adult education contributes…

  19. Galaxy Conference on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Univ. Evening Colleges, Norman, OK.

    The Association of University Evening Colleges held its 1969 conference in conjunction with the Galaxy Conference on Adult Education. Over 4,000 people representing 21 different organizations interested in adult education attended. Presentations dealt with the areas: learning to change, imperatives for action, the Nixon administration and…

  20. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Art

    2016-01-01

    Art Ellison is longtime advocate for adult education, having managed numerous advocacy campaigns over the past forty years on the state and national levels. Prior to his employment in 1980 as the NH State Director of Adult Education he worked for many years as a high school teacher and as a community organizer. In this article, Ellison offers some…

  1. Research Perspectives in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. Randy, Ed.

    This book focuses on understanding the epistemological foundation of adult education, the research process, policy issues, and directions for the future. "An Epistemological Overview of the Field" (Garrison) provides an overview of adult education research: the historical development, issues, the scope of the knowledge base, and approaches to…

  2. Mothers' Depression and Educational Attainment and their Children's Academic Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we take a dynamic approach to studying the connections among mothers' education, their depression, and their children's academic trajectories during elementary school. Applying latent growth curve modeling to longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,012), we find that maternal depression does not mediate the association between mothers' education and children's achievement. Instead, maternal education moderates the association between maternal depression and children's achievement. Specifically, maternal depression only predicted lower achievement for children of women who did not pursue higher education. These results highlight the role of mothers' mental health in the intergenerational linkage between mothers' and children's educational experiences. PMID:20943590

  3. The role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and income: evidence from the National Child Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil M.; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J.; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations. PMID:26561353

  4. The role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and income: evidence from the National Child Development Study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Neil M; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George

    2015-11-12

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations.

  5. Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka†

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Adrienne M.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria’s effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased years of educational attainment and literacy. The similarity of the estimates across the countries reinforces our confidence in the validity of the identification strategy. PMID:23946866

  6. Descriptive statistics and regressions of 2D:4D and educational attainment based on RLMS data.

    PubMed

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Polyachenko, Sergiy

    2017-06-01

    We document the descriptive statistics and detailed regression outputs for educational attainment and measured 2D:4D ratios, based on the RLMS data (20th round, conducted in 2011-2012). Regression analysis is conducted using STATA 13, gologit2 which is a special code for the generalized ordered logit regression in STATA environment. We provide graphs of differences in means of 2D:4D ratios by educational attainment. Information about the distribution of self-identified nationalities and fields of university degrees of respondents is presented.

  7. INTERGENERATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS AND CHILD OBESITY.

    PubMed

    Jones, Antwan

    2016-08-01

    This study used US National Longitudinal Study of Youth data to explore how exposure to different socioeconomic conditions (proxied by maternal education) before birth can shape child weight. Using endogenous selection regression models, the findings suggest that educational selectivity affects weight gain. Mothers whose mothers graduated from high school were more likely to complete high school, and mothers reared in an intact family had higher levels of education. However, mothers who had given birth as a teenager had the same educational outcomes as mothers who gave birth in their post-teenage years. Based on this intergenerational educational selectivity, caretaking (e.g. breast-feeding) was found to be associated with a lower child body mass index (BMI), while negative maternal characteristics (e.g. mothers with high BMIs) were associated with higher child BMIs. Thus, educational selectivity influences child health through values passed on to the child and the lifestyle in which the child is reared. Maternal education may be tied to parenting, which relates to child obesity risk.

  8. Childhood Sexual Victimization, Educational Attainment, and the Returns to Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

  9. Childhood Sexual Victimization, Educational Attainment, and the Returns to Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

  10. Academic Attainment in Students with Dyslexia in Distance Education.

    PubMed

    Richardson, John T E

    2015-11-01

    This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Toward an Ergonomics of Adult Basic Education Instructor and Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David C.

    A study was conducted to determine if more frequent adult basic education (ABE) teacher participation in inservice programs is related to greater job satisfaction or if such factors as age, sex, years of experience, or degree attainment and coursework in adult education play a greater role. A random sample of 150 ABE teachers in Pennsylvania was…

  12. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  13. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  14. Public Higher Education Performance Accountability Framework Report: Goal - Contributions to Economic, Civic, and Social Development Measure -- Educational Attainment of Population. Commission Report 07-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the contribution of public higher education to raise educational attainment and the challenge of aligning postsecondary education with evolving educational needs of the state's diverse population. Report conclusions include: (1) The educational attainment of California's population is growing more slowly than the national…

  15. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of their Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected their children to complete less education, even after controlling for socio-demographic background variables, and children of parents with mild intellectual deficits completed fewer years of education. For both groups, parental expectations were the strongest predictor of attainment. Results suggest that disparities in education are shaped in part by parents’ beliefs about educational opportunities. PMID:20563292

  16. The association between parent’s health and the educational attainment of their children

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.; Miech, Richard; MacMillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as “fair” or “poor” at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661

  17. Myopia and educational attainment in 421,116 young Singaporean males.

    PubMed

    Tay, M T; Au Eong, K G; Ng, C Y; Lim, M K

    1992-11-01

    Data of 421,116 Singaporean males aged 15 to 25 (mean 17.75) years who underwent compulsory medical examination in 1974-84 and 1987-91 were used to estimate the prevalence of myopia and to study the correlation between the prevalence and severity of myopia and educational attainment. The estimated myopia prevalence rate was 26.3% in 1974-84 and 43.3% in 1987-91. This rise in the rate was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of males who achieved higher levels of education over the same period. The overall myopia prevalence rate was 30.4%. Both the prevalence and severity of myopia were higher as the level of education attained increased. The myopia prevalence rate was 15.4% in males with no formal education and increased steadily through groups with intermediate education to 65.2% among those with GCE 'A' level education, 57.5% among diploma holders and 65.1% among university graduates in 1987-91. Seventy out of 173 (40%) myopes with no formal education compared to 1035 out of 1612 (64%) myopes with university degrees had unaided visual acuity worse than 6/60 in 1987-91. Our findings confirm indications from other sources that the association between the prevalence and severity of myopia and education attainment is real. A combination of genetic and environmental factors may be the cause of this association.

  18. Gender, Educational Attainment, and the Impact of Parental Migration on Children Left Behind*

    PubMed Central

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of the causal effect of parental migration on children’s educational attainment is complicated by the fact that migrants and non-migrants are likely to differ in unobservable ways that also affect children’s educational outcomes. This paper suggests a novel way of addressing this selection problem by looking within the family to exploit variation in siblings’ ages at the time of parental migration. The basic assumption underlying the analysis is that parental migration will have no effect on the educational outcomes of children who are at least 20 because they have already completed their educations. Their younger siblings, in contrast, may still be in school, and thus will be affected by the parental migration experience. The results point to a statistically significant positive effect of paternal U.S. migration on education for girls, suggesting that pushing a father’s U.S. migration earlier in his daughter’s life can lead to an increase in her educational attainment of up to 1 year relative to delaying migration until after she has turned 20. In contrast, paternal domestic migration has no statistically significant effect on educational attainment for girls or boys, suggesting that father absence does not play a major role in determining children’s educational outcomes. Instead, these results suggest that the marginal dollars from U.S. migrant remittances appear to enable families to further educate their daughters. Thus, policymakers should view international migration as a potential pathway by which families raise educational attainments of girls in particular. JEL: O15; J12; J13; J16; J24; F22 PMID:27616818

  19. The relationship between educational attainment and waiting time among the elderly in Norway.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Kaarboe, Oddvar Martin

    2015-11-01

    We investigate whether educational attainment affects waiting time of elderly patients in somatic hospitals. We consider three distinct pathways; that patients with different educational attainment have different disease patterns, that patients with different levels of education receive treatments at different hospitals, and that patient choice and supply of local health services within hospital catchment areas explain unequal waiting time of different educational groups. We find evidence of an educational gradient in waiting time for male patients, but not for female patients. Conditional on age, male patients with tertiary education wait 45% shorter than male patients with secondary or primary education. The first pathway is not quantitatively important as controlling for disease patters has little effect on relative waiting times. The second pathway is important. Relative to patients with primary education, variation in waiting time and education level across local hospitals contributes to higher waiting time for male patients with secondary education and female patients with secondary or tertiary education and lower waiting time for male patients with tertiary education. These effects are in the order of 15-20%. The third pathway is also quantitatively important. The educational gradients within catchment areas disappear when we control for travel distance and supply of private specialists.

  20. The Genetics of Success: How Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Educational Attainment Relate to Life-Course Development.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Corcoran, David L; Domingue, Benjamin; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin S; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-07-01

    A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 100,000 individuals identified molecular-genetic predictors of educational attainment. We undertook in-depth life-course investigation of the polygenic score derived from this GWAS using the four-decade Dunedin Study (N = 918). There were five main findings. First, polygenic scores predicted adult economic outcomes even after accounting for educational attainments. Second, genes and environments were correlated: Children with higher polygenic scores were born into better-off homes. Third, children's polygenic scores predicted their adult outcomes even when analyses accounted for their social-class origins; social-mobility analysis showed that children with higher polygenic scores were more upwardly mobile than children with lower scores. Fourth, polygenic scores predicted behavior across the life course, from early acquisition of speech and reading skills through geographic mobility and mate choice and on to financial planning for retirement. Fifth, polygenic-score associations were mediated by psychological characteristics, including intelligence, self-control, and interpersonal skill. Effect sizes were small. Factors connecting DNA sequence with life outcomes may provide targets for interventions to promote population-wide positive development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  2. Educational Attainment across the UK Nations: Performance, Inequality and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Wyness, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Political devolution occurred in the UK in 1998-99, following many years in which some degree of policy administration had been devolved to the four nations. Since devolution, all four countries of the UK have pursued increasingly divergent education policies. This is true in England in particular, where diversity, choice and…

  3. Cost, Commitment, and Attainment in Higher Education: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.; Kim, Young

    2009-01-01

    Jobs for the Future commissioned this report to provide an international perspective on the productivity agenda of "Making Opportunity Affordable," a multi-year initiative focused on increasing productivity within U.S. higher education, particularly at two-year and four-year public colleges and universities. The report also has implications for…

  4. Performing Desires: The Dilemma of Aspirations and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Benjamin, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The authors critique the mechanistic notion of aspirations running through much research and policy-making on educational and vocational outcomes. They present a performative model, with individuals drawing on limited social resources to express aspirations within constrained contexts. This argument is illustrated by discussion of the findings of…

  5. Parental Education, Grade Attainment and Earnings Expectations among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Redmond, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature on intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes (education, health and income for example), many of the pathways through which these outcomes are transmitted are not as well understood. We address this deficit by analysing the relationship between socio-economic status and child outcomes in university,…

  6. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  7. Mothers' Depression and Educational Attainment and Their Children's Academic Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Crosnoe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we take a dynamic approach to studying the connections among mothers' education, their depression, and their children's academic trajectories during elementary school. Applying latent growth curve modeling to longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  8. Early Childbearing and Educational Attainment among Mainland Puerto Rican Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Virginia; Mistry, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study about how early childbearing affected the educational trajectories of nine Puerto Rican teenage mothers living in New England. Raised largely on the mainland, participants chose to carry pregnancies to term and to participate in a parenting program for young mothers. Upon examination of shared meaning-making around…

  9. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, INTELLIGENCE, AND THE ATTAINMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEWELL, WILLIAM H.; SHAH, VIMAL P.

    IN THIS STUDY OF A RANDOM SELECTION OF WISCONSIN HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS (4,386 MALES AND 4,621 FEMALES), THE RELATIVE INFLUENCES OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND MEASURED INTELLIGENCE ARE EXAMINED AT SUCCESSIVE STAGES IN HIGHER EDUCATION BY CROSS-TABULAR ANALYSIS, EFFECT PARAMETERS, AND PATH ANALYSIS. BOTH SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND INTELLIGENCE HAVE DIRECT…

  10. Association of Educational Attainment With Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Heiss, Gerardo; MacLehose, Richard F; Roetker, Nicholas S; Folsom, Aaron R

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of lifetime risk may help raise awareness of the extent to which educational inequalities are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To estimate lifetime risks of CVD according to categories of educational attainment. Participants were followed from 1987 through December 31, 2013. All CVD events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) were confirmed by physician review and International Classification of Diseases codes. A total of 13 948 whites and African Americans who were 45 to 64 years old and free of CVD at baseline were included from 4 US communities (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota). The data analysis was performed from June 7 to August 31, 2016. Educational attainment. We used a life table approach to estimate lifetime risks of CVD from age 45 through 85 years according to educational attainment. We adjusted for competing risks of death from underlying causes other than CVD. The sample of 13 948 participants was 56% female and 27% African American. During 269 210 person-years of follow-up, we documented 4512 CVD events and 2401 non-CVD deaths. Educational attainment displayed an inverse dose-response relation with cumulative risk of CVD, which became evident in middle age, with the most striking gap between those not completing vs completing high school. In men, lifetime risks of CVD were 59.0% (95% CI, 54.0%-64.1%) for grade school, 52.5% (95% CI, 47.7%-56.8%) for high school education without graduation, 50.9% (95% CI, 47.3%-53.9%) for high school graduation, 47.2% (95% CI, 41.5%-52.5%) for vocational school, 46.4% (95% CI, 42.8%-49.6%) for college with or without graduation, and 42.2% (95% CI, 36.6%-47.0%) for graduate/professional school; in women, 50.8% (95% CI, 45.7%-55.8%), 49.3% (95% CI, 45.1%-53.1%), 36.3% (95% CI, 33.4%-39.1%), 32.2% (95% CI, 26.0%-37.3%), 32.8% (95% CI, 29.1%-35.9%), and 28.0% (95% CI, 21

  11. Medication Regimen Complexity and A1C Goal Attainment in Underserved Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Alicia; Shah-Manek, Bijal; Lor, Kajua B

    2017-02-01

    From 2009 to 2012, 51.8% of American adults with diabetes had a hemoglobin A1C (A1C) >7.0%. The complexity of antidiabetic medication regimens may have an impact on glycemic control. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that higher diabetes-specific medication regimen complexity index (MRCI) was associated with lower attainment of A1C goal <7.0% in an underserved, predominantly Hispanic population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Secondary analyses included less stringent A1C goals of <8.0% and <9.0% and overall patient-level MRCI. This study was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of individuals with type 2 diabetes from January 2011 to January 2016. Data was obtained from the electronic medical record and MRCI was calculated using the 65-item validated Microsoft Access Version 1.0 medication regimen complexity electronic data capture tool. Logistic regression was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios. A total of 368 patients were included in the analysis. High diabetes-specific MRCI was associated with lower attainment of A1C goal <7.0% (adjusted OR = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.04-0.18) controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, insurance, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Similar results were obtained for the less stringent A1C goals. However, results for overall patient-level MRCI were mixed. Higher diabetes-specific medication regimen complexity was associated with poorer glycemic control. Simplifying antidiabetic medication regimens, especially where the treatment guidelines give no preference, could be a step toward achieving treatment goals.

  12. Adult Basic Education for the Disadvantaged; Procedures used to Raise the Basic Educational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    In working with a disadvantaged population, such as the young adult prisoners at Draper Correctional Center, one of the first considerations in motivating them to acquire academic skills is to aid them in establishing reasonable and attainable education goals. After a meaningful goal has been accepted, the learner's specific deficiencies must be…

  13. Adult Basic Education for the Disadvantaged; Procedures used to Raise the Basic Educational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    In working with a disadvantaged population, such as the young adult prisoners at Draper Correctional Center, one of the first considerations in motivating them to acquire academic skills is to aid them in establishing reasonable and attainable education goals. After a meaningful goal has been accepted, the learner's specific deficiencies must be…

  14. The Challenges and Issues of Undergraduate Student Retention and Attainment in UK Veterinary Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Elizabeth L; Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth

    2016-12-13

    Student retention and attainment has recently been identified as a key area for development in veterinary medical education enquiry. Woodfield's research on retention and attainment across the UK disciplines has yielded some unique information about the challenges and issues of students who study veterinary medicine and related subjects. The present literature review aims to expand on Woodfield's findings and explain important issues about retention and attainment across veterinary medicine. Overall, the subject of retention and attainment in undergraduate veterinary medical education needs a great deal more empirical attention, such as data on the retention and attainment of mature and widening access students, and the effects of students being placed at remote locations during their studies. Our findings also cover some unsurprising issues: the dominance of women in a profession that is principally lead by men, the underrepresentation of black and minority ethnic (BME) students in veterinary medicine, and the effects of content overload in the veterinary medical curriculum. Based on data gathered by Woodfield and our investigation of the scholarly and gray literatures, we offer an overview of gaps in current knowledge and recommendations for further research.

  15. Examining the Impact Parental Educational Attainment Has on Students' Perceptions of Residence Hall Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrie, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the impact parental educational attainment had on how students perceived their residence hall environment. This multi-campus study utilized the University Residence Environment Scale, along with a demographic form to gather data. The study occurred on three campuses during the Spring 2012 semester and had 347…

  16. The Impact of Private Schools on Educational Attainment in the State of São Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…

  17. Beliefs and Values among Rural Citizens: Shared Expectations for Educational Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David M.; Miller, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Discussions at the local, state, and national level have been focused on the importance of providing access and opportunity for college attendance. While these discussions are important to raising public interest in higher education attainment, they often negate how community values influence the college attendance decision process. This study…

  18. Effects of Weight on Adolescent Educational Attainment. NBER Working Paper No. 14994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Robert; Grossman, Michael; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the association between weight and adolescent's educational attainment, as measured by highest grade attended, highest grade completed, and drop out status. Data for the study came from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which contains a large, national sample of teens between the…

  19. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: The Case of Doctoral Degrees in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastekaasa, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Despite strong trends in most Western countries towards gender equality in educational attainments, men are still considerably more likely to obtain doctoral degrees. Using data comprising nearly all students graduating from Norwegian universities during 1981-1996, separate event history analyses are carried out of recruitment to and completion of…

  20. Neighborhoods and Schools as Competing and Reinforcing Contexts for Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Scholars hypothesize that both neighborhood and school contexts influence educational attainment, but few have considered both contexts simultaneously. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the author analyzes how school and neighborhood contexts are jointly related to high school and college graduation. She finds…

  1. The Psychology of Working: A Case Study of Mexican American Women with Low Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir

    2013-01-01

    Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…

  2. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  3. Five Years Beyond High School: Causes and Consequences of Educational Attainment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; And Others

    The Youth in Transition project, a longitudinal study (which began in 1966) of a national sample of young men is described in this report. (Major objectives of the project were (1) to explore Lhe effects of dropping out of high school, (2) to assess the degree to which educational and occupational attainments are predictable from tenth grade…

  4. Framing the Future: Revisiting the Place of Educational Expectations in Status Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozick, Robert; Alexander, Karl; Entwisle, Doris; Dauber, Susan; Kerr, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    This study revisits the Wisconsin model of status attainment from a life course developmental perspective. Fixed-effects regression analyses lend strong support to the Wisconsin framework's core proposition that academic performance and significant others' influence shape educational expectations. However, investigating the process of expectation…

  5. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how the educational expectations that parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children's attainment, and how parents' own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2,712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a…

  6. Household Structure and Children's Educational Attainment: A Perspective on Coresidence with Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Children from alternative households complete fewer years of schooling. Yet little is known about the implications of coresidence with grandparents for educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,083), this study found that extended households with two biological parents were not detrimental…

  7. A Developmental Process Analysis of Cross-Generational Continuity in Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Yu, Tianyi; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study (N = 585) we examined intergenerational links in level of educational attainment. Of particular interest was whether family background characteristics, parenting in early childhood and early adolescence, and school adjustment and performance in middle childhood accounted for (i.e., mediated) continuity and…

  8. Examining the Impact Parental Educational Attainment Has on Students' Perceptions of Residence Hall Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrie, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the impact parental educational attainment had on how students perceived their residence hall environment. This multi-campus study utilized the University Residence Environment Scale, along with a demographic form to gather data. The study occurred on three campuses during the Spring 2012 semester and had 347…

  9. Longitudinal Pathways from Math Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement to Math Course Accomplishments and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2013-01-01

    Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J; Pers, Tune H; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S Fleur W; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H; Pina Concas, Maria; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Galesloot, Tessel E; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M; Harris, Sarah E; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; deLeeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V; Poot, Raymond A; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Forstner, Andreas J; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Hocking, Lynne J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lebreton, Maël P; Levinson, Douglas F; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C M; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P; Nyholt, Dale R; Ollier, William E R; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L; Petrovic, Katja E; Porteous, David J; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Staessen, Jan A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J A; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bültmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A; Samani, Nilesh J; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton C; Krueger, Robert F; Davey Smith, George; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M; Esko, Tõnu; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J

    2016-05-26

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

  11. Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born…

  12. School Attendance and Attainment: Poor Attenders' Perceptions of Schoolwork and Parental Involvement in Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Because of established links with attainment, the UK government has, over the last ten years, developed policies to improve school attendance. Legislation now makes school attendance a parental responsibility. In the small-scale study reported in this article, Anne Sheppard, manager of an Education Welfare Service Team in North Yorkshire,…

  13. The Effects of Military Service on Early Occupational and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Data derived from the Southern Youth Study (a randomly stratified sample of 250 black and 409 white males from Southern rural counties with lower than average annual incomes) were utilized to analyze veteran status as a determinant of occupational and educational attainment via the interaction effects between race, veteran status, and residential…

  14. Educational Attainment in South Africa: A View from the Census 1865-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Population censuses record considerable volumes of personal information, which when aggregated and tabulated provide significant insights into national societies. South African censuses have recorded levels of educational attainment since their inception in the mid-nineteenth century, initially measuring literacy and later the level of education…

  15. The Attainment of Pupils in Gaelic-Medium Primary Education in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Fiona; Paterson, Lindsay; McLeod, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    The curricular attainment of pupils in Gaelic-medium primary education in Scotland is investigated using surveys of Gaelic-medium and English-medium pupils in the fifth and seventh years of primary school (approximately 9 and 11 years of age) in 2007. The Gaelic-medium survey was essentially a census of pupils. The English-medium survey was a…

  16. Educational Attainment in South Africa: A View from the Census 1865-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Population censuses record considerable volumes of personal information, which when aggregated and tabulated provide significant insights into national societies. South African censuses have recorded levels of educational attainment since their inception in the mid-nineteenth century, initially measuring literacy and later the level of education…

  17. The Attainment of Pupils in Gaelic-Medium Primary Education in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Fiona; Paterson, Lindsay; McLeod, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    The curricular attainment of pupils in Gaelic-medium primary education in Scotland is investigated using surveys of Gaelic-medium and English-medium pupils in the fifth and seventh years of primary school (approximately 9 and 11 years of age) in 2007. The Gaelic-medium survey was essentially a census of pupils. The English-medium survey was a…

  18. The Influence of Personal Networks and Social Support on Study Attainment of Students in University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggens, Lilian; van der Werf, M. P. C.; Bosker, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education is examined. Furthermore, the paper aimed at clarifying the possible mediating role of achievement motivation, time spent on studying and working, procrastination and self-esteem. The study is a follow-up of the '89 cohort…

  19. Assessing Educational Outcomes in Middle Childhood: Validation of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Method: Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males,…

  20. Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born…

  1. Social Status, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment as Predictors of Liberal Social Attitudes and Political Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Ingrid; Cheng, Helen; Gale, Catharine R.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective associations between family socio-economic background, childhood intelligence ("g") at age 11, educational and occupational attainment, and social attitudes at age 33 in a large (N = 8804), representative sample of the British population born in 1958. Structural equation Modeling identified a latent trait of…

  2. The Effects of Early Bilateral Otitis Media with Effusion on Educational Attainment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sylvia A. F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between educational attainment and long-lasting, bilateral otitis media with effusion (OME) in 270 Dutch children (ages 2 to 4) found that, at age 7, early bilateral OME affected spelling ability but not reading ability. Effects of treatment with ventilation tubes were not found. (DB)

  3. Only Fools? Reconsidering the Relationship between Commitment to the Work Ethic and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that work ethic research has suffered from a tendency to conflate preference and morality, and that this has been particularly detrimental to our understanding of the relationship between commitment to the work ethic and educational attainment. The work ethic is almost always measured quantitatively, yet in-depth research…

  4. Natural Mentors, Racial Identity, and Educational Attainment among African American Adolescents: Exploring Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…

  5. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  6. The Planetarium in Education: An Experimental Study of the Attainment of Perceived Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis Wayne

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of the planetarium in attaining the perceived goals of planetarium educators. The goal areas for the 986 second-grade children involved in the study were low level Cognitive or Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application; Affective or Receiving, Responding, and Valuing; and…

  7. The Impact of Private Schools on Educational Attainment in the State of São Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…

  8. Individual Heterogeneity and Reverse Causality in the Relationship between Migraine Headache and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Rees and Sabia (2011) found migraine headache was negatively related to educational attainment even after accounting for the influence of family-level unobservables. The current study explores whether this relationship is attributable to unmeasured individual heterogeneity in the form of personality by using non-migraine headache…

  9. Military Service and Educational Attainment in the All-Volunteer Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2007-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the relationship between service in the All Volunteer Force (AVF) military and educational attainment. Through the use of fixed-effects estimators, the author generated estimates of the effect of military service on the highest grade of school completed by men that…

  10. Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…

  11. Military Service and Educational Attainment in the All-Volunteer Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2007-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the relationship between service in the All Volunteer Force (AVF) military and educational attainment. Through the use of fixed-effects estimators, the author generated estimates of the effect of military service on the highest grade of school completed by men that…

  12. Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…

  13. The Effects of Early Bilateral Otitis Media with Effusion on Educational Attainment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sylvia A. F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between educational attainment and long-lasting, bilateral otitis media with effusion (OME) in 270 Dutch children (ages 2 to 4) found that, at age 7, early bilateral OME affected spelling ability but not reading ability. Effects of treatment with ventilation tubes were not found. (DB)

  14. Phi Delta Kappa Needs Assessment: The Application of Educational Goal Attainment Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Montare, Alberto P. S.

    The Educational Goal-Attainment Tests, in particular, were used in four large-scale undertakings that led to subsequent planning and development efforts. The first was a statewide study of Puerto Rican students in comparison to their black and white counterparts. Both urban and suburban samples were used with the emphasis on urban. These results,…

  15. The Psychology of Working: A Case Study of Mexican American Women with Low Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir

    2013-01-01

    Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…

  16. Only Fools? Reconsidering the Relationship between Commitment to the Work Ethic and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that work ethic research has suffered from a tendency to conflate preference and morality, and that this has been particularly detrimental to our understanding of the relationship between commitment to the work ethic and educational attainment. The work ethic is almost always measured quantitatively, yet in-depth research…

  17. Statistics of Educational Attainment and Illiteracy, 1945-1974. Unesco Statistical Reports and Studies, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    This publication presents statistics on educational attainment and illiteracy by country, age, sex, and other characteristics where available. Data are derived from censuses and surveys carried out since 1945, supplemented by a limited number of estimates. Most of the basic data is taken from the "Demographic Yearbook Population Census"…

  18. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Camille L.; Siebens, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates. It also uses data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collected in 2009 and earlier, as well as monthly…

  19. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-550

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    This report provides information on basic educational trends and attainment levels across many segments of the population. The findings are based on data collected in the 2003 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) and refer to the population 25 years and over unless otherwise specified. The population…

  20. Relative Age Effect and Gender Differences in Physical Education Attainment in Norwegian Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aune, Tore Kristian; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Ingvaldsen, Rolf Petter; Dalen, Terje

    2017-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) refers to that children born early in their year of birth show higher performance compared to children born late in the same cohort. The present study evaluated whether RAE exists within non-competitive physical education (PE) attainments, change in RAE magnitude with age, and possible gender differences. The results…

  1. School Attendance and Attainment: Poor Attenders' Perceptions of Schoolwork and Parental Involvement in Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Because of established links with attainment, the UK government has, over the last ten years, developed policies to improve school attendance. Legislation now makes school attendance a parental responsibility. In the small-scale study reported in this article, Anne Sheppard, manager of an Education Welfare Service Team in North Yorkshire,…

  2. Individual Heterogeneity and Reverse Causality in the Relationship between Migraine Headache and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Rees and Sabia (2011) found migraine headache was negatively related to educational attainment even after accounting for the influence of family-level unobservables. The current study explores whether this relationship is attributable to unmeasured individual heterogeneity in the form of personality by using non-migraine headache…

  3. Professionalism Prevails in Adult Education ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Megan C.; Bywater, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of professionalism of adult education ESL educators and uncover any inequities. The arc of this exploration describes the history of adult education, the current state of adult education ESL professionals, and the direction in which ESL adult educators appear to be heading. The results illustrate…

  4. Maintaining Inequality Despite Expansion: Evidence of the Link between Parents' Education and Qualitative Differences in Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The restructuring of the Australian labour market decreased demand for low-skilled workers and increased demand for highly skilled workers and professionals further strengthening the relationship between educational and occupational attainment. To satisfy the demand for highly educated workers, the government reorganised the higher education…

  5. Children at Risk from Domestic Violence and Their Educational Attainment: Perspectives of Education Welfare Officers, Social Workers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…

  6. Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

  7. Education across Borders: The Relationship between Age at Migration and Educational Attainment for Mexico-U.S. Child Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karyn

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The flow of people, including children, across international borders is a growing trend. While research has emphasized the relationship between parental migration and children's educational outcomes, little is known about how child migration itself influences educational attainment. Purpose: To examine the relationship between…

  8. Children at Risk from Domestic Violence and Their Educational Attainment: Perspectives of Education Welfare Officers, Social Workers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…

  9. Maintaining Inequality Despite Expansion: Evidence of the Link between Parents' Education and Qualitative Differences in Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The restructuring of the Australian labour market decreased demand for low-skilled workers and increased demand for highly skilled workers and professionals further strengthening the relationship between educational and occupational attainment. To satisfy the demand for highly educated workers, the government reorganised the higher education…

  10. Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

  11. Education across Borders: The Relationship between Age at Migration and Educational Attainment for Mexico-U.S. Child Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karyn

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The flow of people, including children, across international borders is a growing trend. While research has emphasized the relationship between parental migration and children's educational outcomes, little is known about how child migration itself influences educational attainment. Purpose: To examine the relationship between…

  12. Civic Education as a Collaborative Dimension of Social Studies Education in Attainment of Political Ethics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dania, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated Civic Education as a collaborative dimension of Social Studies Education in attainment of political ethics in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. The sample for the study consisted of 580 Social Studies teachers selected from thirty secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. The…

  13. Educational Attainment and Timing to First Union across Three Generations of Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Frank, Reanne; Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2014-01-01

    We use data from Wave 3 of the Mexican Family Life Survey (N = 7276) and discrete-time regression analyses to evaluate changes in the association between educational attainment and timing to first union across three generations of women in Mexico, including a mature cohort (born between 1930 and 1949), a middle cohort (born between 1950 and 1969), and a young cohort (born between 1970 and 1979). Mirroring prior research, we find a curvilinear pattern between educational attainment and timing to first union for women born between 1930 and 1969, such that once we account for the delaying effect of school enrollment, those with the lowest (0–5 years) and highest levels of education (13+ years) are characterized by the earliest transition to a first union. For women born between 1970 and 1979, however, we find that the pattern between education and first union formation has changed. In contrast to their peers born in earlier cohorts, highly educated women in Mexico are now postponing first union formation relative to the least educated. We draw on competing theories of educational attainment and timing to first union to help clarify these patterns in the context of Mexico. PMID:26005234

  14. Transitions in the effect of family size on female education attainment: the case of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hermalin, A I; Seltzer, J A; Lin, C H

    1982-06-01

    The effect of family size on female educational attainment in Taiwan during a critical period of its development is examined. A sample group of women in 1973 (ages 20-39) with varying socioeconomic backgrounds and family structures is considered. Although the father's occupational status and education are positively related to the daughter's educational level, it would appear that structural aspects of the family and number of siblings are not related. The results of this study thus reveal that family size was not related to female educational attainment with the exception of certain sectors of Taiwanese society. An explanation of these findings suggests that in the early stages of development, children's education is not as important as it later becomes when greater value is attributed to schooling as a vehicle for social mobility. At that later level of societal development, parents consider making resource allocation decisions between expenditures on education and other desired goods (e.g. children) and family size begins to have a negative affect on individual educational attainment.

  15. Hippocampal volume varies with educational attainment across the life-span

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Engelhardt, Laura E.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Williams, Leanne M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities—and particularly differences in educational attainment—are associated with remarkable differences in cognition and behavior across the life-span. Decreased educational attainment has been linked to increased exposure to life stressors, which in turn have been associated with structural differences in the hippocampus and the amygdala. However, the degree to which educational attainment is directly associated with anatomical differences in these structures remains unclear. Recent studies in children have found socioeconomic differences in regional brain volume in the hippocampus and amygdala across childhood and adolescence. Here we expand on this work, by investigating whether disparities in hippocampal and amygdala volume persist across the life-span. In a sample of 275 individuals from the BRAINnet Foundation database ranging in age from 17 to 87, we found that socioeconomic status (SES), as operationalized by years of educational attainment, moderates the effect of age on hippocampal volume. Specifically, hippocampal volume tended to markedly decrease with age among less educated individuals, whereas age-related reductions in hippocampal volume were less pronounced among more highly educated individuals. No such effects were found for amygdala volume. Possible mechanisms by which education may buffer age-related effects on hippocampal volume are discussed. PMID:23162453

  16. Hyperopia and educational attainment in a primary school cohort

    PubMed Central

    Williams, W; Latif, A; Hannington, L; Watkins, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Vision screening addresses the visual impairments that impact on child development. Tests of long-sightedness are not found in most school screening programmes. The evidence linking mild-moderate hyperopia and lack of progress in school is insufficient, although strengthened by recent findings of developmental problems in infants. Aims: To report on the relation between hyperopia and education test results in a cohort of primary school children. Methods: A total of 1298 children, aged 8 years, were screened for hyperopia on the basis of fogging test results. School test results (NFER and SATs) were compared between groups categorised by referral status and refractive error. Results: A total of 166 (12.8%) fogging test failures were referred for ophthalmic assessment. Ophthalmic tests on 105 children provided an accurate diagnosis of vision defects, for reference to their education scores. Fifty per cent of the children examined by optometrists required an intervention (prescription change, glasses prescribed, or referral). Mean (95% CI) NFER scores of children with refractive errors (summed for both eyes) >+3D (98.4, 93.0–103.8, n = 32) or >+1.25D (best eye) (99.3, 93.0–105.6, n = 26) were lower than the respective scores of children with a less positive refractive state (104.8, 100.7–108.9, n = 43) (103.6, 99.7–107.4, n = 49), the non-referred group, and total sample. The SATs results followed a similar trend. A high proportion of the fogging test failures (16%) and confirmed hyperopes (29%) had been referred to an educational psychologist, and the latter group contributed substantially to the poor education scores. Conclusions: The results of this study provide further evidence for a link between hyperopia and impaired literacy standards in children. PMID:15665167

  17. Exploring Variation in Teenage Mothers’ and Fathers’ Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT A substantial body of research has compared educational outcomes of teenage parents with those of their childless peers, but less attention has gone to variations among teenage parents. Additionally, gender differences in teenage parents’ educational outcomes have rarely been studied. METHODS Characteristics associated with high school graduation by age 26 were assessed among 317 teenage mothers and fathers who participated in the 1988–2000 National Education Longitudinal Study. Logistic regression models included socioeconomic and educational characteristics, gender, parenting responsibilities and resources, and gender interactions. RESULTS Married or cohabiting teenage parents living with no or one parent had 73% lower odds of graduation than single respondents living with two parents. Gender moderated the relationships between two parenting responsibilities and the likelihood of graduation: Fathers working at least half-time were less likely than nonworking fathers to graduate (odds ratio, 0.2), and fathers who were primary caregivers had substantially elevated odds of graduating (7.4), but no similar relationships were seen among mothers. Sixty-one percent of fathers who worked but were not primary care-givers were predicted to graduate by age 26, compared with 97% of those who were nonworking primary caregivers. CONCLUSIONS Traditional parenting norms, according to which mothers are primary caregivers and fathers are breadwinners, do not appear to be associated with improved odds of graduating. Policies and interventions aimed at helping teenage parents graduate may be most effective if they target both genders, but some are likely to be more beneficial for one gender than the other. PMID:20887284

  18. Exploring variation in teenage mothers' and fathers' educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2010-09-01

    A substantial body of research has compared educational outcomes of teenage parents with those of their childless peers, but less attention has gone to variations among teenage parents. Additionally, gender differences in teenage parents' educational outcomes have rarely been studied. Characteristics associated with high school graduation by age 26 were assessed among 317 teenage mothers and fathers who participated in the 1988-2000 National Education Longitudinal Study. Logistic regression models included socioeconomic and educational characteristics, gender, parenting responsibilities and resources, and gender interactions. Married or cohabiting teenage parents living with no or one parent had 73% lower odds of graduation than single respondents living with two parents. Gender moderated the relationships between two parenting responsibilities and the likelihood of graduation: Fathers working at least half-time were less likely than nonworking fathers to graduate (odds ratio, 0.2), and fathers who were primary caregivers had substantially elevated odds of graduating (7.4), but no similar relationships were seen among mothers. Sixty-one percent of fathers who worked but were not primary caregivers were predicted to graduate by age 26, compared with 97% of those who were nonworking primary caregivers. Traditional parenting norms, according to which mothers are primary caregivers and fathers are breadwinners, do not appear to be associated with improved odds of graduating. Policies and interventions aimed at helping teenage parents graduate may be most effective if they target both genders, but some are likely to be more beneficial for one gender than the other. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  19. Continuing Education Course to Attain Collaborative Comprehensive Medication Review Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Tuomainen, Lea; Ovaskainen, Harri; Peura, Sirpa; Sevón-Vilkman, Nina; Tanskanen, Paavo; Airaksinen, Marja S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To implement a long-term continuing education course for pharmacy practitioners to acquire competency in and accreditation for conducting collaborative comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs). Design A 1½- year curriculum for practicing pharmacists that combined distance learning (using e-learning tools) and face-to-face learning was created. The training consisted of 5 modules: (1) Multidisciplinary Collaboration; (2) Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapy; (3) Rational Pharmacotherapy; (4) CMR Tools; and (5) Optional Studies. Assessment The curriculum and participants' learning were evaluated using essays and learning diaries. At the end of the course, students submitted portfolios and completed an Internet-based survey instrument. Almost all respondents (92%) indicated their educational needs had been met by the course and 68% indicated they would conduct CMRs in their practice. The most important factors facilitating learning were working with peers and in small groups. Factors preventing learning were mostly related to time constraints. Conclusion Comprehensive medication review competencies were established by a 1½- year continuing education curriculum that combined different teaching methods and experiential learning. Peer support was greatly appreciated as a facilitator of learning by course participants. PMID:19885077

  20. Ambitions fulfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after controlling for extrinsic goal attainment, intrinsic goal attainment contributed positively to subjective well-being and ego-integrity and negatively to despair, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was unrelated to psychological health and contributed positively to despair. Study 2 (N = 213, Mean age = 75.2 years) replicated and extended these results, showing that intrinsic goal attainment contributed to the acceptance of one's own death, lower ill-being, and less death anxiety, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was negatively associated with death acceptance. It is argued that the attainment of intrinsic goals is related to better psychological health, because intrinsic goals are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs.