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Sample records for adult emergence inhibition

  1. Emerging trends in metalloprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rouffet, Matthieu; Cohen, Seth M

    2011-04-14

    Numerous metalloproteins are important therapeutic targets that are gaining increased attention in the medicinal and bioinorganic chemistry communities. This Perspective article describes some emerging trends and recent findings in the area of metalloprotein inhibitor discovery and development. In particular, increasing recognition of the importance of the metal-ligand interactions in these systems calls for more input and consideration from the bioinorganic community to address questions traditionally confined to the medicinal chemistry community.

  2. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  3. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use.

  4. Functional Interrogation of Adult Hypothalamic Neurogenesis with Focal Radiological Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Salvatierra, Juan; Velarde, Esteban; Wong, John; Ford, Eric C.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2013-01-01

    The functional characterization of adult-born neurons remains a significant challenge. Approaches to inhibit adult neurogenesis via invasive viral delivery or transgenic animals have potential confounds that make interpretation of results from these studies difficult. New radiological tools are emerging, however, that allow one to noninvasively investigate the function of select groups of adult-born neurons through accurate and precise anatomical targeting in small animals. Focal ionizing radiation inhibits the birth and differentiation of new neurons, and allows targeting of specific neural progenitor regions. In order to illuminate the potential functional role that adult hypothalamic neurogenesis plays in the regulation of physiological processes, we developed a noninvasive focal irradiation technique to selectively inhibit the birth of adult-born neurons in the hypothalamic median eminence. We describe a method for Computer tomography-guided focal irradiation (CFIR) delivery to enable precise and accurate anatomical targeting in small animals. CFIR uses three-dimensional volumetric image guidance for localization and targeting of the radiation dose, minimizes radiation exposure to nontargeted brain regions, and allows for conformal dose distribution with sharp beam boundaries. This protocol allows one to ask questions regarding the function of adult-born neurons, but also opens areas to questions in areas of radiobiology, tumor biology, and immunology. These radiological tools will facilitate the translation of discoveries at the bench to the bedside. PMID:24300415

  5. Koru: Teaching Mindfulness to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is much interest in teaching mindfulness to college students and other emerging adults, traditional methods of teaching mindfulness and meditation are not always effective for reaching this age group. Koru is a program, developed at Duke University, that has been specifically designed with the developmental characteristics of…

  6. Do Social Bonds Matter for Emerging Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Christopher; Taniguchi, Travis A.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which social bonds and turning points influence criminal activity has been the focus of much empirical research. However, there have been few empirical studies exploring social bonds and turning points and offending for those who have experienced emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we examined if indicators of social bonds and turning points were predictors of criminal offending. Several of the turning points and social bonds included in these analyses were found to influence decreases in criminal offending for a cohort of emerging adults. We extend previous research by examining the influence of social bonds and turning points on patterns of criminal offending during emerging adulthood. PMID:23487587

  7. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In several developmental theories, separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate separation anxiety at the family level in families with emerging adults. By using the Social Relations Model, we aimed to determine the extent to which the actor, the partner, their specific relationships, and the family contribute to separation anxiety in dyadic family relationships. A total of 119 Belgian two-parent families with an emerging adult participated in a round-robin design, in which family members reported on their feelings of separation anxiety toward each other. Findings showed that separation anxiety can be represented as a personal characteristic (i.e., an actor effect) and as a specific feature of the mother-child dyad. Further, findings indicate that separation anxiety is also characteristic of the father-mother marital relationship and of the family climate as a whole. Implications for the meaning of separation anxiety and clinical practice are discussed.

  8. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  9. Homeless, Street-Involved Emerging Adults: Attitudes toward Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.; Gomez, Rebecca; Dreyer, Lauren; Popham, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that a high proportion of homeless emerging adults use substances. This article aims to understand the attitudes of these young adults concerning their substance use and its effect on their lives. A mixed methods study using semistructured interviews and self-report instruments was conducted with 87 emerging adults who…

  10. Emerging Adult versus Adult Status among College Students: Examination of Explanatory Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Jonkman, Jeffrey N.; Smith, G. Rush

    2008-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to report how many college students, 18 to 25 years of age, are classified as "emerging adults," "undecideds" or "adults." The second purpose was to determine the relationships between emerging adults versus adults and (a) background characteristics, (b) risk-taking behaviors; (c) sensation-seeking scores, and…

  11. Emerging trends in enzyme inhibition by multivalent nanoconstructs.

    PubMed

    Kanfar, Nasreddine; Bartolami, Eline; Zelli, Renaud; Marra, Alberto; Winum, Jean-Yves; Ulrich, Sébastien; Dumy, Pascal

    2015-10-21

    Multivalent nanoconstructs, extensively used for enhancing the recognition of biomolecular targets, have been recently exploited for enzyme inhibition showing interesting properties such as improvement of inhibitory potency and selectivity. We review herein the recent results highlighting the potential of multivalent nanoconstructs for the inhibition of different enzymes, and the emerging trends in the generation and identification of multivalent clusters as enzyme inhibitors.

  12. Ready or Not? Criteria for Marriage Readiness among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Badger, Sarah; Willoughby, Brian J.; Nelson, Larry J.; Madsen, Stephanie D.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emerging adults' criteria for marriage readiness and explored how these criteria are associated with their current attitudes and behaviors. This article establishes the psychometric value of the Criteria for Marriage Readiness Questionnaire and reports on a study of 788 emerging adults recruited from five college sites across…

  13. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; González, L C; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Aguilar, E

    1999-05-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has emerged recently as a pivotal signal in the regulation of fertility. Although the actions of leptin in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly at the hypothalamic level, the potential direct effects of leptin at the pituitary and gonadal level have been poorly characterised. In the present study, we first assessed the ability of leptin to regulate testicular testosterone secretion in vitro. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate whether leptin can modulate basal gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) release by incubated hemi-pituitaries from fasted male rats. To attain the first goal, testicular slices from prepubertal and adult rats were incubated with increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Assuming that in vitro testicular responsiveness to leptin may be dependent on the background leptin levels, testicular tissue from both food-deprived and normally-fed animals was used. Furthermore, leptin modulation of stimulated testosterone secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with different doses of leptin in the presence of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). In addition, analysis of leptin actions on pituitary function was carried out using hemi-pituitaries from fasted adult male rats incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Serum testosterone levels, and basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by incubated testicular tissue were significantly decreased by fasting in prepubertal and adult male rats. However, a significant reduction in circulating LH levels was only evident in adult fasted rats. Doses of 10(-9)-10(-7) M leptin had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes from prepubertal rats, regardless of the nutritional state of the donor animal. In contrast, leptin significantly decreased basal and hCG-induced testosterone secretion by testes from fasted and fed

  14. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; González, L C; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Aguilar, E

    1999-05-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has emerged recently as a pivotal signal in the regulation of fertility. Although the actions of leptin in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly at the hypothalamic level, the potential direct effects of leptin at the pituitary and gonadal level have been poorly characterised. In the present study, we first assessed the ability of leptin to regulate testicular testosterone secretion in vitro. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate whether leptin can modulate basal gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) release by incubated hemi-pituitaries from fasted male rats. To attain the first goal, testicular slices from prepubertal and adult rats were incubated with increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Assuming that in vitro testicular responsiveness to leptin may be dependent on the background leptin levels, testicular tissue from both food-deprived and normally-fed animals was used. Furthermore, leptin modulation of stimulated testosterone secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with different doses of leptin in the presence of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). In addition, analysis of leptin actions on pituitary function was carried out using hemi-pituitaries from fasted adult male rats incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Serum testosterone levels, and basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by incubated testicular tissue were significantly decreased by fasting in prepubertal and adult male rats. However, a significant reduction in circulating LH levels was only evident in adult fasted rats. Doses of 10(-9)-10(-7) M leptin had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes from prepubertal rats, regardless of the nutritional state of the donor animal. In contrast, leptin significantly decreased basal and hCG-induced testosterone secretion by testes from fasted and fed

  15. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  16. Adult Siblings Consider the Future: Emergent Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…

  17. Self-Perceived Emerging Adult Status and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas C.; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Cleeland, Leah R.; Davis, Jordan P.

    2014-01-01

    Very little research exists on how self-perceived emerging adult status is associated with substance use among low-income emerging adults. The Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) was administered to emerging adults (EAs) ages 18–25 screened for substance use problems (n=l05) in a state-subsidized, not-for-profit treatment agency. We examined whether the defining dimensions of Arnett’s (2000a) emerging adulthood theory were associated with substance use frequency and substance-related problems, including: identity exploration, self-focus, possibilities, optimism, negativity/instability, and feeling in-between. In multivariate models, feeling in-between was positively associated with substance-related problems. An interaction term between minority status and feeling in-between approached statistical significance (p = .057). Further, IDEA scale score means were comparable to those found in college student samples. Implications for theory revision are discussed. PMID:25134032

  18. Self-perceived emerging adult status and substance use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Cleeland, Leah R; Davis, Jordan P

    2014-09-01

    Very little research exists on how self-perceived emerging adult status is associated with substance use among low-income emerging adults. The Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) was administered to emerging adults (EAs) ages 18-25 screened for substance use problems (n = l05) in a state-subsidized, not-for-profit treatment agency. We examined whether the defining dimensions of Arnett's (2000a) emerging adulthood theory were associated with substance use frequency and substance-related problems, including: identity exploration, self-focus, possibilities, optimism, negativity/instability, and feeling in-between. In multivariate models, feeling in-between was positively associated with substance-related problems. An interaction term between minority status and feeling in-between approached statistical significance (p = .057). Further, IDEA scale score means were comparable to those found in college student samples. Implications for theory revision are discussed. PMID:25134032

  19. When to use the emergency room - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Before you have a medical problem, learn what your choices are. Check the website of your health insurance company. Put these telephone numbers in the memory of your phone: Your doctor The closest emergency department ...

  20. Emerging Adults' Identity Exploration: Illustrations from inside the "Camp Bubble"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sara K.; Goldman, Jane A.; Garey, Anita I.; Britner, Preston A.; Weaver, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the experiences of emerging adults who had worked as counselors at overnight summer camps; identity-related issues emerge as most salient in the analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with 12 women and 8 men from 8 camps. Their descriptions portray the identity exploration that took place within the camp context, through…

  1. [Medical emergencies in the adult immigrant].

    PubMed

    Junyent, M; Núñez, S; Miró, O

    2006-01-01

    The need for medical care of the immigrant population is growing in proportion to the increase in the number of immigrants resident in Spain. This article reviews the socio-demographic characteristics of the immigrant population that come for consultations in the emergency services and discusses those particularities, both medical (neurocysticercosis, tuberculosis, infection by the AIDS virus, hepatitis, malaria, parasitosis, Ulysses syndrome) and paramedical (knowledge of the health card, concept of medicine, language barrier), that differentiate them from the native population. Nonetheless, since we are dealing with a young population that is in principle healthy, their reasons for consultation do not greatly differ from the general population. It is worth drawing attention to the high level of satisfaction of this population with the care afforded them in the hospital emergency services. PMID:16721415

  2. Sentence Interpretation Strategies in Emergent Bilingual Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Iliana; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sentence processing in emergent bilingual children and young adults in both English (second language -- L2) and Spanish (first language -- L1). One hundred participants from five different age groups (5;4-7;11, 8;0-10;11, 11;2-13;11, 14;0-16;8 years, and college-age adults) participated in this study. An online sentence…

  3. Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

  4. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  5. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  6. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  8. Factors Associated with Truancy: Emerging Adults' Recollections of Skipping School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Although truancy has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to the actual voices of the truants themselves. The current study helps fill that gap by examining recollections from a sample of 34 emerging adults (ages 18-25) who experienced various levels of high school truancy across different geographical settings. A qualitative…

  9. Personal and Ethnic Identity in Swedish Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…

  10. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  11. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  12. Generation XXX: Pornography Acceptance and Use among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Olson, Chad D.; McNamara Barry, Carolyn; Madsen, Stephanie D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of pornography acceptance and use within a normative (nonclinical) population of emerging adults (individuals aged 18-26). Participants included 813 university students (500 women; M age = 20 years) recruited from six college sites across the United States. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding their…

  13. Academic Risks Associated with Emerging Adults Seeking the College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strage, Amy; Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Sadly, data collected from universities across the nation continue to suggest that fully half of the "emerging adults" (Arnett, 2015) who make their way to college will not graduate. This vexing statistic is particularly troublesome because it reflects a tremendous cost--in dollars, in time, and in self-esteem. In this study, we report…

  14. Suffering, Selfish, Slackers? Myths and Reality about Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-01-01

    Many myths about adolescence have been refuted by research, but similar myths have grown up in recent years around emerging adulthood. This essay addresses three of those myths: the claim that they suffer from a normative "crisis"; the accusations that they are "selfish"; and their alleged reluctance to "grow up" and become adults. For each issue,…

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  16. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  17. A Song to Remember: Emerging Adults Recall Memorable Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Julia R.; Greenwood, Dara N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study employs a mixed methods approach to understanding the psychological functions and contexts of music use. Seventy-six emerging adults selected a single piece of music that they considered personally significant and elaborated on the reasons for this significance in response to written prompts. A constant comparative analysis of…

  18. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  19. The Effect of Childhood Supervisory Neglect on Emerging Adults' Drinking.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Merritt, Darcey H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of childhood supervisory neglect on emerging adults' drinking. Child supervisory neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States, but few studies explore supervisory neglect separate from other forms of maltreatment among emerging adults, 18-25 years old. The study sample included (n = 11,117) emerging adults, 18-25 years old who participated in Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We conducted separate analyses for male and female emerging adults, because they have different rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol risk behaviors. Our study used latent class analysis to understand how patterns of alcohol risk behaviors clustered together. For males, we found the following four classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, (3) binge-drinkers, and (4) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For females, we found the following three classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, and (3) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For both males and females, supervisory neglect increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class compared to the low-risk drinkers or abstainers' class. Single males who did not live with their parents, and who were white had increased odds of being in the multiple-risk drinkers. For females, being more educated, or in a serious romantic relationship increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class. Practitioners should ask about histories of supervisory neglect among emerging adults who engage in alcohol risk behaviors. PMID:26771736

  20. Folate deficiency inhibits proliferation of adult hippocampal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kruman, Inna I; Mouton, Peter R; Emokpae, Roland; Cutler, Roy G; Mattson, Mark P

    2005-07-13

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus may play important roles in learning and memory, and in recovery from injury. As recent findings suggest, the perturbance of homocysteine/folate or one-carbon metabolism can adversely affect both the developing and the adult brain, and increase the risk of neural tube defects and Alzheimer's disease. We report that dietary folic acid deficiency dramatically increased blood homocysteine levels and significantly reduced the number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in adult mice. In vitro, the perturbance of one-carbon metabolism repressed proliferation of cultured embryonic multipotent neuroepithelial progenitor cells and affected cell cycle distribution. Our results suggest that dietary folate deficiency inhibits proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells in the adult brain and thereby affects neurogenesis. PMID:15973147

  1. Emergency Department Use Among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-04-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to 2011 (2549-6087 per 100,000 admissions). Adults with ASD visited ED for: primary psychiatric disorder (15%ASD vs. 4.2%noASD), primary non-psychiatric disorder (16%ASD vs. 14%noASD), and any injury (24%ASD vs. 28%noASD). Mean total ED charges for adults with ASD were 2.3 times higher than for adults without ASD. Findings emphasize the need to examine the extent of frequent ED use in this population.

  2. A Transgenic Rat for Specifically Inhibiting Adult Neurogenesis123

    PubMed Central

    Grigereit, Laura; Pickel, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The growth of research on adult neurogenesis and the development of new models and tools have greatly advanced our understanding of the function of newborn neurons in recent years. However, there are still significant limitations in the ability to identify the functions of adult neurogenesis in available models. Here we report a transgenic rat (TK rat) that expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in GFAP+ cells. Upon treating TK rats with the antiviral drug valganciclovir, granule cell neurogenesis can be completely inhibited in adulthood, in both the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Interestingly, neurogenesis in the glomerular and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb was only partially inhibited, suggesting that some adult-born neurons in these regions derive from a distinct precursor population that does not express GFAP. Within the hippocampus, blockade of neurogenesis was rapid and nearly complete within 1 week of starting treatment. Preliminary behavioral analyses indicate that general anxiety levels and patterns of exploration are generally unaffected in neurogenesis-deficient rats. However, neurogenesis-deficient TK rats showed reduced sucrose preference, suggesting deficits in reward-related behaviors. We expect that TK rats will facilitate structural, physiological, and behavioral studies that complement those possible in existing models, broadly enhancing understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis. PMID:27257630

  3. The Emerging Adult with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Recommendations for the Adult Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising. Adult gastroenterologists are seeing increasing numbers of young adults with IBD, a subpopulation with unique needs and challenges that can impair their readiness to thrive in an adult healthcare system. Most adult gastroenterologists might not have the training or resources to address these needs. “Emerging adulthood” is a useful developmental lens through which this group can be studied. With complex disease phenotype and specific concerns of medication side effects and reproductive health, compounded by challenges of geographical and social flux and lack of adequate health insurance, emerging adults with IBD (EAI) are at risk of disrupted care with lack of continuity. Lessons learned from structured healthcare transition process from pediatric to adult services can be applied towards challenges in ongoing care of this population in the adult healthcare system. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in caring for the post transition EAI from the perspective of adult gastroenterologists and offers a checklist of provider and patient skills that enable effective care. This paper discusses the system-based challenges in care provision and search for meaningful patient-oriented outcomes and presents a conceptual model of determinants of continuity of care in this unique population. PMID:26064089

  4. Emergency Department Use among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to…

  5. Noise in the adult emergency department of Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Douglas; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J; West, James E

    2007-04-01

    While hospitals are generally noisy environments, nowhere is the pandemonium greater than in an emergency department, where there is constant flow of patients, doctors, nurses, and moving equipment. In this noise study we collected 24 h measurements throughout the adult emergency department of Johns Hopkins Hospital, the top ranked hospital in the U.S. for 16 years running. The equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) throughout the emergency department is about 5 dB(A) higher than that measured previously at a variety of in-patient units of the same hospital. Within the emergency department the triage area at the entrance to the department has the highest Leq, ranging from 65 to 73 dB(A). Sound levels in the emergency department are sufficiently high [on average between 61 and 69 dB(A)] to raise concerns regarding the communication of speech without errors--an important issue everywhere in a hospital and a critical issue in emergency departments because doctors and nurses frequently need to work at an urgent pace and to rely on oral communication.

  6. Academic versus Non-Academic Emerging Adult College Student Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. Emerging adults are also increasingly identified by their technology use and practices. Collegiate instructors will be better equipped for educating these individuals when armed with insights concerning emerging adults' technology…

  7. Academic versus Non-Academic Emerging Adult College Student Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. The purpose of this study was to examine academic and non-academic technology use by emerging adult college students. Survey results (N = 235) provided insights into emerging adult college student technology preferences and frequency…

  8. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  9. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  10. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes. PMID:27212806

  11. 30 Is the New 20: Emerging Adult Perspectives on Success in English Developmental Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Borja, Nadine Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined aspects of emerging adulthood that contribute to success in English developmental courses. The research approach included qualitative interviews with a collective case study of 12 emerging adults between the ages of 18-25 who successfully completed EN085 and EN085L at the University of Guam. The emerging adults shared…

  12. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Teaching Communication to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    The new developmental stage of emerging adulthood (age 18-25) offers a framework for thinking about younger millennials in our classrooms. Smith, Christoffersen, Davidson, and Herzog's (2011) profile of emerging adults, based on longitudinal study of over 3200 emerging adults and culminating in 230 in-depth interviews, parallels research of the…

  13. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jody A.; Ginde, Adit A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Betz, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in the United States (U.S.). Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years) and younger (18–64 years) MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults. Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6–8.3) visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0–18.8) visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46–9.36). Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86), have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77–3.14), or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42–2.23) as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8–19.2) of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8–7.5) of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71–4.43), and

  14. Uniting multi-adult households during emergency evacuation planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sirui; Murray-Tuite, Pamela M; Schweitzer, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    When a no-notice emergency prompts an evacuation, family members in different locations throughout a city may unite so that they can evacuate as a group. This paper draws on data from more than 300 interviews conducted in the metropolitan area of Chicago, Illinois, United States. The study uses discrete choice models to analyse the expectations of respondents regarding whether their likely plans for evacuation involve gathering spouses, parents, adult-age children, and/or non-family members. In addition, it addresses the matter of whether respondents plan to reunite with family members at home. Individuals' access to a personal car is the dominating factor in predicting whether respondents plan to gather a spouse. Being the parent of a child under the age of 18 years increases the tendency to report planning to reunite with family members at home. Both commute mode and car availability are not significantly associated with plans to reunite at home.

  15. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones. PMID:19410527

  16. Quality of adult book reading affects children's emergent literacy.

    PubMed

    Reese, E; Cox, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative benefits of 3 styles of adult book reading for preschoolers' emergent literacy. A describer style focused on describing pictures during the reading, a comprehender style focused on story meaning, and a performance-oriented style introduced the book and discussed story meaning on completion. Forty-eight 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 reading styles over a 6-week period. Pretests and posttests measured children's receptive vocabulary, print, and story comprehension skills. A describer style of reading resulted in the greatest overall benefits for children's vocabulary and print skills, but a performance-oriented style was also beneficial when children's initial skill levels were taken into account. Future book-reading interventions should be tailored to children's initial skill levels.

  17. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones.

  18. Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Mallick, Aditi; Nishita, Denise; Wei, Xin; Michel, Martha; Wacholder, Aaron; David, Sean P.; Swan, Gary E.; Reid, Mark W.; Simons, Anne; Andrews, Judy A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps < 0.05) in whole saliva RNA from individuals exposed to chronic stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P < 0.001), increased ever-smoking and increased lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (P ≤ 0.03), and a reduction of cortisol release. In post hoc multivariate analyses including clinical and biospecimen-derived variables, we consistently observed significantly decreased expression of IL8 (Ps < 0.05) in individuals exposed, with no significant association to RIN score. Alcohol use disorders, tobacco use, a reduced acute stress response and decreased salivary IL8 gene expression characterize emerging adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors. PMID:22172638

  19. Emerging from the Echo Chamber: An Activity Theory Perspective on L2 Teachers of Adult Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Rachel Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The surge in second language adult emergent readers and the push for professionalization in the field of adult education has shifted conversations among language teacher educators, program administrators, teachers and researchers alike in the direction of mutual understanding and collaboration in an effort to target the needs of both teachers and…

  20. Putative therapeutic targets for symptom subtypes of adult ADHD: D4 receptor agonism and COMT inhibition improve attention and response inhibition in a novel translational animal model.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Hayward, Andrew; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-04-01

    Prefrontal cortical dopamine plays an important role in cognitive control, specifically in attention and response inhibition; the core deficits in ADHD. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine differentially improve these deficits dependent on baseline performance. The present study extends this work to investigate the effects of putative therapeutic targets in our model. A selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) inhibitor; tolcapone, were investigated in the combined subtype of adult ADHD (ADHD-C). Adult female rats were trained to criterion in the 5C-CPT (5-Choice Continuous Performance Task) and then separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, and response disinhibition. The subgroups included: high-attentive (HA) and low-attentive with high response disinhibition (ADHD-C). The ADHD-C subgroup was selected to represent the combined subtype of adult ADHD. Effects of tolcapone (3.0, 10.0, 15.0mg/kg) and A-412997 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0µmol/kg) were tested by increasing the variable inter-trial-interval (ITI) duration in the 5C-CPT. Tolcapone (15mg/kg) significantly increased sustained attention, vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals, and impaired attention in HA animals. A-412997 (1.0µmol/kg) significantly increased vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals only, with no effect in HA animals. This is the first study to use the translational 5C-CPT to model the adult ADHD-C subtype in rats and to study new targets in this model. Both tolcapone and A-412997 increased vigilance and response inhibition in the ADHD-C subgroup. D4 and COMT are emerging as important potential therapeutic targets in adult ADHD that warrant further investigation.

  1. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. PMID:26015548

  2. Emergency Department Use Among Older Adults With Dementia.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Michael A; Stump, Timothy E; Messina, Frank C; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Although persons with dementia are frequently hospitalized, relatively little is known about the health profile, patterns of health care use, and mortality rates for patients with dementia who access care in the emergency department (ED). We linked data from our hospital system with Medicare and Medicaid claims, Minimum Data Set, and Outcome and Assessment Information Set data to evaluate 175,652 ED visits made by 10,354 individuals with dementia and 15,020 individuals without dementia over 11 years. Survival rates after ED visits and associated charges were examined. Patients with dementia visited the ED more frequently, were hospitalized more often than patients without dementia, and had an increased odds of returning to the ED within 30 days of an index ED visit compared with persons who never had a dementia diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.29; P<0.001). Survival rates differed significantly between patients by dementia status (P<0.001). Mean Medicare payments for ED services were significantly higher among patients with dementia. These results show that older adults with dementia are frequent ED visitors who have greater comorbidity, incur higher charges, are admitted to hospitals at higher rates, return to EDs at higher rates, and have higher mortality after an ED visit than patients without dementia.

  3. Emerging Technologies for Pediatric and Adult Trauma Care

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Steven L.; Haley-Andrews, Stephanie; Mulligan, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Review Current EMS protocols rely on provider directed care for evaluation, management and triage of injured patients from the field to a trauma center. New methods to quickly diagnose, support and coordinate the movement of trauma patients from the field to the most appropriate trauma center are in development. These methods will enhance trauma care and promote trauma system development. Recent Findings Recent advances in machine learning, statistical methods, device integration and wireless communication are giving rise to new methods for vital sign data analysis and a new generation of transport monitors. These monitors will collect and synchronize exponentially growing amounts of vital sign data with electronic patient care information. The application of advanced statistical methods to these complex clinical data sets has the potential to reveal many important physiological relationships and treatment effects. Summary Several emerging technologies are converging to yield a new generation of smart sensors and tightly integrated transport monitors. These technologies will assist pre-hospital providers in quickly identifying and triaging the most severely injured children and adults to the most appropriate trauma centers. They will enable the development of real-time clinical support systems of increasing complexity, able to provide timelier, more cost-effective, autonomous care. PMID:20407375

  4. Establishment of safety paradigms and trust in emerging adult relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Sanders, Stephanie; Higgins, Jenny; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand the interplay between relationship trust and public health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of emerging adult women’s processes of establishing trust in sexual relationships. Twenty-five women aged 18–24 years participated in semi-structured interviews. Throughout the interviews, women compared and contrasted experiences in which they felt comfortable engaging in sexual intercourse with a partner versus times in which they did not feel comfortable. Analysis was based on a critical qualitative research orientation. When asked to speak to instances when they felt comfortable having sex, most women spoke about relationship trust. Many participants conceptualised trust based on past experiences with bad relationships or sexual violence. Based on their previous experiences of feeling unsafe or undervalued, emotional and physical security became prioritised in relationship development. Trust was developed through friendship, communication over time, and through shared life experiences. This research is among the first to qualitatively investigate trust formation and other impersonal dynamics related to sexual health decision-making. Insights from this study should be translated into future action by public health practitioners to promote healthy sexual relationships and communication about sexual health topics as a form of trust building. PMID:26943023

  5. The Role of Higher Education in Their Life: Emerging Adults on the Crossroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shu-Chen; Hawley, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experience of younger, so called "emerging" adults, as they transition to full-time work, focusing specifically on the role of education in this process. When leaving their family-of-origin, emerging adults re-center themselves to settle down in permanent identity and different role commitments. Our findings show…

  6. General Education Development (GED®) Credential Attainment, Externalizing Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders in Disconnected Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice

    2014-01-01

    There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…

  7. "Why Should I Leave?" Belgian Emerging Adults' Departure from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kins, Evie; De Mol, Jan; Beyers, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In today's Western societies, the transition to adulthood is prolonged, creating a separate developmental phase between adolescence and adulthood referred to as "emerging adulthood". Following from this general delay in adult commitment-making, a considerable number of emerging adults continues to live in the parental household. The…

  8. Emerging Adults at Work and at Play: Leisure, Work Engagement, and Career Indecision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstam, Varda; Lehmann, Ilana S.

    2011-01-01

    To expand the understanding of how leisure and recreational activities can inform career indecision, this research examined the relationship between career indecision, work engagement, and leisure in emerging adults, 25-30 years of age. Independent sample t tests reveal that career indecisive emerging adults scored significantly lower on all three…

  9. Perceived Stress and Avoidant Coping Moderate Disordered Gambling among Emerging Adults in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lostutter, Ty W.; Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kaljee, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling research conducted in Asia has been limited, despite a continued growth of the gambling industry within the region. Outside Asia, research suggests emerging adults have high rates of gambling behavior and experience serious consequences. The current study examines gambling behavior within an emerging adult (ages 16-24) population in…

  10. Acculturative Stress, Perceived Discrimination, and Vulnerability to Suicide Attempts among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the…

  11. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  12. Self-Definition as Resistance: Understanding Identities among LGBTQ Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagaman, M. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have questioned the relevance of existing identity categories and labels for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and emerging adults. Little is understood, however, about the ways in which LGBTQ emerging adults perceive their own identities and self-define the aspects of themselves that are most relevant to who…

  13. Emergent patterns from probabilistic generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kabla, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The combination of laterally activating and inhibiting feedbacks is well known to spontaneously generate spatial organization. It was introduced by Gierer and Meinhardt as an extension of Turing's great insight that two reacting and diffusing chemicals can spontaneously drive spatial morphogenesis per se. In this study, we develop an accessible nonlinear and discrete probabilistic model to study simple generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition. By doing so, we identify a range of modes of morphogenesis beyond the familiar Turing-type modes; notably, beyond stripes, hexagonal nets, pores and labyrinths, we identify labyrinthine highways, Kagome lattices, gyrating labyrinths and multi-colour travelling waves and spirals. The results are discussed within the context of Turing's original motivating interest: the mechanisms which underpin the morphogenesis of living organisms. PMID:27170648

  14. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  15. Getting higher: Co-occurring drug use among marijuana using emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Tzilos, Golfo K.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used illicit drug in the United States (US) continues to be marijuana, and its use among emerging adults continues to rise. Marijuana use can result in a range of negative consequences and has been associated with other drug use in adolescents and emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between marijuana use frequency and use of six other drug classes (opiates, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and sleep medications) among emerging adults. The design was a cross-sectional interview with a community sample of 1,075 emerging adults in the northeastern US. Using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and frequency of binge alcohol, daily marijuana use was associated with a significant increase in the expected odds of opiate, cocaine, stimulant, hallucinogen, inhalant, and tobacco use. The findings identify a subgroup of emerging adult marijuana users – those who use daily –that may be vulnerable to additional negative consequences associated with polysubstance use. PMID:25115183

  16. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  17. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  18. Fractone-heparan sulfates mediate BMP-7 inhibition of cell proliferation in the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Douet, Vanessa; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Mercier, Frederic

    2012-10-24

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a heparin-binding growth factor that inhibits cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, the primary neurogenic niche in the adult brain. However, the physiological mechanisms regulating the activity of BMP-7 in the SVZ are unknown. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation through the anterior SVZ after intracerebroventricular injection in the adult mouse. To determine whether the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by BMP-7 is dependant on heparin-binding, heparitinase-1 was intracerebroventricularly injected to N-desulfate heparan sulfate proteoglycans before BMP-7 was injected. Heparatinase-1 drastically reduced the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation in the SVZ. To determine where BMP-7 binds within the niche, we visualized biotinylated-BMP-7 after intracerebroventricular injection, using streptavidin Texas red on frozen brain sections. BMP-7 binding was seen as puncta in the SVZ at the location of fractones, the particulate specialized extracellular matrix of the SVZ, which have been identified primarily by N-sulfated heparan sulfate immunoreactivity (NS-HS+). BMP binding was also seen in NS-HS+ blood vessels of the SVZ. Injection of heparitinase-1 prior to biotinylated BMP-7 resulted in the absence of signal for biotinylated-BMP-7 in the fractones and blood vessels, indicating that the binding is heparan sulfate dependant. These results indicate that BMP-7 requires heparan sulfates to bind and inhibit cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic niche. Heparan sulfates concentrated in fractones and SVZ blood vessels emerge as a functional stem cell niche component involved in growth factor activity.

  19. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients.

  20. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients. PMID:22796972

  1. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  2. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  3. Unemployment and Depression Among Emerging Adults in 12 States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The high rate of unemployment among emerging adults (aged 18 to 25 years) is a public health concern. The risk of depression is higher among the unemployed than among the employed, but little is known about the relationship between unemployment and mental health among emerging adults. This secondary data analysis assessed the relationship between unemployment and depression among emerging adults. Methods Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 provided data about the prevalence of depression. Bivariate relationships were assessed using χ2 tests, and multivariable adjusted odds ratios were calculated with logistic regressions. Sociodemographic variables were sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and education. In addition, logistic regression models adjusted for health insurance status, disability, smoking, and body mass index. The analyses were completed using SAS 9.3 survey procedures to account for the complex sampling design. Results Almost 12% of emerging adults were depressed (PHQ-8 ≥10) and about 23% were unemployed. Significantly more unemployed than employed emerging adults were classified with depression. In the final model, the odds of depression were about 3 times higher for unemployed than employed emerging adults. Conclusion The relationship between unemployment and depression is significant among emerging adults. With high rates of unemployment for this age group, this population may benefit from employment- and mental-health–focused interventions. PMID:25789499

  4. Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott

    2014-07-01

    In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing. PMID:24890806

  5. Comparing Adult Learning Systems: An Emerging Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning systems have come to be dominated by the view that the essential role of adult learning is to generate the high levels of skills deemed necessary for competitiveness and growth in the globalised economy. This 'education gospel' is underpinned by human capital theory (HCT) and its contemporary conceptualisation in terms of…

  6. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  7. "Family Comes First!" Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim

    2014-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by means of a qualitative approach. Participants were 39 emerging adults (51% males), who were interviewed individually or within a focus group. In Study II, we sought to examine how family and friend importance to identity were related to life satisfaction through a quantitative approach. Participants were 474 (47.3% males) emerging adults who filled a self-report questionnaire. Overall, findings indicated solid family ties and a strong impact of family importance to identity for life satisfaction. Results were independent of gender and occupational status (university students vs. workers). Thus, findings highlighted that in the Italian context young people's transition to adulthood is strongly intertwined with family relationships.

  8. Response Inhibition in Adults and Teenagers: Spatiotemporal Differences in the Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Julie; Mills, Travis; Pang, Elizabeth W.; Taylor, Margot J.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition is a core executive function reliant on the frontal lobes that shows protracted maturation through to adulthood. We investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of response inhibition during a visual go/no-go task in 14 teenagers and 14 adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a contrast between two no-go experimental conditions…

  9. Intraosseous access and adults in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Ashleigh

    This article examines the use of the intraosseous route for obtaining vascular access in adults. It discusses indications for intraosseous access, the techniques and devices used, and contraindications. PMID:21901968

  10. Racial identity and depressive symptoms among Black emerging adults: the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sellers, Robert M; Cogburn, Courtney D; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2013-05-01

    In the current study, we explored patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs during the transition to adulthood, assessed neighborhood racial composition effects on Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs, and tested the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition on the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and depressive symptoms over time. Participants in the current study included 570 Black adolescents (52% female) who were transitioning into adulthood (senior year of high school through 5 years post- high school). We did not find average patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs over time. Further, neighborhood racial composition did not predict participants' beginning status or growth in racial identity beliefs over time. We, however, found evidence that neighborhood racial composition may moderate the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and symptoms of depression over time. Findings from the current study underscore the importance of considering how the larger social context may interact with individuals' racial identity beliefs to influence Black emerging adults' psychological health.

  11. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  12. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  13. A Reflection on an Emergent Spirituality and the Practice of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of spirituality is increasingly being used in the context of adult education. This paper will tentatively explore some of the implications of an emergent spirituality within the practice of adult education. It begins by situating our understanding of spirituality in an historical context. This is followed by a brief historical overview of…

  14. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  15. Small molecule inhibition of microbial natural product biosynthesis – An emerging antibiotic strategy

    PubMed Central

    Cisar, Justin S.; Tan, Derek S.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of natural products modulate critical biological processes in the microorganisms that produce them. Thus, inhibition of the corresponding natural product biosynthesis pathways represents a promising avenue to develop novel antibiotics. In this tutorial review, we describe several recent examples of designed small molecule inhibitors of microbial natural product biosynthesis and their use in evaluating this emerging antibiotic strategy. PMID:18568158

  16. Akt inhibition improves irinotecan treatment and prevents cell emergence by switching the senescence response to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vétillard, Alexandra; Jonchère, Barbara; Moreau, Marie; Toutain, Bertrand; Henry, Cécile; Fontanel, Simon; Bernard, Anne-Charlotte; Campone, Mario; Guette, Catherine; Coqueret, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Activated in response to chemotherapy, senescence is a tumor suppressive mechanism that induces a permanent loss of proliferation. However, in response to treatment, it is not really known how cells can escape senescence and how irreversible or incomplete this pathway is. We have recently described that cells that escape senescence are more transformed than non-treated parental cells, they resist anoikis and rely on Mcl-1. In this study, we further characterize this emergence in response to irinotecan, a first line treatment used in colorectal cancer. Our results indicate that Akt was activated as a feedback pathway during the early step of senescence. The inhibition of the kinase prevented cell emergence and improved treatment efficacy, both in vitro and in vivo. This improvement was correlated with senescence inhibition, p21waf1 downregulation and a concomitant activation of apoptosis due to Noxa upregulation and Mcl-1 inactivation. The inactivation of Noxa prevented apoptosis and increased the number of emergent cells. Using either RNA interference or p21waf1-deficient cells, we further confirmed that an intact p53-p21-senescence pathway favored cell emergence and that its downregulation improved treatment efficacy through apoptosis induction. Therefore, although senescence is an efficient suppressive mechanism, it also generates more aggressive cells as a consequence of apoptosis inhibition. We therefore propose that senescence-inducing therapies should be used sequentially with drugs favoring cell death such as Akt inhibitors. This should reduce cell emergence and tumor relapse through a combined induction of senescence and apoptosis. PMID:26485768

  17. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  18. Emerging Technologies in Adult Literacy and Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…

  19. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  20. The Role of Rainfall in Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adult Emergence From the Soil After Its Winter Dormant Period.

    PubMed

    Guillermina Socías, M; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Casmuz, Augusto S; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report the effect of rainfall on Sternechus subsignatus Boheman, 1836, adult emergence after winter dormancy. This weevil is a univoltine soybean pest found in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region with dry winters and rainy summers. Before harvest, fully grown larvae burrow into the soil where they overwinter. In the spring, they emerge as adults and recolonize the crop during its planting and early vegetative stages. Our study examines the seasonal timing of adult emergence with the aim of improving chemical control strategies and avoiding unnecessary pesticide applications. To do so, we developed a regression model to predict adult emergence onset as a function of cumulated rainfall after 1st November. The regression with the highest coefficient of determination between cumulated rainfall and adult emergence onset was Emergence onset (Julian day) = -7.98 Ln(cumulative rainfall) + 65.7. The negative relationship showed that adults emerged earlier in wet years than in dry years. Also it was observed that adults emerged from late November to mid-March, in pulses following periods of rainfall. Males were more abundant than females at first, but then the reverse was true toward the end of the period. In most cases, there was a suggestion of relationship (though not significantly) between peaks of adult emergence with peaks of rainfall 15 d before adult emergence. These results reveal that rainfall has a significant impact on the beginning and dynamics of adult emergence from the soil. PMID:27235846

  1. Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J

    2011-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with children. No studies have directly compared the stable cognitive profile of adults. It was hypothesised that adults with ASD would show generally intact response inhibition whereas those with ADHD would show more global impairment. Participants were 24 adults aged 18-55 with high functioning ASD, 24 with ADHD, and 14 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed three standardised measures of response inhibition. Participants with ASD had generally intact response inhibition but slow response latencies, possibly due to deficits in response initiation. Adults with ADHD did not show the more global impairments hypothesised. There were some significant differences between the clinical groups across measures of inhibition. In terms of performance style, adults with ASD were slow and accurate whilst those with ADHD showed an impulsive style.

  2. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  3. Adverse food reactions--an emerging issue for adults.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are classified according to the presence or absence of involvement of the immune system, which may or may not include the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. This review focuses on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of adverse food reactions, primarily in adults, and excluding celiac disease and lactose intolerance. Reported reactions to foods are often believed to be manifestations of a food allergy; however, IgE-mediated food allergy only affects 1% to 4% of adults, with seafood, tree nuts, peanuts, fruits, and vegetables being the most common triggers. Diagnosis is challenging and most commonly achieved through careful evaluation of clinical history followed by elimination and reintroduction or challenge with the suspected offending food. With acute-onset allergic reactions, estimation of food-specific IgE antibodies is frequently used to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Recent developments, such as single allergen assays, enhance the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy, but the gold standard remains oral food challenge. Despite recent advances in the management of food allergy, including the promotion of oral tolerance, the mainstay of management is still the avoidance of food triggers. Dietary management can be compromised by nutritional inadequacy, accidental exposure, food labeling, and quality of life or adherence issues. It is essential that adults with confirmed food allergy receive optimal nutrition and dietetic support to enable them to manage their condition. PMID:22117664

  4. Emerging HIV Epidemic Among Older Adults in Nanning, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinqin; Xu, Yongfang; Chen, Shiyi; Shi, Jian; Morisky, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The HIV/AIDS surveillance data indicates that the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) who were 50 years old or older increased to 42.7% in 2011 from 16.5% in 2007 in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi Province. A greater number of newly diagnosed HIV cases compared to clinical AIDS cases were identified from older adults. The dominant HIV transmission mode among older PLWHAs was heterosexual although approximately 30% of all PLWHAs acquired HIV through heterosexual contacts. PMID:22984779

  5. Prewinter management affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) prepupal physiology and adult emergence and survival.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2009-08-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. M. rotundata raised in Canada have higher survival rates during the incubation that occurs after winter storage than do bees produced in the northwestern United States, but no reason has been found for this difference. We investigated whether storing immature M. rotundata for various time periods at a warm temperature (16 degrees C) before winter or allowing them to remain unmanaged at ambient temperatures affects physiological aspects of prepupae during the winter as well as the survival and longevity of adult bees after spring or summer incubation. Our results show that the timing of the onset of winter storage and incubation does affect prepupal weights, prepupal lipid and water contents, adult emergence, and adult female longevity. Winter storage of prepupae in November or December with a late June incubation resulted in heavier adults that emerged more readily than bees incubated in late May. However, adult females incubated in May thrived longer than June-incubated bees if fed a honey-water diet. Thus, some prewinter management regimes for M. rotundata commercial stocks may be more effective than others for achieving optimal adult emergence synchrony, as well as adult survival and longevity for pollination of a summer crop. PMID:19736750

  6. Perceptual Inhibition is Associated with Sensory Integration in Standing Postural Control Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, J. Richard; Mendelson, David; Nebes, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    In older adults, maintaining balance and processing information typically interfere with each other, suggesting that executive functions may be engaged for both. We investigated associations between measures of inhibitory processes and standing postural control in healthy young and older adults. Perceptual and motor inhibition was measured using a protocol adapted from Nassauer and Halperin (2003, Dissociation of perceptual and motor inhibition processes through the use of novel computerized conflict tasks. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 25–30). These measures were then correlated to postural sway during standing conditions that required resolving various levels of sensory conflict, for example, world-fixed versus sway-referenced floor and visual scene. In the older adults, perceptual inhibition was positively correlated with sway amplitude on a sway-referenced floor and with a fixed visual scene (r = .68, p < .001). Motor inhibition was not correlated with sway on either group. Perceptual inhibition may be a component of the sensory integration process important for maintaining balance in older adults. PMID:19617457

  7. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  8. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  9. Enhancing care of older adults in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Susan E; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Evans, Dian Dowling

    2012-01-01

    The findings from a recent comprehensive systematic review, in combination with a case study, are used to illustrate the importance of translational research to inform advanced practice nursing. The review article discussed in this column is a comprehensive systematic review of age-friendly nursing interventions in the management of older persons in the emergency department (ED). Two themes were synthesized from the research and texts: (1) the ED can be a foreign and challenging environment for older patients, and (2) older ED patients need specialized care to meet their complex physical and psychosocial needs. At the same time, these authors acknowledged that much more high-quality research is needed in this field. Comments by a certified geriatric nurse practitioner elaborate on these findings and provide practical suggestions for the ED advanced practice registered nurse. PMID:22842961

  10. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  11. Emergency admissions due to swallowed foreign bodies in adults

    PubMed Central

    Erbil, Bülent; Karaca, Mehmet Ali; Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; İbrahimov, Zaur; Kunt, Mehmet Mahir; Akpinar, Erhan; Özmen, Mehmet Mahir

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study a retrospective analysis of patients who presented to the emergency departments (ED) with complaints related to foreign body ingestions. METHODS: Patients older than 16 years of age who presented to the ED between January 1st and December 31st of 2010 with complaints related to swallowed foreign bodies were identified from electronic health records and patient charts. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients presented with a complaint of foreign body ingestion during the study period. Overall, an X-ray was performed on 75 patients, and a fiberoptic evaluation was performed on 45 patients. A foreign body was detected in 46 (46%) patients. The diagnostic yield of the X-ray was 27 (36%) out of 75 patients, while the diagnostic yield of the fiberoptic evaluations was 21 (47%) out of 45 patients. The detected foreign bodies were mostly located in the esophagus (17 out of 46 foreign bodies detected). When the types of ingested foreign bodies were evaluated, 52 (52%) patients reported ingesting food, and 19 (19%) patients reported swallowing pins. An X-ray was performed on 33 patients with accidental food ingestions but yielded a positive result in only two cases. In 12 out of 21 patients with accidental food ingestion who underwent fiberoptic evaluation, the foreign material was detected and removed. CONCLUSION: Plain radiography is helpful in the localization of radiopaque swollen foreign bodies, while fiberoptic methods are useful as both diagnostic and therapeutic tools, regardless of radiopacity. PMID:24151363

  12. Sleep deprivation inhibits adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by elevating glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Mirescu, Christian; Peters, Jennifer D; Noiman, Liron; Gould, Elizabeth

    2006-12-12

    Prolonged sleep deprivation is stressful and has been associated with adverse consequences for health and cognitive performance. Here, we show that sleep deprivation inhibits adult neurogenesis at a time when circulating levels of corticosterone are elevated. Moreover, clamping levels of this hormone prevents the sleep deprivation-induced reduction of cell proliferation. The recovery of normal levels of adult neurogenesis after chronic sleep deprivation occurs over a 2-wk period and involves a temporary increase in new neuron formation. This compensatory increase is dissociated from glucocorticoid levels as well as from the restoration of normal sleep patterns. Collectively, these findings suggest that, although sleep deprivation inhibits adult neurogenesis by acting as a stressor, its compensatory aftereffects involve glucocorticoid-independent factors.

  13. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Drago, Ilaria; Davis, Ronald L

    2016-09-01

    The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism. PMID:27568554

  14. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R; Aisiku, Imoigele P

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  15. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R.; Aisiku, Imoigele P.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  16. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  17. Emerging Adult Civic and Political Disengagement: A Longitudinal Analysis of Lack of Involvement with Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Political engagement among U.S. emerging adults aged 18 to 24 was examined via quantitative and qualitative data. The data analyzed are from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR). The NSYR consists of three waves of a nationally representative (a) telephone survey (Wave 1 n = 4,161), (b) in-person interviews (Wave 3 n = 230) collected…

  18. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  19. How Private Is the Relation with God? Religiosity and Family Religious Socialization in Romanian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negru, Oana; Haragâs, Cosmina; Mustea, Anca

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamics of religious cognitions, behaviors, and emotions in emerging adult discourse in a sample of Romanian youth of heterogeneous socioeconomic, denominational (Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Neo-protestant), and educational background. Also, from a parent-child dyad perspective, we investigate the role…

  20. Associations between Online Friendship and Internet Addiction among Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smahel, David; Brown, B. Bradford; Blinka, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from…

  1. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  2. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  3. Examining Emerging-Adults' and Parents' Expectations about Autonomy during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2009-01-01

    Our research goals were to document levels and examine the potential discrepancies of emerging-adults' and parents' expectations for autonomous behavior during the transition to college. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 204 incoming college freshmen (n = 150 females, n = 54 males) and 226 parents (n = 173 mothers, n = 53…

  4. Financial Parenting, Financial Coping Behaviors, and Well-Being of Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Mishra, Anubha; Tang, Chuanyi

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to consider the role of parents in the development of their children's financial independence by the time the children are old enough to enter college. Using data from 2,098 first-year university students, we examined two pathways to emerging adults' financial, psychological, and personal well-being, combining research…

  5. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  6. Ethiopian Emerging Adult Immigrants in Israel: Coping with Discrimination and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    Experiences of discrimination and racism and individual coping strategies were examined among 22 emerging adult Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. In-depth interviews explored the way they perceive, understand, respond to, and cope with experiences of discrimination. Qualitative analysis identified an initial contrast between those interviewees who…

  7. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  8. Differential effects of binge drinking on learning and memory in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Paul, Margot D; Silveri, Marisa M

    2013-04-26

    Alterations in memory function due to alcohol exposure have been observed in both animal models and human populations. The human literature on neurocognitive consequences of binge alcohol use in emerging adults has not systematically investigated its potential negative impacts on visuospatial memory. For instance, these impacts have not yet been assessed using a human analogue of the Morris Water Maze Task (WMT), a key memory measure in the animal literature. Accordingly, this study compared performance between emerging adult binge drinkers (BD, n=22) and age- and sex-matched light drinkers (LD, n=29) using the Morris WMT, as well as verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Emerging adult BD demonstrated worse performance on verbal learning and memory relative to LD. However, no significant group differences were observed on spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, no sex differences or interactions with drinking status were observed on either memory domain. These data suggest that in emerging adults who are at a heightened risk for alcohol abuse disorders, but who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria, verbal learning is uniquely impacted by the neurotoxic effects of binge drinking, whereas spatial learning is relatively spared between bouts of intoxication.

  9. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  10. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  11. Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC): Factor Structure and Invariance across Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Octavio; dos Santos, Rute Andrade; Rocha, Magda; Matos, Paula Mena

    2010-01-01

    The Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC) is based on the cognitive-contextual framework for understanding interparental conflict. This study investigates the factor validity and the invariance of two factor models of CPIC within a sample of Portuguese adolescents and emerging adults (14 to 25 years old; N = 677). At the…

  12. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  13. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, Marie; Parke, Belinda; Shuluk, Joseph; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses' views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile.…

  14. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  15. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  16. Exploring the Experiences of Female Emerging Adult Mentors: Building a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Sollie, Donna L.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    While mentoring programs are prevalent, limited research focused on the mentors' experiences exist, particularly during critical periods of development. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, this study explores the elements of the mentoring experience for a cohort of late adolescent/emerging adult women in a long-term program. Outcomes…

  17. Diverse Patterns in the Development of Depressive Symptoms among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Alice A.; Liem, Joan H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines depressive symptoms over a 4-year period in a racially diverse community sample of 1,143 18- to 22-year-old emerging adults using latent growth and mixture modeling and data collected at three time points. Participants were high school seniors randomly chosen from nine public schools in a metropolitan region in the…

  18. A Comparison of Two Approaches for Facilitating Identity Exploration Processes in Emerging Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article, using a controlled design, reports the results of an exploratory study to investigate the impact of two types of intervention strategies (cognitively vs. emotionally focused) on two types of identity processes (self-construction and self-discovery) in a culturally diverse sample of 90 emerging adult university students. A…

  19. Self-Presentation and Interaction in Blogs of Adolescents and Young Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Kozarian, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed 124 blogs, chronological, journal-type entries published on public hosting Web sites, as new and popular places for adolescents and emerging adults aged 15 to 19 to play openly with their self-presentation, an important aspect of identity exploration. Findings indicate that most young persons write emotionally toned entries;…

  20. A Christian Integrative Perspective on Nurturing Civic Development among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoppa, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores civic development and its roles in the lives of emerging adults, and the ways in which college contexts--particularly Christian colleges and universities--may foster adaptive civic development. First, the article presents an argument for the importance of fostering civic development as rooted in historic truths of the…

  1. Reading Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Instruction: Effects on Emergent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal-Drori, Ora; Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electronic book (e-book) and printed book reading on children's emergent reading with and without adult instruction were investigated. One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 6-year-old kindergarten children from low SES families were randomly assigned to one of four groups (32 children each): (1) independently reading the e-book (EB); (2)…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants: Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list…

  3. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  4. Growing up Perfect: Perfectionism, Problematic Internet Use, and Career Indecision in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Ilana S.; Konstam, Varda

    2011-01-01

    Among emerging adults who are career indecisive, perfectionism and problematic Internet use (PIU) are underdeveloped areas of inquiry. The authors examined the relationship between perfectionism and PIU to measure their contributions to career indecision. The full model was significant, yielding an R[superscript 2] of 0.46 (p less than 0.0001).…

  5. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  6. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  7. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures. PMID:23786080

  8. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures.

  9. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Wachholtz, Amy; Stone, Rosalie Torres

    2015-01-01

    Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest. PMID:26146565

  10. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and at 2 and 3 days after each post treatment reinfestation flea eggs were collected from the pan under each cat cage. Eggs were counted and viability assessed by evaluating adult flea emergence 28 days after egg collection. Three days after treatment or infestation, each cat was combed to remove and count live fleas. Results Treatment with indoxacarb provided 100% efficacy following infestations on day -2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and efficacy was 99.6% following infestations on days 35 and 42. Egg production from indoxacarb treated cats was reduced by 99.9% within 72 hours of treatment. For subsequent infestations no eggs were produced from treated cats from day 8 through day 30. Egg production was still reduced by ≥95.8% through day 45. Indoxacarb treatment also reduced adult flea emergence from eggs for 5 weeks after treatment. The combination of reduction in egg numbers and egg viability from indoxacarb treated cats reduced predicted flea emergence by 100% from days 2 – 31 and 99.9%, 100%, 96.4% and 99.0% on days 37, 38, 44 and 45, respectively. Conclusions A topical spot-on formulation of indoxacarb provided ≥99.6% efficacy against flea infestations on cats for 6 weeks following a single treatment. Indoxacarb also eliminated or markedly reduced egg production for the entire evaluation period and reduced the viability of the few eggs that were produced from Day 1 through Day 38. Given indoxacarb’s effect on adult fleas, egg production and egg viability; this formulation can

  11. Emergence of cortical inhibition by coordinated sensory-driven plasticity at distinct synaptic loci.

    PubMed

    Chittajallu, Ramesh; Isaac, John T R

    2010-10-01

    Feedforward GABAergic inhibition sets the dendritic integration window, thereby controlling timing and output in cortical circuits. However, the manner in which feedforward inhibitory circuits emerge is unclear, despite this being a critical step for neocortical development and function. We found that sensory experience drove plasticity of the feedforward inhibitory circuit in mouse layer 4 somatosensory barrel cortex in the second postnatal week via two distinct mechanisms. First, sensory experience selectively strengthened thalamocortical-to-feedforward interneuron inputs via a presynaptic mechanism but did not regulate other inhibitory circuit components. Second, experience drove a postsynaptic mechanism in which a downregulation of a prominent thalamocortical NMDA excitatory postsynaptic potential in stellate cells regulated the final expression of functional feedforward inhibitory input. Thus, experience is required for specific, coordinated changes at thalamocortical synapses onto both inhibitory and excitatory neurons, producing a circuit plasticity that results in maturation of functional feedforward inhibition in layer 4. PMID:20871602

  12. Do I Really Need Someone in Order to become an Adult?: Romantic Relationships during Emerging Adulthood in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Margherita; Tagliabue, Semira

    2007-01-01

    Italian emerging adults stay at home with their parents until they marry. Being involved in a romantic relationship may be considered one precursor of the success of the transition to adulthood. In this study, 92 dating and 84 nondating emerging adults were compared on when they left the parental home and their future plans. They were also…

  13. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  14. Response Inhibition, Peer Preference and Victimization, and Self-Harm: Longitudinal Associations in Young Adult Women with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Meza, Jocelyn I; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm (suicidal ideation and attempts; non-suicidal self-injuries behavior) peaks in adolescence and early-adulthood, with rates higher for women than men. Young women with childhood psychiatric diagnoses appear to be at particular risk, yet more remains to be learned about the key predictors or mediators of self-harm outcomes. Our aims were to examine, with respect to self-harm-related outcomes in early adulthood, the predictive validity of childhood response inhibition, a cardinal trait of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as the potential mediating effects of social preference and peer victimization, ascertained in early adolescence. Participants were an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 228 girls with and without ADHD, an enriched sample for deficits in response inhibition. Childhood response inhibition (RI) predicted young-adult suicide ideation (SI), suicide attempts (SA), and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), over and above full-scale IQ, mother's education, household income, and age. Importantly, teacher-rated social preference in adolescence was a partial mediator of the RI-SI/SA linkages; self-reported peer victimization in adolescence emerged as a significant partial mediator of the RI-NSSI linkage. We discuss implications for conceptual models of self-harm and for needed clinical services designed to detect and reduce self-harm.

  15. Responses to converting-enzyme inhibition and hemorrhage in newborn lambs and adult sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.C.; Block, S.M.; Flowe, K.; Morris, M.; South, S.; Sundberg, D.K.; Zimmerman, C.

    1987-02-01

    The authors compared the cardiovascular and hormonal responses to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and hemorrhage of 20% of blood volume in chronically instrumented unanesthetized newborn lambs and adult sheep. Administration of the nonsulfhydryl-containing converting-enzyme inhibitor enalapril reduced mean arterial pressure in the newborn but not in the adult animals. Blood pressure fell in both age groups after hemorrhage, and the hemorrhage-induced fall in blood pressure, integrated over the period of hypovolemia, was more pronounced when converting-enzyme inhibition was present in the lambs. This was not observed in the adults. Cardiac output fell following hemorrhage in both age groups, and the fall was greater when enalapril was present in the lambs, but this was not the case in the adults. Hemorrhage increased plasma renin activity in both groups, and enalapril augmented this increase. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin, measured by radioimmunoassay, and catecholamines measured by radio enzymatic assay, increased following hemorrhage within and between groups. Taken together these data suggest that the renin-angiotensin systems plays a more important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis in newborn lambs than it does in adult sheep, and catecholamine and vasopressin responses to volume loss can occur in the presence of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

  16. PTEN inhibition to facilitate intrinsic regenerative outgrowth of adult peripheral axons.

    PubMed

    Christie, Kimberly J; Webber, Christine A; Martinez, Jose A; Singh, Bhagat; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2010-07-01

    In vivo regeneration of peripheral neurons is constrained and rarely complete, and unfortunately patients with major nerve trunk transections experience only limited recovery. Intracellular inhibition of neuronal growth signals may be among these constraints. In this work, we investigated the role of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) during regeneration of peripheral neurons in adult Sprague Dawley rats. PTEN inhibits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling, a common and central outgrowth and survival pathway downstream of neuronal growth factors. While PI3-K and Akt outgrowth signals were expressed and activated within adult peripheral neurons during regeneration, PTEN was similarly expressed and poised to inhibit their support. PTEN was expressed in neuron perikaryal cytoplasm, nuclei, regenerating axons, and Schwann cells. Adult sensory neurons in vitro responded to both graded pharmacological inhibition of PTEN and its mRNA knockdown using siRNA. Both approaches were associated with robust rises in the plasticity of neurite outgrowth that were independent of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Importantly, this accelerated outgrowth was in addition to the increased outgrowth generated in neurons that had undergone a preconditioning lesion. Moreover, following severe nerve transection injuries, local pharmacological inhibition of PTEN or siRNA knockdown of PTEN at the injury site accelerated axon outgrowth in vivo. The findings indicated a remarkable impact on peripheral neuron plasticity through PTEN inhibition, even within a complex regenerative milieu. Overall, these findings identify a novel route to propagate intrinsic regeneration pathways within axons to benefit nerve repair.

  17. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  18. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  19. IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS THROUGH THE INHIBITION OF CYP17 ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS THROUGH THE INHIBITION OF CYP17 ACTIVITY

    Chad R. Blystone1, David J. Dix2, and John C. Rockett2
    1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, NC State University, R...

  20. Eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage in California led to increased dental emergency visits and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Caplan, Daniel J; Jones, Michael P; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Buresh, Christopher T; Isman, Robert; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dental coverage for adults is an elective benefit under Medicaid. As a result of budget constraints, California Medicaid eliminated its comprehensive adult dental coverage in July 2009. We examined the impact of this policy change on emergency department (ED) visits by Medicaid-enrolled adults for dental problems in the period 2006-11. We found that the policy change led to a significant and immediate increase in dental ED use, amounting to more than 1,800 additional dental ED visits per year. Young adults, members of racial/ethnic minority groups, and urban residents were disproportionately affected by the policy change. Average yearly costs associated with dental ED visits increased by 68 percent. The California experience provides evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits shifts dental care to costly EDs that do not provide definitive dental care. The population affected by the Medicaid adult dental coverage policy is increasing as many states expand their Medicaid programs under the ACA. Hence, such evidence is critical to inform decisions regarding adult dental coverage for existing Medicaid enrollees and expansion populations. PMID:25941275

  1. Parenting styles and emerging adult drug use in Cebu, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Rebecca S.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Bass, Judith K.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Parenting style is a potent and malleable influence on emerging adult substance use. Most of the parenting-substance use literature has been conducted in Western populations and it is unknown whether findings are generalizable to other cultures and contexts. We extended the parenting-substance use literature to a cohort of emerging adults in the Philippines using the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We assessed associations between mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) reported by offspring at age 18 and odds of offspring-reported drug use three years later, adjusted for a range of offspring- and parent/household-level characteristics. Females were dropped from analyses due to low prevalence of drug users. We found that many emerging adults in Cebu reported having used drugs, particularly methamphetamine—a dangerous drug with high abuse potential. Authoritative (warm, firm) mothering was significantly associated with sons’ reduced odds of drug use and neglectful fathering was related at a trend level with sons’ increased odds of having tried drugs. Findings underscore the relation of parenting styles to emerging adults’ drug use and add to the literature on cross-cultural variability in parenting styles. PMID:27330559

  2. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  3. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  4. Emerging adults' stress and health: the role of parent behaviors and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-02-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers' behaviors (via the Parental Bonding Instrument and Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), their cognitions (via the Stress Appraisal Measure, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Ruminative Response Scale-Abbreviated), and their stress/health outcomes (via the Perceived Stress Scale and Short-Form Health Survey). Results of this study suggested that emerging adults' cognitions partially mediated the relationship between their mothers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes and fully mediated the relationship between their fathers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes. Future research should examine parent behaviors as important distal variables in emerging adults' stress/health outcomes but should examine cognitions as more salient, immediate predictors of their stress/health outcomes. PMID:22610746

  5. Adverse childhood experiences and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emerging adults who experienced stressful childhoods may engage in substance use as a maladaptive coping strategy. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, adverse childhood experiences may play a prominent role in substance use decisions as these events violate the assumptions of group oriented cultural paradigms. Alternatively, adverse childhood events might not increase the risk of substance use because strong family ties could mitigate the potential maladaptive behaviors associated with these adverse experiences. This study examined whether adverse childhood experiences were associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Method Participants (n=1420, mean age=22, 41% male) completed surveys indicating whether they experienced any of 8 specific adverse experiences within their first 18 years of life, and past-month cigarette use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and binge drinking. Logistic regression models examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences and each category of substance use, controlling for age, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results The number of adverse childhood experiences was significantly associated with each category of substance use. A difference in the number of adverse childhood experiences, from 0 to 8, was associated with a 22% higher probability of cigarette smoking, a 24% higher probability of binge drinking, a 31% higher probability of marijuana use, and a 12% higher probability of hard drug use respectively. Conclusions These findings should be integrated into prevention/intervention programs in hopes of quelling the duration and severity of substance use behaviors among Hispanic emerging adults. PMID:26160522

  6. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  7. Examining Gender Differences for Gambling Engagement and Gambling Problems Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki

    2016-01-01

    Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18–25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7–11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369–1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503–508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:22585283

  8. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  9. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members’ health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N=119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members’ health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. PMID:25277497

  10. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Hamilton, Derek A.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  11. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition.

  12. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Hamilton, Derek A; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-02-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  13. A comparison of adult and adolescent rat behavior in operant learning, extinction, and behavioral inhibition paradigms.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Schochet, Terri L; Feit, Elizabeth C; Harris, Rachel; McKee, Brenda L; Kelley, Ann E

    2011-02-01

    Poor self-control, lack of inhibition, and impulsivity contribute to the propensity of adolescents to engage in risky or dangerous behaviors. Brain regions (e.g., prefrontal cortex) involved in impulse-control, reward-processing, and decision-making continue to develop during adolescence, raising the possibility that an immature brain contributes to dangerous behavior during adolescence. However, very few validated animal behavioral models are available for behavioral neuroscientists to explore the relationship between brain development and behavior. To that end, a valid model must be conducted in the relatively brief window of adolescence and not use manipulations that potentially compromise development. The present experiments used three operant arrangements to assess whether adolescent rats differ from adults in measures of learning, behavioral inhibition, and impulsivity, within the aforementioned time frame without substantial food restriction. In Experiment 1, separate squads of rats were trained to lever-press and then transitioned to two types of extinction. Relative to their baselines, adolescent rats responded more during extinction than adults, suggesting that they were less sensitive to the abolishment of the reinforcement contingency. Experiment 2 demonstrated similar age-related differences during exposure to a differential reinforcement of low rates schedule, a test of behavioral inhibition. Lastly, in Experiment 3, adolescent's responding decreased more slowly than adults during exposure to a resetting delay of reinforcement schedule, suggesting impaired self-control. Results from these experiments suggest that adolescents exhibit impaired learning, behavioral inhibition and self-control, and in concert with recent reports, provide researchers with three behavioral models to more fully explore neurobiology of risk-taking behavior in adolescence.

  14. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  15. Sleep problems and pain: a longitudinal cohort study in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Janssens, Karin A M

    2016-04-01

    Sleep and pain are thought to be bidirectional related on a daily basis in adolescents with chronic pain complaints. In addition, sleep problems have been shown to predict the long-term onset of musculoskeletal pain in middle-aged adults. Yet, the long-term effects of sleep problems on pain duration and different types of pain severity in emerging adults (age: 18-25) are unknown. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal pain, headache, and abdominal pain severity in a general population of emerging adults. We studied whether these relationships were moderated by sex and whether symptoms of anxiety and depression, fatigue, or physical inactivity mediated these effects. Data of participants from the longitudinal Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Follow-up data were collected in 1753 participants who participated in the fourth (N = 1668, mean age: 19.0 years [SD = 0.6]) and/or fifth (N = 1501, mean age: 22.3 years [SD = 0.6]) assessment wave. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used for analyses. Sleep problems were associated with chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache and abdominal pain severity, and predicted chronic pain and an increase in musculoskeletal pain severity at 3 years of follow-up. This prospective effect was stronger in females than in males and was mediated by fatigue but not by symptoms of anxiety and depression or physical inactivity. Only abdominal pain had a small long-term effect on sleep problems. Our results suggest that sleep problems may be an additional target for treatment in female emerging adults with musculoskeletal pain complaints.

  16. Teaching adults-best practices that leverage the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D; Stein, David S

    2014-07-01

    It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach

  17. Teaching adults-best practices that leverage the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D; Stein, David S

    2014-07-01

    It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach

  18. Developmental emergence of self-referential and inhibition mechanisms of body movements underling felicitous behaviors.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hama; Homae, Fumitaka; Taga, Gentaro

    2011-08-01

    In young infants, activation or inhibition of body movements on perception of environmental events is important to enable them to act on the world or understand the world. To reveal the development of this ability, we observed movement patterns in all four limbs under the two experimental conditions. Infants assigned to the interaction condition were provided a connection between their arm and a toy, which allowed movements of the critical arm to produce movements in the overhead mobile. Infants assigned to the stimulation condition were presented with similar movements of the toy emulated by the experimenter. In 3-month-old infants, the arm movements increased under the interaction condition, whereas they decreased under the stimulation condition. Such condition-dependent behavior dissociation was not observed in 2-month-old infants. These results suggest that the distinct behavior of an "observer" of environmental events was differentiated from that of a "player" interacting with the surroundings between 2 and 3 months of age. The emergence of differentiation of behaviors points toward the development of self-referential and inhibition mechanisms in the perceptual-motor and attention/evaluation system in the cortico-subcortical network. PMID:21500942

  19. A STUDY OF SELECTED FACTORS INHIBITING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN, 1957-58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRELOAR, WILLIAM PURDY

    TO ASCERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS OF SELECTED FACTORS INHIBITING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION TO COMMUNITY SIZE, ENROLLMENT, EXPERIENCE OF THE DIRECTOR, AND FULL- OR PART-TIME DIRECTORSHIP, 200 RESPONSES TO QUESTIONNAIRES MAILED TO ALL ADULT EDUCATION DIRECTORS IN MICHIGAN WERE ANALYZED. DATA WERE ORGANIZED ACCORDING TO THREE PROBLEM AREAS--(1)…

  20. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Department (ED) Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Pharmaceuticals* among Adults Aged 18 to 34, by Alcohol ... 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 * Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals includes taking more than the prescribed dose of ...

  1. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses’ views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile. Results: 5 central themes emerged from the analysis, representing a lack of older personhospital environment fit in the ED: (a) respect for the older adult and carers, (b) correct and best procedures and treatment, (c) time and staff to do things right, (d) transitions, and (e) a safe and enabling environment. The nurses offered solutions to address lack of fit, including modifications to the social climate, policies and procedures, care systems and processes, and physical design. Implications: The nurses’ descriptions of the pressing issues surrounding care of older adults in the ED provide useful information to consider when developing a senior-friendly ED. Results also illuminate solutions that can be taken to address issues. These solutions give direction for future intervention research. PMID:23442380

  2. The Nature and Meaning of Insulin Pump Use in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the meaning of living with an insulin pump for the management of type 1 diabetes during the period of emerging adulthood. Through a phenomenological narrative, this study contributes to the reflective understanding of the everyday life experiences of this population. Methods. A hermeneutic phenomenological design was used for this study of nine emerging adults (aged 19–24 years). Data were generated through face-to-face interviews and analyzed using the phenomenological approach of Max van Manen. Results. Four themes represent the essence of the day-to-day experiences of these emerging adults: seeking control, becoming responsible, staying connected, and accepting me. Conclusions. An in-depth understanding of the meaning of daily experiences with insulin pump technology has the potential to promote a developmentally appropriate approach to this age-group. The human understanding gained through this study is essential to the development of evidence-based practice guidelines and resources for this vulnerable population. PMID:25987805

  3. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults. PMID:25239659

  4. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults.

  5. Kindergarteners’ Self-Reported Social Inhibition and Observed Social Reticence: Moderation by Adult-Reported Social Inhibition and Social Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Molitor, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children’s self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age. PMID:25113397

  6. Basic Education for Adults: Pathways to College and Careers for Washington's Emerging Workforce. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes the Basic Education for Adults (BEdA) programs that bridge the gap between school and work, thereby creating pathways to college and careers for Washington's emerging workforce. BEdA programs teach foundational skills--reading, writing, math, technology and English language--so adults can move through college and into…

  7. Acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and vulnerability to suicide attempts among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-11-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the racial/ethnic composition included Asian, Latino, Black, and White (US-born and non-US-born) individuals. There were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in endorsement of a suicide attempt history, with an overall rate of 8% in the sample. Asian participants reported higher acculturative stress than all other racial/ethnic groups, while both Asian and Black participants reported having experienced more discrimination in the previous year, compared to other groups. Logistic regression analyses suggested that familial acculturative stress was associated with 2 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt, overall. More specifically, it was associated with over 2 times higher odds among Asian participants, over 4 times higher odds among Black participants, and over 3 times higher odds among non-US-born White participants, while social acculturative stress was associated with over 3 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt among Latino participants. Environmental acculturative stress was associated with decreased odds of endorsing a suicide attempt history, overall, but not when examined separately by racial/ethnic group. Perceived discrimination was associated with over 5 times higher odds of a suicide attempt, overall, and specifically was associated with over 3 times higher odds among Latino participants and over 10 times higher odds among White, US-born participants. These findings suggest the importance of addressing culturally-related variables in treatment with emerging adults of racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to reduce risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:21717234

  8. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  9. Gender roles and binge drinking among Latino emerging adults: a latent class regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G

    2014-09-01

    Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.

  10. Sleep problems: predictor or outcome of media use among emerging adults at university?

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-08-01

    The pervasiveness of media use in our society has raised concerns about its potential impact on important lifestyle behaviours, including sleep. Although a number of studies have modelled poor sleep as a negative outcome of media use, a critical assessment of the literature indicates two important gaps: (i) studies have almost exclusively relied on concurrent data, and thus have not been able to assess the direction of effects; and (ii) studies have largely been conducted with children and adolescents. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study, therefore, was to examine whether both sleep duration and sleep problems would be predictors or outcomes of two forms of media use (i.e. television and online social networking) among a sample of emerging adults. Participants were 942 (71.5% female) university students (M = 19.01 years, SD = 0.90) at Time 1. Survey measures, which were assessed for three consecutive years starting in the first year of university, included demographics, sleep duration, sleep problems, television and online social networking use. Results of a cross-lagged model indicated that the association between sleep problems and media use was statistically significant: sleep problems predicted longer time spent watching television and on social networking websites, but not vice versa. Contrary to our hypotheses, sleep duration was not associated with media use. Our findings indicate no negative effects of media use on sleep among emerging adults, but instead suggest that emerging adults appear to seek out media as a means of coping with their sleep problems. PMID:24552437

  11. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  12. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  13. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I.; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  14. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  15. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  16. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inhibition Promotes Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase originally identified as a regulator of glycogen metabolism but it also plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular functions, including differentiation, cell cycle regulation, and proliferation. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, together with the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, is one of the regions in which neurogenesis takes place in the adult brain. Here, using a chemical genetic approach that involves the use of several diverse inhibitors of GSK-3 as pharmacological tools, we show that inhibition of GSK-3 induces proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural stem cells toward a neuronal phenotype in in vitro studies. Also, we demonstrate that inhibition of GSK-3 with the small molecule NP03112, called tideglusib, induces neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adult rats. Taken together, our results suggest that GSK-3 should be considered as a new target molecule for modulating the production and integration of new neurons in the hippocampus as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury and, consequently, its inhibitors may represent new potential therapeutic drugs in neuroregenerative medicine. PMID:23173075

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A; Luna-Medina, Rosario; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Sanz-Sancristobal, Marina; Palomo, Valle; Gil, Carmen; Santos, Angel; Martinez, Ana; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2012-11-21

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase originally identified as a regulator of glycogen metabolism but it also plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular functions, including differentiation, cell cycle regulation, and proliferation. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, together with the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, is one of the regions in which neurogenesis takes place in the adult brain. Here, using a chemical genetic approach that involves the use of several diverse inhibitors of GSK-3 as pharmacological tools, we show that inhibition of GSK-3 induces proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural stem cells toward a neuronal phenotype in in vitro studies. Also, we demonstrate that inhibition of GSK-3 with the small molecule NP03112, called tideglusib, induces neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adult rats. Taken together, our results suggest that GSK-3 should be considered as a new target molecule for modulating the production and integration of new neurons in the hippocampus as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury and, consequently, its inhibitors may represent new potential therapeutic drugs in neuroregenerative medicine.

  19. Cardiac issues in adults with the mucopolysaccharidoses: current knowledge and emerging needs.

    PubMed

    Braunlin, Elizabeth; Wang, Raymond

    2016-08-15

    The growing availability of innovative treatments for rare genetic diseases with a cardiac component-such as the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs)-has changed these syndromes from 'back of the textbook' curiosities of childhood to chronic, but rare, adult cardiac conditions that require both centres of expertise and knowledgeable subspecialists. The MPSs are inherited progressive lysosomal storage diseases, occurring in about 1:25 000 births and resulting from absence of functional hydrolases responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, naturally occurring complex sugars ubiquitous throughout the body. In the heart, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans occurs within the cardiac valves, the epicardial coronary arteries, the myocytes and cardiac interstitium and the walls of the great vessels. As a consequence, cardiac valve regurgitation and stenosis, diffuse coronary artery stenosis, myocardial dysfunction and aortic root dilation often occur. Haematopoietic cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy have changed the previously lethal natural history of the MPSs to one of survival well into adulthood. Despite this improved lifespan, the left-sided cardiac valves continue to show progressive functional involvement and cardiac valve replacement is not uncommon, especially in adults. The risk of any intervention is increased in these patients because of the systemic effects of the disease on the respiratory system and cervical cord. Our current understanding of other cardiac issues in adults with the MPSs, especially with the coronary circulation and myocardium, is meagre and more needs to be known to effectively care for this emerging population of adults. Incorporation of the MPSs, as well as other now-treatable rare diseases, into the educational curriculum of current and future adult subspecialists is an important next step. PMID:27102649

  20. Propofol and AZD3043 Inhibit Adult Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin; Krupp, Johannes; Dabrowski, Michael A

    2016-02-06

    Propofol is a widely used general anaesthetic with muscle relaxant properties. Similarly as propofol, the new general anaesthetic AZD3043 targets the GABAA receptor for its anaesthetic effects, but the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has not been investigated. Notably, there is a gap of knowledge about the interaction between propofol and the nAChRs found in the adult neuromuscular junction. The objective was to evaluate whether propofol or AZD3043 interact with the α1β1δε, α3β2, or α7 nAChR subtypes that can be found in the neuromuscular junction and if there are any differences in affinity for those subtypes between propofol and AZD3043. Human nAChR subtypes α1β1δε, α3β2, and α7 were expressed into Xenopus oocytes and studied with an automated voltage-clamp. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibited ACh-induced currents in all of the nAChRs studied with inhibitory concentrations higher than those needed for general anaesthesia. AZD3043 was a more potent inhibitor at the adult muscle nAChR subtype compared to propofol. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibit nAChR subtypes that can be found in the adult NMJ in concentrations higher than needed for general anaesthesia. This finding needs to be evaluated in an in vitro nerve-muscle preparation and suggests one possible explanation for the muscle relaxant effect of propofol seen during higher doses.

  1. Propofol and AZD3043 Inhibit Adult Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin; Krupp, Johannes; Dabrowski, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Propofol is a widely used general anaesthetic with muscle relaxant properties. Similarly as propofol, the new general anaesthetic AZD3043 targets the GABAA receptor for its anaesthetic effects, but the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has not been investigated. Notably, there is a gap of knowledge about the interaction between propofol and the nAChRs found in the adult neuromuscular junction. The objective was to evaluate whether propofol or AZD3043 interact with the α1β1δε, α3β2, or α7 nAChR subtypes that can be found in the neuromuscular junction and if there are any differences in affinity for those subtypes between propofol and AZD3043. Human nAChR subtypes α1β1δε, α3β2, and α7 were expressed into Xenopus oocytes and studied with an automated voltage-clamp. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibited ACh-induced currents in all of the nAChRs studied with inhibitory concentrations higher than those needed for general anaesthesia. AZD3043 was a more potent inhibitor at the adult muscle nAChR subtype compared to propofol. Propofol and AZD3043 inhibit nAChR subtypes that can be found in the adult NMJ in concentrations higher than needed for general anaesthesia. This finding needs to be evaluated in an in vitro nerve-muscle preparation and suggests one possible explanation for the muscle relaxant effect of propofol seen during higher doses. PMID:26861354

  2. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  3. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  4. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  5. Risky business: Is there an association between casual sex and mental health among emerging adults?

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina M; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hudson, Monika; Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Agocha, V Bede; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Caraway, S Jean

    2014-01-01

    A multiethnic sample of single, heterosexual, emerging-adult college students (N = 3,907) ages 18 to 25, from 30 institutions across the United States, participated in a study about identity, culture, psychological well-being, and risky behaviors. Given ongoing debates about the connection between casual sex and psychological adjustment, in the current study we assessed the cross-sectional association of participation in casual sex with psychological well-being and distress. A greater proportion of men (18.6%) compared to women (7.4%) reported having had casual sex in the month prior to assessment. Structural equation modeling indicated that casual sex was negatively associated with well-being (ß = .20, p < .001) and positively associated with psychological distress (ß = .16, p < .001). Gender did not moderate these associations. For emerging-adult college students, engaging in casual sex may elevate risk for negative psychological outcomes.

  6. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts.

  7. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  8. Inhibition of HSP90 by AT13387 delays the emergence of resistance to BRAF inhibitors and overcomes resistance to dual BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma models.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Tomoko; Paraiso, Kim H T; Hearn, Keisha; Rodriguez-Lopez, Ana M; Munck, Joanne M; Haarberg, H Eirik; Sondak, Vernon K; Thompson, Neil T; Azab, Mohammad; Lyons, John F; Smalley, Keiran S M; Wallis, Nicola G

    2014-12-01

    Emergence of clinical resistance to BRAF inhibitors, alone or in combination with MEK inhibitors, limits clinical responses in melanoma. Inhibiting HSP90 offers an approach to simultaneously interfere with multiple resistance mechanisms. Using the HSP90 inhibitor AT13387, which is currently in clinical trials, we investigated the potential of HSP90 inhibition to overcome or delay the emergence of resistance to these kinase inhibitors in melanoma models. In vitro, treating vemurafenib-sensitive cells (A375 or SK-MEL-28) with a combination of AT13387 and vemurafenib prevented colony growth under conditions in which vemurafenib treatment alone generated resistant colonies. In vivo, when AT13387 was combined with vemurafenib in a SK-MEL-28, vemurafenib-sensitive model, no regrowth of tumors was observed over 5 months, although 2 of 7 tumors in the vemurafenib monotherapy group relapsed in this time. Together, these data suggest that the combination of these agents can delay the emergence of resistance. Cell lines with acquired vemurafenib resistance, derived from these models (A375R and SK-MEL-28R) were also sensitive to HSP90 inhibitor treatment; key clients were depleted, apoptosis was induced, and growth in 3D culture was inhibited. Similar effects were observed in cell lines with acquired resistance to both BRAF and MEK inhibitors (SK-MEL-28RR, WM164RR, and 1205LuRR). These data suggest that treatment with an HSP90 inhibitor, such as AT13387, is a potential approach for combating resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma. Moreover, frontline combination of these agents with an HSP90 inhibitor could delay the emergence of resistance, providing a strong rationale for clinical investigation of such combinations in BRAF-mutated melanoma.

  9. Relationships and Health among Emerging Adults with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study's goal was to examine the impact of parent and peer relationships on health behaviors and psychological well-being of those with and without type 1 diabetes over the transition to emerging adulthood. Emerging adulthood is an understudied developmental period and a high risk period—especially for those with type 1 diabetes. Methods Youth with (n = 117) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed questionnaires during their senior year of high school and one year later. Measures included supportive and problematic aspects of parent and peer relationships, health behaviors, psychological well-being, and, for those with diabetes, self-care behavior and glycemic control. Results Prospective multiple and logistic regression analysis revealed that friend conflict was a more potent predictor than friend support of changes in health behaviors and psychological well-being. Parent support was associated with positive changes in psychological well-being and decreases in smoking, whereas parent control was related to increases in smoking and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of cross-domain buffering such that supportive relationships in one domain buffered adverse effects of problematic relationships in the other domain on health outcomes. Conclusions This longitudinal study showed that parent relationships remain an important influence on and peer relationships continue to influence the health behaviors and psychological well-being of emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Parent relationships also have the potential to buffer the adverse effects of difficulties with peers. PMID:23914816

  10. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p < .01), MJ problem severity (b = .41, 95% CI [.24, .57], p < .01), depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults.

  11. Six Month Outcomes of a Peer-Enhanced Community Reinforcement Approach for Emerging Adults with Substance Misuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Davis, Jordan P; Ureche, Daniel J; Dumas, Tara M

    2016-02-01

    Little substance use disorder (SUD) treatment research with emerging adults ages 18-25 has been done in community settings, and it is well-known that peers influence emerging adult substance use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a peer-enhanced behavioral treatment for emerging adults with substance use problems. Emerging adults (n=35) received a peer-enhanced version of the Community Reinforcement Approach (Peer-CRA), in which their peers (n=34) were trained to provide alcohol-specific social support. Both identified clients and peers were interviewed at treatment intake, and again three and six months later. Six month outcomes included days of abstinence adjusted for controlled environment days, social costs due to substance use, and binge drinking days in the past 90 days. Treatments were delivered with high fidelity, and a high proportion of participants were retained in treatment and follow-up assessments. Growth curve analyses revealed that emerging adults and their peers significantly increased their days of abstinence and reduced their binge drinking over time. Larger randomized trials should a) test whether peer-enhanced treatments are efficacious relative to treatment as usual, b) investigate whether secondary benefits exist for non-treatment seeking peers supporting another's treatment, and c) examine whether proposed mechanisms of change (i.e., peer support and peer reductions in substance use) account for any differences in outcomes.

  12. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p < .01), MJ problem severity (b = .41, 95% CI [.24, .57], p < .01), depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults. PMID:25915689

  13. Selection on the timing of adult emergence results in altered circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh; Kumar, Dhanya; Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; R, Akarsh C; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2007-03-01

    To investigate whether circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster evolve as a consequence of selection on the timing of adult emergence, we raised four replicate populations each of early (early(1..4)) and late (late(1..4)) emerging flies by selecting for adults that emerged during the morning and the evening hours. We estimated the percentage of flies that emerged during the two selection windows to evaluate the direct response to selection, and the circadian phenotypes of adult emergence and locomotor activity rhythms under light/dark (LD) and constant darkness (DD) to assess the correlated response to selection. After 55 generations, the percentage of flies emerging during the morning window increased in the early populations, but decreased in the late populations. The percentage of flies emerging during the evening window increased in the late populations, but decreased in the early populations. The time course and waveform of emergence and locomotor activity rhythms of the selected populations diverged from each other as well as from the controls. Further, the circadian periodicity of the early populations was significantly shorter than the controls, while that of the late populations was significantly longer than the controls. The light-induced phase response curve of the selected populations differed significantly within groups as well as from the controls. Such modifications in the circadian phenotypes of the selected populations due to heritable changes in genetic architecture, in response to imposed selection pressure, suggest that the circadian clocks underlying emergence and locomotor activity rhythms in D. melanogaster evolve as a correlated response to selection on the timing of adult emergence.

  14. Inhibition of ecological emergence of mutans streptococci naturally transmitted between rats and consequent caries inhibition by Streptococcus salivarius TOVE-R infection.

    PubMed Central

    Tanzer, J M; Kurasz, A B; Clive, J

    1985-01-01

    The ability of Streptococcus salivarius strain TOVE-R to inhibit the ecological emergence of virulent representatives of the most prevalent human mutans streptococci on the teeth of specific pathogen-free Osborne-Mendel rats was studied. Rats which were infected by TOVE-R, or either S. mutans 10449S or S. sobrinus 6715-13WT, or uninfected were transiently co-caged so as to allow natural fecal transfer of organisms due to coprophagy. The infectants were differentially recovered from swabs of the teeth over the time course of the experiments and from sonified teeth at termination. Data were expressed on both relative (percentage) and absolute (CFU) bases. Initial oral colonization of rats by TOVE-R inhibited the ecological emergence of fecally transmitted S. mutans 10449S and S. sobrinus 6715-13WT. There was a generally inverse relationship between the percentages and absolute numbers of TOVE-R and the mutans streptococci on the teeth, which strongly suggested their competition for tooth sites. Absolute numbers of total recoverable flora from the teeth upon sonification were correlated with caries scores, thus suggesting that total recoverable flora counts substantially reflect cavitation status. TOVE-R itself induced no apparent caries activity and its transmission to rats already infected by 10449S or its colonization of rats before 10449S infection inhibition caries induction by this S. mutans strain; similar anticaries effects were not statistically significant for TOVE-R against 6715-13WT in these experiments. These data on the inhibition of the ecological emergence of the mutans streptococci supplement the already reported ability of TOVE-R to preempt initial colonization of teeth and partially displace the colonization of teeth by the mutans streptococci. PMID:4008050

  15. Activity, inhibition, and induction of cytochrome P450 2J2 in adult human primary cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Eric A; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Mokadam, Nahush A; Jones, J P; Totah, Rheem A

    2013-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 2J2 plays a significant role in the epoxidation of arachidonic acid to signaling molecules important in cardiovascular events. CYP2J2 also contributes to drug metabolism and is responsible for the intestinal clearance of ebastine. However, the interaction between arachidonic acid metabolism and drug metabolism in cardiac tissue, the main expression site of CYP2J2, has not been examined. Here we investigate an adult-derived human primary cardiac cell line as a suitable model to study metabolic drug interactions (inhibition and induction) of CYP2J2 in cardiac tissue. The primary human cardiomyocyte cell line demonstrated similar mRNA-expression profiles of P450 enzymes to adult human ventricular tissue. CYP2J2 was the dominant isozyme with minor contributions from CYP2D6 and CYP2E1. Both terfenadine and astemizole oxidation were observed in this cell line, whereas midazolam was not metabolized suggesting lack of CYP3A activity. Compared with recombinant CYP2J2, terfenadine was hydroxylated in cardiomyocytes at a similar K(m) value of 1.5 μM. The V(max) of terfenadine hydroxylation in recombinant enzyme was found to be 29.4 pmol/pmol P450 per minute and in the cells 6.0 pmol/pmol P450 per minute. CYP2J2 activity in the cell line was inhibited by danazol, astemizole, and ketoconazole in submicromolar range, but also by xenobiotics known to cause cardiac adverse effects. Of the 14 compounds tested for CYP2J2 induction, only rosiglitazone increased mRNA expression, by 1.8-fold. This cell model can be a useful in vitro model to investigate the role of CYP2J2-mediated drug metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and their association to drug induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24021950

  16. Variation of availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography between adult and pediatric patients in the academic emergency department in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chiwon; Kim, Changsun; Kang, Bo Seung; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography (USG) in the emergency department (ED) and the status of USG training programs in emergency medicine residencies in academic EDs in Korea. Methods In spring 2014, a link to a 16-question, multiple-choice, and rating scale web-based survey was e-mailed to all 97 academic ED residency training directors in Korea. Results The response rate was 83.5% (81/97). All respondents had their own USG machines in the ED. In total, 82.7% of respondents reported that emergency physician-performed adult USGs were usually conducted daily, whereas only 23.6% performed pediatric USGs daily. Moreover, 55.5% performed pediatric USG fewer than once a week. 74.1% of respondents had education programs for adult USG in residency training, but only 21.0% had programs for pediatric USG. There was a high association between the presence of education programs and the use of USG in both groups. The faculty members who most commonly participated in teaching ED residents how to perform USG were emergency physicians (67.9%). Only 17.3% of respondents reported that they always supported a quality assurance process. The training directors generally agreed with the advantages in emergency physician-performed USGs. Conclusion The availability of ultrasound machines was high both for adult and pediatric EDs. Nevertheless, the frequency of Emergency physician-performed USG for pediatric patients was low, which was related to the lack of the training programs for treating pediatric patients.

  17. Bursts of Self-Conscious Emotions in the Daily Lives of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Rebar, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions play a role in regulating daily achievement strivings, social behavior, and health, but little is known about the processes underlying their daily manifestation. Emerging adults (n = 182) completed daily diaries for eight days and multilevel models were estimated to evaluate whether, how much, and why their emotions varied from day-to-day. Within-person variation in authentic pride was normally-distributed across people and days whereas the other emotions were burst-like and characterized by zero-inflated, negative binomial distributions. Perceiving social interactions as generally communal increased the odds of hubristic pride activation and reduced the odds of guilt activation; daily communal behavior reduced guilt intensity. Results illuminated processes through which meaning about the self-in-relation-to-others is constructed during a critical period of development. PMID:25859164

  18. Typologies and precursors of career adaptability patterns among emerging adults: a seven-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Vasalampi, Kati; Barr, Tamuz; Livne, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Pratt, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined career adaptability in 100 Israeli emerging adults who were followed from ages 22 to 29. Participants were given an in depth interview and were asked to talk about their current work, difficulties they might have had in the past and how they coped with them. In addition they were asked to elaborate on the extent to which their job fits their interests and is meaningful to them. Analyses of interviews yielded three distinctive career adaptability patterns that were associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Integrated, Compromised, and Vague. A lower level of identified motivation measured seven years earlier predicted membership in the Compromised pattern. A higher level of extrinsic motivation combined with decreased parental support predicted membership in the Vague pattern. Findings are discussed within the framework of the occupational adaptations and compromises that young people must make when approaching the age of 30. PMID:24986058

  19. Structure emerges faster during cultural transmission in children than in adults.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Forsyth, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    How does children's limited processing capacity affect cultural transmission of complex information? We show that over the course of iterated reproduction of two-dimensional random dot patterns transmission accuracy increased to a similar extent in 5- to 8-year-old children and adults whereas algorithmic complexity decreased faster in children. Thus, children require more structure to render complex inputs learnable. In line with the Less-Is-More hypothesis, we interpret this as evidence that children's processing limitations affecting working memory capacity and executive control constrain the ability to represent and generate complexity, which, in turn, facilitates emergence of structure. This underscores the importance of investigating the role of children in the transmission of complex cultural traits.

  20. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.

  1. Transition Needs of Parents of Adolescents and Emerging Adults With Special Health Care Needs and Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Betz, Cecily L; Nehring, Wendy M; Lobo, Marie L

    2015-08-01

    The period of health care transition (HCT) for adolescents and emerging adults with special health care needs and disabilities involves a complex realignment of the parent-child relationship, including alterations in role responsibilities and decision making. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the research designs, methodology, and findings reported in studies of parents during this transition period to provide new insights for research and clinical practice. Results showed that parents were unable to clearly envision what the future held for their children and were not well prepared by the service system to anticipate future prospects. These parents have a myriad of needs that are not yet fully understood, as HCT research is in the early stages of development. PMID:26283056

  2. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  3. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  4. [Mild head injury in children and adults. Diagnostic challenges in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Lindner, T; Wolf, S; Bogner, V; Steinbeck, A; Börner, N; Peiser, C; Audebert, H J; Biberthaler, P; Kanz, K-G

    2015-01-01

    Mild head injuries are one of the most frequent reasons for attending emergency departments and are particularly challenging in different ways. While clinically important injuries are infrequent, delayed or missed injuries may lead to fatal consequences. The initial mostly inconspicuous appearance may not reflect the degree of intracranial injury and computed tomography (CT) is necessary to rule out covert injuries. Furthermore, infants and young children with a lack of or rudimentary cognitive and language development are challenging, especially for those examiners not familiar with pediatric care. Established check lists of clinical risk factors for children and adults regarding traumatic brain injuries allow specific and rational decision-making for cranial CT imaging. Clinically important intracranial injuries can be reliably detected and unnecessary radiation exposure avoided at the same time. PMID:25630884

  5. Predatory efficiency of the water bug Sphaerodema annulatum on mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus) and its effect on the adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Aditya, G; Bhattacharyya, S; Kundu, N; Saha, G K; Raut, S K

    2004-11-01

    The daily number of IV instar larva of Culex quinquefasciatus killed, rate of pupation and adult emergence was noted in presence of the predatory water bug Sphaerodema annulatum for a period of seven consecutive days, experimentally, in the laboratory. The rate of IV instar larva killed by the water bugs on an average was 65.17 per day. The rate of pupation ranged between 7.6 and 48 in control while in presence of water bugs it ranged between 6 and 35. The rate of adult emergence in control experiments varied between 1.4 and 4.8 per day, which was reduced to only 0.4-28.8 per day in case of the water bugs. The results clearly indicate that the water bugs on its way of predation reduces the rate of pupation and adult emergence of Cx. quinquefasciatus significantly which calls for an extensive field trials.

  6. Pubertal and adult Leydig cell function in Mullerian inhibiting substance-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiufeng; Arumugam, Ramamani; Baker, Stephen P; Lee, Mary M

    2005-02-01

    Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) causes Mullerian duct regression during sexual differentiation and regulates postnatal Leydig cell development. MIS knockout (MIS-KO) mice with targeted deletions of MIS develop Leydig cell hyperplasia, but their circulating androgen concentrations are reportedly unaltered. We compared reproductive hormone profiles, androgen biosynthesis, and the expression of key steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in MIS-KO and wild-type (WT) mice at puberty (36 d) and sexual maturity (60 d). In pubertal animals, basal testosterone and LH concentrations in plasma were lower in MIS-KO than WT mice, whereas human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone concentrations were similar. In adults, basal LH, and both basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated testosterone concentrations were similar. Purified Leydig cells from pubertal MIS-KO mice had lower testosterone but higher androstanediol and androstenedione production rates. In contrast, testosterone, androstanediol, and androstenedione production rates were all lower in adult MIS-KO Leydig cells. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression was lower in pubertal MIS-KO mice compared with WT, whereas 17beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase and 5alpha-reductase were greater, and P450c17 and P450scc were similar. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was lower in adult MIS-KO mice, whereas that of 5alpha-reductase, P450c17, and P450scc was similar. Collectively, these results suggest that in the absence of MIS, Leydig cells remain less differentiated, causing an altered intratesticular androgen milieu that may contribute to the infertility of MIS-KO mice. In immature mice, this deficit in steroidogenic capacity appears to be mediated by a direct loss of MIS action in Leydig cells as well as by indirect effects via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed.

  9. A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-12-01

    Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  10. EMERGENCY BRAKING IN ADULTS VERSUS NOVICE TEEN DRIVERS: RESPONSE TO SIMULATED SUDDEN DRIVING EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Venk; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death in teens in the United States. Newly licensed drivers are the group most at risk for crashes. Their driving skills are very new, still very often untested, so that their ability to properly react in an emergency situation remains a research question. Since it is impossible to expose human subjects to critical life threatening driving scenarios, researchers have been increasingly using driving simulators to assess driving skills. This paper summarizes the results of a driving scenario in a study comparing the driving performance of novice teen drivers (n=21) 16–17 year olds with 90 days of provisional licensure with that of experienced adult drivers (n=17) 25–50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years. As part of a 30 to 35 simulated drive that encompassed the most common scenarios that result in serious crashes, participants were exposed to a sudden car event. As the participant drove on a suburban road, a car surged from a driveway hidden by a fence on the right side of the road. To avoid the crash, participants must hard brake, exhibiting dynamic control over both attentional and motor resources. The results showed strong differences between the experienced adult and novice teen drivers in the brake pressure applied. When placed in the same situation, the novice teens decelerated on average 50% less than the experienced adults (p<0.01). PMID:26709330

  11. An Exploration of the Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adult Men Attending a Historically Black College/University

    PubMed Central

    Younge, Sinead N.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Geter, Angelica; Barker, Judith C.; Corneille, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide formative data on the sexual behaviors of emerging adult Black men who attended a historically Black college/university. A convenience sample of 19 participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. This study utilized a phenomenological qualitative approach to explore the role of the developmental stage that emerging adulthood has on sexual health. Some of the major themes that emerged included maturation, sexual decision-making, respectability, a future orientation, and masculinity. Despite sexual initiation beginning prior to entering college, participants discussed how the college environment presented them with new information, experiences, and attitudes. This study provides useful information for the future investigation of emerging adult Black men who attend HBCUs. PMID:26146649

  12. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  13. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  14. Working Memory and Response Inhibition as One Integral Phenotype of Adult ADHD? A Behavioral and Imaging Correlational Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecklmann, Martin; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M.; Dresler, Thomas; Heine, Monika; Boreatti-Hummer, Andrea; Romanos, Marcel; Jacob, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is an open question whether working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) constitute one integral phenotype in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors investigated 45 adult ADHD patients and 41 controls comparable for age, gender, intelligence, and education during a letter n-back and a stop-signal…

  15. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  16. The effects of chronic stress on hippocampal adult neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity are reversed by selective MAO-A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Morais, Mónica; Santos, Paulo A R; Mateus-Pinheiro, António; Patrício, Patrícia; Pinto, Luísa; Sousa, Nuno; Pedroso, Pedro; Almeida, Susana; Filipe, Augusto; Bessa, João M

    2014-12-01

    There is accumulating evidence that adult neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity in the hippocampus are neuroplastic phenomena, highly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress and treatment with most classes of antidepressant drugs, being involved in the onset and recovery from depression. However, the effects of antidepressants that act through the selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase subtype A (MAO-A) in these phenomena are still largely unknown. In the present study, adult neurogenesis and neuronal morphology were examined in the hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) and treated with the selective reversible MAO-A inhibitor (RIMA) drug, pirlindole and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine. The results provide the first demonstration that selective MAO-A inhibition with pirlindole is able to revert the behavioural effects of stress exposure while promoting hippocampal adult neurogenesis and rescuing the stress-induced dendritic atrophy of granule neurons.

  17. Differentiating Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adults: Associations with Hostile Attribution Biases and Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Christopher A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature on forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of participants' cognitions and beliefs about aggressive behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 165; M = 19.05 years; SD = 1.55) and completed a battery of…

  18. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  19. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  20. Demystifying a Black Box: A Grounded Theory of How Travel Experiences Impact the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact on the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults of both the 10 day trips to Israel popularly known as Birthright trips and the service learning trips commonly known as Alternative Spring Breaks has been well-documented. However, the mechanics of how this positive impact occurs has not been well-understood. This…

  1. "It Felt Good but Weird at the Same Time": Emerging Adults' First Experiences of Six Different Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Maas, Megan K.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual behavior is multidimensional, little research has focused on the experience of nonintercourse behaviors for adolescents and emerging adults. This article uses open-ended coded data from a longitudinal study of college students (N = 346; M age = 18.5, 52% female, 27% Hispanic/Latino [HL], 25% non-HL European American, 23% non-HL…

  2. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  3. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  4. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  5. Marriage (In)equality: The Perspectives of Adolescents and Emerging Adults with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The debate over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into civil marriages continues in the United States. Forty-nine adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-29) with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents were interviewed for the current exploratory study, which examined how individuals perceived themselves and their families as being…

  6. Prevention of Recurrence of Major Depression among Emerging Adults by a Group Cognitive-Behavioral/Interpersonal Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon; Brosse, Alisha L.; Hauser, Monika; Madsen, Joshua W.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background Among the most serious sequelae to an initial episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) during adolescence is the significant increase in the probability of recurrence. This study reports on an integrated CBT/IPT program, provided in a group format, that was developed to decrease the rate of MDD recurrence in emerging adults. Methods Participants were 89 young adults who were not depressed at study entry but had experienced MDD during adolescence. Participants were assigned to a CBT/IPT prevention program or to an assessment only control condition and were followed through the first 2 years of college. Results Risk for MDD recurrence was reduced more than 50% for the prevention program participants compared to assessment only controls. The intervention also conferred beneficial effects on academic performance for those students who completed the majority of the group sessions. Limitations The study included a self-selected sample of emerging adults who were aware of their history of depression. Due to the small sample size, it will be important to evaluate similar interventions in adequately-powered trials to determine if this is a replicable finding. Conclusions With 51% of the assessment only participants experiencing a MDD recurrence during the first 2 years of college, these findings support the need for programs designed to prevent MDD recurrence in young adults. The current program, based on IPT and CBT principles, appears to reduce the rate of MDD recurrence among previously depressed emerging adults. PMID:23021821

  7. Ability of newly emerged adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to exit belowground stormwater treatment systems via lateral conveyance pipes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Marco E; Harbison, Justin E; Burns, Joseph E; Hu, Renjie

    2012-03-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes flourish in belowground stormwater systems in the southern United States. Recent evidence suggests that oviposition-site-seeking females may have difficulties locating, entering, and ovipositing inside permanent water chambers when surface entry through pickholes in manhole covers are sealed. It remains unknown, however, if newly emerged adults are able to detect cues necessary to exit these partly sealed systems via lateral conveyance pipes or if they perish belowground. Fourth instar Cx. quinquefasciatus were placed within proprietary belowground stormwater treatment systems to determine the percentage of newly emerged adults able to escape treatment chambers via a single lateral conveyance pipe. Overall, 56% of deployed mosquitoes were captured in adult exit traps with an 1:1 male:female ratio. The percentage of adults captured varied significantly among chambers, but was not associated with structural site characteristics such as the chamber depth or the length and course of conveyance pipe to the exit trap. Empirical observations suggested that longbodied cellar spiders, Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin), ubiquitous in these structures, may have reduced adult trap capture. Findings demonstrate that newly emerged Cx. quinquefasciatus can exit subterranean chambers under potentially difficult structural conditions but suggest that a portion may perish in the absence of surface exit points in manhole shafts.

  8. Emergency Department Discharge Diagnosis and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, S. Nicole; Whitson, Heather E.; Purser, Jama L.; Sloane, Richard J.; Johnson, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between the reason for an emergency department (ED) visit and subsequent risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Setting ED. Participants One thousand eight hundred fifty-one community-dwelling Medicare fee-for-service enrollees aged 65 and older discharged from the ED between January 2000 and September 2002. Measurements Independent variables were ED discharge diagnosis groups: injury or musculoskeletal (MSK) (e.g., fracture, open wound), chronic condition (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure), infection, non-MSK symptom (e.g., chest pain, abdominal pain), and unclassified. Adverse health outcomes were hospitalization or death within 30 days of the index ED visit. Results Injury or MSK was the largest ED diagnosis group (31.4%), followed by non-MSK symptom (22.2%), chronic condition (20.9%), and infection (7.8%); 338 (17.8%) had ED discharge diagnoses that were unclassified. In adjusted analyses, a discharge diagnosis of injury or MSK condition was associated with lower risk of subsequent adverse health outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50–0.96) than for all other diagnosis groups. Patients seen in the ED for chronic conditions were at greater risk of adverse outcomes (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.37–2.52) than all others. There were no significant differences in risk between patients with infections, those with non-MSK symptoms, and the unclassified group. Conclusion Adverse health outcomes were common in older patients with an ED discharge diagnosis classified as a chronic condition. ED discharge diagnosis may improve risk assessment and inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. PMID:19694872

  9. A multifaceted intervention increases epinephrine use in adult emergency department anaphylaxis patients

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Veena; Hess, Erik P.; Bellamkonda, Venkatesh R.; Nestler, David M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Hagan, John B.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Decker, Wyatt W.; Li, James T.C.; Scanlan-Hanson, Lori N.; Vukov, Samuel C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have documented inconsistent emergency anaphylaxis care and low compliance with published guidelines. Objective To evaluate anaphylaxis management before and after implementation of an emergency department (ED) anaphylaxis order set and introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and to measure the effect on anaphylaxis guideline adherence. Methods A cohort study was conducted from April 29, 2008-August 9, 2012. Adult ED patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis were included. ED management, disposition, self-injectable epinephrine prescriptions, allergy follow-up and incidence of biphasic reactions were evaluated. Results The study included 202 patients. Median age of patients was 45.3 years (IQR 31.3 – 56.4); 139 (69%) were female. Patients who presented after order set implementation were more likely to be treated with epinephrine (51% vs. 33%, OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.04- 4.04) and admitted to ED observation unit (EDOU) (65% vs. 44%, OR 2.38, 95%CI 1.23-4.60) and less likely to be dismissed home directly from ED (16% vs. 29%, OR: 0.47, 95%CI 0.22- 1.00). Eleven patients (5%) had a biphasic reaction. Of these, five (46%) had the biphasic reaction in EDOU; one patient was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Six patients (55%) had reactions within 6 hours of initial symptom resolution of whom two were admitted to ICU. Conclusion Significantly greater proportions of anaphylaxis patients received epinephrine and were admitted to EDOU after introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and order set implementation. Slightly over half of the biphasic reactions occurred within recommended observation time of 4-6 hours. These data suggest that the multifaceted approach to changing anaphylaxis management described here improved guideline adherence. PMID:24811020

  10. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Abigail L; Seelbach, Abigail C; Conner, Bradley T; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI.

  11. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, ABIGAIL L.; SEELBACH, ABIGAIL C.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; ALLOY, LAUREN B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI. PMID:24343924

  12. Ethnic variation in the impact of negative affect and emotion inhibition on the health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Cohen, Carl I; Gillespie, Michael

    2002-09-01

    The relations between patterns of emotional experience, emotion inhibition, and physical health have been little studied in older adults or ethnically diverse samples. Testing hypotheses derived from work on younger adults, the authors examined the relations between negative affect and emotion inhibition and that of illness (hypertension, respiratory disease, arthritis, and sleep disorder) in a sample (N = 1,118) of community-dwelling older adults from four ethnic groups: U.S.-born African Americans, African Caribbeans, U.S.-born European Americans, and Eastern European immigrants. Participants completed measures of stress, lifestyle risk factors, health, social support, trait negative emotion, and emotion inhibition. As expected, the interaction of ethnicity with emotion inhibition, and, to a lesser extent, negative affect, was significantly related to illness, even when other known risk factors were controlled for. However, the relations among these variables were complex, and the patterns did not hold for all types of illness or operate in the same direction across ethnic groups. Implications for emotion-health relationships in ethnically diverse samples are discussed.

  13. Associations between online friendship and Internet addiction among adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Smahel, David; Brown, B Bradford; Blinka, Lukas

    2012-03-01

    The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from Griffiths (2000a), this study examined associations between online friendship and Internet addiction in a representative sample (n = 394) of Czech youths ages 12-26 years (M = 18.58). Three different approaches to friendship were identified: exclusively offline, face-to-face oriented, Internet oriented, on the basis of the relative percentages of online and offline associates in participants' friendship networks. The rate of Internet addiction did not differ by age or gender but was associated with communication styles, hours spent online, and friendship approaches. The study revealed that effects between Internet addiction and approaches to friendship may be reciprocal: Being oriented toward having more online friends, preferring online communication, and spending more time online were related to increased risk of Internet addiction; on the other hand, there is an alternative causal explanation that Internet addiction and preference for online communication conditions young people's tendency to seek friendship from people met online.

  14. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  15. The Temporal “Pulse” of Drinking: Tracking Five Years of Binge Drinking in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Cummings, Jenna R.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Moltisanti, Allison J.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the five “peak” years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day Timeline Follow back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend “pulse” of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire five year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve (LGC) modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with “maturing out” was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  16. How many versus how much: 52 weeks of alcohol consumption in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mark S; Greenbaum, Paul E; Darkes, Jack; Brandon, Karen Obremski; Del Boca, Frances K

    2011-03-01

    In previous research using timeline follow-back methods to closely monitor drinking and related variables over the first year of college (9 months), we showed that drinking varied considerably over time in accord with academic requirements and holidays. In a new community sample (N = 576) of emerging adults (18- and 19-year-olds who reported having begun drinking prior to recruitment), we used similar methods to compare drinking patterns in college and noncollege individuals over a full calendar year (including summer). To reduce the extreme distortion in computations of average drinking over restricted time spans (i.e., 1 week) that arise because large numbers of even regular drinkers may not consume any alcohol, we analyzed data using recently developed two-part latent growth curve modeling. This modeling distinguished consumption levels from numbers of individuals drinking in a given period. Results showed that drinking levels and patterns generally did not differ between college and noncollege drinkers, and that both groups responded similarly to even those contexts that may have seemed unique to one (i.e., spring break). We also showed that computation of drinking amounts without accounting for "zero drinkers" could seriously distort estimates of mean drinking on some occasions; for example, mean consumption in the total sample appeared to increase on Thanksgiving, whereas actual average consumption for those who were drinking diminished.

  17. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development. PMID:26142190

  18. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  19. "Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

  20. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report From an NHLBI/ACHA Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S; Daniels, Curt J; Fuller, Stephanie M P N; Honein, Margaret A; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Mahle, William T; Mann, Douglas L; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Starling, Randall C; Tringali, Glenn R; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C; Califf, Robert M

    2016-04-26

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary working group to identify high-impact research questions in adult CHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease, and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single-ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy.

  1. Emerging concepts for PI3K/mTOR inhibition as a potential treatment for osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Michael W; Janeway, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic and recurrent osteosarcoma fare poorly, and new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve survival. Several recent complementary genomic and pathway analyses of both murine and human osteosarcoma have revealed common aberrations of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in osteosarcoma. Preclinical data demonstrate that inhibition of PI3K and mTOR with either a combination of single agents or dual inhibiting compounds can decrease cell proliferation and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. With a lack of available clinical agents active in osteosarcoma, PI3K/mTOR inhibition represents a potential vulnerability in osteosarcoma that warrants clinical investigation. PMID:27441088

  2. The organizational culture of emergency departments and the effect on care of older adults: a modified scoping study.

    PubMed

    Skar, Pål; Bruce, Anne; Sheets, Debra

    2015-04-01

    How does the organizational micro culture in emergency departments (EDs) impact the care of older adults presenting with a complaint or condition perceived as non-acute? This scoping study reviews the literature and maps three levels of ED culture (artifacts, values and beliefs, and assumptions). Findings on the artifact level indicate that EDs are poorly designed for the needs of older adults. Findings on the ED value and belief level indicate that EDs are for urgent cases (not geriatric care), that older adults do not receive the care and respect they should be given, that older adults require too much time, and that the basic nursing needs of older adults are not a priority for ED nurses. Finally, finding on the assumptions level underpinning ED behaviors suggest that older adults do not belong in the ED, most older adults in the ED are not critically ill and therefore can wait, and staff need to be available for acute cases at all times. A systematic review on the effect of ED micro culture on the quality of geriatric care is warranted.

  3. A peptide targeted against phosphoprotein and leader RNA interaction inhibits growth of Chandipura virus -- an emerging rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunava; Chakraborty, Prasenjit; Polley, Smarajit; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Roy, Siddhartha

    2013-11-01

    The fatal illness caused by Chandipura virus (CHPV), an emerging pathogen, presently lacks any therapeutic option. Previous research suggested that interaction between the virally encoded phosphoprotein (P) and the positive sense leader RNA (le-RNA) may play an important role in the viral lifecycle. In this report, we have identified a β-sheet/loop motif in the C-terminal domain of the CHPV P protein as essential for this interaction. A synthetic peptide encompassing this motif and spanning a continuous stretch of 36 amino acids (Pep208-243) was found to bind the le-RNA in vitro and inhibit CHPV growth in infected cells. Furthermore, a stretch of three amino acid residues at position 217-219 was identified as essential for this interaction, both in vitro and in infected cells. siRNA knockdown-rescue experiments demonstrated that these three amino acid residues are crucial for the leader RNA binding function of P protein in the CHPV life cycle. Mutations of these three amino acid residues render the peptide completely ineffective against CHPV. Effect of inhibition of phosphoprotein-leader RNA interaction on viral replication was assayed. Peptide Pep208-243 tagged with a cell penetrating peptide was found to inhibit CHPV replication as ascertained by real time RT-PCR. The specific inhibition of viral growth observed using this peptide suggests a new possibility for designing of anti-viral agents against Mononegavirale group of human viruses.

  4. Ethnic differences in prevalence and correlates of self-harm behaviors in a treatment-seeking sample of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Tsypes, Aliona; Soffer, Ariella; Miranda, Regina

    2014-12-30

    The present study examined differences between White and ethnic minority emerging adults in the prevalence of self-harm behaviors – i.e., non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) – and in well-documented risk (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation (SI), substance use, abuse history) and protective factors (i.e., religiosity/spirituality, family support, friend support) associated with NSSI and SAs. Emerging adults (N=1156; 56% ethnic minority), ages 17–29 (M=22.3, S.D.=3.0), who were presented at a counseling center at a public university in the Northeastern U.S., completed a clinical interview and self-report symptom measures. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between risk and protective factors in predicting history of NSSI-only, any SA, and no self-harm separately among White and ethnic minority individuals. Ethnic differences emerged in the prevalence and correlates of NSSI and SAs. Social anxiety was associated with SAs among White individuals but with NSSI among ethnic minority individuals. Substance use was a more relevant risk factor for White individuals, and friend support was a more relevant protective factor for ethnic minority individuals. These findings suggest differing vulnerabilities to NSSI and SAs between White and ethnic minority emerging adults.

  5. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  6. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  7. A Longitudinal, Microgenetic Study of the Emergence of False Belief Understanding and Inhibition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emma; O'Malley, Claire; Wood, David

    2004-01-01

    Two theories that attempt to explain the relationship between false belief understanding and inhibition skills were investigated: (1) theory of mind development improves self-control, and (2) executive control is necessary for developing a theory of mind. A microgenetic approach was adopted, with a group of 21 children completing a battery of…

  8. Developmental Emergence of Self-Referential and Inhibition Mechanisms of Body Movements Underling Felicitous Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Hama; Homae, Fumitaka; Taga, Gentaro

    2011-01-01

    In young infants, activation or inhibition of body movements on perception of environmental events is important to enable them to act on the world or understand the world. To reveal the development of this ability, we observed movement patterns in all four limbs under the two experimental conditions. Infants assigned to the interaction condition…

  9. Negative priming 1985 to 2015: a measure of inhibition, the emergence of alternative accounts, and the multiple process challenge.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Maria C; Thomson, David R; Tipper, Steven P; Milliken, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    In this article, three generations of authors describe the background to the original article; the subsequent emergence of vigorous debates concerning what negative priming actually reflects, where radically different accounts based on memory retrieval were proposed; and a re-casting of the conceptual issues underlying studies of negative priming. What started as a simple observation (slowed reaction times) and mechanism (distractor inhibition) appears now to be best explained by a multiple mechanism account involving both episodic binding and retrieval processes as well as an inhibitory process. Emerging evidence from converging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and especially electroencephalography (EEG), is beginning to identify these different processes. The past 30 years of negative priming experiments has revealed the dynamic and complex cognitive processes that mediate what appear to be apparently simple behavioural effects. PMID:27065048

  10. Negative priming 1985 to 2015: a measure of inhibition, the emergence of alternative accounts, and the multiple process challenge.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Maria C; Thomson, David R; Tipper, Steven P; Milliken, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    In this article, three generations of authors describe the background to the original article; the subsequent emergence of vigorous debates concerning what negative priming actually reflects, where radically different accounts based on memory retrieval were proposed; and a re-casting of the conceptual issues underlying studies of negative priming. What started as a simple observation (slowed reaction times) and mechanism (distractor inhibition) appears now to be best explained by a multiple mechanism account involving both episodic binding and retrieval processes as well as an inhibitory process. Emerging evidence from converging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and especially electroencephalography (EEG), is beginning to identify these different processes. The past 30 years of negative priming experiments has revealed the dynamic and complex cognitive processes that mediate what appear to be apparently simple behavioural effects.

  11. Comparative Adult Education 1998. The Contribution of ISCAE to an Emerging Field of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reischmann, Jost, Ed.; Bron, Michal, Jr., Ed.; Jelenc, Zoran, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers from the 1995 and 1998 International Society for Comparative Adult Education (ISCAE) conferences. The following papers are included: "International and Comparative Adult Education" (Jost Reischmann); "Development and Fundamental Principles of International and Comparative Adult Education" (Joachim H. Knoll);…

  12. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  13. Effects of running wheel training on adult obese rats programmed by maternal prolactin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, G; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Pazos-Moura, C C; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2013-10-01

    The inhibition of maternal prolactin production in late lactation leads to metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring. Physical training is a therapeutic strategy that could prevent or reverse this condition. We evaluated the effects of a short-duration low-intensity running wheel training program on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in rats. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (Bro, 1 mg twice a day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation, and the training of offspring began at 35 days of age. Offspring were divided into sedentary and trained controls (C-Sed and C-Ex) and sedentary and trained Bro-treated rats (Bro-Sed and Bro-Ex). Chronic exercise delayed the onset of weight gain in Bro-Ex offspring, and the food intake did not change during the experimental period. At 180 days, visceral fat mass was higher (+46%) in the Bro-Sed offspring than in C-Sed and Bro-Ex rats. As expected, running capacity was higher in trained animals. Most parameters observed in the Bro-Sed offspring were consistent with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome and were reversed in the Bro-Ex group. Chronic exercise did not influence the muscle glycogen in the C-Ex group; however, liver glycogen was higher (+30%) in C-Ex group and was unchanged in both Bro offspring groups. Bro-Ex animals had higher plasma lactate dehydrogenase levels, indicating skeletal muscle damage and intolerance of the training program. Low-intensity chronic training is able to normalize many clinical aspects in Bro animals; however, these animals might have had a lower threshold for exercise adaptation than the control rats. PMID:23863192

  14. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use among Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group-oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed.

  15. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use Among Hispanic Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073

  16. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Manceur, Aziza P.; Tseng, Michael; Holowacz, Tamara; Witterick, Ian; Weksberg, Rosanna; McCurdy, Richard D.; Warsh, Jerry J.; Audet, Julie

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Effects of Marijuana Use on Prefrontal and Parietal Volumes and Cognition in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; McQueeny, Tim; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Browning, Erin L.; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic marijuana (MJ) use among adolescents has been associated with structural and functional abnormalities, particularly in developing regions responsible for higher order cognition. Objectives This study investigated prefrontal (PFC) and parietal volumes and executive function in emerging adult MJ users and explored potential gender differences. Methods Participants (ages 18–25) were 27 MJ users and 32 controls without neurologic or psychiatric disorders or heavy other drug use. A series of multiple regressions examined whether group status, past year MJ use, and their interactions with gender predicted ROI volumes. Post-hoc analyses consisted of brain-behavior correlations between volumes and cognitive variables and Fisher’s z tests to assess group differences. Results MJ users demonstrated significantly smaller medial orbitofrontal (mOFC; p=.004, FDR p=.024) and inferior parietal volumes (p=.04, FDR p=.12); follow-up regressions found that increased past year MJ use did not significantly dose-dependently predict smaller mOFC volume in a sub-sample of individuals with at least one past year MJ use. There were no significant gender interactions. There was a significant brain-behavior difference by group, such that smaller mOFC volumes were associated with poorer complex attention for MJ users (p<.05). Conclusions Smaller mOFC volumes among MJ users suggest disruption of typical neurodevelopmental processes associated with regular MJ use for both genders. These results highlight the need for longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies providing clearer information on timing of neurodevelopmental processes and neurocognitive impacts of youth MJ initiation. PMID:25921032

  18. Malnutrition among Cognitively Intact, non-Critically Ill Older Adults in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Greg F.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Weaver, Mark A.; Holland, Wesley C.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among older patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the southeastern United States and identify subgroups at increased risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with random time block sampling of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older. Nutrition was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (0–14 scale) with malnutrition defined as a score of 7 or less and at-risk for malnutrition defined as a score of 8–11. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-10 score of 4 or more (0–10 scale). Results Among 138 older adults, 16% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 10%–22%) were malnourished and 60% (95% CI, 52%–69%) were either malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition. Seventeen of the 22 malnourished patients (77%) denied previously being diagnosed with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was not appreciably different between males and females, across levels of patient education, or between those living in urban and rural areas. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was higher among patients with depressive symptoms 52%, those residing in assisted living 50%, those with difficulty eating 38%, and those reporting difficulty buying groceries 33%. Conclusion Among a random sample of cognitively intact older ED patients, more than half were malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition, and the majority of malnourished patients had not previously been diagnosed. Higher rates of malnutrition among those with depression, difficulty eating, and difficulty buying groceries suggest the need to explore multifaceted interventions. PMID:25129819

  19. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  20. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter.

  1. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  2. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  3. An in vitro screening with emerging contaminants reveals inhibition of carboxylesterase activity in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Solé, Montserrat; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) form part of the new generation of pollutants present in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although environmental concentrations of these bioactive substances are low, they cause sublethal effects (e.g., enzyme inhibition) in non-target organisms. However, little is known on metabolism of PPCPs by non-mammal species. Herein, an in vitro enzyme trial was performed to explore sensitivity of carboxylesterase (CE) activity of aquatic organisms to fourteen PPCPs. The esterase activity was determined in the liver of Mediterranean freshwater fish (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus), coastal marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Solea solea), middle-slope fish (Trachyrhynchus scabrus), deep-sea fish (Alepocephalus rostratus and Cataetix laticeps), and in the digestive gland of a decapod crustacean (Aristeus antennatus). Results showed that 100μM of the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate significantly inhibited (30-80% of controls) the CE activity of all target species. Among the personal care products, nonylphenol and triclosan were strong esterase inhibitors in most species (36-68% of controls). Comparison with literature data suggests that fish CE activity is as sensitive to inhibition by some PPCPs as that of mammals, although their basal activity levels are lower than in mammals. Pending further studies on the interaction between PPCPs and CE activity, we postulate that this enzyme may act as a molecular sink for certain PPCPs in a comparable way than that described for the organophosphorus pesticides. PMID:26562051

  4. An in vitro screening with emerging contaminants reveals inhibition of carboxylesterase activity in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Solé, Montserrat; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) form part of the new generation of pollutants present in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although environmental concentrations of these bioactive substances are low, they cause sublethal effects (e.g., enzyme inhibition) in non-target organisms. However, little is known on metabolism of PPCPs by non-mammal species. Herein, an in vitro enzyme trial was performed to explore sensitivity of carboxylesterase (CE) activity of aquatic organisms to fourteen PPCPs. The esterase activity was determined in the liver of Mediterranean freshwater fish (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus), coastal marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Solea solea), middle-slope fish (Trachyrhynchus scabrus), deep-sea fish (Alepocephalus rostratus and Cataetix laticeps), and in the digestive gland of a decapod crustacean (Aristeus antennatus). Results showed that 100μM of the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate significantly inhibited (30-80% of controls) the CE activity of all target species. Among the personal care products, nonylphenol and triclosan were strong esterase inhibitors in most species (36-68% of controls). Comparison with literature data suggests that fish CE activity is as sensitive to inhibition by some PPCPs as that of mammals, although their basal activity levels are lower than in mammals. Pending further studies on the interaction between PPCPs and CE activity, we postulate that this enzyme may act as a molecular sink for certain PPCPs in a comparable way than that described for the organophosphorus pesticides.

  5. Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes during the First Year Post-High School: Perceptions of Parental Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Kathleen M.; Weaver, Michael T.; Stump, Timothy E.; Guthrie, Diana; Oruche, Ukamaka M.

    2014-01-01

    Among 182 emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (93% White and 57% female), changes during the year post-high school were examined in perceptions of diabetes-specific conflict with parents, parent-youth shared responsibility, parental tangible aid, and parental autonomy support, as well as the moderating effects of living situation, gender, years with diabetes, and glycemic control. A linear mixed effects model, controlling for baseline values, tested the changes in and relationships among these variables over time. Changes over time in parent-youth conflict were moderated by living independently of parents; autonomy support and shared responsibility were moderated by years with diabetes; and tangible aid was moderated by glycemic control. Future longitudinal research needs to examine whether changes in parental behaviors lead to positive or negative diabetes outcomes among these emerging adults with diabetes. PMID:25019036

  6. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments.

  7. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  8. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P

    2010-11-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the "high." Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  9. A self-regulation resource model of self-compassion and health behavior intentions in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Fuschia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested a self-regulation resource model (SRRM) of self-compassion and health-promoting behavior intentions in emerging adults. The SRRM posits that positive and negative affect in conjunction with health self-efficacy serve as valuable self-regulation resources to promote health behaviors. Methods An online survey was completed by 403 emerging adults recruited from the community and a Canadian University in late 2008. Multiple meditation analyses with bootstrapping controlling for demographics and current health behaviors tested the proposed explanatory role of the self-regulation resource variables (affect and self-efficacy) in linking self-compassion to health behavior intentions. Results Self-compassion was positively associated with intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors. The multiple mediation model explained 23% of the variance in health behavior intentions, with significant indirect effects through health self-efficacy and low negative affect. Conclusion Interventions aimed at increasing self-compassion in emerging adults may help promote positive health behaviors, perhaps through increasing self-regulation resources. PMID:26844074

  10. Change You Can Believe In: Changes in Goal Setting During Emerging and Young Adulthood Predict Later Adult Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Brandenberger, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A widely held assumption is that changes in one’s goals and motives for life during emerging and young adulthood have lasting influences on well-being into adulthood. However, this claim has yet to receive rigorous empirical testing. The current study examined the effects of prosocial and occupational goal change during college on adult well-being in a 17-year study of goal setting (N = 416). Using a latent growth model across three time points, both level and growth in goal setting predicted later well-being. Moreover, goal changes both during college and in young adulthood uniquely predicted adult well-being, controlling for goal levels entering college. These findings suggest that what matters for attaining adult well-being is both how you enter adulthood and how you change in response to it. PMID:23493639

  11. Emerging restorative treatments for Parkinson's disease: manipulation and inducement of dopaminergic neurons from adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junpeng; Xu, Qunyuan

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a selective loss of midbrain Dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To address this problem, various types of stem cells that have potential to differentiate into DA neurons are being investigated as cellular therapies for PD, including cells derived from embryonic or adult donor tissue, and embryonic stem cells. These cell sources, however, have raised certain questions with regard to ethical and rejection issues. Recent progress in adult stems has further proved that the cells derived from adult tissue could be expanded and differentiated into DA precursor cells in vitro, and cell therapy with adult stem cells could produce a clear improvement for PD models. Using adult stem cells for clinic application may not only overcome the ethical problem inherent in using human fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, but also open the possibility for autologous transplantation. The patient-specific adult stem cell is therefore a potential and prospective candidate for PD treatment.

  12. Emerging Adult Educators' Experiences in an International On-Line Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Reischmann, Jost; Kim, Young Sek

    2007-01-01

    It is hoped that the opportunity to engage in dialogue with fellow adult learners from different countries will enable adult learners and educators to become more globalised in their perspectives and to actively take their place in a global society. This article describes a study that explores how an asynchronous internet-based forum encourages…

  13. Facing Adulthood: Comparing the Criteria That Chinese Emerging Adults and Their Parents Have for Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Duan, Xin xing; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Luster, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Past work in China has revealed that approximately 60% of young people in China consider themselves to be adults. However, no work, prior to this study, has been done examining either the views of Chinese parents regarding their children's adult status or the criteria that Chinese parents use in determining whether or not their children have…

  14. Inhibition of ileal bile acid transporter: An emerging therapeutic strategy for chronic idiopathic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation. PMID:26139989

  15. Inhibition of ileal bile acid transporter: An emerging therapeutic strategy for chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2015-06-28

    Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation. PMID:26139989

  16. Activation of CB1 inhibits NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z-Y; McDowell, T; Wang, P; Alvarez, R; Gomez, T; Bjorling, D E

    2014-09-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-containing afferent neurons convey nociceptive signals and play an essential role in pain sensation. Exposure to nerve growth factor (NGF) rapidly increases TRPV1 activity (sensitization). In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with the selective cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) affects NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) afferent neurons. We found that CB1, NGF receptor tyrosine kinase A (trkA), and TRPV1 are present in cultured adult mouse small- to medium-sized afferent neurons and treatment with NGF (100ng/ml) for 30 min significantly increased the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin (as indicated by increased intracellular Ca(2 +) concentration). Pretreatment with the CB1 agonist ACEA (10nM) inhibited the NGF-induced response, and this effect of ACEA was reversed by a selective CB1 antagonist. Further, pretreatment with ACEA inhibited NGF-induced phosphorylation of AKT. Blocking PI3 kinase activity also attenuated the NGF-induced increase in the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin. Our results indicate that the analgesic effect of CB1 activation may in part be due to inhibition of NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 and also that the effect of CB1 activation is at least partly mediated by attenuation of NGF-induced increased PI3 signaling.

  17. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  18. Identifying factors inhibiting or enhancing family presence during resuscitation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judy E; Buenavista, Ruth; Hobbs, Keynan; Kracht, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore inhibitors and enhancing factors surrounding the practice of allowing family presence in the emergency room. Staff and physician interviews were transcribed and decoded for themes. A visual model was built to depict the results. Inhibitors and enhancing factors included the following drivers: staff emotions, personalizing the patient, seeing/hearing everything, closure, emotional support of the family, and "if it were me." The following staff needs were also identified as important issues that needed to be addressed before practice could change further: staff education, optimize environment for privacy, and implementation of a family liaison. The use of qualitative research methods was effective in identifying organizational barriers to transition of evidence into practice.

  19. Serum procalcitonin measurement as diagnostic and prognostic marker in febrile adult patients presenting to the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Juillien, Gaëlle; Madonna-Py, Beatrice; Haroche, Julien; Bernard, Maguy; Riou, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Identification of bacterial infections is crucial if treatment is to be initiated early and antibiotics used rationally. The primary objective of this study was to test the efficiency of procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying bacterial/parasitic episodes among febrile adult patients presenting to an emergency department. Secondary objectives were to identify clinical or biological variables associated with either bacterial/parasitic infection or critical illness. Methods This was a prospective, single centre, non-interventional study, conducted in the adult emergency department of an academic tertiary care hospital. We included patients with body temperature of 38.5°C or greater. A serum sample for measurement of PCT was collected in the emergency room. Patients were followed up until day 30. After reviewing the medical files, two independent experts, who were blind to the PCT results, classified each of the patients as having a bacterial/parasitic infection, viral infection, or another diagnosis. Results Among 243 patients included in the study, 167 had bacterial/parasitic infections, 35 had viral infections and 41 had other diagnoses. The PCT assay, with a 0.2 μg/l cutoff value, had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.59 in diagnosing bacterial/parasitic infection. Of the patients with PCT 5 μg/l or greater, 51% had critical illness (death or intensive care unit admission) as compared with 13% of patients with lower PCT values. Conclusion Bearing in mind the limitations of an observational study design, the judgements of the emergency department physicians were reasonably accurate in determining the pretest probability of bacterial/parasitic infection. PCT may provide additional, valuable information on the aetiology and prognosis of infection in the emergency department. PMID:17521430

  20. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on Prepulse Inhibition and Event-Related Potentials in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adolescent and adult rats show differential sensitivity to many of the acute effects of alcohol. We recently reported evidence of developmental differences in the effects of acute alcohol on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). However, it is unclear whether developmental differences are also observed in other neurophysiological and neurobehavioral measurements known to be sensitive to alcohol exposure. The present study determined the age-related effects of acute alcohol on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to acoustic startle (AS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Methods Male adolescent and adult Wistar rats were implanted with cortical recording electrodes. The effects of acute alcohol (0.0, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg) on behavioral and ERP responses to AS and PPI were assessed. Results Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) significantly reduced the behavioral and electrophysiological response to AS in adolescent and adult rats. Both 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly enhanced the behavioral response to PPI in adolescent, but not in adult rats. During prepulse+pulse trials, 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly increased the N10 pulse response in the adolescent frontal cortex. Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) also increased the N1 ERP pulse response to prepulse stimuli in frontal and parietal cortices in adult rats, but not in adolescent rats. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol’s effect on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of AS do not differ between adults and adolescents whereas developmental stage does appear to significantly modify alcohol influenced response to PPI. PMID:18828807

  1. Inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: event-related potentials in the stop task.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Vance V; Taukulis, Harald K; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    The core deficit in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a deficiency in executive functions, particularly the processes that are associated with the inhibition of predominant responses. To test this notion in the adult population, healthy undergraduate volunteers and students with ADHD symptoms performed a visual Stop Signal Task (Logan et al. J Exp Psychol: Hum Percept Perform 10:276-291, 1984) while Event-Related brain Potentials were recorded. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of performance, but there was a significant difference in the N2-P3 component. These results underline the robustness of an N2-P3 difference between healthy adults and people with ADHD symptoms that have persisted into young adulthood. PMID:17922184

  2. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  3. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  4. Reducing the use of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient services- improving patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Wale, Joyce B; Belkin, Gary S; Moon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of seclusion and restraint (S/R) use has been given national priority by the US government, The Joint Commission, and patient advocacy groups. It is associated with high rates of patient and staff injuries and is a coercive and potentially traumatizing intervention. The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) is the largest municipal health care system in the country, with 11 HHC facilities operating psychiatric emergency services and inpatient psychiatric services. HHC operates 1117 adult inpatient psychiatric beds with an average length of stay of 22.2 days that generated over 19,000 discharges in 2009. In 2009, there were over 36,000 psychiatric emergency services visits. HHC's Office of Behavioral Health provides strategic leadership, planning, and support for the operations and quality objectives of these services. In January 2007, the corporate office initiated the Seclusion and Restraint Reduction Initiative, with a sequenced, intensive series of interventions and strategies to help focus the behavioral health leadership and staff on the need for continued culture change toward a more patient-centered and safe system of psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient care. From 2007 to 2009, there was a substantial decline in HHC's overall rate of S/R incidents in inpatient units. The more substantial impact was in the reduced overall time spent in S/R; the reduced frequency of use of S/R; and the reduced likelihood of patient injury from S/R use. PMID:21841927

  5. Mitochondrial membrane potential in single living adult rat cardiac myocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lisa, F; Blank, P S; Colonna, R; Gambassi, G; Silverman, H S; Stern, M D; Hansford, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. The relation between mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) and cell function was investigated in single adult rat cardiac myocytes during anoxia and reoxygenation. delta psi m was studied by loading myocytes with JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetra-ethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide), a fluorescent probe characterized by two emission peaks (539 and 597 nm with excitation at 490 nm) corresponding to monomer and aggregate forms of the dye. 2. De-energizing conditions applied to mitochondria, cell suspensions or single cells decreased the aggregate emission and increased the monomer emission. This latter result cannot be explained by changes of JC-1 concentration in the aqueous mitochondrial matrix phase indicating that hydrophobic interaction of the probe with membranes has to be taken into account to explain JC-1 fluorescence properties in isolated mitochondria or intact cells. 3. A different sensitivity of the two JC-1 forms to delta psi m changes was shown in isolated mitochondria by the effects of ADP and FCCP and the calibration with K+ diffusion potentials. The monomer emission was responsive to values of delta psi m below 140 mV, which hardly modified the aggregate emission. Thus JC-1 represents a unique double sensor which can provide semi-quantitative information in both low and high potential ranges. 4. At the onset of glucose-free anoxia the epifluorescence of individual myocytes studied in the single excitation (490 nm)-double emission (530 and 590 nm) mode showed a gradual decline of the aggregate emission, which reached a plateau while electrically stimulated (0.2 Hz) contraction was still retained. The subsequent failure of contraction was followed by the rise of the emission at 530 nm, corresponding to the monomer form of the dye, concomitantly with the development of rigor contracture. 5. The onset of the rigor was preceded by the increase in intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) monitored by mag-indo-1 epifluorescence

  6. Behavioral changes in adult and young rats as indications of cholinesterase inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase has long been accepted as the basis for neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus (OP) and N-methyl carbamate chemicals. Functional or behavioral alterations result from acute exposure to these chemicals. We have evaluated behavioral changes an...

  7. CORRELATIONS OF PESTICIDE-INDUCED CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND MOTOR ACTIVITY CHANGES IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are primarily due to overstimulation of the cholinergic system. Lowered motor activity levels represent a sensitive endpoint with which to monitor functional changes in laboratory animals exposed to ...

  8. A meta-analysis of response inhibition and Stroop interference control deficits in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Dimoska-Di Marco, Aneta; McDonald, Skye; Kelly, Michelle; Tate, Robyn; Johnstone, Stuart

    2011-04-01

    The prominent clinical feature of behavioral impulsivity following traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggests impairment of frontal inhibitory control processes. This meta-analysis consolidates the recent surge in studies across two forms of "effortful" inhibition, employing well-defined paradigms of response inhibition (N = 20; i.e., go/no-go, sustained attention to response, stop-signal, Conners' continuous performance tasks) and response interference control (N = 21, i.e., Stroop color word tasks). Across 41 effect sizes involving 989 adults with mild to severe TBI and 969 controls, the overall effect of TBI on reduced inhibitory control was small to moderate (d = 0.3) and significant. The effect was larger in studies measuring response inhibition performance (d = 0.5), while Stroop interference control yielded a nonsignificant overall effect size (d = 0.05). Further analysis of the latter finding revealed a large effect size when Stroop task studies used the outcome measure "total time on task" (d = 1.4), but not "RT per trial" or "number of stimuli" (d = -0.8 and -0.9). Response speed in these tasks was impaired to a large degree (d = 0.96). Together these findings support a response inhibition deficit following TBI but suggest factors other than interference control, such as poor processing speed, fatigue, and underarousal, may underlie poor performance in Stroop tasks.

  9. Critical-state dynamics of avalanches and oscillations jointly emerge from balanced excitation/inhibition in neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2012-07-18

    Criticality has gained widespread interest in neuroscience as an attractive framework for understanding the character and functional implications of variability in brain activity. The metastability of critical systems maximizes their dynamic range, storage capacity, and computational power. Power-law scaling-a hallmark of criticality-has been observed on different levels, e.g., in the distribution of neuronal avalanches in vitro and in vivo, but also in the decay of temporal correlations in behavioral performance and ongoing oscillations in humans. An unresolved issue is whether power-law scaling on different organizational levels in the brain-and possibly in other hierarchically organized systems-can be related. Here, we show that critical-state dynamics of avalanches and oscillations jointly emerge in a neuronal network model when excitation and inhibition is balanced. The oscillatory activity of the model was qualitatively similar to what is typically observed in recordings of human resting-state MEG. We propose that homeostatic plasticity mechanisms tune this balance in healthy brain networks, and that it is essential for critical behavior on multiple levels of neuronal organization with ensuing functional benefits. Based on our network model, we introduce a concept of multi-level criticality in which power-law scaling can emerge on multiple time scales in oscillating networks.

  10. [Pre-hospital management of adults with life-threatening emergencies].

    PubMed

    Wattel, Francis; Dubois, François

    2012-01-01

    In France, acute life-threatening situations are handled by the French Secours a Personne (assistance to persons) and emergency medical facilities. An unequivocal success, this early management of life-threatening emergency situations relies upon centralized call reception, medical dispatching, and immediate on-site emergency medical care. We describe the different emergency care providers and steps involved in the response to emergency situations. Each call centre (Samu, phone number 15; Sapeurs-Pompiers, 18) provides a response tailored to the nature of incoming calls for assistance. A check-list of grounds for an "automatic response" by the SDIS (Service Départemental d'Incendie et de Secours--the French fire brigade) is in use, ensuring that firefighters are often the first on the spot, while the knowledge and skills of the dispatching physician are essential to ascertain the patient's needs, to preserve life and vital functions, and to ensure the patient is sent to the appropriate emergency healthcare facility. In life-threatening emergency situations, patients must be brought straight to the appropriate reference emergency healthcare facility, as quickly as possible, without prior admittance to an emergency department. This is the procedure for extremely acute emergency situations in the following areas: trauma (multiple trauma and/or uncontrolled bleeding, spinal cord trauma), delivery bleeding, other life-threatening situations such as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest (sudden death), cerebrovascular stroke and ensuing brain damage, some acute respiratory situations such as anaphylactic shock, foreign-body inhalation, electrocution, drowning, drug overdose, certain forms of poisoning, and conditions requiring initial hyperbaric oxygen (diving accidents, acute carbon monoxide and smoke poisoning). The reasons for suboptimal emergency care in life-threatening situations are currently a major issue, with medical facilities being reduced in some areas

  11. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  12. Distinct Genetic Networks Orchestrate the Emergence of Specific Waves of Fetal and Adult B-1 and B-2 Development.

    PubMed

    Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Fice, Michael; Casero, David; Berent-Maoz, Beata; Barber, Chad L; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2016-09-20

    B cell development is often depicted as a linear process initiating in the fetus and continuing postnatally. Using a PU.1 hypomorphic mouse model, we found that B-1 and B-2 lymphopoiesis occurred in distinct fetal and adult waves differentially dependent on the Sfpi1 14 kB upstream regulatory element. The initial wave of fetal B-1 development was absent in PU.1 hypomorphic mice, while subsequent fetal and adult waves emerged. In contrast, B-2 lymphopoiesis occurred in distinct fetal and adult waves. Whole-transcriptome profiling of fetal and adult B cell progenitors supported the existence of three waves of B-1 and two waves of B-2 development and revealed that the network of transcription factors governing B lineage specification and commitment was highly divergent between B-1 and B-2 progenitors. These findings support the view that the B-1 and B-2 lineages are distinct and provide a genetic basis for layering of immune system development.

  13. Enhancing Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research Within the National Clinical Trials Network: Rationale, Progress, and Emerging Strategies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified. PMID:26433555

  14. The Effect of an Extended Wilderness Education Experience on Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Skill Development in Emerging Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rachel H.

    2014-01-01

    In a society that is becoming more dynamic, complex, and diverse, the ability to solve ill-structured problems has become an increasingly critical skill. Emerging adults are at a critical life stage that is an ideal time to develop the skills needed to solve ill-structured problems (ISPs) as they are transitioning to adult roles and starting to…

  15. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  16. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  17. Dietary Interventions for Heart Failure in Older Adults: Re-emergence of the Hedonic Shift

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Jeffrey D.; Hummel, Scott L.; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The ‘hedonic shift’ occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual’s salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults. PMID:25216615

  18. Dietary interventions for heart failure in older adults: re-emergence of the hedonic shift.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Hummel, Scott L; Maurer, Mathew S

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The 'hedonic shift' occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual's salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults.

  19. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  20. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells in African adults

    PubMed Central

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Langat, Robert; Indangasi, Jackton; Ogola, Simon; Onsembe, Brian; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Hayes, Peter; Borthwick, Nicola J; Ashraf, Ambreen; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Tillander, Annika; Gilmour, Jill; De Bont, Jan; Crook, Alison; Hannaman, Drew; Cox, Josephine H; Anzala, Omu; Fast, Patricia E; Reilly, Marie; Chinyenze, Kundai; Jaoko, Walter; Hanke, Tomáš; HIV-CORE 004 study group, the

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes) of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8+ T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy.

  1. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells in African adults

    PubMed Central

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Langat, Robert; Indangasi, Jackton; Ogola, Simon; Onsembe, Brian; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Hayes, Peter; Borthwick, Nicola J; Ashraf, Ambreen; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Tillander, Annika; Gilmour, Jill; De Bont, Jan; Crook, Alison; Hannaman, Drew; Cox, Josephine H; Anzala, Omu; Fast, Patricia E; Reilly, Marie; Chinyenze, Kundai; Jaoko, Walter; Hanke, Tomáš; HIV-CORE 004 study group, the

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes) of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8+ T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy. PMID:27617268

  2. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8(+) T cells in African adults.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Langat, Robert; Indangasi, Jackton; Ogola, Simon; Onsembe, Brian; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Hayes, Peter; Borthwick, Nicola J; Ashraf, Ambreen; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Tillander, Annika; Gilmour, Jill; De Bont, Jan; Crook, Alison; Hannaman, Drew; Cox, Josephine H; Anzala, Omu; Fast, Patricia E; Reilly, Marie; Chinyenze, Kundai; Jaoko, Walter; Hanke, Tomáš; Hiv-Core 004 Study Group, The

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes) of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8(+) T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy. PMID:27617268

  3. Perceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Chinese and American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Sarah; Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2006-01-01

    This study explored cultural differences in the criteria young people have for becoming an adult. Specifically, the study sought (a) to compare Chinese and American responses concerning whether they believe they have reached adulthood; (b) to examine whether adulthood criteria could fit a common statistical model for both cultures; and (c) after…

  4. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  5. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  6. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  7. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  8. Emerging New Service Roles for Older Adults on College and University Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David C.; Tomb, Karyl

    1981-01-01

    Explored number of programs initiated to involve older adults in meaningful volunteer tasks, responsibilities, and roles on university campuses. Data demonstrate the feasibility of these programs and positive outcomes include improvement of intergenerational communication, reduction of ageism, provision of services to educational institutions, and…

  9. Emerging Adulthood and Gender Differences in Adult Bachelor Degree Completion: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Adult undergraduate students constitute 40% of the total undergraduates studying in the United States. However, male undergraduates and male undergraduates over the age of 25 are less likely to enroll in and complete a bachelor's degree than their female counterparts. Given the detrimental employment impacts of not earning a bachelor's…

  10. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  11. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found.

  12. Mental health outcomes in emerging adults exposed to childhood maltreatment: the moderating role of stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Melissa J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Mistler, Amy Kraft; Luecken, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is an established risk factor for varying configurations of psychological problems in emerging adulthood. The current study tested associations between childhood maltreatment, cortisol reactivity, and current mental health symptoms in emerging adulthood. Eighty-eight participants (aged 18-22) completed measures of childhood maltreatment and current internalizing and externalizing symptoms and participated in a 10-min conflict role-play task. Salivary cortisol was sampled throughout the task, and a residualized change score between baseline and peak time points was computed to capture reactivity. Results from robust regression analyses indicated that cortisol reactivity moderated the association between childhood maltreatment and mental health symptoms as hypothesized. Childhood maltreatment was related to greater internalizing problems among participants with higher cortisol reactivity, whereas maltreatment was associated with greater externalizing problems among participants who exhibited lower cortisol reactivity. Results suggest that patterns of cortisol reactivity in emerging adulthood may help elucidate mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment. PMID:24920249

  13. Behavioural changes induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition during pregnancy and lactation in adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Mecawi, A S; Araujo, I G; Fonseca, F V; Almeida-Pereira, G; Côrtes, W S; Rocha, F F; Reis, L C

    2009-05-01

    1. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors during pregnancy is contraindicated because of their association with increased risks of fetopathy, including central nervous systems malformations. In addition, some reports have shown that renin-angiotensin system components are expressed differently during embryonic development and adulthood in the rat. 2. Because angiotensin II and its derivative peptides have been implicated in anxiety and modulation of nociception, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibiting ACE during prenatal and neonatal periods would alter behavioural plasticity in adult male offspring rats. 3. Female Wistar rats were treated with captopril (2 mg/mL water; approximately 200 mg/kg per day) during pregnancy and lactation. At adulthood, the offspring were subjected to the open field, elevated plus maze, social interaction, forced swimming and tail flick tests. 4. Perinatal captopril treatment significantly increased ambulation (33%; P < 0.05) and decreased resting time (37.5%; P < 0.05) in the open field test. Perinatal captopril treatment did not alter any of the behavioural parameters of the elevated plus maze; however, captopril treatment did cause a significant increase in social interaction (75.3%; P < 0.05). In the forced swimming test, there was an increased latency period (102.9%; P < 0.001) and a decreased immobility period (38.7, P < 0.05) in rats treated with perinatal captopril. In the tail flick test, perinatal captopril treatment significantly reduced the latency time (26.3%; P < 0.01). 5. The data show that ACE inhibition during prenatal and neonatal periods affects behavioural responses in adult offspring rats, suggesting that ACE is required for the development of neural systems that are associated with adult anxiety and nociceptive behavioural responses.

  14. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  15. Behavioral changes in young and adult rats: Indications of cholinesterase inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has long been accepted as the basis for neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus (OP) and N-methyl carbamate chemicals. Functional or behavioral alterations result from acute exposure to these chemicals. We have conducted behavioral eva...

  16. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked. PMID:24216221

  17. Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Varner, Fatima A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for 4 years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women.

  18. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked.

  19. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use Over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for four years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women. PMID:24730378

  20. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  1. Inhibition of ref-1 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and induces differentiation in adult cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Narasimman; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Bearzi, Claudia; Bardelli, Silvana; Das, Dipak K

    2009-03-01

    Redox effector protein-1 (Ref-1) plays an essential role in DNA repair and redox regulation of several transcription factors. In the present study, we examined the role of Ref-1 in maintaining the redox status and survivability of adult cardiac stem cells challenged with a subtoxic level of H2O2 under inhibition of Ref-1 by RNA interference. Treatment of cardiac stem cells with a low concentration of H2O2 induced Ref-1-mediated survival signaling through phosphorylation of Akt. However, Ref-1 inhibition followed by H2O2 treatment extensively induced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of the components of NADPH oxidase, like p22( phox ), p47( phox ), and Nox4. Cardiac differentiation markers (Nkx2.5, MEF2C, and GATA4), and cell death by apoptosis were significantly elevated in Ref-1 siRNA followed by H2O2-treated stem cells. Further, inhibition of Ref-1 increased the level of p53 but decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, a molecule involved in survival signaling. Treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine attenuated Ref-1 siRNA-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase and cardiac differentiation. Taken together, these results indicate that Ref-1 plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of cardiac stem cells and protects them from oxidative injury-mediated cell death and differentiation.

  2. Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Richard, Dawn M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found individuals with family histories of alcohol use disorders are more impulsive on some but not all laboratory behavioral measures, suggesting deficits on specific forms of impulse control. However, drawing conclusions is tenuous because these different measures have not been administered together in the same group of participants. Methods In the present study, we compared healthy 21–35 year old adults with family histories of alcohol related problems (FHAP+) or without such histories (FHAP−) on behavioral measures of response inhibition, response initiation, and consequence sensitivity impulsivity. FHAP+ (n=36) and FHAP− (n=36) participants were compared on performance on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT, response initiation), GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm (GoStop, response inhibition), Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP, consequence sensitivity) and Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm (SKIP, consequence sensitivity). Results FHAP+ individuals were more impulsive on the IMT and GoStop but not on the TCIP or SKIP. Conclusions These results suggest that response initiation and response inhibition impulsivity are increased in individuals with family histories of alcohol related problems despite not having alcohol or drug use disorders themselves. In contrast, increased consequence sensitivity impulsivity may be associated with additional risk factors such as more severe family histories of alcohol use disorders, or it may be increased as a consequence of heavy drug or alcohol use. PMID:21376480

  3. Mifepristone Treatment during Early Adolescence Fails to Restore Maternal Deprivation-Induced Deficits in Behavioral Inhibition of Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian; van der Veen, Rixt

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has a profound impact on brain development and later life health. Animal models have provided insight how early life stress programs stress responsiveness and might contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, the long-term effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on behavioral inhibition and attention were examined in adult male Wistar rats. To this end animals were tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice SRTT). We also explored the potential of a 3-day treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone during early adolescence to normalize putative behavioral effects of early life stress. Deprivation of the mother for 24 h on postnatal day (PND) 3 led to a modest but significant increase in premature responses in the 5-choice SRTT, but did not affect measures of attention. Body weight was lower in deprived animals from weaning until the start of testing. Early adolescent mifepristone treatment (PND 26–28) did not influence performance on the 5-choice SRTT and did not mitigate the deprivation-related impairment in behavioral inhibition. Our results indicate that MD leads to impaired behavioral inhibition, and that mifepristone treatment during early adolescence does not normalize the behavioral changes caused by early life stress. PMID:27378873

  4. Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur.

    PubMed

    Padilla, S; Marshall, R S; Hunter, D L; Lowit, A

    2007-03-01

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r(2)=0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r(2)=0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides.

  5. Time course of cholinesterase inhibition in adult rats treated acutely with carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methomyl, methiocarb, oxamyl or propoxur

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, S. . E-mail: Padilla.Stephanie@epa.gov; Marshall, R.S. . E-mail: Marshall.renee@epa.gov; Hunter, D.L. . E-mail: Hunter.deborah@epa.gov; Lowit, A. . E-mail: Lowit.anna@epa.gov

    2007-03-15

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n = 4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); carbofuran (0.5 mg/kg in corn oil); formetanate HCl (10 mg/kg in water); methomyl (3 mg/kg in water); methiocarb (25 mg/kg in corn oil); oxamyl (1 mg/kg in water); or propoxur (20 mg/kg in corn oil). This level of dosing produced at least 40% brain ChE inhibition. Brain and blood were taken from 0.5 to 24 h after dosing for analysis of ChE activity using two different methods: (1) a radiometric method which limits the amount of reactivation of ChE activity, and (2) a spectrophotometric method (Ellman method using traditional, unmodified conditions) which may encourage reactivation. The time of peak ChE inhibition was similar for all seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides: 0.5-1.0 h after dosing. By 24 h, brain and RBC ChE activity in all animals returned to normal. The spectrophotometric method underestimated ChE inhibition. Moreover, there was a strong, direct correlation between brain and RBC ChE activity (radiometric assay) for all seven compounds combined (r {sup 2} = 0.73, slope 1.1), while the spectrophotometric analysis of the same samples showed a poor correlation (r {sup 2} = 0.09). For formetanate, propoxur, methomyl, and methiocarb, brain and RBC ChE inhibitions were not different over time, but for carbaryl, carbofuran and oxamyl, the RBC ChE was slightly more inhibited than brain ChE. These data indicate (1) the radiometric method is superior for analyses of ChE activity in tissues from carbamate-treated animals (2) that animals treated with these N-methyl carbamate pesticides are affected rapidly, and recover rapidly, and (3) generally, assessment of RBC ChE is an accurate predictor of brain ChE inhibition for these seven pesticides.

  6. Clock accuracy and precision evolve as a consequence of selection for adult emergence in a narrow window of time in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Nisha N; Vaze, Koustubh M; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-15

    Although circadian clocks are believed to have evolved under the action of periodic selection pressures (selection on phasing) present in the geophysical environment, there is very little rigorous and systematic empirical evidence to support this. In the present study, we examined the effect of selection for adult emergence in a narrow window of time on the circadian rhythms of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Selection was imposed in every generation by choosing flies that emerged during a 1 h window of time close to the emergence peak of baseline/control flies under 12 h:12 h light:dark cycles. To study the effect of selection on circadian clocks we estimated several quantifiable features that reflect inter- and intra-individual variance in adult emergence and locomotor activity rhythms. The results showed that with increasing generations, incidence of adult emergence and activity of adult flies during the 1 h selection window increased gradually in the selected populations. Flies from the selected populations were more homogenous in their clock period, were more coherent in their phase of entrainment, and displayed enhanced accuracy and precision in their emergence and activity rhythms compared with controls. These results thus suggest that circadian clocks in D. melanogaster evolve enhanced accuracy and precision when subjected to selection for emergence in a narrow window of time.

  7. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  8. Buds of Parenting in Emerging Adult Males: What We Learned from Our Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the precursors of parenting buds (representations regarding parenting before actual parenting) by following 60 men from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Quality of relationships with parents, and attachment representations (state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment styles) assessed in adolescence, contribute to…

  9. Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Support as Sustaining Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Segal-Drori, Ora; Klien, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    Emergent literacy (EL) enhancement has been the goal of numerous educational programs for years, especially for children from low socioeconomic statuses (LSES) (Snow, 1994; Whitehurst, Zevebergen, Crone, Schultz, Velting, & Fischel, 1999). During the past decade, technology software, including electronic books (e-books), have become incorporated…

  10. The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanek, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

  11. Temporal reward discounting in children, adolescents, and emerging adults during an experiential task

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Anouk; Tontsch, Chandra; Thoeny, Allison L.; Sumiya, Motofumi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine age effects on the ability/willingness to wait for large rewards in a real temporal reward discounting task from childhood to adulthood. Therefore, a real temporal discounting (TD) task was administered to children aged 6–12 (n = 39), adolescents aged 13–17 (n = 28), and young adults aged 18–19 (n = 55). Findings indicated that the cross-sectional development of TD followed a quadratic pattern across age groups, with adolescents choosing more often than children and adults to wait for the large delayed reward, resulting in reward-maximization. Various interpretations of this finding were offered, including a focus on reward maximization despite an immature ability to exert self-control, and flexible self-control which was high during this task as a result of strong motivation to maximize financial gains. PMID:25071675

  12. The effects of running and of inhibiting adult neurogenesis on learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, J Martin; Askew, Michele L; Winocur, Gordon

    2008-03-01

    The presence of ongoing adult neurogenesis within the highly plastic hippocampal circuitry poses questions as to the relevance of new neurons to learning and memory. Correlational and causal evidence suggests that some, but not all, hippocampal tasks involve the new neurons. The evidence with regard to spatial learning in the water maze, one of the most commonly used hippocampal tasks, is contradictory. In this study we examined the effects of irradiation-induced reduction in neurogenesis on spatial learning and another standard hippocampal task, contextual fear conditioning, in rats that experienced normal cage conditions or voluntary running. The results indicate that reduced neurogenesis had little effect on spatial learning but severely impaired contextual fear conditioning. It was suggested that compensatory mechanisms within the hippocampus may have contributed selectively to sparing of spatial function. Performance on the fear conditioning task was weakly related to enhanced neurogenesis or running. The results improve our understanding of the functional role of adult neurogenesis in behaving animals.

  13. Falciparum malaria as an emerging cause of fever in adults living in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K; Offouga, Christelle L; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise P; Essola, Laurence; Madoungou, Blondel; Kombila, Maryvonne

    2014-01-01

    Following the observed increase of malaria prevalence among older children in Gabon, a descriptive observational study was carried out in 2012 to determine the prevalence of malaria in adults presenting with fever in two health centres of Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Thick- and thin-blood smears for malaria diagnosis were performed in febrile individuals aged more than 15 years old. Age, use of bed nets, previous antimalarial drug treatment, clinical symptoms, chest radiography results, and available haemoglobin data were also recorded. Among the 304 patients screened, the global malaria frequency was of 42.1% (n = 128/34). Plasmodium (P). falciparum was the only species identified. The proportion of patients with a clinical malaria requiring parenteral treatment was 38.5%, whereas 47.5% of outpatients had uncomplicated malaria. According to WHO classification, 14 (19.7%) infected patients had severe malaria; neurological and respiratory symptoms tended to be more frequent in case of P. falciparum infection. Anaemia was found in 51.5% adults and none had severe anaemia. Almost half of adults consulting for fever in two health centres of the urban city of Libreville have malaria. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets, the screening, and the treatment of individuals with P. falciparum microscopic and submicroscopic asymptomatic infection or clinical malaria should be emphasized to reduce the transmission.

  14. Volume-activated Na/H exchange activity in fetal and adult pig red cells: inhibition by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, S; Sohn, D H; Kim, H D

    1989-08-01

    Hyposmotic swelling of pig red cells leads to a selective increase in K permeability, whereas hyperosmotic cell shrinkage augments the Na permeability. In this regard, the ouabain-resistant (OR) Na flux of red cells of newborn and adult pigs is characterized in detail. A reduction in cell volume by approximately 18% leads to an increase in the OR Na efflux of fetal and adult cells by 15- and fourfold, respectively. The OR Na influx in both cell types is equally influenced by cell shrinkage. Depletion of cellular K does not influence the volume-activated OR Na efflux. Nor does OR Na influx require external K. Both OR Na efflux and influx activated by shrinkage are inhibited by the diuretics furosemide and amiloride. The rank order of decreasing anion sensitivity for diuretic-sensitive Na efflux was acetate greater than chloride greater than gluconate greater than nitrate. Cell shrinkage induced by the addition of hypertonic salts results in an acidification of the unbuffered and CO2-free media, provided that both Na and DIDS are present. The acidification process can be reversed by either of the diuretic agents. These findings suggest that the shrinkage-activated OR Na flux is primarily mediated by a Na/H exchanger rather than by a Na/K/Cl cotransporter. Once loaded with either cAMP or cGMP, cell swelling can no longer activate the Na/H exchanger. The Na/H exchanger activity is detectable in the fetal cells of normal volume but quiescent in adult cells, indicating that the exchanger undergoes a developmental change during the transition from the fetal to adult stage. PMID:2552123

  15. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  16. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  17. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Peretz, Jackye; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Helferich, William G; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-02-15

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36μM) for 18-96h. Every 24h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. PMID:26792615

  18. A mother's past can predict her offspring's future: Previous maternal separation leads to the early emergence of adult-like fear behavior in subsequent male infant rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Kan, Janice M; Callaghan, Bridget L; Richardson, Rick

    2016-10-01

    Recent evidence has shown that pups exposed to maternal separation exhibit profound changes in their emotional development, for example, early emergence of adult-like fear retention and fear inhibition (Callaghan & Richardson, 2011; Callaghan & Richardson, 2012). Numerous studies have shown that maternal separation is also a significant stressor for the mother. However, no studies have examined how a mother's prior parenting experience affects emotion development of pups in her subsequent litters. In this study female rats were bred and were then separated from their pups (maternal separation, MS) or remained with their pups (standard rearing, SR). After those pups were weaned, females were bred again with all pups from the subsequent litters being standard reared. Hence, these subsequent litter pups had mothers that were either previously separated (MS) or not (SR) from their prior litter. Those pups underwent fear conditioning at postnatal Day 17 and tested for fear retention, or had their fear extinguished and then tested for the renewal effect. The results show that the MS infants respond similarly to infants that had been directly exposed to MS. That is, the MS infants exhibited better retention of fear and more relapse after extinction compared with SR infants. Further experiments demonstrated that MS rats were not more anxious than SR infants. Taken together, these experiments are the first to demonstrate that infant offspring exhibit atypical emotional development of fear conditioning (but not anxiety) as a consequence of their mother's prior exposure to stress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537827

  19. Inhibition of Thrombopoietin/Mpl Signaling in Adult Hematopoiesis Identifies New Candidates for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Adrian; Kamp, Christel; Brugman, Martijn H.; Breuer, Daniel C.; Büsche, Guntram; Baum, Christopher; Modlich, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (Thpo) signals via its receptor Mpl and regulates megakaryopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and post-transplant expansion. Mpl expression is tightly controlled and deregulation of Thpo/Mpl-signaling is linked to hematological disorders. Here, we constructed an intracellular-truncated, signaling-deficient Mpl protein which is presented on the cell surface (dnMpl). The transplantation of bone marrow cells retrovirally transduced to express dnMpl into wildtype mice induced thrombocytopenia, and a progressive loss of HSC. The aplastic BM allowed the engraftment of a second BM transplant without further conditioning. Functional analysis of the truncated Mpl in vitro and in vivo demonstrated no internalization after Thpo binding and the inhibition of Thpo/Mpl-signaling in wildtype cells due to dominant-negative (dn) effects by receptor competition with wildtype Mpl for Thpo binding. Intracellular inhibition of Mpl could be excluded as the major mechanism by the use of a constitutive-dimerized dnMpl. To further elucidate the molecular changes induced by Thpo/Mpl-inhibition on the HSC-enriched cell population in the BM, we performed gene expression analysis of Lin-Sca1+cKit+ (LSK) cells isolated from mice transplanted with dnMpl transduced BM cells. The gene expression profile supported the exhaustion of HSC due to increased cell cycle progression and identified new and known downstream effectors of Thpo/Mpl-signaling in HSC (namely TIE2, ESAM1 and EPCR detected on the HSC-enriched LSK cell population). We further compared gene expression profiles in LSK cells of dnMpl mice with human CD34+ cells of aplastic anemia patients and identified similar deregulations of important stemness genes in both cell populations. In summary, we established a novel way of Thpo/Mpl inhibition in the adult mouse and performed in depth analysis of the phenotype including gene expression profiling. PMID:26147434

  20. Initial Emergency Department Diagnosis and Management of Adult Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a medical emergency affecting up to 18 million individuals world wide, with an annual incidence of 750,000 in North America alone. Mortality ranges between 28-50% of those individuals stricken by severe sepsis. Sepsis is a time critical illness, requiring early identification and prompt intervention in order to improve outcomes. This observation has led to increased awareness and education in the field of Emergency Medicine; it has also led to the implementation of critical interventions early in the course of patient management, specifically Early-Goal Directed Therapy, and rapid administration of appropriate antimicrobials. This review begins with a brief summary of the pathophysiology of sepsis, and then addresses the fundamental clinical aspects of ED identification and resuscitation of the septic patient. PMID:22737991

  1. Conditional Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis by Inducible and Targeted Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase Is Not Associated with Anxiety/Depression-Like Behaviors1,2

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Abel, Glen M.; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although there is evidence that adult neurogenesis contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of chronic antidepressant treatment for anxiety and depression disorders, the role of adult neurogenesis in the onset of depression-related symptoms is still open to question. To address this issue, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain in which adult neurogenesis was specifically and conditionally impaired by Nestin-CreER-driven, inducible knockout (icKO) of erk5 MAP kinase in Nestin-expressing neural progenitors of the adult mouse brain upon tamoxifen administration. Here, we report that inhibition of adult neurogenesis by this mechanism is not associated with an increase of the baseline anxiety or depression in non-stressed animals, nor does it increase the animal’s susceptibility to depression after chronic unpredictable stress treatment. Our findings indicate that impaired adult neurogenesis does not lead to anxiety or depression. PMID:26464972

  2. Inhibition or knockdown of ABC transporters enhances susceptibility of adult and juvenile schistosomes to Praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Kasinathan, Ravi S; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cunningham, Charles; Webb, Thomas R; Greenberg, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions. Treatment of schistosomiasis depends almost entirely on the drug praziquantel (PZQ). Though essential to treating and controlling schistosomiasis, a major limitation of PZQ is that it is not active against immature mammalian-stage schistosomes. Furthermore, there are reports of field isolates with heritable reductions in PZQ susceptibility, and researchers have selected for PZQ-resistant schistosomes in the laboratory. P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) and other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters remove a wide variety of toxins and xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). Changes in ABC transporter structure or expression levels are also associated with reduced drug susceptibility in parasitic helminths, including schistosomes. Here, we show that the activity of PZQ against schistosome adults and juveniles ex vivo is potentiated by co-administration of either the highly potent Pgp inhibitor tariquidar or combinations of inhibitors targeting multiple ABC multidrug transporters. Adult worms exposed to sublethal PZQ concentrations remain active, but co-administration of ABC transporter inhibitors results in complete loss of motility and disruption of the tegument. Notably, juvenile schistosomes (3-4 weeks post infection), normally refractory to 2 µM PZQ, become paralyzed when transporter inhibitors are added in combination with the PZQ. Experiments using the fluorescent PZQ derivative (R)-PZQ-BODIPY are consistent with the transporter inhibitors increasing effective intraworm concentrations of PZQ. Adult worms in which expression of ABC transporters has been suppressed by RNA interference show increased responsiveness to PZQ and increased retention of (R)-PZQ-BODIPY consistent with an important role for these proteins in setting levels of PZQ susceptibility. These results indicate that parasite ABC

  3. Delayed coupling to feedback inhibition during a critical period for the integration of adult-born granule cells.

    PubMed

    Temprana, Silvio G; Mongiat, Lucas A; Yang, Sung M; Trinchero, Mariela F; Alvarez, Diego D; Kropff, Emilio; Giacomini, Damiana; Beltramone, Natalia; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2015-01-01

    Developing granule cells (GCs) of the adult dentate gyrus undergo a critical period of enhanced activity and synaptic plasticity before becoming mature. The impact of developing GCs on the activity of preexisting dentate circuits remains unknown. Here we combine optogenetics, acute slice electrophysiology, and in vivo chemogenetics to activate GCs at different stages of maturation to study the recruitment of local target networks. We show that immature (4-week-old) GCs can efficiently drive distal CA3 targets but poorly activate proximal interneurons responsible for feedback inhibition (FBI). As new GCs transition toward maturity, they reliably recruit GABAergic feedback loops that restrict spiking of neighbor GCs, a mechanism that would promote sparse coding. Such inhibitory loop impinges only weakly in new cohorts of young GCs. A computational model reveals that the delayed coupling of new GCs to FBI could be crucial to achieve a fine-grain representation of novel inputs in the dentate gyrus. PMID:25533485

  4. Challenges of emerging adulthood-transition from paediatric to adult diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Gurmit; Nayak, Ananth U; Wilkins, Julie; Hankey, Jo; Raffeeq, Parakkal; Varughese, George I; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex condition with far reaching physical, psychological and psychosocial effects. These outcomes can be significant when considering the care of a youth transferring from paediatric through to adult diabetes services. The art of mastering a smooth care transfer is crucial if not pivotal to optimising overall diabetic control. Quite often the nature of consultation varies between the two service providers and the objectives and outcomes will mirror this. The purpose of this review is to analyse the particular challenges and barriers one might expect to encounter when transferring these services over to an adult care provider. Particular emphasis is paid towards the psychological aspects of this delicate period, which needs to be recognised and appreciated appropriately in order to understand the particular plights a young diabetic child will be challenged with. We explore the approaches that can be positively adopted in order to improve the experience for child, parents and also the multi- disciplinary team concerned with the overall delivery of this care. Finally we will close with reflection on the potential areas for future development that will ultimately aim to improve long-term outcomes and experiences of the young adolescent confronted with diabetes as well as the burden of disease and burden of cost of disease. PMID:25317240

  5. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  6. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  7. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. PMID:25470657

  8. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial.

  9. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  10. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates.

  11. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.

  12. Social network and census tract-level influences on substance use among emerging adult males: An activity spaces approach

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Crystal; Perley, Lauren; Bailey, Jonathan; Barbour, Russell; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. PMID:26176810

  13. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed. PMID:23098273

  14. Vasopressin inhibits type-I collagen and albumin gene expression in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chojkier, M.; Brenner, D.A.; Leffert, H.L.

    1989-06-05

    The mechanisms that regulate collagen gene expression in hepatic cells are poorly understood. Accelerated Ca2+ fluxes are associated with inhibiting collagen synthesis selectively in human fibroblasts. In suspension cultures of isolated hepatocytes, the Ca2+ agonist vasopressin increases cytosolic levels of free Ca2+. However, whether vasopressin's interactions with plasma membrane V1 receptors attenuate hepatic collagen production is unknown. We investigated this problem by studying vasopressin's effects on collagen synthesis and Ca2+ efflux in long-term primary cultures of differentiated and proliferation-competent adult rat hepatocytes. Twelve-day-old quiescent cultures were exposed to test substances and labeled with (5-3H)proline. Determinations of radioactivity in collagenase-sensitive and collagenase-resistant proteins were used to calculate the relative levels of collagen production. Synthetic (8-arg)vasopressin stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux within 1 min and inhibited hepatocyte collagen production within 3 h by 50%; overall rates of protein synthesis were not affected significantly. In cultures labeled with (35S)methionine, vasopressin also decreased the levels of newly synthesized and secreted albumin, but not fibrinogen, detected in specific immunoprecipitates analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Northern blot analyses using specific (32P)cDNA probes revealed 70% decreases in hybridizable levels of collagen alpha 1(I) mRNA in hepatocyte cultures treated with either vasopressin or Ca2+ ionophore A23187; hybridizable levels of albumin mRNA also fell approximately 50% following vasopressin treatment.

  15. Case report: An adult-onset type II citrin deficiency patient in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    TANG, LUJIA; CHEN, LIANG; WANG, HAIRONG; DAI, LIHUA; PAN, SHUMING

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A13) gene may result in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia. These conditions are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The current case report describes a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden delirium and upper limb weakness. Upon admission, the patient was fully conscious and alert but later lost consciousness subsequent to a sudden convulsive seizure. Hyperammonemia was detected and analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified an 851del4 mutation. Thus, the possibility of genetic disease should be considered as a potential cause of the symptoms of patients with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium and loss of consciousness, in cases where the cause of the disturbance is unknown. PMID:27347070

  16. Effects of Neonatal Amygdala Lesions on Fear Learning, Conditioned Inhibition, and Extinction in Adult Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Andy M.; Heuer, Eric; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Fear conditioning studies have demonstrated the critical role played by the amygdala in emotion processing. Although all lesion studies until now investigated the effect of adult-onset damage on fear conditioning, the current study assessed fear-learning abilities, as measured by fear-potentiated startle, in adult monkeys that had received neonatal neurotoxic amygdala damage or sham-operations. After fear acquisition, their abilities to learn and use a safety cue to modulate their fear to the conditioned cue, and, finally, to extinguish their response to the fear conditioned cue were measured with the AX+/BX− Paradigm. Neonatal amygdala damage retarded, but did not completely abolish, the acquisition of a learned fear. After acquisition of the fear signal, four of the six animals with neonatal amygdala lesions discriminated between the fear and safety cues and were also able to use the safety signal to reduce the potentiated-startle response and to extinguish the fear response when the air-blast was absent. In conclusion, the present results support the critical contribution of the amygdala during the early phases of fear conditioning that leads to quick, robust responses to potentially threatening stimuli, a highly adaptive process across all species and likely to be present in early infancy. The neonatal amygdala lesions also indicated the presence of amygdala-independent alternate pathways that are capable to support fear learning in the absence of a functional amygdala. This parallel processing of fear responses within these alternate pathways was also sufficient to support the ability to flexibly modulate the magnitude of the fear responses. PMID:22642884

  17. Effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on fear learning, conditioned inhibition, and extinction in adult macaques.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Andy M; Heuer, Eric; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2012-06-01

    Fear conditioning studies have demonstrated the critical role played by the amygdala in emotion processing. Although all lesion studies until now investigated the effect of adult-onset damage on fear conditioning, the current study assessed fear-learning abilities, as measured by fear-potentiated startle, in adult monkeys that had received neonatal neurotoxic amygdala damage or sham-operations. After fear acquisition, their abilities to learn and use a safety cue to modulate their fear to the conditioned cue, and, finally, to extinguish their response to the fear conditioned cue were measured with the AX+/BX- Paradigm. Neonatal amygdala damage retarded, but did not completely abolish, the acquisition of a learned fear. After acquisition of the fear signal, four of the six animals with neonatal amygdala lesions discriminated between the fear and safety cues and were also able to use the safety signal to reduce the potentiated-startle response and to extinguish the fear response when the air-blast was absent. In conclusion, the present results support the critical contribution of the amygdala during the early phases of fear conditioning that leads to quick, robust responses to potentially threatening stimuli, a highly adaptive process across all species and likely to be present in early infancy. The neonatal amygdala lesions also indicated the presence of amygdala-independent alternate pathways that are capable to support fear learning in the absence of a functional amygdala. This parallel processing of fear responses within these alternate pathways was also sufficient to support the ability to flexibly modulate the magnitude of the fear responses.

  18. Youth, Caregiver, and Staff Perspectives on an Initiative to Promote Success of Emerging Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stein, Kathleen F; Connors, Elizabeth H; Chambers, Kerri L; Thomas, Charmaine L; Stephan, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is more challenging for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) as compared to youth with other disability types and typically-developing peers. Outcomes for emerging adults with EBD as a group are particularly concerning in the domains of unemployment, educational dropout rates, and interactions with the judicial system including incarceration, early parenting, homelessness, substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide. The current study presents qualitative program evaluation data for one of seven grantee states awarded 5-year cooperative agreements by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to build developmentally-appropriate and effective youth-guided local systems of care for transition age youth, ages 16-25 years, to promote positive transition outcomes. Findings, obtained from focus groups of 25 participating transition age youth, caregivers, staff, and supervisors, include strategies for maintaining and expanding on the strengths of program, as well as for improving specific program areas. Also, consistent with the goals of the program, this process provided an opportunity for the youth and caregivers to voice their opinions and perspectives regarding their services. Implications for research and practice on effectively serving the unique needs of young adults experiencing EBD and their families in areas such as navigating special education, providing emotional and behavioral supports, and leveraging interagency collaboration are discussed. PMID:25005428

  19. Bivariate Trajectories of Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior: Associations with Emerging Adult Outcomes in a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Trim, Ryan S.; Worley, Matthew J.; Wall, Tamara L.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Hewitt, John K.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and antisocial behavior are complex, interrelated behaviors. The current study identified model trajectory classes defined by concurrent substance use and antisocial behavior and examined trajectory associations with emerging adult outcomes. Participants from a high-risk sample of youth (n=536; 73% male) completed interviews at baseline (mean age= 16.1 years) and followup (mean age= 22.6 years). Latent class growth analyses identified five trajectory classes based on alcohol/drug use (AOD) and antisocial behavior (ASB): Dual Chronic, Increasing AOD/Persistent ASB, Persistent AOD/Adolescent ASB, Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB, and Resolved. Many individuals (56%) exhibited elevated/increasing AOD, and most (91%) reported ASB decreases. Those associated with the Dual Chronic class had the highest rates of substance dependence, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and negative psychosocial outcomes. There were no differences in adult role attainment across classes. Conjoint examination of these behaviors provides greater detail regarding clinical course and can inform secondary prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26889401

  20. Lifecourse Priorities Among Appalachian Emerging Adults: Revisiting Wallace's Organization of Diversity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan A; Rehkopf, David H; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Worthman, Carol M

    2009-06-01

    We examine how social demographics (gender, age, or race-ethnicity), census tract characteristics, and family environment during childhood relate to variability in the lifecourse priorities of 344 Cherokee and white youth during emerging adulthood (age 19-24). Analyses were performed using recursive partitioning and random forest methods to examine determinants of prioritizing education, family formation, economic establishment, self characteristics and close relationships, youth independence, conspicuous consumption, and community reliance. Overall, characteristics of census tracts were the most common and influential predictors of lifecourse priorities. Childhood family poverty, parental relationship problems, parental crime, and stressful life events were also important predictors. Race-ethnicity or cultural group (Cherokee vs. white), age, and gender were relatively unimportant. At this developmental stage and in this population, community characteristics and childhood family experiences may be better proxies for developmental settings (and resulting enculturated values and preferences) than social demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity or gender). PMID:24403647

  1. Lifecourse Priorities Among Appalachian Emerging Adults: Revisiting Wallace’s Organization of Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan A.; Rehkopf, David H.; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Worthman, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    We examine how social demographics (gender, age, or race–ethnicity), census tract characteristics, and family environment during childhood relate to variability in the lifecourse priorities of 344 Cherokee and white youth during emerging adulthood (age 19–24). Analyses were performed using recursive partitioning and random forest methods to examine determinants of prioritizing education, family formation, economic establishment, self characteristics and close relationships, youth independence, conspicuous consumption, and community reliance. Overall, characteristics of census tracts were the most common and influential predictors of lifecourse priorities. Childhood family poverty, parental relationship problems, parental crime, and stressful life events were also important predictors. Race–ethnicity or cultural group (Cherokee vs. white), age, and gender were relatively unimportant. At this developmental stage and in this population, community characteristics and childhood family experiences may be better proxies for developmental settings (and resulting enculturated values and preferences) than social demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity or gender). PMID:24403647

  2. Emerging trends and persistent challenges in the management of adult syphilis.

    PubMed

    Tuddenham, Susan; Ghanem, Khalil G

    2015-08-19

    There are an estimated 10.6 million incident cases of syphilis worldwide each year. We highlight some persistent challenges and emerging trends in the clinical management of syphilis with a particular focus on therapy, serology, diagnostics, and prevention. Decades after the introduction of penicillin, the optimal management of early syphilis continues to be a controversial topic, particularly in the setting of HIV co-infection. Similarly, the need for routine lumbar puncture in HIV co-infected asymptomatic persons is an unanswered question. Despite advances in both automation and point-of-care diagnostics, we continue to rely on indirect measures of disease activity to manage this infection. As syphilis rates in some populations continue to rise, novel and effective prevention strategies are needed.

  3. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Lakshay; Jegaraj, Moses A. K.; Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Yadav, Bijesh; Abilash, Kundavaram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED) and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6%) were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%). Majority of the patients (76.9%) presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36%) followed by colicky type (22.3%). The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%). Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%), urinary tract infection (12.5%), acute pancreatitis (11%), acute appendicitis (10.6%) and acute gastritis (8%). More than half (51.9%) discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:26288785

  4. Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): spatial relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Richard T; Chini, Shahpar R; McGovern, Jeffrey E

    2005-04-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was selected as a representative stored-product moth to test the validity of contour mapping of trap catch for pest monitoring in warehouses and retail stores. Three experiments, each replicated five times, were conducted in a 3.2 by 9.0-m aluminum shed. Each experiment involved placing pupae at a single release point (source) and recording the numbers of emerging adult males captured after 24, 48, and 72 h in each of four pheromone-baited sticky traps. The experiments differed only with respect to the point of release. Distribution of trap catch reflected the general distribution of moths in the shed; and consecutive contour maps tracked their dispersal from the source. As emergence and dispersal progressed, cumulative trap catch increased throughout the shed, but it remained highest near the source. The observed spatial patterns of trap catch relative to sources of infestation and the inverse relationship of trap catch to distance from a source support the validity of contour mapping as a means of monitoring stored-product moths and locating foci of infestation. The relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of infestation was well described by two-parameter exponential decay, both in P. interpunctella and in the previously studied Lasioderma serricorne (F.). Analysis of data from retail pet stores also showed exponential decline in trap catch of P. interpunctella with distance from centers of infestation.

  5. Value transmissions between fathers, mothers, and adolescent and emerging adult children: the role of the family climate.

    PubMed

    Roest, Annette M C; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M

    2009-04-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study investigates father-child, mother-child, and father-mother transmissions on "work-as-duty" and "hedonism" across a 5-year period when children traverse late adolescence and emerging adulthood (N = 402 families). We found bidirectional father-child and child-to-mother transmissions on work-as-duty and child-to-father and bidirectional father-mother transmissions on hedonism. In addition, we examined whether family adaptability and cohesion influence these value transmissions. Father-to-child transmission on work-as-duty occurred regardless of family system levels, whereas child-to-parent transmissions on work-as-duty occurred only within more structured families. Furthermore, a more connected family climate tended to facilitate inter- and intragenerational value transmissions, but multiple-group analyses did not reveal strong evidence. All in all, this study showed that value socialization in the family is not a one-way-traffic process with parents solely influencing their children. Late adolescents and emerging adults also serve to socialize their parents and parents socialize each other.

  6. Identifying Two Potential Mechanisms for Changes in Alcohol Use Among College-attending and Non-attending Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Kim, Min Jung; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. We use structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For four groups defined by college and residential status, more drinking in the spring of 12th grade predicts more pro-alcohol peer influences the following fall, and more pro-alcohol peer influences in the fall predict increases in drinking the following spring. Going to college while living at home is a protective factor for increases in drinking and selection of pro-alcohol peer involvements. Prosocial involvement (measured by involvement in religious activities and volunteer work) is not significantly related to post-high school drinking except among college students living away from home. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing opportunities for heavy drinking for college and noncollege emerging adults as they leave home and increasing prosocial involvement among college students not living at home. PMID:18999326

  7. Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Du, Wei; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600 μg/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.

  8. Pyrimethamine inhibits adult polycystic kidney disease by modulating STAT signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Takakura, Ayumi; Nelson, Erik A.; Haque, Nadeem; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Zandi-Nejad, Kambiz; Frank, David A.; Zhou, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a commonly inherited disorder mostly caused by mutations in PKD1, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1). The disease is characterized by development and growth of epithelium-lined cyst in both kidneys, often leading to renal failure. There is no specific treatment for this disease. Here, we report a sustained activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in ischemic injured and uninjured Pkd1 knockout polycystic kidneys and in human ADPKD kidneys. Through a chemical library screen, we identified the anti-parasitic compound pyrimethamine as an inhibitor of STAT3 function. Treatment with pyrimethamine decreases cell proliferation in human ADPKD cells and blocks renal cyst formation in an adult and a neonatal PKD mouse model. Moreover, we demonstrated that a specific STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, reduces cyst formation and growth in a neonatal PKD mouse model. Our results suggest that PC1 acts as a negative regulator of STAT3 and that blocking STAT3 signaling with pyrimethamine or similar drugs may be an attractive therapy for human ADPKD. PMID:21821671

  9. Androgens inhibit the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Sinnesael, Mieke; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Dubois, Vanessa; Deboel, Ludo; Delisser, Peter; Behets, Geert J; D'Haese, Patrick C; Carmeliet, Geert; Claessens, Frank; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Androgens are well known to enhance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy; however, whether androgens also influence bone's adaptive response to mechanical loading remains unclear. We studied the adaptive osteogenic response to unilateral in vivo mechanical loading of tibia in adult male mice in both a long- and a short-term experimental set-up. Mice were divided into four groups: sham operated, orchidectomized (ORX), T (ORX+T), or nonaromatizable dihydrotestosterone (ORX+DHT) replacement. Significant interactions between androgen status and osteogenic response to mechanical loading were observed. Cortical thickness increased by T (0.14 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05) and DHT (0.17 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05). However, T partially (+36%) and DHT completely (+10%) failed to exhibit the loading-related increase observed in sham (+107%) and ORX (+131%, all P<.05) mice. ORX decreased periosteal bone formation, which was restored to sham levels by T and DHT. However, both androgens completely suppressed the loading-related increase in periosteal bone formation. Short-term loading decreased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes in sham, whereas in control fibulas, ORX decreased and T increased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes. Loading no longer down-regulated sclerostin in the ORX or T groups. In conclusion, both T and DHT suppress the osteogenic response to mechanical loading.

  10. TIME COURSE AND DOSE RESPONSE ASSESSMENT OF CHOLINESTERASE (CHE) INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL, OR PROPOXUR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To compare the toxicity of 5 N-methyl carbamates, the time course and dose response profiles for ChE inhibition were established for each. For the time course comparison, adult male Long Evans rats (n=5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (CB; 30 mg/kg in corn oi...

  11. The Nature and Impact of Gendered Patterns of Peer Sexual Communications Among Heterosexual Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Sarah L; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research demonstrates that peers serve as top sexual informants and advisers, little is known about how peer sexual communications may be a gendered phenomenon. Do communications about sex and romantic relationships vary according to who is speaking to whom? The current study examined 517 college students' reports of male and female peers' communications of four sexual scripts and the associations between reports of such communications and participants' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Results suggest that peer messages about sex and relationships vary by the gender of the recipient and the gender of the communicator. Women reported more frequent communications of all sexual scripts from female peers than did men. In terms of male peers' sexual communications, only one gender difference emerged: men reported receiving significantly fewer messages about the relational script than women. Compared to same-sex peer communications, there were more associations between other-sex peer communications and undergraduates' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Implications for the role of same- and other-sex peers in sexual socialization are discussed.

  12. BDNF deficiency and young-adult methamphetamine induce sex-specific effects on prepulse inhibition regulation

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Elizabeth E.; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, yet its role in the development of specific symptoms is unclear. Methamphetamine (METH) users have an increased risk of psychosis and schizophrenia, and METH-treated animals have been used extensively as a model to study the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether METH treatment in BDNF heterozygous (HET) mutant mice has cumulative effects on sensorimotor gating, including the disruptive effects of psychotropic drugs. BDNF HETs and wildtype (WT) littermates were treated during young adulthood with METH and, following a 2-week break, prepulse inhibition (PPI) was examined. At baseline, BDNF HETs showed reduced PPI compared to WT mice irrespective of METH pre-treatment. An acute challenge with amphetamine (AMPH) disrupted PPI but male BDNF HETs were more sensitive to this effect, irrespective of METH pre-treatment. In contrast, female mice treated with METH were less sensitive to the disruptive effects of AMPH, and there were no effects of BDNF genotype. Similar changes were not observed in the response to an acute apomorphine (APO) or MK-801 challenge. These results show that genetically-induced reduction of BDNF caused changes in a behavioral endophenotype relevant to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, major sex differences were observed in the effects of a psychotropic drug challenge on this behavior. These findings suggest sex differences in the effects of BDNF depletion and METH treatment on the monoamine signaling pathways that regulate PPI. Given that these same pathways are thought to contribute to the expression of positive symptoms in schizophrenia, this work suggests that there may be significant sex differences in the pathophysiology underlying these symptoms. Elucidating these sex differences may be important for our understanding of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and developing better treatments strategies for the

  13. Intra-hippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide inhibits kindled seizures and retards kindling rate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amin; Sayyah, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh-Sima, Baharak; Choopani, Samira; Kazemi, Jafar; Sadegh, Mehdi; Moradpour, Farshad; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2013-04-01

    Neuroinflammation facilitates seizure acquisition and epileptogenesis in developing brain. Yet, the studies on impact of neuroinflammation on mature brain epileptogenesis have led to inconsistent results. Hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to damage caused by ischemia, hypoxia and trauma, and the consequent neuroinflammation, which can lead in turn to epilepsy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is extensively used in experimental studies to induce neuroinflammation. In this study, effect of acute and chronic intra-CA1 infusion of LPS on amygdala-kindled seizures and epileptogenesis was examined in mature rats. LPS (5 μg/rat) inhibited evoked amygdala afterdischarges and behavioral seizures. Anticonvulsant effect of LPS was observed 0.5 h after administration and continued up to 24 h. This effect was accompanied by intra-hippocampal elevation of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin1-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α and was prevented by microglia inhibitor, naloxone, NO synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, and interleukin1-β receptor antagonist, interleukin1-ra. Moreover, daily intra-hippocampal injection of LPS significantly retarded kindling rate. In order to further elucidate the effect of LPS on synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity, changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes were measured in stratum radiatum and stratum pyramidale of LPS-treated kindled rats. LPS impaired baseline synaptic transmission in hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse and reduced the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation. Our results suggest that direct suppression of presynaptic mechanisms in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, as well as the inflammatory mediators released by LPS in the hippocampus, is involved in antiepileptic effect of LPS.

  14. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults?

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-02-01

    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  15. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced inhibition of neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Singhakumar, Rachen; Boontem, Parichart; Ekthuwapranee, Kasima; Sotthibundhu, Areechun; Mukda, Sujira; Chetsawang, Banthit; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, is known to exert neurotoxic effects to the dopaminergic neural system. Long-term METH administration impairs brain functions such as cognition, learning and memory. Newly born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus play an important role in spatial learning and memory. Previous in vitro studies have shown that METH inhibits cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. On the other hand, melatonin, a major indole secreted by the pineal gland, enhances neurogenesis in both the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus. In this study, adult C57BL/6 mice were used to study the beneficial effects of melatonin on METH-induced alterations in neurogenesis and post-synaptic proteins related to learning and memory functions in the hippocampus. The results showed that METH caused a decrease in neuronal phenotypes as determined by the expressions of nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and beta-III tubulin while causing an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Moreover, METH inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling activity and altered expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B as well as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). These effects could be attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. In conclusion, melatonin prevented the METH-induced reduction in neurogenesis, increase in astrogliogenesis and alteration of NMDA receptor subunit expression. These findings may indicate the beneficial effects of melatonin on the impairment of learning and memory caused by METH.

  16. The Effects of Literacy Enriched Classroom Environment Partnered with Quality Adult/Child Interaction on the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haustein, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of literacy enriched preschool classroom environments and the quality of adult/child interaction in the classroom on the emergent literacy growth and development of preschool children. Data was collected within the 2009-2010 school year and analyzed to determine if providing a literacy enriched preschool environment…

  17. Pushing and Pulling Emerging Adults through College: College Generational Status and the Influence of Parents and Others in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Islas, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Interview, survey, and academic transcript data with a diverse sample of first-generation college (FGC) and continuing generation college (CGC) premedical intended emerging adults are analyzed to study academic outcomes and any differences in the availability and use of social capital the first year of college. CGC students know many people with…

  18. Inhibition of the histone demethylase Kdm5b promotes neurogenesis and derepresses Reln (reelin) in neural stem cells from the adult subventricular zone of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiong; Obana, Edwin A; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Sukumar, Gauthaman; Wynder, Christopher; Dalgard, Clifton L; Doughty, Martin L

    2016-02-15

    The role of epigenetic regulators in the control of adult neurogenesis is largely undefined. We show that the histone demethylase enzyme Kdm5b (Jarid1b) negatively regulates neurogenesis from adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells (NSCs) in culture. shRNA-mediated depletion of Kdm5b in proliferating adult NSCs decreased proliferation rates and reduced neurosphere formation in culture. When transferred to differentiation culture conditions, Kdm5b-depleted adult NSCs migrated from neurospheres with increased velocity. Whole-genome expression screening revealed widespread transcriptional changes with Kdm5b depletion, notably the up-regulation of reelin (Reln), the inhibition of steroid biosynthetic pathway component genes and the activation of genes with intracellular transport functions in cultured adult NSCs. Kdm5b depletion increased extracellular reelin concentration in the culture medium and increased phosphorylation of the downstream reelin signaling target Disabled-1 (Dab1). Sequestration of extracellular reelin with CR-50 reelin-blocking antibodies suppressed the increase in migratory velocity of Kdm5b-depleted adult NSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Kdm5b is present at the proximal promoter of Reln, and H3K4me3 methylation was increased at this locus with Kdm5b depletion in differentiating adult NSCs. Combined the data suggest Kdm5b negatively regulates neurogenesis and represses Reln in neural stem cells from the adult SVZ.

  19. Loss of attentional inhibition in older adults--Does it really exist? An experimental dissociation of inhibitory and memory retrieval processes.

    PubMed

    Giesen, Carina; Eberhard, Maike; Rothermund, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly assumed that attentional inhibitory functioning decreases with age, even though empirical evidence is mixed. These inconsistencies possibly stem from methodological artifacts: distractor inhibition is typically assessed with the negative priming paradigm, which confounds inhibition and episodic retrieval. In the present study, we investigated age differences in a sequential distractor repetition paradigm (Giesen, Frings, & Rothermund, 2012) that provides independent estimates of distractor inhibition and episodic retrieval processes. Older (60+ yrs) and younger (below 30 years) adults identified target letters that were flanked by distractors (JKJ). Inhibitory processes were preserved in older adults, who showed reliable distractor repetition benefits resulting from persistent distractor inhibition; however, a significant loss of inhibition was apparent for the older subgroup of participants (65+ yrs) compared with a subgroup of young-old participants (60 to 64 years). No age differences were found for episodic retrieval processes of stimulus-response bindings that were indexed by an interaction of distractor repetition and response relation. Findings highlight the importance of dissociating between distractor inhibition and retrieval processes that are differently implicated in age-related cognitive change.

  20. Non-Traumatic Dental Condition-Related Emergency Department Visits and Associated Costs for Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Sy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Masterson, Erin E.; Chi, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 2010 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample data and ran regression models to test the hypotheses that individuals with ASD are more likely to have non-traumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits and to incur greater costs for these visits than those without ASD. There were nearly 2.3 million NTDC-related ED visits in 2010. Less than 1.0% (children) and 2.1% (adults) of all ED visits were for NTDC. There was no significant difference in NTDC-related ED visits or costs for children by ASD status. Adults with ASD had significantly lower odds of NTDC-related ED visits (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.52; P<0.001) but incurred significantly greater mean costs for NTDC-related ED visits (P<0.006) than did adults without ASD. PMID:25374135

  1. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Anthony R; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J; Holder, Michael E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  2. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Anthony R.; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J.; Holder, Michael E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J.; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  3. Inhibition of Cathepsin B Alleviates Secondary Degeneration in Ipsilateral Thalamus After Focal Cerebral Infarction in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xialin; Hou, Qinghua; Jin, Jizi; Zhan, Lixuan; Li, Xinyu; Sun, Weiwen; Lin, Kunqin; Xu, En

    2016-09-01

    Secondary degeneration in areas beyond ischemic foci can inhibit poststroke recovery. The cysteine protease Cathepsin B (CathB) regulates cell death and intracellular protein catabolism. To investigate the roles of CathB in the development of secondary degeneration in the ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the ipsilateral thalamus after focal cerebral infarction, infarct volumes, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analyses were conducted in a distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) stroke model in adult rats. We observed marked neuron loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral thalamus after dMCAO, and the expression of CathB and cleaved caspase-3 in the VPN was significantly upregulated; glial cells were the major source of CathB. Although it had no effect on infarct volume, delayed intracerebroventricular treatment with the membrane-permeable CathB inhibitor CA-074Me suppressed the expression of CathB and cleaved caspase-3 in ipsilateral VPN and accordingly alleviated the secondary degeneration. These data indicate that CathB mediates a novel mechanism of secondary degeneration in the VPN of the ipsilateral thalamus after focal cortical infarction and suggest that CathB might be a therapeutic target for the prevention of secondary degeneration in patients after stroke.

  4. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis enhances both subventricular zone neurogenesis and olfactory learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Romero-Grimaldi, Carmen; Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Estrada, Carmen

    2006-11-01

    The ability to generate new neurons during the course of adult life is preserved in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the mammalian brain. These two regions constitute specifically regulated neurogenic niches, and provide newborn neurons involved in olfactory and spatial learning, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) is a negative regulator of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, whereas its role in the dentate gyrus remains controversial. Using systemic administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors to chronically inhibit NO production, we increased neural precursor proliferation in the subventricular zone as well as neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb, without modifying the number of mitotic cells or the granular cell layer thickness in the dentate gyrus. The same treatment specifically improved olfactory learning performance, whereas spatial learning and memory was unchanged, thus demonstrating that olfactory memory is closely associated with the level of ongoing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb. The anatomical specificity of the NOS inhibitor actions was not due to differences in the availability of NO, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal NOS and S-nitrosylated proteins in both regions. Remarkably, the distinct NO sensitivity might result from a differential expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in precursor cells in both regions, as the proliferative effect of NOS inhibitors in the subventricular zone was restricted to the cells that expressed this receptor.

  5. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study. PMID:25547077

  6. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  7. Factors Associated With Emergency Department Visits: A Multistate Analysis of Adult Fee-for-Service Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parul; Bias, Thomas K.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Frisbee, Stephanie; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association of patient- and county-level factors with the emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. Methods A cross-sectional design using retrospective observational data was implemented. Patient-level data were obtained from 2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files. Information on county-level health-care resources was obtained from the Area Health Resource file and County Health Rankings file. Results In adjusted analyses, the following patient-level factors were associated with higher number of ED visits: African Americans (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 1.47), Hispanics (IRR = 1.63), polypharmacy (IRR = 1.89), and tobacco use (IRR = 2.23). Patients with complex chronic illness had a higher number of ED visits (IRR = 3.33). The county-level factors associated with ED visits were unemployment rate (IRR = 0.94) and number of urgent care clinics (IRR = 0.96). Conclusion Patients with complex healthcare needs had a higher number of ED visits as compared to those without complex healthcare needs. The study results provide important baseline context for future policy analysis studies around Medicaid expansion options.

  8. Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Fesmire, Francis M; Brown, Michael D; Espinosa, James A; Shih, Richard D; Silvers, Scott M; Wolf, Stephen J; Decker, Wyatt W

    2011-06-01

    This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is the revision of a 2003 clinical policy on the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE).(1) A writing subcommittee reviewed the literature to derive evidence-based recommendations to help clinicians answer the following critical questions: (1) Do objective criteria provide improved risk stratification over gestalt clinical assessment in the evaluation of patients with possible PE? (2) What is the utility of the Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC) in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE? (3)What is the role of quantitative D-dimer testing in the exclusion of PE? (4) What is the role of computed tomography pulmonary angiogram of the chest as the sole diagnostic test in the exclusion of PE? (5) What is the role of venous imaging in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE? (6) What are the indications for thrombolytic therapy in patients with PE? Evidence was graded and recommendations were given based on the strength of the available data in the medical literature. PMID:21621092

  9. Factors Associated With Emergency Department Visits: A Multistate Analysis of Adult Fee-for-Service Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parul; Bias, Thomas K.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Frisbee, Stephanie; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association of patient- and county-level factors with the emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. Methods A cross-sectional design using retrospective observational data was implemented. Patient-level data were obtained from 2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files. Information on county-level health-care resources was obtained from the Area Health Resource file and County Health Rankings file. Results In adjusted analyses, the following patient-level factors were associated with higher number of ED visits: African Americans (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 1.47), Hispanics (IRR = 1.63), polypharmacy (IRR = 1.89), and tobacco use (IRR = 2.23). Patients with complex chronic illness had a higher number of ED visits (IRR = 3.33). The county-level factors associated with ED visits were unemployment rate (IRR = 0.94) and number of urgent care clinics (IRR = 0.96). Conclusion Patients with complex healthcare needs had a higher number of ED visits as compared to those without complex healthcare needs. The study results provide important baseline context for future policy analysis studies around Medicaid expansion options. PMID:27512721

  10. How Design of Places Promotes or Inhibits Mobility of Older Adults: Realist Synthesis of 20 Years of Research

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H.; Flood, Johnna Fandel; Thompson, Hannah; Anderson, Lynda A.; Wong, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the environmental features that best support aging in place. Method We conducted a realist synthesis, a theory-driven interpretive method of evidence synthesis, of 120+ articles (published 1991–2011) that attempts to explain how place may influence older adults’ decisions about mobility (e.g., physical activity). We developed an initial program theory, reviewed the literature, identified outcomes, analyzed and synthesized patterns, and created a final program theory. Results Safety was a central mechanism, serving as one of the bridges between environmental components (e.g., connectivity, aesthetics, retail and services) and decisions about mobility. Population density, sidewalk presence, and park proximity did not emerge as key factors. Discussion Safety considerations are one of the most prominent influences of older adults’ decisions about mobility. Street connectivity, pedestrian access and transit, and retail and services were also important. These factors are amenable to change and can help promote mobility for older adults. PMID:24788714

  11. Acute post-disaster medical needs of patients with diabetes: emergency department use in New York City by diabetic adults after Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David C; Gupta, Vibha K; Carr, Brendan G; Malik, Sidrah; Ferguson, Brandy; Wall, Stephen P; Smith, Silas W; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acute impact of disasters on diabetic patients, we performed a geospatial analysis of emergency department (ED) use by New York City diabetic adults in the week after Hurricane Sandy. Research design and methods Using an all-payer claims database, we retrospectively analyzed the demographics, insurance status, and medical comorbidities of post-disaster ED patients with diabetes who lived in the most geographically vulnerable areas. We compared the patterns of ED use among diabetic adults in the first week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall to utilization before the disaster in 2012. Results In the highest level evacuation zone in New York City, postdisaster increases in ED visits for a primary or secondary diagnosis of diabetes were attributable to a significantly higher proportion of Medicare patients. Emergency visits for a primary diagnosis of diabetes had an increased frequency of certain comorbidities, including hypertension, recent procedure, and chronic skin ulcers. Patients with a history of diabetes visited EDs in increased numbers after Hurricane Sandy for a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction, prescription refills, drug dependence, dialysis, among other conditions. Conclusions We found that diabetic adults aged 65 years and older are especially at risk for requiring postdisaster emergency care compared to other vulnerable populations. Our findings also suggest that there is a need to support diabetic adults particularly in the week after a disaster by ensuring access to medications, aftercare for patients who had a recent procedure, and optimize their cardiovascular health to reduce the risk of heart attacks. PMID:27547418

  12. Emergence of Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus Adult Invasive Disease in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, Is Driven by Clonal Sequence Type 459 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Van Caeseele, Paul; Horsman, Greg; Alexander, David C.; Melano, Roberto G.; Li, Aimin; Flores, Anthony R.; Shelburne, Samuel A.; McGeer, Allison; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Serotype IV group B Streptococcus (GBS) is emerging in Canada and the United States with rates as high as 5% of the total burden of adult invasive GBS disease. To understand this emergence, we studied the population structure and assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of serotype IV isolates causing adult invasive infection in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2010 and 2014. Whole-genome sequencing was used to determine multilocus sequence typing information and identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in 85 invasive serotype IV GBS strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard methods. Strain divergence was assessed using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Serotype IV strains were responsible for 16.9% of adult invasive GBS infections in Manitoba and Saskatchewan during the period. The majority of serotype IV isolates (89%) were clonally related, tetracycline-, erythromycin-, and clindamycin-resistant sequence type 459 (ST459) strains that possessed genes tetM and ermTR. Genome comparisons between ST459 and serotype V ST1 GBS identified several areas of recombination in an overall similar genomic background. Serotype IV ST459 GBS strains are expanding and causing a substantial percentage of adult invasive GBS disease. This emergence may be linked to the acquisition of resistance to tetracycline, macrolides, and lincosamides. PMID:26135871

  13. Cognitive inhibition of number/length interference in a Piaget-like task in young adults: evidence from ERPs and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Gaëlle; Joliot, Marc; Dubal, Stéphanie; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier

    2006-06-01

    We sought to determine whether the neural traces of a previous cognitive developmental stage could be evidenced in young adults. In order to do so, 12 young adults underwent two functional imaging acquisitions (EEG then fMRI). During each session, two experimental conditions were applied: a Piaget-like task with number/length interference (INT), and a reference task with number/length covariation (COV). To succeed at Piaget's numerical task, which children under the age of 7 years usually fail, the subjects had to inhibit a misleading strategy, namely, the visuospatial length-equals-number bias, a quantification heuristic that is often relevant and that continues to be used through adulthood. Behavioral data confirmed that although there was an automation in the young adult subjects as assessed by the very high number of accurate responses (>97%), the inhibition of the "length equals number strategy" had a cognitive cost, as the reaction times were significantly higher in INT than in COV (with a difference of 230 ms). The event-related potential results acquired during the first session showed electrophysiological markers of the cognitive inhibition of the number/length interference. Indeed, the frontal N2 was greater during INT than during COV, and a P3(late)/P6 was detected only during INT. During the fMRI session, a greater activation of unimodal areas (the right middle and superior occipital cortex) and in the ventral route (the left inferior temporal cortex) was observed in INT than in COV. These results seem to indicate that when fully automated in adults, inhibition processes might take place in unimodal areas.

  14. Embryonic Methamphetamine Exposure Inhibits Methamphetamine Cue Conditioning and Reduces Dopamine Concentrations in Adult N2 Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Katner, Simon N; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S; Engleman, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    for that ion (CS+) in worms that were not pre-exposed to MAP. However, worms embryonically exposed to MAP did not exhibit significant drug cue conditioning. The inability of MAP-exposed worms to condition to MAP was not associated with deficits in food conditioning, as MAP-exposed worms exhibited a significant cue preference associated with food. Furthermore, our results found that embryonic MAP exposure reduced DA levels in adult C. elegans, which could be a key mechanism contributing to the long-term effects of embryonic MAP exposure. It is possible that embryonic MAP exposure may be impairing the ability of C. elegans to learn associations between MAP and the CS+ or inhibiting the reinforcing properties of MAP. However, our food conditioning data suggest that MAP-exposed animals can form associations between cues and food. The depletion of DA levels during embryonic exposure to MAP could be responsible for driving either of these processes during adulthood. PMID:27233671

  15. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  16. Overdiagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection and Underdiagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Adult Women Presenting to an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Myreen E; Getman, Damon; Donskey, Curtis J; Hecker, Michelle T

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly diagnosed in emergency departments (EDs). Distinguishing between these syndromes can be challenging because of overlapping symptomatology and because both are associated with abnormalities on urinalysis (UA). We conducted a 2-month observational cohort study to determine the accuracy of clinical diagnoses of UTI and STI in adult women presenting with genitourinary (GU) symptoms or diagnosed with GU infections at an urban academic ED. For all urine specimens, UA, culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis were performed. Of 264 women studied, providers diagnosed 175 (66%) with UTIs, 100 (57%) of whom were treated without performing a urine culture during routine care. Combining routine care and study-performed urine cultures, only 84 (48%) of these women had a positive urine culture. Sixty (23%) of the 264 women studied had one or more positive STI tests, 22 (37%) of whom did not receive treatment for an STI within 7 days of the ED visit. Fourteen (64%) of these 22 women were diagnosed with a UTI instead of an STI. Ninety-two percent of the women studied had an abnormal UA finding (greater-than-trace leukocyte esterase level, positive nitrite test result, or pyuria). The positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal UA finding were 41 and 76%, respectively. In this population, empirical therapy for UTI without urine culture testing and overdiagnosis of UTI were common and associated with unnecessary antibiotic exposure and missed STI diagnoses. Abnormal UA findings were common and not predictive of positive urine cultures.

  17. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and pattern separation in DG: a role for feedback inhibition in modulating sparseness to govern population-based coding

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2015-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of mammals harbors neural stem cells that generate new dentate granule cells (DGCs) throughout life. Behavioral studies using the contextual fear discrimination paradigm have found that selectively augmenting or blocking adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances or impairs discrimination under conditions of high, but not low, interference suggestive of a role in pattern separation. Although contextual discrimination engages population-based coding mechanisms underlying pattern separation such as global remapping in the DG and CA3, how adult hippocampal neurogenesis modulates pattern separation in the DG is poorly understood. Here, we propose a role for adult-born DGCs in re-activation coupled modulation of sparseness through feed-back inhibition to govern global remapping in the DG. PMID:26347621

  18. Prevalence of sleep disorders by sex and ethnicity among older adolescents and emerging adults: relations to daytime functioning, working memory and mental health.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M

    2014-07-01

    The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health.

  19. Availability and Readability of Emergency Preparedness Materials for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing and Older Adult Populations: Issues and Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Neuhauser, Linda; Ivey, Susan L.; Huang, Debbie; Engelman, Alina; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Gurung, Sidhanta; Kealey, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A major public health challenge is to communicate effectively with vulnerable populations about preparing for disasters and other health emergencies. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and older adults are particularly vulnerable during health emergencies and require communications that are accessible and understandable. Although health literacy studies indicate that the readability of health communication materials often exceeds people’s literacy levels, we could find no research about the readability of emergency preparedness materials (EPM) intended for Deaf/HH and older adult populations. The objective of this study was to explore issues related to EPM for Deaf/HH and older adult populations, to assess the availability and readability of materials for these populations, and to recommend improvements. In two California counties, we interviewed staff at 14 community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Deaf/HH clients and 20 CBOs serving older adults selected from a stratified, random sample of 227 CBOs. We collected 40 EPM from 10 CBOs and 2 public health departments and 40 EPM from 14 local and national websites with EPM for the public. We used computerized assessments to test the U.S. grade reading levels of the 16 eligible CBO and health department EPM, and the 18 eligible website materials. Results showed that less than half of CBOs had EPM for their clients. All EPM intended for clients of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tested above the recommended 4th grade reading level, and 91% of the materials intended for clients of older adult-serving CBOs scored above the recommended 6th grade level. EPM for these populations should be widely available through CBOs and public health departments, adhere to health literacy principles, and be accessible in alternative formats including American Sign Language. Developers should engage the intended users of EPM as co-designers and testers. This study adds to the limited literature about EPM for these populations. PMID

  20. Availability and readability of emergency preparedness materials for deaf and hard-of-hearing and older adult populations: issues and assessments.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Linda; Ivey, Susan L; Huang, Debbie; Engelman, Alina; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Gurung, Sidhanta; Kealey, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A major public health challenge is to communicate effectively with vulnerable populations about preparing for disasters and other health emergencies. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and older adults are particularly vulnerable during health emergencies and require communications that are accessible and understandable. Although health literacy studies indicate that the readability of health communication materials often exceeds people's literacy levels, we could find no research about the readability of emergency preparedness materials (EPM) intended for Deaf/HH and older adult populations. The objective of this study was to explore issues related to EPM for Deaf/HH and older adult populations, to assess the availability and readability of materials for these populations, and to recommend improvements. In two California counties, we interviewed staff at 14 community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Deaf/HH clients and 20 CBOs serving older adults selected from a stratified, random sample of 227 CBOs. We collected 40 EPM from 10 CBOs and 2 public health departments and 40 EPM from 14 local and national websites with EPM for the public. We used computerized assessments to test the U.S. grade reading levels of the 16 eligible CBO and health department EPM, and the 18 eligible website materials. Results showed that less than half of CBOs had EPM for their clients. All EPM intended for clients of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tested above the recommended 4(th) grade reading level, and 91% of the materials intended for clients of older adult-serving CBOs scored above the recommended 6(th) grade level. EPM for these populations should be widely available through CBOs and public health departments, adhere to health literacy principles, and be accessible in alternative formats including American Sign Language. Developers should engage the intended users of EPM as co-designers and testers. This study adds to the limited literature about EPM for these populations.

  1. Quality of care in sickle cell disease: Cross-sectional study and development of a measure for adults reporting on ambulatory and emergency department care.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Christian T; Treadwell, Marsha J; Keller, San; Levine, Roger; Hassell, Kathryn L; Werner, Ellen M; Smith, Wally R

    2016-08-01

    Documented deficiencies in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) care include poor access to knowledgeable providers and inadequate treatment in emergency departments (EDs).The aim of this study was to create patient-reported outcome measures of the quality of ambulatory and ED care for adults with SCD.We developed and pilot tested SCD quality of care questions consistent with Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We applied psychometric methods to develop scores and evaluate reliability and validity.The participants of this study were adults with SCD (n = 556)-63% aged 18 to 34 years; 64% female; 64% SCD-SS-at 7 US sites.The measure used was Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement information system Quality of Care survey.Most participants (90%) reported at least 1 severe pain episode (pain intensity 7.8 ± 2.3, 0-10 scale) in the past year. Most (81%) chose to manage pain at home rather than the ED, citing negative ED experiences (83%). Using factor analysis, we identified Access, Provider Interaction, and ED Care composites with reliable scores (Cronbach α 0.70-0.83) and construct validity (r = 0.32-0.83 correlations with global care ratings). Compared to general adult Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores, adults with SCD had worse care, adjusted for age, education, and general health.Results were consistent with other research reflecting deficiencies in ED care for adults with SCD. The Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Quality of Care measure is a useful self-report measure for documenting and tracking disparities in quality of SCD care. PMID:27583862

  2. Severe instead of mild hyperglycemia inhibits neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S; Zhi, P K; Luo, Z K; Shi, J

    2015-09-10

    Accumulated evidence suggests that enhanced neurogenesis stimulated by ischemic injury contributes to stroke outcome. However, it is unclear whether hyperglycemia, which is frequently tested positive in patients with acute ischemic stroke, influences stroke-induced neurogenesis. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on stroke-induced neurogenesis in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Glucose was administered during ischemia to produce target blood levels ranging from 4.83 ± 0.94 mM (normoglycemia) to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM. To label proliferating cells in ischemic ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 24h after MCAO. Brains were harvested 2h post-BrdU to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on infarct volume and SVZ cell proliferation. Rats that were severely hyperglycemic (19.26 ± 1.48 mM to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM) during ischemia had 24.26% increase in infarct volume (P<0.05) and more serious neurological function deficits (P<0.05). The severe hyperglycemic rats also showed dramatically decreased proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) (P<0.05) and down-regulation of the phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) (P<0.05)and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (P<0.05) in ipsilateral SVZ. But the above-mentioned detrimental effects were not observed in rats that were rendered with mild hyperglycemia (9.43 ± 1.39-10.13 ± 1.24 mM). Our findings indicate that severe instead of mild hyperglycemia exacerbates ischemic injury and inhibits stroke-induced SVZ neurogenesis by a mechanism involving suppression of CREB and BDNF signaling.

  3. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-01

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  4. Is the intraosseous access route fast and efficacious compared to conventional central venous catheterization in adult patients under resuscitation in the emergency department? A prospective observational pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Leidel, Bernd A; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Bogner, Viktoria; Stegmaier, Julia; Mutschler, Wolf; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Braunstein, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Background For patients' safety reasons, current American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council guidelines recommend intraosseous (IO) vascular access as an alternative in cases of emergency, if prompt venous catheterization is impossible. The purpose of this study was to compare the IO access as a bridging procedure versus central venous catheterization (CVC) for in-hospital adult emergency patients under resuscitation with impossible peripheral intravenous (IV) access. We hypothesised, that CVC is faster and more efficacious compared to IO access. Methods A prospective observational study comparing success rates and procedure times of IO access (EZ-IO, Vidacare Corporation) versus CVC in adult (≥18 years of age) patients under trauma and medical resuscitation admitted to our emergency department with impossible peripheral IV catheterization was conducted. Procedure time was defined from preparation and insertion of vascular access type until first drug or infusion solution administration. Success rate on first attempt and procedure time for each access route was evaluated and statistically tested. Results Ten consecutive adult patients under resuscitation, each receiving IO access and CVC, were analyzed. IO access was performed with 10 tibial or humeral insertions, CVC in 10 internal jugular or subclavian veins. The success rate on first attempt was 90% for IO insertion versus 60% for CVC. Mean procedure time was significantly lower for IO cannulation (2.3 min ± 0.8) compared to CVC (9.9 min ± 3.7) (p < 0.001). As for complications, failure of IO access was observed in one patient, while two or more attempts of CVC were necessary in four patients. No other relevant complications, like infection, bleeding or pneumothorax were observed. Conclusion Preliminary data demonstrate that IO access is a reliable bridging method to gain vascular access for in-hospital adult emergency patients under trauma or medical resuscitation with impossible

  5. Emerging Tobacco-Related Cancer Risks in China: A Nationwide, Prospective Study of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng-Ming; Peto, Richard; Iona, Andri; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yi-Ping; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Lu, Feng; Chen, Jun-Shi; Collins, Rory; Li, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In China, cigarette consumption has increased substantially since the 1980s, almost exclusively in men. This study was aimed at assessing the emerging cancer risks. METHODS A nationwide, prospective study recruited 210,259 men and 302,632 women aged 30 to 79 years from 10 areas of China from 2004 to 2008; approximately 18,000 incident cancers were recorded during 7 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted risk ratios (RRs) comparing smokers (including those who had stopped because of illness but not those who had stopped by choice) with never-smokers. RESULTS Among men, 68% were smokers; their overall cancer risk was significantly increased (RR, 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.53), and it was greater in urban (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.41-1.70) than in rural areas (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.49). This excess accounted for 23% of all cancers between the ages of 40 and 79 years, with significantly elevated risks of lung cancer (RR, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.18-2.90), liver cancer (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12-1.54), stomach cancer (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55), esophageal cancer (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.24-1.73), and an aggregate of 5 other minor sites (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.86). For lung cancer, the RRs were much greater for nonadenocarcinoma (RR, 5.83; 95% CI, 5.02-6.77) than for adenocarcinoma (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.36-2.34). Among exsmokers (6.7%) who had stopped by choice, there was little excess cancer risk approximately 15 years after quitting. Among the few female smokers (3%), the overall cancer risk was also significantly increased (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.57). Smoking was estimated to cause approximately 435,000 new cancers per year in China (approximately 360,000 in men and approximately 75,000 in women). CONCLUSIONS In China, smoking now causes a quarter of all adult male cancers. High male uptake rates before the age of 20 years and nearly universal use of cigarettes foreshadow substantial tobacco-attributed risks in China unless there is

  6. The Emergence of Social Play in Infancy: A Proposed Developmental Sequence of Infant-Adult Social Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Kimberlee Kiehl

    A developmental sequence of adult-infant social play is proposed in this paper. Many adult interactions with infants take the form of early social play, although such play is often thought to originate with the onset of peer interaction. The sequence of five levels proposed in this work is based on, and approximately reverses, the Howes (1980)…

  7. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: emerging mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dermond, O; Rüegg, C

    2001-10-01

    Chronic intake of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduced risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors, in particular colon cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that NSAID exert tumor-suppressive activity on pre-malignant lesions (polyps) in humans and on established experimental tumors in mice. Some of the tumor-suppressive effects of NSAIDs depend on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane, which is highly expressed in inflammation and cancer. Recent findings indicate that NSAIDs exert their anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. The availability of COX-2-specific NSAIDs opens the possibility of using this drug class as anti-angiogenic agents in combination with chemotheapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of human cancer. Here we will briefly review recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism by which NSAIDs suppress tumor angiogenesis and discuss their potential clinical application as anti-cancer agents.

  8. Rapid emergence of resistance to linezolid and mutator phenotypes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from an adult cystic fibrosis patient.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Asmaa; Chapron, Jeanne; Touak, Gerald; Longo, Magalie; Hubert, Dominique; Collobert, Gislène; Dusser, Daniel; Poyart, Claire; Morand, Philippe C

    2013-10-01

    Linezolid has emerged as an important therapeutic option for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the rapid emergence, upon treatment with linezolid, of linezolid-resistant S. aureus clinical isolates through the accumulation of resistance-associated 23S rRNA mutations, together with acquisition of an altered mutator phenotype.

  9. The effect of perinatal taurine on adult renal function does not appear to be mediated by taurine’s inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Kritsongsakchai, Angkana; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine supplementation alters adult renal function by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (Control) or water containing an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril, 400 mg/ml) from conception until delivery (FD) or from delivery until weaning (LD). After weaning, the rats received normal rat chow and tap water. At 7–8 weeks of age, renal function at rest and after acute saline load was studied in conscious, restrained male rats. Body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, effective renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance were not significantly different among the three groups. Compared to Control, glomerular filtration rate, but not filtration fraction, significantly increased after saline load in both FD and LD groups. Water excretion significantly increased only in FD compared to Control, while fractional water excretion was significantly increased after saline load in both FD and LD groups. Sodium excretion significantly increased after saline load only in FD, while both captopril-treated groups significantly decreased fractional sodium excretion. Potassium excretion significantly increased in both FD and LD groups, while fractional potassium excretion significantly increased at rest in FD and decreased in LD groups after saline load. These effects of perinatal RAS inhibition on adult renal function contrast sharply, and are opposite in many cases to, the effects of perinatal taurine supplementation. Thus, these data suggest that perinatal taurine supplementation does not alter adult renal function through its ability to inhibit the perinatal RAS. PMID:25833535

  10. Is beat induction innate or learned? Probing emergent meter perception in adults and newborns using event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia; Háden, Gábor P; Winkler, István

    2009-07-01

    Meter is considered an important structuring mechanism in the perception and experience of rhythm in music. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological measures, in the present study we investigate whether meter is more likely a learned phenomenon, possibly a result of musical expertise, or whether sensitivity to meter is also active in adult nonmusicians and newborn infants. The results provide evidence that meter induction is active in adult nonmusicians and that beat induction is already functional right after birth.

  11. Cytomegalovirus infection-associated fulminant hepatitis in an immunocompetent adult requiring emergency living-donor liver transplantation: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Dong; Park, Gil-Chun; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Moon, Deog-Bok; Ha, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is usually self-limiting in healthy adults, but it can lead to significant complications. This report presents the case of an immunocompetent adult with fulminant hepatitis caused by a CMV infection requiring emergency living-donor liver transplantation. A 39-year-old female with persistent fever for 6 weeks was referred for fulminant hepatitis, but the underlying etiology was not identified. Rapid deterioration of consciousness led to an emergency living-donor liver transplant using a modified right lobe graft. She showed increasing CMV antigenemia after surgery and the explant liver pathology showed massive hepatic necrosis with positive staining for CMV protein. Treatment with ganciclovir improved the graft liver function and her general condition recovered. This report presents a rare case of CMV-associated fulminant hepatitis which led to emergency liver transplantation. Although CMV is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with severe hepatitis, even immunocompetent patients, after other more common etiologies have been excluded.

  12. Microglial CX3CR1 promotes adult neurogenesis by inhibiting Sirt 1/p65 signaling independent of CX3CL1.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Sabine; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Spieß, Alena; Masuch, Annette; Erny, Daniel; Harsan, Laura A; Elverfeldt, Dominik V; Schwabenland, Marius; Biber, Knut; Staszewski, Ori; Lira, Sergio; Jung, Steffen; Prinz, Marco; Blank, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Homo and heterozygote cx3cr1 mutant mice, which harbor a green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their cx3cr1 loci, represent a widely used animal model to study microglia and peripheral myeloid cells. Here we report that microglia in the dentate gyrus (DG) of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice displayed elevated microglial sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 activation, despite unaltered morphology when compared to cx3cr1 (+/-) or cx3cr1 (+/+) controls. This phenotype was restricted to the DG and accompanied by reduced adult neurogenesis in cx3cr1 (-/-) mice. Remarkably, adult neurogenesis was not affected by the lack of the CX3CR1-ligand, fractalkine (CX3CL1). Mechanistically, pharmacological activation of SIRT1 improved adult neurogenesis in the DG together with an enhanced performance of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice in a hippocampus-dependent learning and memory task. The reverse condition was induced when SIRT1 was inhibited in cx3cr1 (-/-) mice, causing reduced adult neurogenesis and lowered hippocampal cognitive abilities. In conclusion, our data indicate that deletion of CX3CR1 from microglia under resting conditions modifies brain areas with elevated cellular turnover independent of CX3CL1. PMID:27639555

  13. Anethole inhibits growth of recently emerged multidrug resistant toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ZAHID, M. Shamim Hasan; AWASTHI, Sharda Prasad; HINENOYA, Atsushi; YAMASAKI, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    To search natural compounds having inhibitory effect on bacterial growth is important, particularly in view of growing multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of bacterial pathogens. Like other bacterial pathogens, MDR Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of diarrheal disease cholera, is becoming a great concern. As an approach of searching new antimicrobial agents, here, we show that anethole, a well-studied natural component of sweet fennel and star anise seeds, could potentially inhibit the growth of MDR O1 El Tor biotype, the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic variant strains of toxigenic V. cholerae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of anethole against diverse O1 El Tor biotype strains is evaluated as 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the effect of anethole is bactericidal and exerts rapid-killing action on V. cholerae cells. This study is the first report which demonstrates that anethole, purified from natural compound, is a potent inhibitor of growth of toxigenic V. cholerae. Our data suggest that anethole could be a potential antimicrobial drug candidate, particularly against MDR V. cholerae mediated infections. PMID:25648987

  14. Anethole inhibits growth of recently emerged multidrug resistant toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-05-01

    To search natural compounds having inhibitory effect on bacterial growth is important, particularly in view of growing multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of bacterial pathogens. Like other bacterial pathogens, MDR Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of diarrheal disease cholera, is becoming a great concern. As an approach of searching new antimicrobial agents, here, we show that anethole, a well-studied natural component of sweet fennel and star anise seeds, could potentially inhibit the growth of MDR O1 El Tor biotype, the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic variant strains of toxigenic V. cholerae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of anethole against diverse O1 El Tor biotype strains is evaluated as 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the effect of anethole is bactericidal and exerts rapid-killing action on V. cholerae cells. This study is the first report which demonstrates that anethole, purified from natural compound, is a potent inhibitor of growth of toxigenic V. cholerae. Our data suggest that anethole could be a potential antimicrobial drug candidate, particularly against MDR V. cholerae mediated infections. PMID:25648987

  15. The management of adult psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Hanlon, Charlotte; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela; Ragoni, Celina; de Azevedo Perocco, Sérgio Luiz; Fortes, Sandra; Shidhaye, Rahul; Kinyanda, Eugene; Rangaswamy, Thara; Patel, Vikram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this Review is to identify effective interventions and treatment guidelines to manage common types of psychiatric emergencies in non-specialist settings in low-income and middle-income countries. Mental health specialist services in low-income and middle-income countries are scarce. We did a systematic review of interventions for psychiatric emergencies and a literature search for low-income and middle-income-specific treatment guidelines for psychiatric emergencies. A dearth of high-quality guidelines and contextualised primary evidence for management of psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries exists. Filling these gaps in present guidelines needs to be an urgent research priority in view of the adverse health and social consequences of such presentations and the present drive to scale up mental health care.

  16. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse

    2016-04-01

    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was negatively related to both levels and relative changes in these problem areas in diabetes over a period of 5 years. Illness self-concept fully mediated these associations.

  17. "Now I know I can make a difference": Generativity and activity engagement as predictors of meaning making in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Heather L; Ramey, Heather L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined generativity (concern for future generations as a legacy of the self) and activity engagement as predictors of meaning making in young people's personal accounts of their key activity experiences. We elicited stories regarding events within participants' "most engaging activity," self-reports on generativity, and behavioral participation and psychological engagement in activities in 2 separate samples: an emerging adult sample and an adolescent sample. The stories were coded for meaning making, defined as degree of insight into individuals' understanding of themselves or the world (McLean & Pratt, 2006). Psychological engagement, but not behavioral participation, was positively associated with meaning making. Moreover, generativity was significantly and positively related to psychological engagement, and predicted meaning making, even after controlling for psychological engagement. Findings suggest that different types of activities can offer a potential context for fostering early generativity and meaning making, and that generativity in adolescence and emerging adulthood is related to the development of insight and meaning making. PMID:26214225

  18. Effect-site concentration of remifentanil for preventing cough during emergence in elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery: a comparison with adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Yeop; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Go Wun; Lee, Sook Young; Chae, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prevention of cough during emergence after nasal surgery is important for avoiding surgical site bleeding. We investigated the remifentanil effect-site concentration in 50% (EC50) of the elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery for smooth emergence without cough and compared it with that of adult patients. Methods Twenty-two elderly (aged 65–80 years) and 25 adult patients (aged 20–60 years) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II undergoing nasal surgery were enrolled. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil EC50 and EC95 for preventing cough were determined using the modified Dixon’s up-and-down method and isotonic regression with bootstrapping approach. Recovery profiles were also recorded. Results With Dixon’s up-and-down method, the EC50 of remifentanil in elderly patients (2.40±0.25 ng/mL) was not significantly different from that of adults (2.33±0.30 ng/mL) (P=0.687). With isotonic regression, the EC95 of remifentanil in elderly patients (3.32 [95% confidence interval: 3.06–3.38] ng/mL) was not significantly different from that of adults (3.30 [95% confidence interval: 2.96–3.37] ng/mL). However, eye opening time (14.1±3.8 vs 12.0±2.9 seconds), extubation time (17.2±4.1 vs 14.0±3.0 seconds), and postanesthesia care unit duration (44.5±7.6 vs 38.7±3.4 minutes) in elderly patients were significantly longer than those in adults (P<0.05). Conclusion Remifentanil EC50 for preventing cough after nasal surgery with sevoflurane anesthesia did not differ between elderly and adult patients. However, delayed awakening and respiratory adverse events may warrant attention in elderly patients.

  19. Effect-site concentration of remifentanil for preventing cough during emergence in elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery: a comparison with adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Yeop; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Go Wun; Lee, Sook Young; Chae, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prevention of cough during emergence after nasal surgery is important for avoiding surgical site bleeding. We investigated the remifentanil effect-site concentration in 50% (EC50) of the elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery for smooth emergence without cough and compared it with that of adult patients. Methods Twenty-two elderly (aged 65–80 years) and 25 adult patients (aged 20–60 years) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II undergoing nasal surgery were enrolled. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil EC50 and EC95 for preventing cough were determined using the modified Dixon’s up-and-down method and isotonic regression with bootstrapping approach. Recovery profiles were also recorded. Results With Dixon’s up-and-down method, the EC50 of remifentanil in elderly patients (2.40±0.25 ng/mL) was not significantly different from that of adults (2.33±0.30 ng/mL) (P=0.687). With isotonic regression, the EC95 of remifentanil in elderly patients (3.32 [95% confidence interval: 3.06–3.38] ng/mL) was not significantly different from that of adults (3.30 [95% confidence interval: 2.96–3.37] ng/mL). However, eye opening time (14.1±3.8 vs 12.0±2.9 seconds), extubation time (17.2±4.1 vs 14.0±3.0 seconds), and postanesthesia care unit duration (44.5±7.6 vs 38.7±3.4 minutes) in elderly patients were significantly longer than those in adults (P<0.05). Conclusion Remifentanil EC50 for preventing cough after nasal surgery with sevoflurane anesthesia did not differ between elderly and adult patients. However, delayed awakening and respiratory adverse events may warrant attention in elderly patients. PMID:27672319

  20. Item-cued directed forgetting of related words and pictures in children and adults: selective rehearsal versus cognitive inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lehman, E B; McKinley-Pace, M; Leonard, A M; Thompson, D; Johns, K

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the relative importance of selective rehearsal and cognitive inhibition in accounting for developmental changes in the directed-forgetting paradigm developed by R. A. Bjork (1972). In two experiments, children in Grades 2 and 5 and college students were asked to remember some words or pictures and to forget others when items were categorically related. Their memory for both items and the associated remember or forget cues was then tested with recall and recognition. Fifth graders recognized more of the forget-cued words than college students did. The pattern of results suggested that age differences in rehearsal and source monitoring (i.e., remembering whether a word had been cued remember or forget) were better explanatory mechanisms for children's forgetting inefficiencies than retrieval inhibition was. The results are discussed in terms of a multiple process view of inhibition. PMID:11277450

  1. Food-specific response inhibition, dietary restraint and snack intake in lean and overweight/obese adults: a moderated-mediation model

    PubMed Central

    Price, M; Lee, M; Higgs, S

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The relationship between response inhibition and obesity is currently unclear. This may be because of inconsistencies in methodology, design limitations and the use of narrow samples. In addition, dietary restraint has not been considered, yet restraint has been reported to moderate performance on behavioural tasks of response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate performance on both a food-based and a neutral stimuli go/no-go task, which addresses current design limitations, in lean and overweight/obese adults. The moderating role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body composition, response inhibition and snack intake was also measured. Subjects/Methods: Lean and overweight/obese, males and females (N=116) completed both a food-based and neutral category control go/no-go task, in a fully counterbalanced repeated-measures design. A bogus taste-test was then completed, followed by a self-report measure of dietary restraint. Results: PROCESS moderated-mediation analysis showed that overweight/obese, compared with lean, participants made more errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task, but only when they were low in dietary restraint. Performance on the food-based go/no-go task predicted snack intake across the sample. Increased intake in the overweight, low restrainers was fully mediated by increased errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task. Conclusions: Distinguishing between high and low restrained eaters in the overweight/obese population is crucial in future obesity research incorporating food-based go/no-go tasks. Poor response inhibition to food cues predicts overeating across weight groups, suggesting weight loss interventions and obesity prevention programmes should target behavioural inhibition training in such individuals. PMID:26592733

  2. Reflections on the Forces for Adult Re-socialization and Thoughts on the Self as Capable of "Re-emergence".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    Re-socialization as renewed social assimilation and accomodation, with emphasis on the possibility of such renewed stress to bring out self-redefinition, is discussed. The discussion is centered around (1) a tenative typology of forces for re-socialization, (2) a view of adults as having three basic attitudinal strategies toward life, and (3) a…

  3. Dynamics of Goal Pursuit and Personality Make-Up among Emerging Adults: Typology, Change over Time, and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    In recent years young people's lives have been characterized by postponement of developmental timetables, inconsistencies of transitions, and loss of direction in life. Data from a longitudinal study of Israeli young adults show that the capacity for setting realistic work and love goals reflects inner strengths and is associated with adaptive…

  4. Researching Adult Education Policy in the Context of an Emerging Global Political Economy: The Case of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groener, Zelda

    An study investigated ways in which the political and economic development (PED) agendas of international organizations (IOs) permeated or pervaded PED agendas of the South African government's adult education and training policies. Policy documents of IOs were main data sources, and the richest data sources were country strategy papers written by…

  5. Neonatal exposure to the D1 agonist SKF38393 inhibits pair bonding in the adult prairie vole.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Harkey, Shanna L; Krzywosinski, Tarin B; Aragona, Brandon J; Bales, Karen L

    2011-10-01

    The monogamous prairie vole displays developmental sensitivity to early pharmacological manipulation in a number of species-typical social behaviors. The long-term consequences of altering the neonatal dopamine system are not well characterized. This study examined whether early manipulation of the dopamine system, a known mediator of adult prairie vole social behavior, during neonatal development would affect adult aggressive and attachment behaviors. Eight-day-old pups were given a single treatment with either 1 mg/kg of SKF38393 (D1 agonist), quinpirole (D2 agonist), SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), eticlopride (D2 antagonist), or saline vehicle. As adults, animals received tests for intrasexual aggression and partner preference. Activation of D1-like receptors in pups impaired partner preference formation, but had no effect on aggression. Other neonatal treatments had no effect on their behavior as adults. To determine whether D1 activation in pups induced changes in dopamine receptor expression, we performed autoradiography on striatal tissue from a second cohort of saline-treated and SKF38393-treated animals. Although sex differences were observed, we found no treatment differences in D1 or D2 receptor binding in any striatal subregion. This study shows that exposure to a single early pharmacological alteration of dopamine receptor activity may have long-term effects on the social behavior of prairie voles. PMID:21918384

  6. AMIGO3 is an NgR1/p75 co-receptor signalling axon growth inhibition in the acute phase of adult central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Douglas, Michael R; John, Gabrielle; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the injured adult CNS is reportedly inhibited by myelin-derived inhibitory molecules, after binding to a receptor complex comprised of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1) and two transmembrane co-receptors p75/TROY and LINGO-1. However, the post-injury expression pattern for LINGO-1 is inconsistent with its proposed function. We demonstrated that AMIGO3 levels were significantly higher acutely than those of LINGO-1 in dorsal column lesions and reduced in models of dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN) axon regeneration. Similarly, AMIGO3 levels were raised in the retina immediately after optic nerve crush, whilst levels were suppressed in regenerating optic nerves, induced by intravitreal peripheral nerve implantation. AMIGO3 interacted functionally with NgR1-p75/TROY in non-neuronal cells and in brain lysates, mediating RhoA activation in response to CNS myelin. Knockdown of AMIGO3 in myelin-inhibited adult primary DRG and retinal cultures promoted disinhibited neurite growth when cells were stimulated with appropriate neurotrophic factors. These findings demonstrate that AMIGO3 substitutes for LINGO-1 in the NgR1-p75/TROY inhibitory signalling complex and suggests that the NgR1-p75/TROY-AMIGO3 receptor complex mediates myelin-induced inhibition of axon growth acutely in the CNS. Thus, antagonizing AMIGO3 rather than LINGO-1 immediately after CNS injury is likely to be a more effective therapeutic strategy for promoting CNS axon regeneration when combined with neurotrophic factor administration. PMID:23613963

  7. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-04-15

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  8. Withdrawing to a Virtual World: Associations between Subtypes of Withdrawal, Media Use, and Maladjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Howard, Emily; Clifford, Brandon N.

    2016-01-01

    An approach-avoidance model of social withdrawal (Asendorpf, 1990) identifies 3 types of social withdrawal including shyness, unsociability, and avoidance. Each appears to be uniquely associated with varying indicators of maladjustment in emerging adulthood (Nelson, 2013) but little, if any, work has been done to see how they might be linked to…

  9. Blood culture collection through peripheral intravenous catheters increases the risk of specimen contamination among adult emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; McNaughton, Candace D; Wright, Patty W; Miller, Geraldine; Johnson, James G; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Five hundred five blood cultures collected through a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) in an emergency department were matched to cultures obtained by dedicated venipuncture from the same patient within 10 minutes. The relative risk of contamination for cultures collected through PIVs compared with dedicated venipuncture was 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.11).

  10. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT, APPENDIX C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARRETT, PAULINE GILLETTE

    SIXTY-FIVE SELECTIONS, IN NOTE OR OUTLINE FORM, FROM PRESENTATIONS BY CONSULTANTS AIDING IN PREPARING LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED ARE INCLUDED IN THIS APPENDIX. THE SUBJECT MATTER RANGES FROM SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SUCH SKILLS AS READING TO GENERAL INFORMATION SUCH AS BASIC UNDERSTANDINGS NECESSARY FOR…

  11. Eating Disorder Behaviors, Strength of Faith, and Values in Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults: An Exploration of Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents entering college are often affected by eating disorders and during this transition to emerging adulthood, individuals begin to establish personal values and beliefs, which makes this population interesting when studying Eating Disorders, values, and faith. This research project seeks to examine the association among strength of…

  12. The Relationships between Emerging Adults' Expressed Desire to Marry and Frequency of Participation in Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Dworkin, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    The impact that desire to marry has on risk-taking behaviors during emerging adulthood is examined in the current investigation using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Looking both at the simple relationships between desire to marry and risk-taking behaviors, as well as the…

  13. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediating between Career Calling and Perceived Employability and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praskova, Anna; Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    We tested a cross-sectional, mediation model of career calling, in which career calling was associated positively with life satisfaction and perceptions of future employability, and these relationships were explained by the self-regulatory mechanisms of work effort, career strategies, and emotional regulation. Using a sample of 664 emerging adults…

  14. Filth flies associated with municipal solid waste and impact of delay in cover soil application on adult filth fly emergence in a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nurita, A T; Hassan, A Abu

    2013-06-01

    Two types of municipal solid waste (MSW), newly arrived and 2 weeks old, were sampled from a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia at a fortnightly interval and kept under field conditions for 2 weeks. A total of 480 kg of each type of MSW was sampled to study species composition and impact of delays in cover soil applications on filth fly emergence. Out of 960 kg of MSW sampled, 9.2 ± 0.5 flies emerged per kilogram. Weekly adult fly emergence rates of newly arrived and 2-week-old waste did not differ significantly and MSW remained suitable for fly breeding for up to 1 month. Eight species of flies emerged from the MSW: namely, Musca domestica, Musca sorbens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Hydrotaea chalcogaster, Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia cuprina, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Sarcophaga sp. Newly arrived waste was determined to be the main source for M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. cuprina in the landfill owing to significantly higher mean emergence compared with 2-week-old waste. Musca sorbens was found in newly arrived waste but not in 2-week-old waste, suggesting that the species was able to survive transportation to landfill but unable to survive landfill conditions. Hemipyrellia ligurriens, H. chalcogaster and S. nudiseta were not imported into the landfill with MSW and pre-existing flies in and around the landfill itself may be their source. The results show that landfills can be a major source of fly breeding if cover soil or temporary cover is not applied daily or on a regular schedule.

  15. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  16. Examining within-person and between-person effects of victimization and social risk on cannabis use among emerging adults in substance-use treatment.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jordan P; Merrin, Gabriel J; Berry, Daniel J; Dumas, Tara M; Hong, Jun Sung; Smith, Douglas C

    2016-02-01

    The goals of this study were to examine associations between within- and between-person social risk and victimization and cannabis use among emerging adults in substance-use treatment. We also tested gender differences for both victimization and social risk. Participants consisted of 3,052 emerging adults (M(age) = 20.0 years; SD = 2.21) entering substance-use treatment in a wide range of treatment centers across the United States. Individuals were assessed on all measures at baseline 3, 6, and 12 months. We fitted a taxonomy of multilevel growth curve models to test main effects, and interactive relations between within- and between-person social risk, victimization, and gender on cannabis use. Several significant interactions were evident. Irrespective of gender, within-person increases in social risk were associated with contemporaneous increases in cannabis use; however, the magnitude of this relation was comparatively more pronounced for men. Similar gender differences emerged between individuals. Males experiencing heightened social risk over time tended to show high levels of early cannabis use. Simple slope analyses revealed that reporting more (+1 SD) social risk than one's own mean resulted in significant increases in cannabis use for both men and women. Cross-level simple slope analyses revealed no differences in cannabis use among individuals reporting low (-1 SD) social risk and victimization, but significant increases in cannabis use for individuals reporting high (+ 1 SD) victimization and social risk. Results demonstrate support for gender differences in social risk on cannabis use and the importance of considering within-person effects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Postnatal Proteasome Inhibition Induces Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficiencies in Adult Mice: A New Model of Neurodevelopment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Granados, Rocío; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Aguilar-Montilla, Francisco Javier; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been related to aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease, although the effects of deficient proteasome activity during early postnatal development are poorly understood. Accordingly, we have assessed how proteasome dysfunction during early postnatal development, induced by administering proteasome inhibitors daily during the first 10 days of life, affects the behaviour of adult mice. We found that this regime of exposure to the proteasome inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin did not produce significant behavioural or morphological changes in the first 15 days of life. However, towards the end of the treatment with proteasome inhibitors, there was a loss of mitochondrial markers and activity, and an increase in DNA oxidation. On reaching adulthood, the memory of mice that were injected with proteasome inhibitors postnatally was impaired in hippocampal and amygdala-dependent tasks, and they suffered motor dysfunction and imbalance. These behavioural deficiencies were correlated with neuronal loss in the hippocampus, amygdala and brainstem, and with diminished adult neurogenesis. Accordingly, impairing proteasome activity at early postnatal ages appears to cause morphological and behavioural alterations in adult mice that resemble those associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or syndromes of mental retardation. PMID:22174927

  18. Inhibition of activated pericentromeric SINE/Alu repeat transcription in senescent human adult stem cells reinstates self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Hostikka, Sirkka Liisa; Atallah, Michelle; Blackwell, Benjamin; Lee, Elbert; Cook, Peter J; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Shariat, Goli; Halperin, Eran; Dobke, Marek; Rosenfeld, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Cellular aging is linked to deficiencies in efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks and authentic genome maintenance at the chromatin level. Aging poses a significant threat to adult stem cell function by triggering persistent DNA damage and ultimately cellular senescence. Senescence is often considered to be an irreversible process. Moreover, critical genomic regions engaged in persistent DNA damage accumulation are unknown. Here we report that 65% of naturally occurring repairable DNA damage in self-renewing adult stem cells occurs within transposable elements. Upregulation of Alu retrotransposon transcription upon ex vivo aging causes nuclear cytotoxicity associated with the formation of persistent DNA damage foci and loss of efficient DNA repair in pericentric chromatin. This occurs due to a failure to recruit of condensin I and cohesin complexes. Our results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of induced Alu repeats is functionally relevant for the human adult stem cell aging. Stable suppression of Alu transcription can reverse the senescent phenotype, reinstating the cells' self-renewing properties and increasing their plasticity by altering so-called “master” pluripotency regulators. PMID:21862875

  19. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  20. Emergency Department Visits Related to Schizophrenia Among Adults Aged 18-64: United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michael; McCaig, Linda F

    2015-09-01

    ED care is important for the treatment of acute presentations of schizophrenia and may serve as a safety net for schizophrenic patients not otherwise receiving care (4,5). This analysis of National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data indicates that during 2009-2011, an average of 382,000 ED visits related to schizophrenia occurred each year among adults aged 18-64, corresponding to an overall visit rate of 20.1 per 10,000 adults. A visit having a first-, second-, or third-listed diagnosis of schizophrenia (i.e., whether the visit was directly or indirectly related to schizophrenia) was included in the analysis to provide a broader description of ED use by these patients. The distribution of the primary diagnosis of visits related to schizophrenia was: schizophrenia (58.8%), another mental disorder (15.4%), and a nonmental health disorder (25.7%) (data not shown). Among adults aged 18-64, the rate for ED visits related to schizophrenia was about twice as high for men as for women. Public insurance (Medicaid, Medicare, or dual Medicare and Medicaid) was more frequently the primary expected source of payment for ED visits related to schizophrenia compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. ED visits related to schizophrenia were more frequently made by patients who were homeless compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. About one-third of ED visits related to schizophrenia resulted in a hospital admission, and another 16.7% resulted in a transfer to a psychiatric hospital--both higher than the percentages for ED visits not related to schizophrenia. One of the goals of Healthy People 2020 is to improve mental health through prevention and by ensuring access to appropriate, quality mental health services (6). National data on the rates and characteristics of ED visits related to schizophrenia will help policymakers and practitioners address disparities and meet this goal.

  1. Comparison of count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Multimorbidity, defined as the presence of 2 or more chronic medical conditions in an individual, is associated with poorer health outcomes. Several multimorbidity measures exist, and the challenge is to decide which to use preferentially in predicting health outcomes. The study objective was to compare the performance of 5 count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency hospital admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults attending primary care. Setting 15 general practices (GPs) in Ireland. Participants n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwellers followed-up for 2 years (2010–2012). Exposure at baseline: Five multimorbidity measures (disease counts, selected conditions counts, Charlson comorbidity index, RxRisk-V, medication counts) calculated using GP medical record and linked national pharmacy claims data. Primary outcomes (1) Emergency admission and ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) admission (GP medical record) and (2) functional decline (postal questionnaire). Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics and measure discrimination (c-statistic, 95% CIs), adjusted for confounders. Results Median age was 77 years and 53% were women. Prevalent rates ranged from 37% to 91% depending on which measure was used to define multimorbidity. All measures demonstrated poor discrimination for the outcome of emergency admission (c-statistic range: 0.62, 0.65), ACS admission (c-statistic range: 0.63, 0.68) and functional decline (c-statistic range: 0.55, 0.61). Medication-based measures were equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Conclusions The choice of measure may have a significant impact on prevalent rates. Five multimorbidity measures demonstrated poor discrimination in predicting emergency admission and functional decline, with medication-based measures equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Consideration of multimorbidity in isolation is insufficient for predicting these outcomes in community settings. PMID:27650770

  2. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and behavioral analysis in adult rats after chronic administration of fenproporex.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Scaini, Giselli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Cardoso, Mariane R; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Constantino, Larissa S; Deroza, Pedro F; Ghedim, Fernando V; Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Quevedo, João; Zugno, Alexandra I; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Fenproporex is an amphetamine-based anorectic and it is rapidly converted in vivo into amphetamine. It elevates the levels of extracellular dopamine in the brain. Acetylcholinesterase is a regulatory enzyme which is involved in cholinergic synapses and may indirectly modulate the release of dopamine. Thus, we investigated whether the effects of chronic administration of fenproporex in adult rats alters acquisition and retention of avoidance memory and acetylcholinesterase activity. Adult male Wistar rats received repeated (14 days) intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg i.p.). For behavioral assessment, animals were submitted to inhibitory avoidance (IA) tasks and continuous multiple trials step-down inhibitory avoidance (CMIA). Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum. The administration of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) did not induce impairment in short and long-term IA or CMIA retention memory in rats. In addition, longer periods of exposure to fenproporex administration decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of rats, but no alteration was verified in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In conclusion, the present study showed that chronic fenproporex administration decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain. However, longer periods of exposure to fenproporex did not produce impairment in short and long-term IA or CMIA retention memory in rats. PMID:22832793

  3. Chronic serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake transporter inhibition modifies basal respiratory output in adult mouse in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kelly A.; Solomon, Irene C.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory disturbances are a common feature of panic disorder and present as breathing irregularity, hyperventilation, and increased sensitivity to carbon dioxide. Common therapeutic interventions, such as tricyclic (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, have been shown to ameliorate not only the psychological components of panic disorder but also the respiratory disturbances. These drugs are also prescribed for generalized anxiety and depressive disorders, neither of which are characterized by respiratory disturbances, and previous studies have demonstrated that TCAs and SSRIs exert effects on basal respiratory activity in animal models without panic disorder symptoms. Whether serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have similar effects on respiratory activity remains to be determined. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of the SNRI antidepressant venlafaxine (VHCL) on basal respiratory output. For these experiments, we recorded phrenic nerve discharge in an in vitro arterially-perfused adult mouse preparation and diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) activity in an in vivo urethane-anesthetized adult mouse preparation. We found that following 28-d VHCL administration, basal respiratory burst frequency was markedly reduced due to an increase in expiratory duration (TE), and the inspiratory duty cycle (TI/Ttot) was significantly shortened. In addition, post-inspiratory and spurious expiratory discharges were seen in vitro. Based on our observations, we suggest that drugs capable of simultaneously blocking both 5-HT and NE reuptake transporters have the potential to influence the respiratory control network in patients using SNRI therapy. PMID:22871263

  4. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration. PMID:26812613

  5. Pre- and postnatally administered ACTH, Organon 2766 and CRF facilitate or inhibit active avoidance task performance in young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Honour, L C; White, M H

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning/memory-related neuropeptides on behavioral task performance in later life. A 1 mg/kg dosage of adrenocorticotropic hormone 4-9, Organon 2766, ACTH/MSH 4-10, ACTH 1-24, CRF, or diluent was subcutaneously injected into either pregnant females or into newborn pups during specific neural developmental windows. Each of the progeny was trained in an active-avoidance task and tested for acquisition on postpartum days 35-37. The mice were then tested for memory task performance and reacquisition on days 42-44 postpartum using the identical experimental paradigm as that used in the training sessions. Prenatal treatment with these memory-related neuropeptides resulted in significant facilitation of learning/memory task performance in male and female mice treated with Organon 2766 (p less than 0.001), and a significant inhibition of learning/memory task performance in males and females treated with ACTH 1-24 (p less than 0.01). Additional sex-specific performance facilitations and inhibitions resulted from the pre- or postnatal administration of the various neuropeptides used in this study. These results suggest that neuropeptides, when available in increased amounts during specific neural developmental windows, can significantly improve or suppress related behavioral performance capability in later life.

  6. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration.

  7. Treating Adult Asthma Exacerbations With a 2-Day Course of Dexamethasone in the Emergency Department: New Protocols to Improve Compliance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dian Dowling; Clinton Shedd, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The Research to Practice column is intended to improve the research critique skills of the advanced practice registered nurse and emergency nurse (RN) and to assist with the translation of research into practice. For each column, a topic and a research study are selected. The stage is set with a case presentation. The research article is then reviewed and critiqued, and the findings are discussed in relation to the case presented. In the current column, we examine the findings of from their article, titled "Two Days of Dexamethasone Versus 5 Days of Prednisone in the Treatment of Acute Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial." PMID:27482988

  8. Erythropoietin Attenuates the Apoptosis of Adult Neurons After Brachial Plexus Root Avulsion by Downregulating JNK Phosphorylation and c-Jun Expression and Inhibiting c-PARP Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Cao, Rang-Juan; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Xing-Yu; Li, Long-Yun; Cui, Shu-Sen

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on preventing adult neurons from apoptosis (introduced by brachial plexus avulsion) were examined, and the mechanism was analyzed. Fifty injury rat models were established in this study by using micro-hemostat forceps to pull out brachial plexus root from the intervertebral foramen in supine position. These models were divided into EPO group (avulsion + 1000 U/kg subcutaneously on alternate days) and control group (avulsion + normal saline). C5-T1 spinal cord was harvested at days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14. Compared with the control group, the apoptosis of spinal motoneurons was significantly decreased on days 4 and 7 in the EPO group, which was also approved by TUNEL examination results. The detection of p-JNK and expression of c-Jun and cleavage of cleaved PARP (c-PARP) were also examined by immunohistochemistry and were increased immediately at day 1, and peaked at day 2, day 2, and day 4 in control group, respectively. However, the amounts were decreased and delayed by EPO treatment significantly at the same time points. In conclusion, the apoptosis of adult spinal motorneurons was associated with JNK phosphorylation, c-Jun expression, and caspase activity, and EPO-mediated neuronal protective effect is proved by downregulating the JNK phosphorylation and c-Jun expression and inhibiting of c-PARP cleavage. PMID:25877688

  9. Withdrawing to a virtual world: Associations between subtypes of withdrawal, media use, and maladjustment in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Larry J; Coyne, Sarah M; Howard, Emily; Clifford, Brandon N

    2016-06-01

    An approach-avoidance model of social withdrawal (Asendorpf, 1990) identifies 3 types of social withdrawal including shyness, unsociability, and avoidance. Each appears to be uniquely associated with varying indicators of maladjustment in emerging adulthood (Nelson, 2013) but little, if any, work has been done to see how they might be linked to media use in the third decade of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the links between subtypes of social withdrawal, connective media (e.g., e-mail, social networking) and problematic (forms of media such as violent video games that, when used in high amounts, have been found to be linked to indices of maladjustment) media use, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The participants in the study (Mage = 20.70, SD = 1.98, range = 18-29 at Time 2) consisted of 204 undergraduate students (58% female) recruited from 2 large public universities in the United States who completed questionnaires at 2 points of time separated by 1 year. Results revealed that avoidant individuals use problematic forms of media more than average, unsociable, and shy individuals. Furthermore, problematic media use predicted more withdrawn behavior at Time 2 and mediated the relation between avoidance and externalizing behaviors over time. Few problems were found for unsociable behavior. The need to differentiate between multiple forms of withdrawal in emerging adulthood and their links with problematic forms of media and subsequent risk factors is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148777

  10. Withdrawing to a virtual world: Associations between subtypes of withdrawal, media use, and maladjustment in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Larry J; Coyne, Sarah M; Howard, Emily; Clifford, Brandon N

    2016-06-01

    An approach-avoidance model of social withdrawal (Asendorpf, 1990) identifies 3 types of social withdrawal including shyness, unsociability, and avoidance. Each appears to be uniquely associated with varying indicators of maladjustment in emerging adulthood (Nelson, 2013) but little, if any, work has been done to see how they might be linked to media use in the third decade of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the links between subtypes of social withdrawal, connective media (e.g., e-mail, social networking) and problematic (forms of media such as violent video games that, when used in high amounts, have been found to be linked to indices of maladjustment) media use, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The participants in the study (Mage = 20.70, SD = 1.98, range = 18-29 at Time 2) consisted of 204 undergraduate students (58% female) recruited from 2 large public universities in the United States who completed questionnaires at 2 points of time separated by 1 year. Results revealed that avoidant individuals use problematic forms of media more than average, unsociable, and shy individuals. Furthermore, problematic media use predicted more withdrawn behavior at Time 2 and mediated the relation between avoidance and externalizing behaviors over time. Few problems were found for unsociable behavior. The need to differentiate between multiple forms of withdrawal in emerging adulthood and their links with problematic forms of media and subsequent risk factors is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Diabetes-related quality of life and the demands and burdens of diabetes care among emerging adults with type 1 diabetes in the year after high school graduation.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Kathleen M; Weaver, Michael T; Slaven, James E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; DiMeglio, Linda A

    2014-10-01

    The roles of glycemic control, diabetes management, diabetes care responsibility, living independently of parents, and time since high school graduation in predicting diabetes-related quality of life (DQOL) were examined in 184 emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Data were collected at graduation and 1 year later. Analyses controlling for selected covariates were completed using generalized linear mixed models. Better diabetes management was associated with more positive responses on all four dimensions of DQOL. Impact and worry of DQOL were greater in the presence of depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction was lower. DQOL life satisfaction was lower in those living independently of parents. Young women reported poorer diabetes-related health status than did young men. Time since graduation was not linked to DQOL. Further research is needed on ways to improve DQOL in conjunction with diabetes management and on ways that families can support DQOL when youth live independently.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of HIV risk among adolescents and young adults reporting drug use: Data from an urban Emergency Department in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Erin E.; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults who use substances are at particularly high risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The Emergency Department (ED) is a critical location for HIV prevention for at-risk youth. To inform future interventions in the ED, this study identifies correlates of HIV risk behaviors among substance using youth seeking ED care. Among 600 14-24-year-olds with past 6-month drug use, bivariate correlates of HIV risk included: older age, female gender, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, marijuana use, other drug use, and dating, peer, and community violence. Regression analyses indicated that older age, marijuana use, and dating violence were positively related to HIV risk. Results suggest HIV prevention efforts for youth in the urban ED should address marijuana use and dating violence as well as sexual risk behaviors. PMID:25126024

  13. Breadwinner and caregiver: a cross-sectional analysis of children's and emerging adults' visions of their future family roles.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Megan; Coyle, Emily F

    2011-06-01

    Participants were 150 school-age boys and girls, 58 high school students, and 145 university students drawn from communities in the Southeastern United States. In this cross-sectional study, family role attitudes and expectations were examined across development. Parental work traditionality (occupational prestige and traditionality, and employed hours) predicted daughters' social role attitudes and plans for future family roles, such that daughters' envisioned families resembled that of their parents. Sons' and daughters' own attitudes about adult family roles predicted their plans to work or stay home with their future children; however, mothers' work traditionality predicted daughters' future plans over and above daughters' own attitudes. The only exception to this was in the case of university daughters, where university women's attitudes about social roles fully mediated this relationship. It may be that, as young women approach adulthood and the formation of families, they adjust their vision of their future self to match more closely their own attitudes about the caregiving role.

  14. Emerging Trends and Innovations in the Identification and Management of Drug Use among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Marsch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    One in four youths aged 12 to 17 years and more than half of young adults aged 18 to 25 years in the United States have used an illicit drug in their lifetime. A significant number progress to problematic use, and only 1 in 10 young people who meet criteria for dependence or abuse receive some form of treatment. Despite advances in the field, effectively intervening along the continuum of drug use involvement remains a challenge. In this article, we review the current epidemiology of illicit drug use by young people; describe recent advances in assessment, intervention and treatment; and highlight how technology can help overcome barriers to effective management of drug use among young people. PMID:22423469

  15. Post-training, intrahippocampal HDAC inhibition differentially impacts neural circuits underlying spatial memory in adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Malorie; Micheau, Jacques; Decorte, Laurence; Beracochea, Daniel; Mons, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Converging evidence indicates that pharmacologically elevating histone acetylation using post-training, systemic or intrahippocampal, administration of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) can enhance memory consolidation processes in young rodents but it is not yet clear, whether such treatment is sufficient to prevent memory impairments associated with aging. To address this question, we used a 1-day massed spatial learning task in the water maze to investigate the effects of immediate post-training injection of the HDACi trichostatin A (TSA) into the dorsal hippocampus on long-term memory consolidation in 3-4 and 18-20 month-old mice. We show that TSA improved the 24 h-memory retention for the hidden platform location in young-adults, but failed to rescue memory impairments in older mice. The results further indicate that Young-TSA mice sacrificed 1 h after training had a robust increase in histone H4 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region (dCA1) and the dorsomedial part of the striatum (DMS), a structure important for spatial information processing. Importantly, TSA infusion in aged mice completely rescued altered H4 acetylation in the dCA1 but failed to alleviate age-associated decreased H4 acetylation in the DMS. Moreover, intrahippocampal TSA infusion produced concomitant decreases (in adults) or increases (in older mice) of acetylated histone levels in the ventral hippocampus (vCA1 and vCA3) and the lateral amygdala, two structures critically involved in stress and emotional responses. These data suggest that the failure of post-training, intrahippocampal TSA injection to reverse age-associated memory impairments may be related to an inability to recruit appropriate circuit-specific epigenetic patterns during early consolidation processes.

  16. CRISPLD2 (LGL1) inhibits proinflammatory mediators in human fetal, adult, and COPD lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Kho, Alvin T; Wu, Qing; Halayko, Andrew J; Limbert Rempel, Karen; Chase, Robert P; Sweezey, Neil B; Weiss, Scott T; Kaplan, Feige

    2016-09-01

    Chronic lung disease of prematurity/bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity in developed countries. Inflammation is a prominent finding. Currently available interventions have associated toxicities and limited efficacy. While BPD often resolves in childhood, survivors of preterm birth are at risk for acquired respiratory disease in early life and are more likely to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adulthood. We previously cloned Crispld2 (Lgl1), a glucocorticoid-regulated mesenchymal secretory protein that modulates lung branching and alveogenesis through mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Absence of Crispld2 is embryonic lethal. Heterozygous Crispld2+/- mice display features of BPD, including distal airspace enlargement, disruption of elastin, and neonatal lung inflammation. CRISPLD2 also plays a role in human fetal lung fibroblast cell expansion, migration, and mesenchymal-epithelial signaling. This study assessed the effects of endogenous and exogenous CRISPLD2 on expression of proinflammatory mediators in human fetal and adult (normal and COPD) lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells. CRISPLD2 expression was upregulated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human fetal lung fibroblast line (MRC5). LPS-induced upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and CCL2 was exacerbated in MRC5-CRISPLD2(knockdown) cells. siRNA suppression of endogenous CRISPLD2 in adult lung fibroblasts (HLFs) led to augmented expression of IL-8, IL-6, CCL2. LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory mediators by human lung epithelial HAEo- cells was attenuated by purified secretory CRISPLD2. RNA sequencing results from HLF-CRISPLD2(knockdown) suggest roles for CRISPLD2 in extracellular matrix and in inflammation. Our data suggest that suppression of CRISPLD2 increases the risk of lung inflammation in early life and adulthood. PMID:27597766

  17. Tris-(2,3-Dibromopropyl) Isocyanurate, a New Emerging Pollutant, Impairs Cognition and Provokes Depression-Like Behaviors in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liang; Hu, Zhengping; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Haibo; Dong, Zhaoju; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Ning; Mi, Wei; Wang, Wenyan; Hu, Xihou

    2015-01-01

    Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TDBP-TAZTO), an emerging brominated flame retardant, possesses the characteristics of candidate persistent organic pollutants and has displayed toxicity to fish and rodents. TDBP-TAZTO can pass through the blood brain barrier and accumulate in brain. However, the neurotoxicity of TDBP-TAZTO has not yet studied in rodents. We hypothesize that TDBP-TAZTO could induce the neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons. The male adult rats were exposed to TDBP-TAZTO of 5 and 50 mg/kg by gavage, daily for 6 months. TDBP-TAZTO resulted in cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors, which may be related with TDBP-TAZTO-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivation, upregulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, overexpression of pro-apoptotic proteins, downexpression of neurogenesis-related proteins in hippocampus, and hippocampal neurons damage in DG, CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings suggested that TDBP-TAZTO induces significant hippocampal neurotoxicity, which provokes cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors in adult rats. Therefore, this research will contribute to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of TDBP-TAZTO in human. PMID:26458255

  18. Tris-(2,3-Dibromopropyl) Isocyanurate, a New Emerging Pollutant, Impairs Cognition and Provokes Depression-Like Behaviors in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liang; Hu, Zhengping; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Haibo; Dong, Zhaoju; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Ning; Mi, Wei; Wang, Wenyan; Hu, Xihou

    2015-01-01

    Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TDBP-TAZTO), an emerging brominated flame retardant, possesses the characteristics of candidate persistent organic pollutants and has displayed toxicity to fish and rodents. TDBP-TAZTO can pass through the blood brain barrier and accumulate in brain. However, the neurotoxicity of TDBP-TAZTO has not yet studied in rodents. We hypothesize that TDBP-TAZTO could induce the neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons. The male adult rats were exposed to TDBP-TAZTO of 5 and 50 mg/kg by gavage, daily for 6 months. TDBP-TAZTO resulted in cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors, which may be related with TDBP-TAZTO-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivation, upregulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, overexpression of pro-apoptotic proteins, downexpression of neurogenesis-related proteins in hippocampus, and hippocampal neurons damage in DG, CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings suggested that TDBP-TAZTO induces significant hippocampal neurotoxicity, which provokes cognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors in adult rats. Therefore, this research will contribute to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of TDBP-TAZTO in human. PMID:26458255

  19. Characteristics and determinants of adult patients with acute poisoning attending the accident and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Khudair, I F; Jassim, Z; Hanssens, Y; Alsaad, W A

    2013-09-01

    Data about etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar are lacking. This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze characteristics and possible determinants of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar. During 2010, 18,073 patients attended the emergency department of Hamad General Hospital, a teaching hospital in Qatar. Out of them, 599 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed as "poisoning case" with either chemical or pharmaceutical substances. The prevalence rate of poisoning incidence was 35.3/100,000 population. Seven patients died, corresponding with a case-fatality rate of 0.39/1000. The majority were male (65%) and the mean age was 34 years. The poisons involved were mainly chemicals (61.6%) and pharmaceuticals (38.4%). Female, mainly single, suffered more intentional poisoning compared to male. Of the patients aged 60 years and above (7.2%), the majority (95.3%) suffered unintentional poisoning with pharmaceuticals; 56% with warfarin, 12% with digoxin and 7% with insulin. Multivariate analysis shows that female gender, single status, younger than 35 years of age, being poisoned by pharmaceutical products, and the need for hospitalization are significant determinants for acute intentional poisoning after adjusting all other possible covariates. The findings of this study can be used to establish awareness and prophylactic campaigns in Qatar.

  20. Preventing avoidable incidents leading to a presentation to the emergency department (ED) by older adults with cognitive impairment: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Véronique; Généreux, Mélissa; Gagnon-Roy, Mireille; Veillette, Nathalie; Egan, Mary; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Lacasse, Francis; Rose, Kathy; Stocco, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older adults with cognitive impairment represent a large portion (21–42%) of people (65+) who consult at an emergency department (ED). Because this sub-group is at higher risk for hospitalisation and mortality following an ED visit, awareness about ‘avoidable’ incidents should be increased in order to prevent presentations to the ED due to such incidents. This study aims to synthetise the actual knowledge related to ‘avoidable’ incidents (ie, traumatic injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes) (WHO, 2016) leading to ED presentations in older people with cognitive impairment. Methodology and analysis A scoping review will be performed. Scientific and grey literature (1996–2016) will be searched using a combination of key words pertaining to avoidable incidents, ED presentations, older adults and cognitive impairment. A variety of databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ageline, SCOPUS, ProQuest Dissertations/theses, EBM Reviews, Healthstar), online library catalogues, governmental websites and published statistics will be examined. Included sources will pertain to community-dwelling older adults presenting to the ED as a result of an avoidable incident, with the main focus on those with cognitive impairment. Data (eg, type, frequency, severity, circumstances of incidents, preventive measures) will be extracted and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. Discussion and dissemination This scoping review will provide a picture of the actual knowledge on the subject and identify knowledge gaps in existing literature to be filled by future primary researches. Findings will help stakeholders to develop programmes in order to promote safe and healthy environments and behaviours aimed at reducing avoidable incidents in seniors, especially those with cognitive impairment. PMID:26873049

  1. Universal health coverage in emerging economies: findings on health care utilization by older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Williams, Jennifer Stewart; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Snodgrass, James Josh; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Thiele, Liz; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) in emerging economies is a high priority within the global community. This timely study uses standardized national population data collected from adults aged 50 and older in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. The objective is to describe health care utilization and measure association between inpatient and outpatient service use and patient characteristics in these six low- and middle-income countries. Design Secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 was undertaken. Country samples are compared by socio-demographic characteristics, type of health care, and reasons for use. Logistic regressions describe association between socio-demographic and health factors and inpatient and outpatient service use. Results In the pooled multi-country sample of over 26,000 adults aged 50-plus, who reported getting health care the last time it was needed, almost 80% of men and women received inpatient or outpatient care, or both. Roughly 30% of men and women in the Russian Federation used inpatient services in the previous 3 years and 90% of men and women in India used outpatient services in the past year. In China, public hospitals were the most frequently used service type for 52% of men and 51% of women. Multivariable regression showed that, compared with men, women were less likely to use inpatient services and more likely to use outpatient services. Respondents with two or more chronic conditions were almost three times as likely to use inpatient services and twice as likely to use outpatient services compared with respondents with no reported chronic conditions. Conclusions This study provides a basis for further investigation of country-specific responses to UHC. PMID:25363363

  2. To study the effectiveness and safety of ketamine and midazolam procedural sedation in the incision and drainage of abscesses in the adult emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sim, Tiong Beng; Seet, Chong Meng

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the report was to study the efficacy and safety of ketamine and midazolam combination in the procedural sedation of incision and drainage of abscesses in the adult emergency department (ED) patients. This prospective observational study enrolled patients aged 16-60 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists class I) requiring abscess drainage in an adult ED. Patients received 2 mg/kg of ketamine infusion over 5 min and midazolam 2-5 mg titrated to deep sedation according to Ramsay sedation scale. Primary outcome was patient satisfaction using pain score after procedure. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, hemodynamics alterations and recovery time. Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS software. Fifteen patients were recruited. One patient was excluded because of difficulty with pain score interpretation. Seventy-nine percent were male patients. The mean age was 29. The mean size of abscess was 3.4 cm. The mean dose of midazolam was 3.2 mg. Eighty-six percent did not experience any pain for the procedure. Only two patients (14%) reported mild pain during the procedure. There were no significant adverse events or complications. Three patients had giddiness, two had vomiting and only one reported an unpleasant dream. The median systolic blood pressure and heart rate elevation were 30+/-5.1 mmHg and 12.5+/-3.2/min, respectively. The median time for blood pressure and pulse rate to return to baseline was 20+/-2.7 min. The use of ketamine and midazolam sedation is both well tolerated and effective for adults in the ED undergoing incision and drainage of abscesses. This study is limited by the small sample size. PMID:18460960

  3. Central amygdala lesions inhibit pontine nuclei acoustic reactivity and retard delay eyeblink conditioning acquisition in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Pochiro, Joseph M; Lindquist, Derick H

    2016-06-01

    In delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; tone) is repeatedly paired with a mildly aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; periorbital electrical shock). Over training, subjects learn to produce an anticipatory eyeblink conditioned response (CR) during the CS, prior to US onset. While cerebellar synaptic plasticity is necessary for successful EBC, the amygdala is proposed to enhance eyeblink CR acquisition. In the current study, adult Long-Evans rats received bilateral sham or neurotoxic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) followed by 1 or 4 EBC sessions. Fear-evoked freezing behavior, CS-mediated enhancement of the unconditioned response (UR), and eyeblink CR acquisition were all impaired in the CEA lesion rats relative to sham controls. There were also significantly fewer c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the pontine nuclei (PN)-major relays of acoustic information to the cerebellum-following the first and fourth EBC session in lesion rats. In sham rats, freezing behavior decreased from session 1 to 4, commensurate with nucleus-specific reductions in amygdala Fos+ cell counts. Results suggest delay EBC proceeds through three stages: in stage one the amygdala rapidly excites diffuse fear responses and PN acoustic reactivity, facilitating cerebellar synaptic plasticity and the development of eyeblink CRs in stage two, leading, in stage three, to a diminution or stabilization of conditioned fear responding.

  4. Direct and indirect measures of intentional forgetting in children and adults: evidence for retrieval inhibition and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Lehman, E B; McKinley-Pace, M J; Wilson, J A; Slavsky, M D; Woodson, M E

    1997-02-01

    In two experiments children in grades 3 and 4 and college students were given an item-by-item cued intentional forgetting task (i.e., instructions were to remember some words and to forget others), either a direct (cued recall word-stem completion) or an indirect (repetition priming word-stem completion) test of memory for the words, and a final free recall test for both remember- and forget-cued words. In both age groups, direct and indirect assessments produced better memory for remember- than for forget-cued words, even in Experiment 2 where the opportunity to selectively rehearse had been reduced by having subjects count aloud with each cue. These results suggest that retrieval inhibition plays a role in item-cued intentional forgetting, albeit one that is similar across ages. Furthermore, again in both age groups, performance on the word-stem completion tasks was enhanced in comparison with an immediate free-recall group, but only for material thought to be irrelevant (the forget-cued words). The facilitation on the priming tasks, however, did not carry over to a final free-recall task. These results on the effects of an intervening experience are discussed in terms of their implications for children's eyewitness testimony. PMID:9120384

  5. Behavioral activation and inhibition, negative affect, and gambling severity in a sample of young adult college students.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John; Sharp, Carla; Schmitz, Joy; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students is increasing. Few studies have directly examined the relation between reward processing and gambling severity while concurrently examining the effects of co-occurring negative affect in this at risk population. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to analyze results from an online survey of 352 female and 96 male students age 18-25. Participants completed measures of past year gambling behavior and severity of gambling problems using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Negative affect and reward processing were measured by the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, respectively. Thirty-five percent of participants reported gambling in the previous 12 months, and 11% had gambling severity scores indicative of "moderate-risk" or "problem gambling." Gambling severity was associated with negative affect. Negative affect, in turn, was correlated with the unitary BIS scale and inversely associated with the BAS reward responsiveness scale. Reward responsiveness was also inversely associated with gambling severity. In the SEM models, the association between reward responsiveness and gambling severity was mediated by negative affect among males but not among females. Potential explanations for these findings and their implications for addressing problem gambling are discussed.

  6. Prenatal inhibition of the kynurenine pathway leads to structural changes in the hippocampus of adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Omari S; Pisar, Mazura; Forrest, Caroline M; Vincenten, Maria C J; Darlington, L Gail; Stone, Trevor W

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate receptors for N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) are involved in early brain development. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism includes the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid and the antagonist kynurenic acid. We now report that prenatal inhibition of the pathway in rats with 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[4-(3-nitrophenyl)thiazol-2-yl]benzenesulphonamide (Ro61-8048) produces marked changes in hippocampal neuron morphology, spine density and the immunocytochemical localisation of developmental proteins in the offspring at postnatal day 60. Golgi–Cox silver staining revealed decreased overall numbers and lengths of CA1 basal dendrites and secondary basal dendrites, together with fewer basal dendritic spines and less overall dendritic complexity in the basal arbour. Fewer dendrites and less complexity were also noted in the dentate gyrus granule cells. More neurons containing the nuclear marker NeuN and the developmental protein sonic hedgehog were detected in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus. Staining for doublecortin revealed fewer newly generated granule cells bearing extended dendritic processes. The number of neuron terminals staining for vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)-1 and VGLUT-2 was increased by Ro61-8048, with no change in expression of vesicular GABA transporter or its co-localisation with vesicle-associated membrane protein-1. These data support the view that constitutive kynurenine metabolism normally plays a role in early embryonic brain development, and that interfering with it has profound consequences for neuronal structure and morphology, lasting into adulthood. PMID:24646396

  7. Chronic and episodic interpersonal stress as statistically unique predictors of depression in two samples of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Stroud, Catherine B; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Zinbarg, Richard E; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-11-01

    Few studies comprehensively evaluate which types of life stress are most strongly associated with depressive episode onsets, over and above other forms of stress, and comparisons between acute and chronic stress are particularly lacking. Past research implicates major (moderate to severe) stressful life events (SLEs), and to a lesser extent, interpersonal forms of stress; research conflicts on whether dependent or independent SLEs are more potent, but theory favors dependent SLEs. The present study used 5 years of annual diagnostic and life stress interviews of chronic stress and SLEs from 2 separate samples (Sample 1 N = 432; Sample 2 N = 146) transitioning into emerging adulthood; 1 sample also collected early adversity interviews. Multivariate analyses simultaneously examined multiple forms of life stress to test hypotheses that all major SLEs, then particularly interpersonal forms of stress, and then dependent SLEs would contribute unique variance to major depressive episode (MDE) onsets. Person-month survival analysis consistently implicated chronic interpersonal stress and major interpersonal SLEs as statistically unique predictors of risk for MDE onset. In addition, follow-up analyses demonstrated temporal precedence for chronic stress; tested differences by gender; showed that recent chronic stress mediates the relationship between adolescent adversity and later MDE onsets; and revealed interactions of several forms of stress with socioeconomic status (SES). Specifically, as SES declined, there was an increasing role for noninterpersonal chronic stress and noninterpersonal major SLEs, coupled with a decreasing role for interpersonal chronic stress. Implications for future etiological research were discussed.

  8. The emergence of sedentary behaviour physiology and its effects on the cardiometabolic profile in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D J; Stebbings, G K; Onambele, G L

    2015-10-01

    It has recently emerged that sedentary behaviour is independent of a lack of physical activity as individuals can be sufficiently active, based on the recommended physical activity guidelines, but also spend the majority of their waking hours engaging in sedentary behaviour. Individuals who follow this pattern of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are known as 'active couch potatoes'. Sedentary behaviour has been found to have detrimental effects on cardiometabolic markers associated with cardiovascular disease. Since the positive effects of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity do not necessarily negate the deleterious effects of sedentary behaviour on cardiometabolic markers, it is postulated that engaging in light physical activity is an intervention that will successfully reduce levels of sedentary behaviour and may hence improve health markers of quality of life. We propose that such lifestyle changes may be particularly relevant to older populations as these engage in sedentary behaviour for the majority of their waking hours, thereby adding to the negative aging effect on cardiometabolic markers.

  9. Chronic and Episodic Interpersonal Stress as Statistically Unique Predictors of Depression in Two Samples of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Zinbarg, Richard; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Craske, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies comprehensively evaluate which types of life stress are most strongly associated with depressive episode onsets, over and above other forms of stress, and comparisons between acute and chronic stress are particularly lacking. Past research implicates major (moderate to severe) stressful life events (SLEs), and to a lesser extent, interpersonal forms of stress; research conflicts on whether dependent or independent SLEs are more potent, but theory favors dependent SLEs. The present study used five years of annual diagnostic and life stress interviews of chronic stress and SLEs from two separate samples (Sample 1 N = 432; Sample 2 N = 146) transitioning into emerging adulthood; one sample also collected early adversity interviews. Multivariate analyses simultaneously examined multiple forms of life stress to test hypotheses that all major SLEs, then particularly interpersonal forms of stress, and then dependent SLEs would contribute unique variance to major depressive episode (MDE) onsets. Person-month survival analysis consistently implicated chronic interpersonal stress and major interpersonal SLEs as statistically unique predictors of risk for MDE onset. In addition, follow-up analyses demonstrated temporal precedence for chronic stress; tested differences by gender; showed that recent chronic stress mediates the relationship between adolescent adversity and later MDE onsets; and revealed interactions of several forms of stress with socioeconomic status (SES). Specifically, as SES declined, there was an increasing role for non-interpersonal chronic stress and non-interpersonal major SLEs, coupled with a decreasing role for interpersonal chronic stress. Implications for future etiological research were discussed. PMID:26301973

  10. Moderate increases in peripheral blood estradiol concentration in the adult ram do not directly inhibit testosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, P M; Sanford, L M; Robaire, B

    1992-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in July with adult Dorset x Leicester x Suffolk rams to determine whether increases of 150 or 300% in estradiol (E2) concentration in peripheral blood (from 6.3 +/- 0.8 pg/mL in control rams) would affect testosterone secretion directly as well as indirectly via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. After 4 days of estradiol treatment (experiment 1) provided with subcutaneous polydimethylsiloxane implants filled with crystalline estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretions were reduced by 50% (p < 0.05) in both groups of rams because of subtle decreases in pulse frequencies and amplitudes. Estradiol treatments were also associated with decreases in mean follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration (30-50% in both groups, p < 0.05) and increases in mean prolactin concentration (35% in low-E2 group; 105% in high-E2 group, p < 0.05), but testicular responsiveness to an LH challenge (single intravenous dose, 10 micrograms NIH-LH-S25) remained normal. When along with estradiol treatment, 10-micrograms doses LH were given every 80 min (experiment 2), testosterone secretion increased by 265% (p < 0.05) in both treated and control rams. Relative to day -1, secretion on day 4 was characterized by higher (p < 0.05) pulse frequencies and baseline concentrations and lower (p < 0.05) pulse amplitudes; values for all characteristics were similar to those for Dorset x Leicester x Suffolk rams in the breeding season. Interestingly, the decreases in mean FSH concentration brought about by estradiol and (or) LH treatments were not any greater than in experiment 1, and estradiol's ability to elevate mean prolactin concentration was blocked completely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

    2011-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods. PMID:21293936

  12. X-ray radiation and development inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junheon; Jung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-10-01

    Effect of X-ray radiation on the development inhibition was evaluated for all stages of the life cycle of Helicoverpa armigera to determine a radiation dose for potential quarantine treatment against the insect. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation, and adult emergence from irradiated eggs were 413, 210, and 154 Gy, respectively. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence from irradiated larvae were 221 and 167 Gy, respectively. Pupa was the most tolerant to X-ray radiation. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated pupae was as high as 2310 Gy, whereas that for inhibition of F1 egg hatching was only 66 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of hatching of F1 eggs which were laid by irradiated adults was estimated to 194 Gy. X-ray irradiation against H. armigera is recommended as an alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation for phytosanitary treatments during quarantine. X-ray radiation dose of 200 Gy is proposed as a potential quarantine treatment dose for H. armigera eggs and larvae.

  13. Acute cyclooxygenase inhibition does not alter muscle sympathetic nerve activity or forearm vasodilator responsiveness in lean and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jill N.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Matzek, Luke J.; Johnson, Christopher P.; Joyner, Michael J.; Curry, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is often characterized by chronic inflammation that may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk via sympathoexcitation and decreased vasodilator responsiveness. We hypothesized that obese individuals would have greater indices of inflammation compared with lean controls, and that cyclooxygenase inhibition using ibuprofen would reduce muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increase forearm blood flow in these subjects. We measured MSNA, inflammatory biomarkers (C‐reactive protein [CRP] and Interleukin‐6 [IL‐6]), and forearm vasodilator responses to brachial artery acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in 13 men and women (7 lean; 6 obese) on two separate study days: control (CON) and after 800 mg ibuprofen (IBU). CRP (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/L; P < 0.05) and IL‐6 (4.1 ± 1.5 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1pg/mL; P < 0.05) were higher in the obese group during CON and tended to decrease with IBU (IL‐6: P < 0.05; CRP: P = 0.14). MSNA was not different between groups during CON (26 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats (lean) versus 26 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats (obese); P = 0.50) or IBU (25 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats (lean) versus 30 ± 5 bursts/100 heart beats (obese); P = 0.25), and was not altered by IBU. Forearm vasodilator responses were unaffected by IBU in both groups. In summary, an acute dose of ibuprofen did not alter sympathetic nerve activity or forearm blood flow responses in healthy obese individuals, suggesting that the cyclooxygenase pathway is not a major contributor to these variables in this group. PMID:25347862

  14. Persistent and emerging pollutants in the blood of German adults: Occurrence of dechloranes, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and siloxanes.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Cequier, Enrique; Kim, Jun-Tae; Hanssen, Linda; Hilger, Bettina; Thomsen, Cathrine; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Völkel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Human biomonitoring is a valid method to determine exposure, identify time trends, and monitor the effects of restrictions and measures. To characterize the recent exposure of Germans to persistent or emerging substances, we analyzed 4 dechloranes, 33 polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and 3 cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) in 42 plasma samples. The samples were collected from blood donors on a random selection. The median values of both Dechlorane Plus (DDC-CO) isomers were 1.23ng/gl.w. for anti- and 0.77ng/gl.w. for syn-DDC-CO. The two other dechloranes were found at lower levels. The median level of ∑-PCNs was 575pg/gl.w. (range: 101-1406pg/gl.w.). On average, the levels of PCNs in plasma were dominated by the congeners CN73, CN66/67, and CN51, which were responsible for approximately 71% of the total amount of PCNs. The cVMS octa-, deca-, and dodecamethylcyclotetrasiloxane could be determined in only some samples, with maximum values of 0.73, 0.48, and 0.79μg/l, respectively. Regarding dechloranes, our results are similar to those from other western countries but slightly lower than results from China. The levels of PCNs in German blood are similar to those observed in the U.S.A., but considerably lower than those reported for Korea. Using a preliminary TEF (toxic equivalency factor), the mean TEQ of the 9 quantifiable PCNs in Germany was low (0.36pg TEQ/gl.w.). The PCN levels in our study group are lower compared to previous studies.

  15. Nocturnal emergency department visits, duration of symptoms and risk of hospitalisation among adults with asthma exacerbations: a multicentre observational study

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hideto; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Watase, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to compare the characteristics of patients with asthma presenting to the emergency department (ED) during the night-time with those of patients presenting at other times of the day, and to determine whether the time of ED presentation is associated with the risk of hospitalisation. Design and setting A multicentre chart review study of 23 EDs across Japan. Participants Patients aged 18–54 years with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma, presented to the ED between January 2009 and December 2011 Outcome measures The outcome of interest was hospitalisation, including admissions to an observation unit, inpatient unit and intensive care unit. Results Among the 1354 patients (30.1% in the night-time group vs 69.9% in the other time group) included in this study, the median age was 34 years and ∼40% were male. Overall 145 patients (10.7%) were hospitalised. Patients in the night-time group were more likely to have a shorter duration of symptoms (≤3 hours) before ED presentation than those in the other time group (25.9% in night-time vs 13.4% in other times; p<0.001). In contrast, there were no significant differences in respiratory rate, initial peak expiratory flow or ED asthma treatment between the two groups (p>0.05). Similarly, the risk of hospitalisation did not differ between the two groups (11.3% in night-time vs 10.5% in other times; p=0.65). In a multivariable model adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of hospitalisation in the night-time group was not statistically different from the other time group (OR, 1.10; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.61; p=0.63). Conclusions This multicentre study in Japan demonstrated no significant difference in the risk of hospitalisations according to the time of ED presentation. PMID:27519919

  16. Incorporation of embryonic CA3 cell grafts into the adult hippocampus at 4-months after injury: effects of combined neurotrophic supplementation and caspase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, B; Rao, M S; Zaman, V; Shetty, A K

    2006-01-01

    As receptivity of the injured hippocampus to cell grafts decreases with time after injury, strategies that improve graft integration are necessary for graft-mediated treatment of chronic neurodegenerative conditions such as temporal lobe epilepsy. We ascertained the efficacy of two distinct graft-augmentation strategies for improving the survival of embryonic day 19 hippocampal CA3 cell grafts placed into the adult hippocampus at 4-months after kainic acid induced injury. The donor cells were labeled with 5'-bromodeoxyuridine, and pre-treated and grafted with either brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and a caspase inhibitor or fibroblast growth factor and caspase inhibitor. The yield of surviving grafted cells and neurons were quantified at 2-months post-grafting. The yield of surviving cells was substantially greater in grafts treated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and caspase inhibitor (84%) or fibroblast growth factor and caspase inhibitor (99% of injected cells) than standard cell grafts (26%). Because approximately 85% of surviving grafted cells were neurons, increased yield in augmented groups reflects enhanced survival of grafted neurons. Evaluation of the mossy fiber synaptic re-organization in additional kainic acid-lesioned rats receiving grafts enriched with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and caspase inhibitor at 3-months post-grafting revealed reduced aberrant dentate mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate supragranular layer than "lesion-only" rats at 4 months post-kainic acid, suggesting that some of the aberrantly sprouted mossy fibers in the dentate supragranular layer withdraw when apt target cells (i.e. grafted neurons) become available in their vicinity. Thus, the yield of surviving neurons from CA3 cell grafts placed into the adult hippocampus at an extended time-point after injury could be enhanced through apt neurotrophic supplementation and caspase inhibition. Apt grafting is also

  17. Variations in Substance Use Prevalence Estimates and Need for Interventions among Adult Emergency Department Patients Based on Different Screening Strategies Using the ASSIST

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Roland C.; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among adult emergency department (ED) patients, we sought to examine how estimates of substance use prevalence and the need for interventions can differ, based on the type of screening and assessment strategies employed. Methods We estimated the prevalence of substance use and the need for interventions using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in a secondary analysis of data from two cross-sectional studies using random samples of English- or Spanish-speaking 18–64-year-old ED patients. In addition, the test performance characteristics of three simplified screening strategies consisting of selected questions from the ASSIST (lifetime use, past three-month use, and past three-month frequency of use) to identify patients in need of a possible intervention were compared against using the full ASSIST. Results Of 6,432 adult ED patients, the median age was 37 years-old, 56.6% were female, and 61.6% were white. Estimated substance use prevalence among this population differed by how it was measured (lifetime use, past three-month use, past three-month frequency of use, or need for interventions). As compared to using the full ASSIST, the predictive value and accuracy to identify patients in need of any intervention was best for a simplified strategy asking about past three-month substance use. A strategy asking about daily/near-daily use was better in identifying patients needing intensive interventions. However, some patients needing interventions were missed when using these simplified strategies. Conclusion Substance use prevalence estimates and identification of ED patients needing interventions differ by screening strategies used. EDs should carefully select strategies to identify patients in need of substance use interventions. PMID:27330663

  18. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Natasha E.; Strong, Judith A.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence. Method Data were collected from 116 young adults (18–25 years-old), including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels. Results MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03) such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05), short (p = .008) and long delay free recall (p = .01), and recognition (p = .006), with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02); short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype. Conclusions 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy’s impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption. PMID:26231032

  19. The Influence of Supervisory Neglect on Subtypes of Emerging Adult Substance Use After Controlling for Familial Factors, Relationship Status, and Individual Traits

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Susan M.; Merritt, Darcey H.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study is the first to explore how child supervisory neglect influences patterns of substance use among young adults. This study investigated patterns of substance use among males and females, 18 to 24 years old, after controlling for adolescent parental drinking, living with parents, relationship status, delinquency, and depression. Methods The study sample (N = 10,618) included individuals who participated in Waves I (1994–1995) and III (2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study used latent class analysis to ascertain how patterns of substance use emerged as distinct classes. Results For both males and females, we identified the following 4 classes of substance use: (1) heavy polysubstance use, (2) moderate polysubstance use, (3) alcohol and marijuana, and (4) low-use substance use patterns. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that, for both males and females 18 to 24 years old, experiencing supervisory neglect, being depressed, being single, and engaging in adolescent delinquency serve as risk factors for heavy polysubstance use class membership. Conversely, being black or Hispanic lowered the likelihood of polysubstance use for males and females. For females only, living with parents served as a protective factor that reduced the risk of membership in heavy polysubstance use, moderate polysubstance use, and alcohol and marijuana classes. For males only, being less educated increased the risk of heavy polysubstance use class membership. Conclusions Results from this exploratory study underscore the enduring effect of supervisory neglect on substance use among male and female young adults. Future studies should explore whether these relationships hold over time. PMID:25775372

  20. Risk stratification of adult emergency department syncope patients to predict short-term serious outcomes after discharge (RiSEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While Canadian ED physicians discharge most syncope patients with no specific further follow-up, approximately 5% will suffer serious outcomes after ED discharge. The goal of this study is to prospectively identify risk factors and to derive a clinical decision tool to accurately predict those at risk for serious outcomes after ED discharge within 30 days. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective cohort study at 6 Canadian EDs to include adults with syncope and exclude patients with loss of consciousness > 5 minutes, mental status changes from baseline, obvious witnessed seizure, or head trauma prior to syncope. Emergency physicians will collect standardized clinical variables including historical features, physical findings, and results of immediately available tests (blood, ECG, and ED cardiac monitoring) prior to ED discharge/hospital admission. A second emergency physician will evaluate approximately 10% of study patients for interobserver agreement calculation of predictor variables. The primary outcome will be a composite serious outcome occurring within 30 days of ED discharge and includes three distinct categories: serious adverse events (death, arrhythmia); identification of serious underlying disease (structural heart disease, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, severe pulmonary hypertension, subarachnoid hemorrhage, significant hemorrhage, myocardial infarction); or procedures to treat the cause of syncope. The secondary outcome will be any of the above serious outcomes either suspected or those occurring in the ED. A blinded Adjudication Committee will confirm all serious outcomes. Univariate analysis will be performed to compare the predictor variables in patients with and without primary outcome. Variables with p-values <0.2 and kappa values ≥0.60 will be selected for stepwise logistic regression to identify the risk factors and to develop the clinical decision tool. We will enroll 5,000 patients (with 125 positive for