Science.gov

Sample records for adult emergence rate

  1. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  2. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use.

  3. Koru: Teaching Mindfulness to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is much interest in teaching mindfulness to college students and other emerging adults, traditional methods of teaching mindfulness and meditation are not always effective for reaching this age group. Koru is a program, developed at Duke University, that has been specifically designed with the developmental characteristics of…

  4. Emergency Department Death Rates Dropped By Nearly 50 Percent, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; Probst, Marc A; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-07-01

    Between 1997 and 2011, there was a nearly 50 percent reduction in US emergency department mortality rates for adults. This trend likely has many causes, related to advances in palliative, prehospital, and emergency care. PMID:27385248

  5. Do Social Bonds Matter for Emerging Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Christopher; Taniguchi, Travis A.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which social bonds and turning points influence criminal activity has been the focus of much empirical research. However, there have been few empirical studies exploring social bonds and turning points and offending for those who have experienced emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we examined if indicators of social bonds and turning points were predictors of criminal offending. Several of the turning points and social bonds included in these analyses were found to influence decreases in criminal offending for a cohort of emerging adults. We extend previous research by examining the influence of social bonds and turning points on patterns of criminal offending during emerging adulthood. PMID:23487587

  6. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In several developmental theories, separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate separation anxiety at the family level in families with emerging adults. By using the Social Relations Model, we aimed to determine the extent to which the actor, the partner, their specific relationships, and the family contribute to separation anxiety in dyadic family relationships. A total of 119 Belgian two-parent families with an emerging adult participated in a round-robin design, in which family members reported on their feelings of separation anxiety toward each other. Findings showed that separation anxiety can be represented as a personal characteristic (i.e., an actor effect) and as a specific feature of the mother-child dyad. Further, findings indicate that separation anxiety is also characteristic of the father-mother marital relationship and of the family climate as a whole. Implications for the meaning of separation anxiety and clinical practice are discussed.

  7. Emergency Department Use Among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-04-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to 2011 (2549-6087 per 100,000 admissions). Adults with ASD visited ED for: primary psychiatric disorder (15%ASD vs. 4.2%noASD), primary non-psychiatric disorder (16%ASD vs. 14%noASD), and any injury (24%ASD vs. 28%noASD). Mean total ED charges for adults with ASD were 2.3 times higher than for adults without ASD. Findings emphasize the need to examine the extent of frequent ED use in this population.

  8. Emergency Department Use among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to…

  9. The Effect of Childhood Supervisory Neglect on Emerging Adults' Drinking.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Merritt, Darcey H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of childhood supervisory neglect on emerging adults' drinking. Child supervisory neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States, but few studies explore supervisory neglect separate from other forms of maltreatment among emerging adults, 18-25 years old. The study sample included (n = 11,117) emerging adults, 18-25 years old who participated in Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We conducted separate analyses for male and female emerging adults, because they have different rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol risk behaviors. Our study used latent class analysis to understand how patterns of alcohol risk behaviors clustered together. For males, we found the following four classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, (3) binge-drinkers, and (4) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For females, we found the following three classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, and (3) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For both males and females, supervisory neglect increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class compared to the low-risk drinkers or abstainers' class. Single males who did not live with their parents, and who were white had increased odds of being in the multiple-risk drinkers. For females, being more educated, or in a serious romantic relationship increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class. Practitioners should ask about histories of supervisory neglect among emerging adults who engage in alcohol risk behaviors. PMID:26771736

  10. Perceived Stress and Avoidant Coping Moderate Disordered Gambling among Emerging Adults in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lostutter, Ty W.; Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kaljee, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling research conducted in Asia has been limited, despite a continued growth of the gambling industry within the region. Outside Asia, research suggests emerging adults have high rates of gambling behavior and experience serious consequences. The current study examines gambling behavior within an emerging adult (ages 16-24) population in…

  11. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  12. Homeless, Street-Involved Emerging Adults: Attitudes toward Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.; Gomez, Rebecca; Dreyer, Lauren; Popham, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that a high proportion of homeless emerging adults use substances. This article aims to understand the attitudes of these young adults concerning their substance use and its effect on their lives. A mixed methods study using semistructured interviews and self-report instruments was conducted with 87 emerging adults who…

  13. Comparison of the Fluid Resuscitation Rate with and without External Pressure Using Two Intraosseous Infusion Systems for Adult Emergencies, the CITRIN (Comparison of InTRaosseous infusion systems in emergency medicINe)-Study

    PubMed Central

    Gries, André; Hossfeld, Björn; Bechmann, Ingo; Bernhard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intraosseous infusion is recommended if peripheral venous access fails for cardiopulmonary resuscitation or other medical emergencies. The aim of this study, using body donors, was to compare a semi-automatic (EZ-IO®) device at two insertion sites and a sternal intraosseous infusion device (FASTR™). Methods Twenty-seven medical students being inexperienced first-time users were randomized into three groups using EZ-IO and FASTR. The following data were evaluated: attempts required for successful placement, insertion time and flow rates with and without external pressure to the infusion. Results The first-pass insertion success of the EZ-IO tibia, EZ-IO humerus and FASTR was 91%, 77%, and 95%, respectively. Insertion times (MW±SD) did not show significant differences with 17±7 (EZ-IO tibia) vs. 29±42 (EZ-IO humerus) vs. 33±21 (FASTR), respectively. One-minute flow rates using external pressures between 0 mmHg and 300 mmHg ranged between 27±5 to 69±54 ml/min (EZ-IO tibia), 16±3 to 60±44 ml/min (EZ-IO humerus) and 53±2 to 112±47 ml/min (FASTR), respectively. Concerning pressure-related increases in flow rates, negligible correlations were found for the EZ-IO tibia in all time frames (c = 0.107–0.366; p≤0.013), moderate positive correlations were found for the EZ-IO humerus after 5 minutes (c = 0.489; p = 0.021) and strong positive correlations were found for the FASTR in all time frames (c = 0.63–0.80; p≤0.007). Post-hoc statistical power was 0.62 with the given sample size. Conclusions The experiments with first-time users applying EZ-IO and FASTR in body donors indicate that both devices may be effective intraosseous infusion devices, likely suitable for fluid resuscitation using a pressure bag. Variations in flow rate may limit their reliability. Larger sample sizes will prospectively be required to substantiate our findings. PMID:26630579

  14. Emerging Adult versus Adult Status among College Students: Examination of Explanatory Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Jonkman, Jeffrey N.; Smith, G. Rush

    2008-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to report how many college students, 18 to 25 years of age, are classified as "emerging adults," "undecideds" or "adults." The second purpose was to determine the relationships between emerging adults versus adults and (a) background characteristics, (b) risk-taking behaviors; (c) sensation-seeking scores, and…

  15. Ready or Not? Criteria for Marriage Readiness among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Badger, Sarah; Willoughby, Brian J.; Nelson, Larry J.; Madsen, Stephanie D.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emerging adults' criteria for marriage readiness and explored how these criteria are associated with their current attitudes and behaviors. This article establishes the psychometric value of the Criteria for Marriage Readiness Questionnaire and reports on a study of 788 emerging adults recruited from five college sites across…

  16. Unemployment and Depression Among Emerging Adults in 12 States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The high rate of unemployment among emerging adults (aged 18 to 25 years) is a public health concern. The risk of depression is higher among the unemployed than among the employed, but little is known about the relationship between unemployment and mental health among emerging adults. This secondary data analysis assessed the relationship between unemployment and depression among emerging adults. Methods Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 provided data about the prevalence of depression. Bivariate relationships were assessed using χ2 tests, and multivariable adjusted odds ratios were calculated with logistic regressions. Sociodemographic variables were sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and education. In addition, logistic regression models adjusted for health insurance status, disability, smoking, and body mass index. The analyses were completed using SAS 9.3 survey procedures to account for the complex sampling design. Results Almost 12% of emerging adults were depressed (PHQ-8 ≥10) and about 23% were unemployed. Significantly more unemployed than employed emerging adults were classified with depression. In the final model, the odds of depression were about 3 times higher for unemployed than employed emerging adults. Conclusion The relationship between unemployment and depression is significant among emerging adults. With high rates of unemployment for this age group, this population may benefit from employment- and mental-health–focused interventions. PMID:25789499

  17. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  18. Adult Siblings Consider the Future: Emergent Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…

  19. Self-Perceived Emerging Adult Status and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas C.; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Cleeland, Leah R.; Davis, Jordan P.

    2014-01-01

    Very little research exists on how self-perceived emerging adult status is associated with substance use among low-income emerging adults. The Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) was administered to emerging adults (EAs) ages 18–25 screened for substance use problems (n=l05) in a state-subsidized, not-for-profit treatment agency. We examined whether the defining dimensions of Arnett’s (2000a) emerging adulthood theory were associated with substance use frequency and substance-related problems, including: identity exploration, self-focus, possibilities, optimism, negativity/instability, and feeling in-between. In multivariate models, feeling in-between was positively associated with substance-related problems. An interaction term between minority status and feeling in-between approached statistical significance (p = .057). Further, IDEA scale score means were comparable to those found in college student samples. Implications for theory revision are discussed. PMID:25134032

  20. Self-perceived emerging adult status and substance use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Bahar, Ozge Sensoy; Cleeland, Leah R; Davis, Jordan P

    2014-09-01

    Very little research exists on how self-perceived emerging adult status is associated with substance use among low-income emerging adults. The Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) was administered to emerging adults (EAs) ages 18-25 screened for substance use problems (n = l05) in a state-subsidized, not-for-profit treatment agency. We examined whether the defining dimensions of Arnett's (2000a) emerging adulthood theory were associated with substance use frequency and substance-related problems, including: identity exploration, self-focus, possibilities, optimism, negativity/instability, and feeling in-between. In multivariate models, feeling in-between was positively associated with substance-related problems. An interaction term between minority status and feeling in-between approached statistical significance (p = .057). Further, IDEA scale score means were comparable to those found in college student samples. Implications for theory revision are discussed. PMID:25134032

  1. When to use the emergency room - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Before you have a medical problem, learn what your choices are. Check the website of your health insurance company. Put these telephone numbers in the memory of your phone: Your doctor The closest emergency department ...

  2. Emergency Department Use Among Older Adults With Dementia.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Michael A; Stump, Timothy E; Messina, Frank C; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Although persons with dementia are frequently hospitalized, relatively little is known about the health profile, patterns of health care use, and mortality rates for patients with dementia who access care in the emergency department (ED). We linked data from our hospital system with Medicare and Medicaid claims, Minimum Data Set, and Outcome and Assessment Information Set data to evaluate 175,652 ED visits made by 10,354 individuals with dementia and 15,020 individuals without dementia over 11 years. Survival rates after ED visits and associated charges were examined. Patients with dementia visited the ED more frequently, were hospitalized more often than patients without dementia, and had an increased odds of returning to the ED within 30 days of an index ED visit compared with persons who never had a dementia diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.29; P<0.001). Survival rates differed significantly between patients by dementia status (P<0.001). Mean Medicare payments for ED services were significantly higher among patients with dementia. These results show that older adults with dementia are frequent ED visitors who have greater comorbidity, incur higher charges, are admitted to hospitals at higher rates, return to EDs at higher rates, and have higher mortality after an ED visit than patients without dementia.

  3. Emerging Adults' Identity Exploration: Illustrations from inside the "Camp Bubble"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sara K.; Goldman, Jane A.; Garey, Anita I.; Britner, Preston A.; Weaver, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the experiences of emerging adults who had worked as counselors at overnight summer camps; identity-related issues emerge as most salient in the analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with 12 women and 8 men from 8 camps. Their descriptions portray the identity exploration that took place within the camp context, through…

  4. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jody A.; Ginde, Adit A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Betz, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in the United States (U.S.). Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years) and younger (18–64 years) MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults. Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6–8.3) visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0–18.8) visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46–9.36). Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86), have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77–3.14), or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42–2.23) as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8–19.2) of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8–7.5) of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71–4.43), and

  5. [Medical emergencies in the adult immigrant].

    PubMed

    Junyent, M; Núñez, S; Miró, O

    2006-01-01

    The need for medical care of the immigrant population is growing in proportion to the increase in the number of immigrants resident in Spain. This article reviews the socio-demographic characteristics of the immigrant population that come for consultations in the emergency services and discusses those particularities, both medical (neurocysticercosis, tuberculosis, infection by the AIDS virus, hepatitis, malaria, parasitosis, Ulysses syndrome) and paramedical (knowledge of the health card, concept of medicine, language barrier), that differentiate them from the native population. Nonetheless, since we are dealing with a young population that is in principle healthy, their reasons for consultation do not greatly differ from the general population. It is worth drawing attention to the high level of satisfaction of this population with the care afforded them in the hospital emergency services. PMID:16721415

  6. An "Emergent Model" for Rate of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Sandra; Pierce, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Does speed provide a "model for" rate of change in other contexts? Does JavaMathWorlds (JMW), animated simulation software, assist in the development of the "model for" rate of change? This project investigates the transference of understandings of rate gained in a motion context to a non-motion context. Students were 27 14-15 year old students at…

  7. Sentence Interpretation Strategies in Emergent Bilingual Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Iliana; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sentence processing in emergent bilingual children and young adults in both English (second language -- L2) and Spanish (first language -- L1). One hundred participants from five different age groups (5;4-7;11, 8;0-10;11, 11;2-13;11, 14;0-16;8 years, and college-age adults) participated in this study. An online sentence…

  8. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  9. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  10. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  11. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  12. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  13. Factors Associated with Truancy: Emerging Adults' Recollections of Skipping School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Although truancy has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to the actual voices of the truants themselves. The current study helps fill that gap by examining recollections from a sample of 34 emerging adults (ages 18-25) who experienced various levels of high school truancy across different geographical settings. A qualitative…

  14. Personal and Ethnic Identity in Swedish Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…

  15. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  16. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  17. Generation XXX: Pornography Acceptance and Use among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Olson, Chad D.; McNamara Barry, Carolyn; Madsen, Stephanie D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of pornography acceptance and use within a normative (nonclinical) population of emerging adults (individuals aged 18-26). Participants included 813 university students (500 women; M age = 20 years) recruited from six college sites across the United States. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding their…

  18. Academic Risks Associated with Emerging Adults Seeking the College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strage, Amy; Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Sadly, data collected from universities across the nation continue to suggest that fully half of the "emerging adults" (Arnett, 2015) who make their way to college will not graduate. This vexing statistic is particularly troublesome because it reflects a tremendous cost--in dollars, in time, and in self-esteem. In this study, we report…

  19. Suffering, Selfish, Slackers? Myths and Reality about Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-01-01

    Many myths about adolescence have been refuted by research, but similar myths have grown up in recent years around emerging adulthood. This essay addresses three of those myths: the claim that they suffer from a normative "crisis"; the accusations that they are "selfish"; and their alleged reluctance to "grow up" and become adults. For each issue,…

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  1. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  2. A Song to Remember: Emerging Adults Recall Memorable Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Julia R.; Greenwood, Dara N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study employs a mixed methods approach to understanding the psychological functions and contexts of music use. Seventy-six emerging adults selected a single piece of music that they considered personally significant and elaborated on the reasons for this significance in response to written prompts. A constant comparative analysis of…

  3. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  4. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  5. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  6. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  7. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  8. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  9. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  10. Prewinter management affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) prepupal physiology and adult emergence and survival.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2009-08-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. M. rotundata raised in Canada have higher survival rates during the incubation that occurs after winter storage than do bees produced in the northwestern United States, but no reason has been found for this difference. We investigated whether storing immature M. rotundata for various time periods at a warm temperature (16 degrees C) before winter or allowing them to remain unmanaged at ambient temperatures affects physiological aspects of prepupae during the winter as well as the survival and longevity of adult bees after spring or summer incubation. Our results show that the timing of the onset of winter storage and incubation does affect prepupal weights, prepupal lipid and water contents, adult emergence, and adult female longevity. Winter storage of prepupae in November or December with a late June incubation resulted in heavier adults that emerged more readily than bees incubated in late May. However, adult females incubated in May thrived longer than June-incubated bees if fed a honey-water diet. Thus, some prewinter management regimes for M. rotundata commercial stocks may be more effective than others for achieving optimal adult emergence synchrony, as well as adult survival and longevity for pollination of a summer crop. PMID:19736750

  11. The Emerging Adult with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Recommendations for the Adult Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising. Adult gastroenterologists are seeing increasing numbers of young adults with IBD, a subpopulation with unique needs and challenges that can impair their readiness to thrive in an adult healthcare system. Most adult gastroenterologists might not have the training or resources to address these needs. “Emerging adulthood” is a useful developmental lens through which this group can be studied. With complex disease phenotype and specific concerns of medication side effects and reproductive health, compounded by challenges of geographical and social flux and lack of adequate health insurance, emerging adults with IBD (EAI) are at risk of disrupted care with lack of continuity. Lessons learned from structured healthcare transition process from pediatric to adult services can be applied towards challenges in ongoing care of this population in the adult healthcare system. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in caring for the post transition EAI from the perspective of adult gastroenterologists and offers a checklist of provider and patient skills that enable effective care. This paper discusses the system-based challenges in care provision and search for meaningful patient-oriented outcomes and presents a conceptual model of determinants of continuity of care in this unique population. PMID:26064089

  12. Noise in the adult emergency department of Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Douglas; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J; West, James E

    2007-04-01

    While hospitals are generally noisy environments, nowhere is the pandemonium greater than in an emergency department, where there is constant flow of patients, doctors, nurses, and moving equipment. In this noise study we collected 24 h measurements throughout the adult emergency department of Johns Hopkins Hospital, the top ranked hospital in the U.S. for 16 years running. The equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) throughout the emergency department is about 5 dB(A) higher than that measured previously at a variety of in-patient units of the same hospital. Within the emergency department the triage area at the entrance to the department has the highest Leq, ranging from 65 to 73 dB(A). Sound levels in the emergency department are sufficiently high [on average between 61 and 69 dB(A)] to raise concerns regarding the communication of speech without errors--an important issue everywhere in a hospital and a critical issue in emergency departments because doctors and nurses frequently need to work at an urgent pace and to rely on oral communication.

  13. Predatory efficiency of the water bug Sphaerodema annulatum on mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus) and its effect on the adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Aditya, G; Bhattacharyya, S; Kundu, N; Saha, G K; Raut, S K

    2004-11-01

    The daily number of IV instar larva of Culex quinquefasciatus killed, rate of pupation and adult emergence was noted in presence of the predatory water bug Sphaerodema annulatum for a period of seven consecutive days, experimentally, in the laboratory. The rate of IV instar larva killed by the water bugs on an average was 65.17 per day. The rate of pupation ranged between 7.6 and 48 in control while in presence of water bugs it ranged between 6 and 35. The rate of adult emergence in control experiments varied between 1.4 and 4.8 per day, which was reduced to only 0.4-28.8 per day in case of the water bugs. The results clearly indicate that the water bugs on its way of predation reduces the rate of pupation and adult emergence of Cx. quinquefasciatus significantly which calls for an extensive field trials.

  14. Academic versus Non-Academic Emerging Adult College Student Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. Emerging adults are also increasingly identified by their technology use and practices. Collegiate instructors will be better equipped for educating these individuals when armed with insights concerning emerging adults' technology…

  15. Academic versus Non-Academic Emerging Adult College Student Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. The purpose of this study was to examine academic and non-academic technology use by emerging adult college students. Survey results (N = 235) provided insights into emerging adult college student technology preferences and frequency…

  16. Training Raters to Assess Adult ADHD: Reliability of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Kelsey, Douglas; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The standardization of ADHD ratings in adults is important given their differing symptom presentation. The authors investigated the agreement and reliability of rater standardization in a large-scale trial of atomoxetine in adults with ADHD. Training of 91 raters for the investigator-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHDRS-IV-Inv) occurred prior to…

  17. Race Disparities in Psychiatric Rates in Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; Niederhauser, Ronda; Smith, Patrick O.; Morris, Jerry A.; Marx, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases--Ninth Revision were examined in the medical discharge records of 33,000 emergency department (ED) patients to determine if (a) psychiatric disorders were underdiagnosed, (b) there were race and gender disparities in psychiatric rates, and (c) psychiatric rates varied as a…

  18. Estimating survival rates from banding of adult and juvenile birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The restrictive assumptions required by most available methods for estimating survival probabilities render them unsuitable for analyzing real banding data. A model is proposed which allows survival rates and recovery rates to vary with the calendar year, and also allows juveniles to have rates different from adults. In addition to survival rates and recovery rates, the differential vulnerability factors of juveniles relative to adults are estimated. Minimum values of the variances of the estimators are also given. The new procedure is applied to sets of duck and goose data in which reasonably large numbers of adult and juvenile birds were banded. The results are shown to be generally comparable to those procured by other methods, but, in addition, insight into the extent of annual variation is gained. Combining data from adults and juveniles also increases the effective sample size, since the juveniles are assumed to enter the adult age class after surviving their initial year.

  19. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  20. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  1. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes. PMID:27212806

  2. Span and Rate of Apprehension in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Michelene T. H.; Klahr, David

    1975-01-01

    Compares one study in which 5-year-olds and another in which adults quantified random patterns of dots under unlimited exposure duration. Data on operating ranges and rates for subitizing and counting are included. (JMB)

  3. 30 Is the New 20: Emerging Adult Perspectives on Success in English Developmental Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Borja, Nadine Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined aspects of emerging adulthood that contribute to success in English developmental courses. The research approach included qualitative interviews with a collective case study of 12 emerging adults between the ages of 18-25 who successfully completed EN085 and EN085L at the University of Guam. The emerging adults shared…

  4. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Teaching Communication to Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    The new developmental stage of emerging adulthood (age 18-25) offers a framework for thinking about younger millennials in our classrooms. Smith, Christoffersen, Davidson, and Herzog's (2011) profile of emerging adults, based on longitudinal study of over 3200 emerging adults and culminating in 230 in-depth interviews, parallels research of the…

  5. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  6. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I.; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  7. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): An Item Response Theory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2013-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6–16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships–Revised (ECR–R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR–R, informant ratings on the ECR–R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores. PMID:24033268

  8. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  9. Uniting multi-adult households during emergency evacuation planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sirui; Murray-Tuite, Pamela M; Schweitzer, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    When a no-notice emergency prompts an evacuation, family members in different locations throughout a city may unite so that they can evacuate as a group. This paper draws on data from more than 300 interviews conducted in the metropolitan area of Chicago, Illinois, United States. The study uses discrete choice models to analyse the expectations of respondents regarding whether their likely plans for evacuation involve gathering spouses, parents, adult-age children, and/or non-family members. In addition, it addresses the matter of whether respondents plan to reunite with family members at home. Individuals' access to a personal car is the dominating factor in predicting whether respondents plan to gather a spouse. Being the parent of a child under the age of 18 years increases the tendency to report planning to reunite with family members at home. Both commute mode and car availability are not significantly associated with plans to reunite at home.

  10. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones. PMID:19410527

  11. Quality of adult book reading affects children's emergent literacy.

    PubMed

    Reese, E; Cox, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative benefits of 3 styles of adult book reading for preschoolers' emergent literacy. A describer style focused on describing pictures during the reading, a comprehender style focused on story meaning, and a performance-oriented style introduced the book and discussed story meaning on completion. Forty-eight 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 reading styles over a 6-week period. Pretests and posttests measured children's receptive vocabulary, print, and story comprehension skills. A describer style of reading resulted in the greatest overall benefits for children's vocabulary and print skills, but a performance-oriented style was also beneficial when children's initial skill levels were taken into account. Future book-reading interventions should be tailored to children's initial skill levels.

  12. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones.

  13. Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Mallick, Aditi; Nishita, Denise; Wei, Xin; Michel, Martha; Wacholder, Aaron; David, Sean P.; Swan, Gary E.; Reid, Mark W.; Simons, Anne; Andrews, Judy A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps < 0.05) in whole saliva RNA from individuals exposed to chronic stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P < 0.001), increased ever-smoking and increased lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (P ≤ 0.03), and a reduction of cortisol release. In post hoc multivariate analyses including clinical and biospecimen-derived variables, we consistently observed significantly decreased expression of IL8 (Ps < 0.05) in individuals exposed, with no significant association to RIN score. Alcohol use disorders, tobacco use, a reduced acute stress response and decreased salivary IL8 gene expression characterize emerging adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors. PMID:22172638

  14. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  15. Examining Gender Differences for Gambling Engagement and Gambling Problems Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki

    2016-01-01

    Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18–25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7–11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369–1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503–508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:22585283

  16. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  17. High rates of inapparent dengue in older adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yap, Grace; Li, Chenny; Mutalib, Adeliza; Lai, Yee-Ling; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2013-06-01

    Although the dengue iceberg phenomenon is well known, there is a paucity of data on inapparent dengue. Results from a seroepidemiological study conducted during a dengue epidemic in 2007 in Singapore showed a seroprevalence of 65.9% and an inapparent dengue rate of 78%. Older adults (> 45 years old) had significantly higher rates of inapparent dengue infections (P < 0.05).

  18. Alternating and Sequential Motion Rates in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, John E.; Cotton, Susan; Perry, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alternating motion rate (AMR) and sequential motion rate (SMR) are tests of articulatory diadochokinesis that are widely used in the evaluation of motor speech. However, there are no quality normative data available for adults aged 65 years and older. Aims: There were two aims: (1) to obtain a representative, normative dataset of…

  19. Emerging from the Echo Chamber: An Activity Theory Perspective on L2 Teachers of Adult Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Rachel Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The surge in second language adult emergent readers and the push for professionalization in the field of adult education has shifted conversations among language teacher educators, program administrators, teachers and researchers alike in the direction of mutual understanding and collaboration in an effort to target the needs of both teachers and…

  20. Annual survival rates of breeding adult roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the capture-recapture data on 0 individual roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) trapped from 1978-1987 as breeding adults on nests on Falkner Island, Connecticut, estimate the average annual minimum adult survival rate to be 0.74-0.75. There was weak evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates during the study period. The Jolly-Seber models used to estimate survival rates also generated estimates of population size and capture probabilities. To determine the relative importance of adult mortality and permanent emigration in contribuuting to the estimated annual loss of one-fourth of the breeding population will require further study of intercolony movemnet between all the major colony cities.

  1. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p < .01), MJ problem severity (b = .41, 95% CI [.24, .57], p < .01), depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults.

  2. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p < .01), MJ problem severity (b = .41, 95% CI [.24, .57], p < .01), depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults. PMID:25915689

  3. Emerging Technologies for Pediatric and Adult Trauma Care

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Steven L.; Haley-Andrews, Stephanie; Mulligan, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Review Current EMS protocols rely on provider directed care for evaluation, management and triage of injured patients from the field to a trauma center. New methods to quickly diagnose, support and coordinate the movement of trauma patients from the field to the most appropriate trauma center are in development. These methods will enhance trauma care and promote trauma system development. Recent Findings Recent advances in machine learning, statistical methods, device integration and wireless communication are giving rise to new methods for vital sign data analysis and a new generation of transport monitors. These monitors will collect and synchronize exponentially growing amounts of vital sign data with electronic patient care information. The application of advanced statistical methods to these complex clinical data sets has the potential to reveal many important physiological relationships and treatment effects. Summary Several emerging technologies are converging to yield a new generation of smart sensors and tightly integrated transport monitors. These technologies will assist pre-hospital providers in quickly identifying and triaging the most severely injured children and adults to the most appropriate trauma centers. They will enable the development of real-time clinical support systems of increasing complexity, able to provide timelier, more cost-effective, autonomous care. PMID:20407375

  4. Establishment of safety paradigms and trust in emerging adult relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Sanders, Stephanie; Higgins, Jenny; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand the interplay between relationship trust and public health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of emerging adult women’s processes of establishing trust in sexual relationships. Twenty-five women aged 18–24 years participated in semi-structured interviews. Throughout the interviews, women compared and contrasted experiences in which they felt comfortable engaging in sexual intercourse with a partner versus times in which they did not feel comfortable. Analysis was based on a critical qualitative research orientation. When asked to speak to instances when they felt comfortable having sex, most women spoke about relationship trust. Many participants conceptualised trust based on past experiences with bad relationships or sexual violence. Based on their previous experiences of feeling unsafe or undervalued, emotional and physical security became prioritised in relationship development. Trust was developed through friendship, communication over time, and through shared life experiences. This research is among the first to qualitatively investigate trust formation and other impersonal dynamics related to sexual health decision-making. Insights from this study should be translated into future action by public health practitioners to promote healthy sexual relationships and communication about sexual health topics as a form of trust building. PMID:26943023

  5. The Role of Higher Education in Their Life: Emerging Adults on the Crossroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shu-Chen; Hawley, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experience of younger, so called "emerging" adults, as they transition to full-time work, focusing specifically on the role of education in this process. When leaving their family-of-origin, emerging adults re-center themselves to settle down in permanent identity and different role commitments. Our findings show…

  6. General Education Development (GED®) Credential Attainment, Externalizing Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders in Disconnected Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice

    2014-01-01

    There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…

  7. "Why Should I Leave?" Belgian Emerging Adults' Departure from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kins, Evie; De Mol, Jan; Beyers, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In today's Western societies, the transition to adulthood is prolonged, creating a separate developmental phase between adolescence and adulthood referred to as "emerging adulthood". Following from this general delay in adult commitment-making, a considerable number of emerging adults continues to live in the parental household. The…

  8. Emerging Adults at Work and at Play: Leisure, Work Engagement, and Career Indecision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstam, Varda; Lehmann, Ilana S.

    2011-01-01

    To expand the understanding of how leisure and recreational activities can inform career indecision, this research examined the relationship between career indecision, work engagement, and leisure in emerging adults, 25-30 years of age. Independent sample t tests reveal that career indecisive emerging adults scored significantly lower on all three…

  9. Acculturative Stress, Perceived Discrimination, and Vulnerability to Suicide Attempts among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the…

  10. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  11. Self-Definition as Resistance: Understanding Identities among LGBTQ Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagaman, M. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have questioned the relevance of existing identity categories and labels for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and emerging adults. Little is understood, however, about the ways in which LGBTQ emerging adults perceive their own identities and self-define the aspects of themselves that are most relevant to who…

  12. Getting higher: Co-occurring drug use among marijuana using emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Tzilos, Golfo K.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used illicit drug in the United States (US) continues to be marijuana, and its use among emerging adults continues to rise. Marijuana use can result in a range of negative consequences and has been associated with other drug use in adolescents and emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between marijuana use frequency and use of six other drug classes (opiates, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and sleep medications) among emerging adults. The design was a cross-sectional interview with a community sample of 1,075 emerging adults in the northeastern US. Using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and frequency of binge alcohol, daily marijuana use was associated with a significant increase in the expected odds of opiate, cocaine, stimulant, hallucinogen, inhalant, and tobacco use. The findings identify a subgroup of emerging adult marijuana users – those who use daily –that may be vulnerable to additional negative consequences associated with polysubstance use. PMID:25115183

  13. Natural Mentoring Processes Deter Externalizing Problems Among Rural African American Emerging Adults: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2011-01-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths’ externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  14. Natural mentoring processes deter externalizing problems among rural African American emerging adults: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2011-12-01

    A 3-wave model linking natural mentoring relationships to externalizing behavior was tested with 345 rural African American emerging adults in their final year of high school. Structural equation models were executed linking multi-informant reports of mentor-emerging adult relationship quality with youths' externalizing behavior 18 months later. Consistent with our primary hypotheses, emerging adults whose relationships with their natural mentors were characterized by instrumental and emotional support and affectively positive interactions reported lower levels of anger, rule-breaking behavior, and aggression. These effects emerged independent of the influences of family support and youth gender. Two intrapersonal processes, a future orientation and self-regulation, emerged as mediators of the influence of natural mentoring relationships. The influence of natural mentors was most pronounced for emerging adults experiencing high levels of life stress. PMID:21293917

  15. Hmong adults self-rated oral health: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Okunseri, Christopher; Yang, Marcie; Gonzalez, Cesar; LeMay, Warren; Iacopino, Anthony M

    2008-02-01

    Since 1975, the Hmong refugee population in the U.S. has increased over 200%. However, little is known about their dental needs or self-rated oral health (SROH). The study aims were to: (1) describe the SROH, self-rated general health (SRGH), and use of dental/physician services; and (2) identify the factors associated with SROH among Hmong adults. A cross-sectional study design with locating sampling methodology was used. Oral health questionnaire was administered to assess SROH and SRGH, past dental and physician visits, and language preference. One hundred twenty adults aged 18-50+ were recruited and 118 had useable information. Of these, 49% rated their oral health as poor/fair and 30% rated their general health as poor/fair. Thirty-nine percent reported that they did not have a regular source of dental care, 46% rated their access to dental care as poor/fair, 43% visited a dentist and 66% visited a physician within the past 12 months. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that access to dental care, past dental visits, age and SRGH were significantly associated with SROH (P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses demonstrated a strong association between access to dental care and good/excellent SROH. About half of Hmong adults rated their oral health and access to dental care as poor. Dental insurance, access to dental care, past preventive dental/physician visits and SRGH were associated with SROH.

  16. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients.

  17. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients. PMID:22796972

  18. Variation of availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography between adult and pediatric patients in the academic emergency department in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chiwon; Kim, Changsun; Kang, Bo Seung; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the availability and frequency of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography (USG) in the emergency department (ED) and the status of USG training programs in emergency medicine residencies in academic EDs in Korea. Methods In spring 2014, a link to a 16-question, multiple-choice, and rating scale web-based survey was e-mailed to all 97 academic ED residency training directors in Korea. Results The response rate was 83.5% (81/97). All respondents had their own USG machines in the ED. In total, 82.7% of respondents reported that emergency physician-performed adult USGs were usually conducted daily, whereas only 23.6% performed pediatric USGs daily. Moreover, 55.5% performed pediatric USG fewer than once a week. 74.1% of respondents had education programs for adult USG in residency training, but only 21.0% had programs for pediatric USG. There was a high association between the presence of education programs and the use of USG in both groups. The faculty members who most commonly participated in teaching ED residents how to perform USG were emergency physicians (67.9%). Only 17.3% of respondents reported that they always supported a quality assurance process. The training directors generally agreed with the advantages in emergency physician-performed USGs. Conclusion The availability of ultrasound machines was high both for adult and pediatric EDs. Nevertheless, the frequency of Emergency physician-performed USG for pediatric patients was low, which was related to the lack of the training programs for treating pediatric patients.

  19. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  20. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  1. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  2. Prevention of Recurrence of Major Depression among Emerging Adults by a Group Cognitive-Behavioral/Interpersonal Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon; Brosse, Alisha L.; Hauser, Monika; Madsen, Joshua W.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background Among the most serious sequelae to an initial episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) during adolescence is the significant increase in the probability of recurrence. This study reports on an integrated CBT/IPT program, provided in a group format, that was developed to decrease the rate of MDD recurrence in emerging adults. Methods Participants were 89 young adults who were not depressed at study entry but had experienced MDD during adolescence. Participants were assigned to a CBT/IPT prevention program or to an assessment only control condition and were followed through the first 2 years of college. Results Risk for MDD recurrence was reduced more than 50% for the prevention program participants compared to assessment only controls. The intervention also conferred beneficial effects on academic performance for those students who completed the majority of the group sessions. Limitations The study included a self-selected sample of emerging adults who were aware of their history of depression. Due to the small sample size, it will be important to evaluate similar interventions in adequately-powered trials to determine if this is a replicable finding. Conclusions With 51% of the assessment only participants experiencing a MDD recurrence during the first 2 years of college, these findings support the need for programs designed to prevent MDD recurrence in young adults. The current program, based on IPT and CBT principles, appears to reduce the rate of MDD recurrence among previously depressed emerging adults. PMID:23021821

  3. Acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and vulnerability to suicide attempts among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-11-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the racial/ethnic composition included Asian, Latino, Black, and White (US-born and non-US-born) individuals. There were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in endorsement of a suicide attempt history, with an overall rate of 8% in the sample. Asian participants reported higher acculturative stress than all other racial/ethnic groups, while both Asian and Black participants reported having experienced more discrimination in the previous year, compared to other groups. Logistic regression analyses suggested that familial acculturative stress was associated with 2 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt, overall. More specifically, it was associated with over 2 times higher odds among Asian participants, over 4 times higher odds among Black participants, and over 3 times higher odds among non-US-born White participants, while social acculturative stress was associated with over 3 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt among Latino participants. Environmental acculturative stress was associated with decreased odds of endorsing a suicide attempt history, overall, but not when examined separately by racial/ethnic group. Perceived discrimination was associated with over 5 times higher odds of a suicide attempt, overall, and specifically was associated with over 3 times higher odds among Latino participants and over 10 times higher odds among White, US-born participants. These findings suggest the importance of addressing culturally-related variables in treatment with emerging adults of racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to reduce risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:21717234

  4. Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott

    2014-07-01

    In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing. PMID:24890806

  5. Comparing Adult Learning Systems: An Emerging Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning systems have come to be dominated by the view that the essential role of adult learning is to generate the high levels of skills deemed necessary for competitiveness and growth in the globalised economy. This 'education gospel' is underpinned by human capital theory (HCT) and its contemporary conceptualisation in terms of…

  6. High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

  7. "Family Comes First!" Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim

    2014-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by means of a qualitative approach. Participants were 39 emerging adults (51% males), who were interviewed individually or within a focus group. In Study II, we sought to examine how family and friend importance to identity were related to life satisfaction through a quantitative approach. Participants were 474 (47.3% males) emerging adults who filled a self-report questionnaire. Overall, findings indicated solid family ties and a strong impact of family importance to identity for life satisfaction. Results were independent of gender and occupational status (university students vs. workers). Thus, findings highlighted that in the Italian context young people's transition to adulthood is strongly intertwined with family relationships.

  8. Intraosseous access and adults in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Ashleigh

    This article examines the use of the intraosseous route for obtaining vascular access in adults. It discusses indications for intraosseous access, the techniques and devices used, and contraindications. PMID:21901968

  9. Racial identity and depressive symptoms among Black emerging adults: the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sellers, Robert M; Cogburn, Courtney D; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2013-05-01

    In the current study, we explored patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs during the transition to adulthood, assessed neighborhood racial composition effects on Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs, and tested the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition on the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and depressive symptoms over time. Participants in the current study included 570 Black adolescents (52% female) who were transitioning into adulthood (senior year of high school through 5 years post- high school). We did not find average patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs over time. Further, neighborhood racial composition did not predict participants' beginning status or growth in racial identity beliefs over time. We, however, found evidence that neighborhood racial composition may moderate the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and symptoms of depression over time. Findings from the current study underscore the importance of considering how the larger social context may interact with individuals' racial identity beliefs to influence Black emerging adults' psychological health.

  10. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  11. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  12. A Reflection on an Emergent Spirituality and the Practice of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of spirituality is increasingly being used in the context of adult education. This paper will tentatively explore some of the implications of an emergent spirituality within the practice of adult education. It begins by situating our understanding of spirituality in an historical context. This is followed by a brief historical overview of…

  13. Variation in Readmission Rates by Emergency Departments and Emergency Department Providers Caring for Patients After Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddhartha; Lin, Yu-Li; Nattinger, Ann B.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of the emergency department (ED) provider and ED facility in readmissions of recently discharged patients who visit the ED has not been studied. OBJECTIVE To determine the variation in readmission rates by ED facility and ED providers caring for patients after discharge. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using multilevel, multi-variable models of 100% Texas Medicare claims data from the years 2007 to 2011. SETTING Texas acute-care hospitals and ED facilities. PATIENTS Medicare beneficiaries who visited an ED within 30 days of discharge from a hospital. INTERVENTION None. MEASUREMENT Readmission after an ED visit within 30 days of discharge from an initial hospitalization defined as a hospitalization starting the day of or the day following the ED visit. RESULTS The mean readmission rate following an ED visit was 52.67%. In 2-level models, 14.2% of ED providers readmitted significantly more patients (mean readmission rate of 67.2%) than the mean; 14.7% of ED providers readmitted significantly fewer patients (mean readmission rate of 36.8%) than the mean. After accounting for the ED facility in 3-level models, the variance for the ED providers decreased 65% from 0.2532 to 0.0893. CONCLUSIONS The risk of readmission varies by ED provider caring for patients after discharge. A large part of this variation is explained by the ED facility in which the ED providers practice. Thus, ED provider practices patterns and ED facility systems of care may be a target for interventions to reduce readmissions. PMID:26130443

  14. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  15. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  16. Emerging Technologies in Adult Literacy and Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Although information and communication technologies have become an integral part of life in the United States, they have not yet been adequately integrated into adult language and literacy programs. This raises concerns because of the potential value of technology for enhancing learning and because of the vital role of technological proficiency as…

  17. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  18. The Role of Rainfall in Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adult Emergence From the Soil After Its Winter Dormant Period.

    PubMed

    Guillermina Socías, M; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Casmuz, Augusto S; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report the effect of rainfall on Sternechus subsignatus Boheman, 1836, adult emergence after winter dormancy. This weevil is a univoltine soybean pest found in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region with dry winters and rainy summers. Before harvest, fully grown larvae burrow into the soil where they overwinter. In the spring, they emerge as adults and recolonize the crop during its planting and early vegetative stages. Our study examines the seasonal timing of adult emergence with the aim of improving chemical control strategies and avoiding unnecessary pesticide applications. To do so, we developed a regression model to predict adult emergence onset as a function of cumulated rainfall after 1st November. The regression with the highest coefficient of determination between cumulated rainfall and adult emergence onset was Emergence onset (Julian day) = -7.98 Ln(cumulative rainfall) + 65.7. The negative relationship showed that adults emerged earlier in wet years than in dry years. Also it was observed that adults emerged from late November to mid-March, in pulses following periods of rainfall. Males were more abundant than females at first, but then the reverse was true toward the end of the period. In most cases, there was a suggestion of relationship (though not significantly) between peaks of adult emergence with peaks of rainfall 15 d before adult emergence. These results reveal that rainfall has a significant impact on the beginning and dynamics of adult emergence from the soil. PMID:27235846

  19. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  20. Adverse food reactions--an emerging issue for adults.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are classified according to the presence or absence of involvement of the immune system, which may or may not include the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. This review focuses on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of adverse food reactions, primarily in adults, and excluding celiac disease and lactose intolerance. Reported reactions to foods are often believed to be manifestations of a food allergy; however, IgE-mediated food allergy only affects 1% to 4% of adults, with seafood, tree nuts, peanuts, fruits, and vegetables being the most common triggers. Diagnosis is challenging and most commonly achieved through careful evaluation of clinical history followed by elimination and reintroduction or challenge with the suspected offending food. With acute-onset allergic reactions, estimation of food-specific IgE antibodies is frequently used to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Recent developments, such as single allergen assays, enhance the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy, but the gold standard remains oral food challenge. Despite recent advances in the management of food allergy, including the promotion of oral tolerance, the mainstay of management is still the avoidance of food triggers. Dietary management can be compromised by nutritional inadequacy, accidental exposure, food labeling, and quality of life or adherence issues. It is essential that adults with confirmed food allergy receive optimal nutrition and dietetic support to enable them to manage their condition. PMID:22117664

  1. Primary care presentations at emergency departments: rates and reasons by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Siminski, Peter; Bezzina, Andrew J; Lago, Luise P; Eagar, Kathy

    2008-11-01

    Primary care presentations at emergency departments (EDs) have been the subject of much attention in recent years. This paper is a demographic analysis using administrative data from the Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) for 2005 of such presentations in New South Wales EDs and of self-reported reasons for presentation. Age and sex differences in the reasons given by patients for such presentations are analysed using data from a survey of patients conducted in a subset of EDs in 2004. The rate of "potential primary care" presentations varies greatly with age and to a lesser extent with sex. Almost half (47%) of these presentations are made by people under 25 years of age. Children aged 0-4 years account for 14% of the total. The pattern is distinctly different to the corresponding rate of ED presentations that do not fit the "potential primary care" definition. Reasons given for "potential primary care" presentations are consistent across all age groups, reflecting self-assessed urgency, access to diagnostics and self-assessed complexity. Older "primary care" patients are particularly unlikely to give reasons associated with GP affordability or availability for their presentations. Young adults' responses are consistent with the overall population, and children under the age of five seem most susceptible to availability issues.

  2. Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed.

  3. Emerging HIV Epidemic Among Older Adults in Nanning, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinqin; Xu, Yongfang; Chen, Shiyi; Shi, Jian; Morisky, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The HIV/AIDS surveillance data indicates that the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) who were 50 years old or older increased to 42.7% in 2011 from 16.5% in 2007 in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi Province. A greater number of newly diagnosed HIV cases compared to clinical AIDS cases were identified from older adults. The dominant HIV transmission mode among older PLWHAs was heterosexual although approximately 30% of all PLWHAs acquired HIV through heterosexual contacts. PMID:22984779

  4. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  5. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  6. Enhancing care of older adults in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Susan E; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Evans, Dian Dowling

    2012-01-01

    The findings from a recent comprehensive systematic review, in combination with a case study, are used to illustrate the importance of translational research to inform advanced practice nursing. The review article discussed in this column is a comprehensive systematic review of age-friendly nursing interventions in the management of older persons in the emergency department (ED). Two themes were synthesized from the research and texts: (1) the ED can be a foreign and challenging environment for older patients, and (2) older ED patients need specialized care to meet their complex physical and psychosocial needs. At the same time, these authors acknowledged that much more high-quality research is needed in this field. Comments by a certified geriatric nurse practitioner elaborate on these findings and provide practical suggestions for the ED advanced practice registered nurse. PMID:22842961

  7. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.

  8. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  9. The Reliability and Validity of Self- and Investigator Ratings of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Michelson, David; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Little information is available comparing self- versus investigator ratings of symptoms in adult ADHD. The authors compared the reliability, validity, and utility in a sample of adults with ADHD and also as an index of clinical improvement during treatment of self- and investigator ratings of ADHD symptoms via the Conners Adult ADHD…

  10. Emergency admissions due to swallowed foreign bodies in adults

    PubMed Central

    Erbil, Bülent; Karaca, Mehmet Ali; Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; İbrahimov, Zaur; Kunt, Mehmet Mahir; Akpinar, Erhan; Özmen, Mehmet Mahir

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study a retrospective analysis of patients who presented to the emergency departments (ED) with complaints related to foreign body ingestions. METHODS: Patients older than 16 years of age who presented to the ED between January 1st and December 31st of 2010 with complaints related to swallowed foreign bodies were identified from electronic health records and patient charts. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients presented with a complaint of foreign body ingestion during the study period. Overall, an X-ray was performed on 75 patients, and a fiberoptic evaluation was performed on 45 patients. A foreign body was detected in 46 (46%) patients. The diagnostic yield of the X-ray was 27 (36%) out of 75 patients, while the diagnostic yield of the fiberoptic evaluations was 21 (47%) out of 45 patients. The detected foreign bodies were mostly located in the esophagus (17 out of 46 foreign bodies detected). When the types of ingested foreign bodies were evaluated, 52 (52%) patients reported ingesting food, and 19 (19%) patients reported swallowing pins. An X-ray was performed on 33 patients with accidental food ingestions but yielded a positive result in only two cases. In 12 out of 21 patients with accidental food ingestion who underwent fiberoptic evaluation, the foreign material was detected and removed. CONCLUSION: Plain radiography is helpful in the localization of radiopaque swollen foreign bodies, while fiberoptic methods are useful as both diagnostic and therapeutic tools, regardless of radiopacity. PMID:24151363

  11. 18 CFR 284.268 - Local distribution company emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... city-gate transportation services must determine its rates and charges for transportation of emergency... company that does not have a rate on file with an appropriate state regulatory agency for...

  12. Psychiatric emergency rates during the Christmas season in the years 1991 to 1997.

    PubMed

    Velamoor, V R; Cernovsky, Z Z; Voruganti, L P

    1999-10-01

    We compared the number of psychiatric admissions from the emergency room during the Christmas season, defined as the rate for the month of December, with those in other months. The psychiatric emergency rates were recorded for each month over six consecutive years, 1991 to 1997. The average number of emergency patients in none of the 12 months differed significantly from any of the remaining months (ANOVA, p > .05). Our data and those of other authors do not support the clinical lore that Christmas season is associated with higher rate of psychiatric emergencies.

  13. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R; Aisiku, Imoigele P

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  14. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R.; Aisiku, Imoigele P.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  15. The effect of admitted patients in the emergency department on rates of hospital admissions

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Eoin M; Cummins, Fergal

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Department overcrowding with admitted inpatients is a common international occurrence. We undertook a retrospective review to compare patient admission rates from patients presenting to our Emergency Department with the level of overcrowding with admitted inpatients on that particular day in the Emergency Department. Over the 2-year study period there was no change in the rate or absolute number of admissions per day compared with the level of inpatient overcrowding. PMID:23073760

  16. The effect of admitted patients in the emergency department on rates of hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Eoin M; Cummins, Fergal

    2013-09-01

    Emergency Department overcrowding with admitted inpatients is a common international occurrence. We undertook a retrospective review to compare patient admission rates from patients presenting to our Emergency Department with the level of overcrowding with admitted inpatients on that particular day in the Emergency Department. Over the 2-year study period there was no change in the rate or absolute number of admissions per day compared with the level of inpatient overcrowding. PMID:23073760

  17. Reducing the use of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient services- improving patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Wale, Joyce B; Belkin, Gary S; Moon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of seclusion and restraint (S/R) use has been given national priority by the US government, The Joint Commission, and patient advocacy groups. It is associated with high rates of patient and staff injuries and is a coercive and potentially traumatizing intervention. The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) is the largest municipal health care system in the country, with 11 HHC facilities operating psychiatric emergency services and inpatient psychiatric services. HHC operates 1117 adult inpatient psychiatric beds with an average length of stay of 22.2 days that generated over 19,000 discharges in 2009. In 2009, there were over 36,000 psychiatric emergency services visits. HHC's Office of Behavioral Health provides strategic leadership, planning, and support for the operations and quality objectives of these services. In January 2007, the corporate office initiated the Seclusion and Restraint Reduction Initiative, with a sequenced, intensive series of interventions and strategies to help focus the behavioral health leadership and staff on the need for continued culture change toward a more patient-centered and safe system of psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient care. From 2007 to 2009, there was a substantial decline in HHC's overall rate of S/R incidents in inpatient units. The more substantial impact was in the reduced overall time spent in S/R; the reduced frequency of use of S/R; and the reduced likelihood of patient injury from S/R use. PMID:21841927

  18. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  19. Emerging Adult Civic and Political Disengagement: A Longitudinal Analysis of Lack of Involvement with Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Political engagement among U.S. emerging adults aged 18 to 24 was examined via quantitative and qualitative data. The data analyzed are from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR). The NSYR consists of three waves of a nationally representative (a) telephone survey (Wave 1 n = 4,161), (b) in-person interviews (Wave 3 n = 230) collected…

  20. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  1. How Private Is the Relation with God? Religiosity and Family Religious Socialization in Romanian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negru, Oana; Haragâs, Cosmina; Mustea, Anca

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamics of religious cognitions, behaviors, and emotions in emerging adult discourse in a sample of Romanian youth of heterogeneous socioeconomic, denominational (Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Neo-protestant), and educational background. Also, from a parent-child dyad perspective, we investigate the role…

  2. Associations between Online Friendship and Internet Addiction among Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smahel, David; Brown, B. Bradford; Blinka, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from…

  3. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  4. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  5. Examining Emerging-Adults' and Parents' Expectations about Autonomy during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2009-01-01

    Our research goals were to document levels and examine the potential discrepancies of emerging-adults' and parents' expectations for autonomous behavior during the transition to college. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 204 incoming college freshmen (n = 150 females, n = 54 males) and 226 parents (n = 173 mothers, n = 53…

  6. Financial Parenting, Financial Coping Behaviors, and Well-Being of Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Mishra, Anubha; Tang, Chuanyi

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to consider the role of parents in the development of their children's financial independence by the time the children are old enough to enter college. Using data from 2,098 first-year university students, we examined two pathways to emerging adults' financial, psychological, and personal well-being, combining research…

  7. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  8. Ethiopian Emerging Adult Immigrants in Israel: Coping with Discrimination and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    Experiences of discrimination and racism and individual coping strategies were examined among 22 emerging adult Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. In-depth interviews explored the way they perceive, understand, respond to, and cope with experiences of discrimination. Qualitative analysis identified an initial contrast between those interviewees who…

  9. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  10. Differential effects of binge drinking on learning and memory in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Paul, Margot D; Silveri, Marisa M

    2013-04-26

    Alterations in memory function due to alcohol exposure have been observed in both animal models and human populations. The human literature on neurocognitive consequences of binge alcohol use in emerging adults has not systematically investigated its potential negative impacts on visuospatial memory. For instance, these impacts have not yet been assessed using a human analogue of the Morris Water Maze Task (WMT), a key memory measure in the animal literature. Accordingly, this study compared performance between emerging adult binge drinkers (BD, n=22) and age- and sex-matched light drinkers (LD, n=29) using the Morris WMT, as well as verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Emerging adult BD demonstrated worse performance on verbal learning and memory relative to LD. However, no significant group differences were observed on spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, no sex differences or interactions with drinking status were observed on either memory domain. These data suggest that in emerging adults who are at a heightened risk for alcohol abuse disorders, but who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria, verbal learning is uniquely impacted by the neurotoxic effects of binge drinking, whereas spatial learning is relatively spared between bouts of intoxication.

  11. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  12. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  13. Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC): Factor Structure and Invariance across Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Octavio; dos Santos, Rute Andrade; Rocha, Magda; Matos, Paula Mena

    2010-01-01

    The Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC) is based on the cognitive-contextual framework for understanding interparental conflict. This study investigates the factor validity and the invariance of two factor models of CPIC within a sample of Portuguese adolescents and emerging adults (14 to 25 years old; N = 677). At the…

  14. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  15. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, Marie; Parke, Belinda; Shuluk, Joseph; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses' views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile.…

  16. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  17. Concepts of Infidelity among African American Emerging Adults: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Flythe, Michelle; Hoffman, Valerie; Fraser, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used an exploratory methodology to determine what cultural models African American emerging adults use to understand infidelity/cheating. Cultural models are defined as "cognitive schema[s] that [are] intersubjectively shared by a social group" (D'Andrade, 1987, p. 112). We interviewed 144 participants ages 19-22 from three…

  18. Exploring the Experiences of Female Emerging Adult Mentors: Building a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Sollie, Donna L.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    While mentoring programs are prevalent, limited research focused on the mentors' experiences exist, particularly during critical periods of development. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, this study explores the elements of the mentoring experience for a cohort of late adolescent/emerging adult women in a long-term program. Outcomes…

  19. Diverse Patterns in the Development of Depressive Symptoms among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Alice A.; Liem, Joan H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines depressive symptoms over a 4-year period in a racially diverse community sample of 1,143 18- to 22-year-old emerging adults using latent growth and mixture modeling and data collected at three time points. Participants were high school seniors randomly chosen from nine public schools in a metropolitan region in the…

  20. A Comparison of Two Approaches for Facilitating Identity Exploration Processes in Emerging Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article, using a controlled design, reports the results of an exploratory study to investigate the impact of two types of intervention strategies (cognitively vs. emotionally focused) on two types of identity processes (self-construction and self-discovery) in a culturally diverse sample of 90 emerging adult university students. A…

  1. Self-Presentation and Interaction in Blogs of Adolescents and Young Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Kozarian, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed 124 blogs, chronological, journal-type entries published on public hosting Web sites, as new and popular places for adolescents and emerging adults aged 15 to 19 to play openly with their self-presentation, an important aspect of identity exploration. Findings indicate that most young persons write emotionally toned entries;…

  2. A Christian Integrative Perspective on Nurturing Civic Development among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoppa, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores civic development and its roles in the lives of emerging adults, and the ways in which college contexts--particularly Christian colleges and universities--may foster adaptive civic development. First, the article presents an argument for the importance of fostering civic development as rooted in historic truths of the…

  3. Reading Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Instruction: Effects on Emergent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal-Drori, Ora; Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electronic book (e-book) and printed book reading on children's emergent reading with and without adult instruction were investigated. One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 6-year-old kindergarten children from low SES families were randomly assigned to one of four groups (32 children each): (1) independently reading the e-book (EB); (2)…

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants: Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list…

  5. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  6. Growing up Perfect: Perfectionism, Problematic Internet Use, and Career Indecision in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Ilana S.; Konstam, Varda

    2011-01-01

    Among emerging adults who are career indecisive, perfectionism and problematic Internet use (PIU) are underdeveloped areas of inquiry. The authors examined the relationship between perfectionism and PIU to measure their contributions to career indecision. The full model was significant, yielding an R[superscript 2] of 0.46 (p less than 0.0001).…

  7. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  8. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  9. Reduced Resting Metabolic Rate in Adults with Hemiparetic Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Monica C; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E; Ryan, Alice S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the component of energy expenditure that explains the largest proportion of total daily energy requirements. Since RMR is determined largely by fat-free mass and a low RMR predicts weight gain in healthy adults, identifying the role of muscle atrophy following stroke on RMR may help identify ways to mitigate the development of obesity post-stroke. Methods Thirty-nine stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis (mean ± SEM: age: 61 ± 1 years, latency from stroke: 107 ± 40 months, BMI: 31 ± 3 kg/m2) underwent DXA scans for measurement of body composition, including total, paretic, and non-paretic leg lean mass and fasted, 30-min indirect calorimetry for measurement of RMR. Result Predicted RMR was calculated by the Mifflin-St Jeor equation, which considers weight, height, and age for both men and women. RMR was 14% lower than predicted (1438 ± 45 vs. 1669 ± 38 kcals/24 hrs; P<0.01). Total (r=0.73, P<0.01), paretic (r=0.72, P<0.01) and non-paretic (r=0.67, P<0.01) leg lean mass predicted RMR. Conclusion These data indicate that muscle atrophy post stroke may lead to a reduced RMR. This substantiates the need to attenuate the loss of lean mass after a stroke to prevent declines in RMR and possible weight gain common post-stroke. PMID:26973796

  10. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures. PMID:23786080

  11. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures.

  12. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Wachholtz, Amy; Stone, Rosalie Torres

    2015-01-01

    Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest. PMID:26146565

  13. Effects of eye size on adults' aesthetic ratings of faces and 5-month-olds' looking times.

    PubMed

    Geldart, S; Maurer, D; Carney, K

    1999-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the influence of eye size on adults' ratings of faces' attractiveness and 5-month-olds' looking times. Subjects viewed four pairs of female faces that were identical except for the size of the eyes. Whether they saw black-and-white drawings (experiment 1) or coloured photographs (experiment 2), adults rated the faces with larger eyes as more attractive than the faces with smaller eyes. Babies looked equally long at the drawn faces with larger and smaller eyes (experiment 1), but with the more realistic photographed faces, they looked slightly but significantly longer at the versions with larger eyes (experiment 2). Overall, our results suggest that a modest preference for larger eyes that has emerged by 5 months of age may contribute to the development of adult aesthetic preferences. PMID:10615473

  14. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and at 2 and 3 days after each post treatment reinfestation flea eggs were collected from the pan under each cat cage. Eggs were counted and viability assessed by evaluating adult flea emergence 28 days after egg collection. Three days after treatment or infestation, each cat was combed to remove and count live fleas. Results Treatment with indoxacarb provided 100% efficacy following infestations on day -2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and efficacy was 99.6% following infestations on days 35 and 42. Egg production from indoxacarb treated cats was reduced by 99.9% within 72 hours of treatment. For subsequent infestations no eggs were produced from treated cats from day 8 through day 30. Egg production was still reduced by ≥95.8% through day 45. Indoxacarb treatment also reduced adult flea emergence from eggs for 5 weeks after treatment. The combination of reduction in egg numbers and egg viability from indoxacarb treated cats reduced predicted flea emergence by 100% from days 2 – 31 and 99.9%, 100%, 96.4% and 99.0% on days 37, 38, 44 and 45, respectively. Conclusions A topical spot-on formulation of indoxacarb provided ≥99.6% efficacy against flea infestations on cats for 6 weeks following a single treatment. Indoxacarb also eliminated or markedly reduced egg production for the entire evaluation period and reduced the viability of the few eggs that were produced from Day 1 through Day 38. Given indoxacarb’s effect on adult fleas, egg production and egg viability; this formulation can

  15. Do I Really Need Someone in Order to become an Adult?: Romantic Relationships during Emerging Adulthood in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Margherita; Tagliabue, Semira

    2007-01-01

    Italian emerging adults stay at home with their parents until they marry. Being involved in a romantic relationship may be considered one precursor of the success of the transition to adulthood. In this study, 92 dating and 84 nondating emerging adults were compared on when they left the parental home and their future plans. They were also…

  16. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  17. Associations between online friendship and Internet addiction among adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Smahel, David; Brown, B Bradford; Blinka, Lukas

    2012-03-01

    The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from Griffiths (2000a), this study examined associations between online friendship and Internet addiction in a representative sample (n = 394) of Czech youths ages 12-26 years (M = 18.58). Three different approaches to friendship were identified: exclusively offline, face-to-face oriented, Internet oriented, on the basis of the relative percentages of online and offline associates in participants' friendship networks. The rate of Internet addiction did not differ by age or gender but was associated with communication styles, hours spent online, and friendship approaches. The study revealed that effects between Internet addiction and approaches to friendship may be reciprocal: Being oriented toward having more online friends, preferring online communication, and spending more time online were related to increased risk of Internet addiction; on the other hand, there is an alternative causal explanation that Internet addiction and preference for online communication conditions young people's tendency to seek friendship from people met online.

  18. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  19. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  20. Emergence of dynamical complexity related to human heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Peng, C.-K.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-12-01

    We apply the refined composite multiscale entropy (MSE) method to a one-dimensional directed small-world network composed of nodes whose states are binary and whose dynamics obey the majority rule. We find that the resulting fluctuating signal becomes dynamically complex. This dynamical complexity is caused (i) by the presence of both short-range connections and long-range shortcuts and (ii) by how well the system can adapt to the noisy environment. By tuning the adaptability of the environment and the long-range shortcuts we can increase or decrease the dynamical complexity, thereby modeling trends found in the MSE of a healthy human heart rate in different physiological states. When the shortcut and adaptability values increase, the complexity in the system dynamics becomes uncorrelated.

  1. Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

  2. Eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage in California led to increased dental emergency visits and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Caplan, Daniel J; Jones, Michael P; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Buresh, Christopher T; Isman, Robert; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dental coverage for adults is an elective benefit under Medicaid. As a result of budget constraints, California Medicaid eliminated its comprehensive adult dental coverage in July 2009. We examined the impact of this policy change on emergency department (ED) visits by Medicaid-enrolled adults for dental problems in the period 2006-11. We found that the policy change led to a significant and immediate increase in dental ED use, amounting to more than 1,800 additional dental ED visits per year. Young adults, members of racial/ethnic minority groups, and urban residents were disproportionately affected by the policy change. Average yearly costs associated with dental ED visits increased by 68 percent. The California experience provides evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits shifts dental care to costly EDs that do not provide definitive dental care. The population affected by the Medicaid adult dental coverage policy is increasing as many states expand their Medicaid programs under the ACA. Hence, such evidence is critical to inform decisions regarding adult dental coverage for existing Medicaid enrollees and expansion populations. PMID:25941275

  3. Parenting styles and emerging adult drug use in Cebu, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Rebecca S.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Bass, Judith K.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Parenting style is a potent and malleable influence on emerging adult substance use. Most of the parenting-substance use literature has been conducted in Western populations and it is unknown whether findings are generalizable to other cultures and contexts. We extended the parenting-substance use literature to a cohort of emerging adults in the Philippines using the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We assessed associations between mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) reported by offspring at age 18 and odds of offspring-reported drug use three years later, adjusted for a range of offspring- and parent/household-level characteristics. Females were dropped from analyses due to low prevalence of drug users. We found that many emerging adults in Cebu reported having used drugs, particularly methamphetamine—a dangerous drug with high abuse potential. Authoritative (warm, firm) mothering was significantly associated with sons’ reduced odds of drug use and neglectful fathering was related at a trend level with sons’ increased odds of having tried drugs. Findings underscore the relation of parenting styles to emerging adults’ drug use and add to the literature on cross-cultural variability in parenting styles. PMID:27330559

  4. Lingual Kinematic Strategies Used to Increase Speech Rate: Comparison between Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine V.; Stephenson, Dayna K.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Darnell, Ross E.; Lapointe, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the lingual kinematic strategies used by younger and older adults to increase rate of speech. It was hypothesised that the strategies used by the older adults would differ from the young adults either as a direct result of, or in response to a need to compensate for, age-related changes in the…

  5. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  6. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  7. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 2: Examples from the Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Collier, R.; Cowles, S.

    2004-12-01

    We will share experiences and specific examples from an ongoing Ocean Science and Math Collaborative Project between OSU faculty and Community College instructors from the Oregon system of adult education and workforce development. The participants represent such diverse instructional programs as workforce training, workplace education (cannery workers), adult basic education, adult secondary education (GED preparation), English to Speakers of Other Languages, Family Literacy, and Tribal Education (Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians). This collaborative project is designed to integrate ocean sciences into the science, math, and critical thinking curriculum through the professional development activities of adult educators. Our strategy is to tailor new and existing ocean science resources to the needs of adult education instructors. This project provides a wide range of opportunities in time and effort for scientist involvement. Some scientists have chosen to participate in short interviews or conversations with adult educators, which give added value through real-world connections in the context of the larger project. Other participating scientists have made larger time investments, which include presentations at workshops, hosting teacher-at-sea opportunities and leading project planning and implementation efforts. This project serves as an efficient model for scientists to address the broader impact goals of their research. It takes advantage of a variety of established educational outreach resources funded through NSF (e.g. the national COSEE network and GeoEducation grants), NOAA (e.g. SeaGrant education and Ocean Explorer) as well as State and Federal adult education programs (e.g. The National Institute for Literacy Science and Numeracy Special Collection). We recognize the value and creativity inherent in these resources, and we are developing a model to "tune" their presentation, as well as their connection to new oceanographic research, in a manner

  8. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  9. Emerging adults' stress and health: the role of parent behaviors and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-02-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers' behaviors (via the Parental Bonding Instrument and Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), their cognitions (via the Stress Appraisal Measure, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Ruminative Response Scale-Abbreviated), and their stress/health outcomes (via the Perceived Stress Scale and Short-Form Health Survey). Results of this study suggested that emerging adults' cognitions partially mediated the relationship between their mothers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes and fully mediated the relationship between their fathers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes. Future research should examine parent behaviors as important distal variables in emerging adults' stress/health outcomes but should examine cognitions as more salient, immediate predictors of their stress/health outcomes. PMID:22610746

  10. Adverse childhood experiences and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emerging adults who experienced stressful childhoods may engage in substance use as a maladaptive coping strategy. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, adverse childhood experiences may play a prominent role in substance use decisions as these events violate the assumptions of group oriented cultural paradigms. Alternatively, adverse childhood events might not increase the risk of substance use because strong family ties could mitigate the potential maladaptive behaviors associated with these adverse experiences. This study examined whether adverse childhood experiences were associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Method Participants (n=1420, mean age=22, 41% male) completed surveys indicating whether they experienced any of 8 specific adverse experiences within their first 18 years of life, and past-month cigarette use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and binge drinking. Logistic regression models examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences and each category of substance use, controlling for age, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results The number of adverse childhood experiences was significantly associated with each category of substance use. A difference in the number of adverse childhood experiences, from 0 to 8, was associated with a 22% higher probability of cigarette smoking, a 24% higher probability of binge drinking, a 31% higher probability of marijuana use, and a 12% higher probability of hard drug use respectively. Conclusions These findings should be integrated into prevention/intervention programs in hopes of quelling the duration and severity of substance use behaviors among Hispanic emerging adults. PMID:26160522

  11. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Boye, Joyce Irene

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  12. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  13. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Boye, Joyce Irene

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  14. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Craighead, W. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members’ health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N=119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members’ health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. PMID:25277497

  15. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Hamilton, Derek A.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  16. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition.

  17. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Hamilton, Derek A; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-02-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  18. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  19. Malnutrition among Cognitively Intact, non-Critically Ill Older Adults in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Greg F.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Weaver, Mark A.; Holland, Wesley C.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among older patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the southeastern United States and identify subgroups at increased risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with random time block sampling of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older. Nutrition was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (0–14 scale) with malnutrition defined as a score of 7 or less and at-risk for malnutrition defined as a score of 8–11. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-10 score of 4 or more (0–10 scale). Results Among 138 older adults, 16% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 10%–22%) were malnourished and 60% (95% CI, 52%–69%) were either malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition. Seventeen of the 22 malnourished patients (77%) denied previously being diagnosed with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was not appreciably different between males and females, across levels of patient education, or between those living in urban and rural areas. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was higher among patients with depressive symptoms 52%, those residing in assisted living 50%, those with difficulty eating 38%, and those reporting difficulty buying groceries 33%. Conclusion Among a random sample of cognitively intact older ED patients, more than half were malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition, and the majority of malnourished patients had not previously been diagnosed. Higher rates of malnutrition among those with depression, difficulty eating, and difficulty buying groceries suggest the need to explore multifaceted interventions. PMID:25129819

  20. Sleep problems and pain: a longitudinal cohort study in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Janssens, Karin A M

    2016-04-01

    Sleep and pain are thought to be bidirectional related on a daily basis in adolescents with chronic pain complaints. In addition, sleep problems have been shown to predict the long-term onset of musculoskeletal pain in middle-aged adults. Yet, the long-term effects of sleep problems on pain duration and different types of pain severity in emerging adults (age: 18-25) are unknown. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal pain, headache, and abdominal pain severity in a general population of emerging adults. We studied whether these relationships were moderated by sex and whether symptoms of anxiety and depression, fatigue, or physical inactivity mediated these effects. Data of participants from the longitudinal Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Follow-up data were collected in 1753 participants who participated in the fourth (N = 1668, mean age: 19.0 years [SD = 0.6]) and/or fifth (N = 1501, mean age: 22.3 years [SD = 0.6]) assessment wave. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used for analyses. Sleep problems were associated with chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache and abdominal pain severity, and predicted chronic pain and an increase in musculoskeletal pain severity at 3 years of follow-up. This prospective effect was stronger in females than in males and was mediated by fatigue but not by symptoms of anxiety and depression or physical inactivity. Only abdominal pain had a small long-term effect on sleep problems. Our results suggest that sleep problems may be an additional target for treatment in female emerging adults with musculoskeletal pain complaints.

  1. Teaching adults-best practices that leverage the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D; Stein, David S

    2014-07-01

    It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach

  2. Teaching adults-best practices that leverage the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D; Stein, David S

    2014-07-01

    It is important in teaching adults to recognize the essential characteristics of adult learners and how these characteristics define their learning priorities and activities. The seven key premises and practices for teaching adults provide a good guide for those interested in helping adults learn. The emerging science of the neurobiology of learning provides powerful new insights into how learning occurs in the complex integrated neural network that characterizes the adult. Differentiation of the two types of thinking: System 1 (fast, intuitive, and, often, emotional) and System 2 (slower, deliberate, and logical). System 1 thinking helps explain the basis for quick decisions and reliance of humans on heuristics (or rules of thumb) that leads to the type of convenient thinking associated with errors of thinking and judgment. We now know that the learning experience has an objective location-in the temporal and parietal lobes-as persistent dynamic networks of neurons and neuronal connections. Learning is initially stored in transient working memory (relatively limited capacity and time frame) and then moved under the right conditions to more long-lasting/stable memory (with larger capacity) that is stored for future access and development. It is clear that memories are not static and are not destined, once developed, to forever remain as stable constructs; rather, memories are dynamic, always available for modulation and alteration, and heavily invested with context, emotion, and other operant factors. The framework for such neural networks involves new neuronal connections, enhanced neuronal synaptic transmission, and neuron generation. Ten key teaching and learning concepts derived from recent neurobiology studies on learning and memory are presented. As the neurobiology of learning is better defined, the basis for how adults best learn, and even the preferences they display, can be employed as the physiological foundation for our best methods to effectively teach

  3. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  4. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  5. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  6. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  7. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  8. Simulating Starspot Properties as a Function of Stellar Properties When Emergence Rates are High

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotton, Kate; Saar, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We wish to explore, under various stellar conditions, how aggregate starspot properties change when spot emergence rates are high. We use a Sun-based model to simulate the emergence, motion and decay of starspots on active stars. The spots are generated with a solar log-normal distribution of areas, and the emergence rate scaled according to the stellar rotation rate. The initial longitude of each spot is generated randomly, and initial latitude is generated with a normal distribution about a changing average, equivalent to the solar butterfly diagram. The spots are then allowed to decay at a rate dependent on the stars' surface turbulence, with a motion determined by the differential rotation and meridional flow. At high emergence rates spots can erupt into old ones, where we will either experience a merger or (partial) destruction, depending on their polarity. We follow this evolution over a magnetic cycle, logging the resulting distribution of spot sizes, latitudes, decay rates and destruction (flare) rates, for varying input parameters and stellar conditions. We compare our results with both stellar observations (including light curves, apparent spot distributions, measured differential rotation and flare rates) and theoretical estimates such as magnetic diffusivities.

  9. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Department (ED) Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Pharmaceuticals* among Adults Aged 18 to 34, by Alcohol ... 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 * Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals includes taking more than the prescribed dose of ...

  10. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses’ views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile. Results: 5 central themes emerged from the analysis, representing a lack of older personhospital environment fit in the ED: (a) respect for the older adult and carers, (b) correct and best procedures and treatment, (c) time and staff to do things right, (d) transitions, and (e) a safe and enabling environment. The nurses offered solutions to address lack of fit, including modifications to the social climate, policies and procedures, care systems and processes, and physical design. Implications: The nurses’ descriptions of the pressing issues surrounding care of older adults in the ED provide useful information to consider when developing a senior-friendly ED. Results also illuminate solutions that can be taken to address issues. These solutions give direction for future intervention research. PMID:23442380

  11. The Nature and Meaning of Insulin Pump Use in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the meaning of living with an insulin pump for the management of type 1 diabetes during the period of emerging adulthood. Through a phenomenological narrative, this study contributes to the reflective understanding of the everyday life experiences of this population. Methods. A hermeneutic phenomenological design was used for this study of nine emerging adults (aged 19–24 years). Data were generated through face-to-face interviews and analyzed using the phenomenological approach of Max van Manen. Results. Four themes represent the essence of the day-to-day experiences of these emerging adults: seeking control, becoming responsible, staying connected, and accepting me. Conclusions. An in-depth understanding of the meaning of daily experiences with insulin pump technology has the potential to promote a developmentally appropriate approach to this age-group. The human understanding gained through this study is essential to the development of evidence-based practice guidelines and resources for this vulnerable population. PMID:25987805

  12. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults. PMID:25239659

  13. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults.

  14. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  15. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  16. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-31

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  17. Basic Education for Adults: Pathways to College and Careers for Washington's Emerging Workforce. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief describes the Basic Education for Adults (BEdA) programs that bridge the gap between school and work, thereby creating pathways to college and careers for Washington's emerging workforce. BEdA programs teach foundational skills--reading, writing, math, technology and English language--so adults can move through college and into…

  18. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  19. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing

  20. Provider Types Utilized and Recency of Mental Health Service Use among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sha-Lai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined factors associated with mental health service utilization among African American emerging adults, specifically, when services were used (recency) and the types of providers utilized (mental health/non-mental health). Methods Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, secondary analysis of the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African American emerging adults, ages 18-29 (n=806), were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. “Evaluated need” was determined by endorsement for one of four DSM-IV diagnosis types (mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control). Respondents who reported a need for services for emotional/substance use problems were considered to have a “perceived need”. Those who reported voluntary use of mental health/health services to address these problems were considered to have utilized services. Results 25%of the sample utilized services in their lifetime, while 9% utilized services in the past 12 months. Females were more likely than males to utilize services in three of the four service use categories (lifetime, mental health sector, and non-mental health sector).Respondents with an evaluated need for services were 2-12 times more likely to have utilized services compared to those without a need. Conclusions Little is known about why African American emerging adults underutilize mental health services. These findings indicate that being female and having an evaluated need for services were associated with greater odds of service use among this sample. This suggests the need for additional examination of gender differences in service utilization and greater mental health outreach/education among African American males. PMID:24981778

  1. Gender roles and binge drinking among Latino emerging adults: a latent class regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G

    2014-09-01

    Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.

  2. Sleep problems: predictor or outcome of media use among emerging adults at university?

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-08-01

    The pervasiveness of media use in our society has raised concerns about its potential impact on important lifestyle behaviours, including sleep. Although a number of studies have modelled poor sleep as a negative outcome of media use, a critical assessment of the literature indicates two important gaps: (i) studies have almost exclusively relied on concurrent data, and thus have not been able to assess the direction of effects; and (ii) studies have largely been conducted with children and adolescents. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study, therefore, was to examine whether both sleep duration and sleep problems would be predictors or outcomes of two forms of media use (i.e. television and online social networking) among a sample of emerging adults. Participants were 942 (71.5% female) university students (M = 19.01 years, SD = 0.90) at Time 1. Survey measures, which were assessed for three consecutive years starting in the first year of university, included demographics, sleep duration, sleep problems, television and online social networking use. Results of a cross-lagged model indicated that the association between sleep problems and media use was statistically significant: sleep problems predicted longer time spent watching television and on social networking websites, but not vice versa. Contrary to our hypotheses, sleep duration was not associated with media use. Our findings indicate no negative effects of media use on sleep among emerging adults, but instead suggest that emerging adults appear to seek out media as a means of coping with their sleep problems. PMID:24552437

  3. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  4. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  5. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  6. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  7. Self-Rated Health among Adult Women of Mexican Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Hernandez-Valero, Maria A.; Etzel, Carol J.; Barcenas, Carlos H.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Strom, Sara S.

    2006-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH), a consistent predictor of mortality among diverse populations, is sensitive to health indicators and social factors. American-born Hispanics report better SRH than their foreign-born counterparts but simultaneously report poorer health indicators and have shorter life expectancy. Using a matched prospective cross-sectional…

  8. Cardiac issues in adults with the mucopolysaccharidoses: current knowledge and emerging needs.

    PubMed

    Braunlin, Elizabeth; Wang, Raymond

    2016-08-15

    The growing availability of innovative treatments for rare genetic diseases with a cardiac component-such as the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs)-has changed these syndromes from 'back of the textbook' curiosities of childhood to chronic, but rare, adult cardiac conditions that require both centres of expertise and knowledgeable subspecialists. The MPSs are inherited progressive lysosomal storage diseases, occurring in about 1:25 000 births and resulting from absence of functional hydrolases responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, naturally occurring complex sugars ubiquitous throughout the body. In the heart, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans occurs within the cardiac valves, the epicardial coronary arteries, the myocytes and cardiac interstitium and the walls of the great vessels. As a consequence, cardiac valve regurgitation and stenosis, diffuse coronary artery stenosis, myocardial dysfunction and aortic root dilation often occur. Haematopoietic cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy have changed the previously lethal natural history of the MPSs to one of survival well into adulthood. Despite this improved lifespan, the left-sided cardiac valves continue to show progressive functional involvement and cardiac valve replacement is not uncommon, especially in adults. The risk of any intervention is increased in these patients because of the systemic effects of the disease on the respiratory system and cervical cord. Our current understanding of other cardiac issues in adults with the MPSs, especially with the coronary circulation and myocardium, is meagre and more needs to be known to effectively care for this emerging population of adults. Incorporation of the MPSs, as well as other now-treatable rare diseases, into the educational curriculum of current and future adult subspecialists is an important next step. PMID:27102649

  9. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  10. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  11. Risky business: Is there an association between casual sex and mental health among emerging adults?

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina M; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hudson, Monika; Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Agocha, V Bede; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Caraway, S Jean

    2014-01-01

    A multiethnic sample of single, heterosexual, emerging-adult college students (N = 3,907) ages 18 to 25, from 30 institutions across the United States, participated in a study about identity, culture, psychological well-being, and risky behaviors. Given ongoing debates about the connection between casual sex and psychological adjustment, in the current study we assessed the cross-sectional association of participation in casual sex with psychological well-being and distress. A greater proportion of men (18.6%) compared to women (7.4%) reported having had casual sex in the month prior to assessment. Structural equation modeling indicated that casual sex was negatively associated with well-being (ß = .20, p < .001) and positively associated with psychological distress (ß = .16, p < .001). Gender did not moderate these associations. For emerging-adult college students, engaging in casual sex may elevate risk for negative psychological outcomes.

  12. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts.

  13. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  14. Do adult obesity rates in England vary by insecurity as well as by inequality? An ecological cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Geographical variations in adult obesity rates have been attributed in part to variations in social and economic inequalities. Insecurity is associated with obesity at the cross-national level, but there is little empirical evidence to show that insecurity contributes to the structuring of adult obesity rates at the subnational level. This is examined in this study across local authorities in England, using a recently developed social classification for the British population. Setting Modelled obesity rates from the Health Survey for England 2006–2008 were related to social class (as estimated from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey of 2011 and a nationally representative sample survey), across 320 local authorities in England. Primary and secondary outcome measures Comparisons of mean obesity rates across Z score categories for seven latent social classes were carried out using one-way analysis of variance. Pooled ordinary least square regression analyses of obesity rates by local authorities according to the proportion of different social classes within each of them were performed to determine the extent of geographical variations in obesity rates among the classes that were more greatly based on insecurity (emergent service workers, precariat), and those more closely based on inequality (elite, established middle class, technical middle class, new affluent workers, traditional working class). Results Adult obesity rates vary negatively across local authorities according to the proportion of people in the elite (F=39.06, p<0.001) and technical middle class (F=8.10, p<0.001) and positively with respect to the proportion of people of the established middle class (F=26.36, p<0.001), new affluent workers (F=73.03, p<0.001), traditional working class (F=23.00, p<0.001) and precariat (F=13.13, p<0.001). Social classes more closely based on inequality show greater association with adult obesity rates across local authorities than social classes more

  15. Heart rate variability during "alarm stage" of burnout syndrome in emergency doctors.

    PubMed

    Kotov, A V; Revina, N E

    2012-09-01

    The parameters of heart rate variations were examined in emergency care doctors that demonstrated the initial signs of defensive psychological burnout syndrome related to their professional activity. These parameters were compared within each of two groups with different individual typological features. The differences in the heart rate variability parameters were revealed between the examinees that were at the compensation or alarm stages of the burnout syndrome.

  16. Presence of a Community Health Center and Uninsured Emergency Department Visit Rates in Rural Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George; Baltrus, Peter; Ye, Jiali; Daniels, Elvan; Quarshie, Alexander; Boumbulian, Paul; Strothers, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Context: Community health centers (CHCs) provide essential access to a primary care medical home for the uninsured, especially in rural communities with no other primary care safety net. CHCs could potentially reduce uninsured emergency department (ED) visits in rural communities. Purpose: We compared uninsured ED visit rates between rural…

  17. Emergence of Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus Adult Invasive Disease in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, Is Driven by Clonal Sequence Type 459 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Van Caeseele, Paul; Horsman, Greg; Alexander, David C.; Melano, Roberto G.; Li, Aimin; Flores, Anthony R.; Shelburne, Samuel A.; McGeer, Allison; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Serotype IV group B Streptococcus (GBS) is emerging in Canada and the United States with rates as high as 5% of the total burden of adult invasive GBS disease. To understand this emergence, we studied the population structure and assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of serotype IV isolates causing adult invasive infection in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2010 and 2014. Whole-genome sequencing was used to determine multilocus sequence typing information and identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in 85 invasive serotype IV GBS strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by standard methods. Strain divergence was assessed using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Serotype IV strains were responsible for 16.9% of adult invasive GBS infections in Manitoba and Saskatchewan during the period. The majority of serotype IV isolates (89%) were clonally related, tetracycline-, erythromycin-, and clindamycin-resistant sequence type 459 (ST459) strains that possessed genes tetM and ermTR. Genome comparisons between ST459 and serotype V ST1 GBS identified several areas of recombination in an overall similar genomic background. Serotype IV ST459 GBS strains are expanding and causing a substantial percentage of adult invasive GBS disease. This emergence may be linked to the acquisition of resistance to tetracycline, macrolides, and lincosamides. PMID:26135871

  18. Relationships and Health among Emerging Adults with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study's goal was to examine the impact of parent and peer relationships on health behaviors and psychological well-being of those with and without type 1 diabetes over the transition to emerging adulthood. Emerging adulthood is an understudied developmental period and a high risk period—especially for those with type 1 diabetes. Methods Youth with (n = 117) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed questionnaires during their senior year of high school and one year later. Measures included supportive and problematic aspects of parent and peer relationships, health behaviors, psychological well-being, and, for those with diabetes, self-care behavior and glycemic control. Results Prospective multiple and logistic regression analysis revealed that friend conflict was a more potent predictor than friend support of changes in health behaviors and psychological well-being. Parent support was associated with positive changes in psychological well-being and decreases in smoking, whereas parent control was related to increases in smoking and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of cross-domain buffering such that supportive relationships in one domain buffered adverse effects of problematic relationships in the other domain on health outcomes. Conclusions This longitudinal study showed that parent relationships remain an important influence on and peer relationships continue to influence the health behaviors and psychological well-being of emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Parent relationships also have the potential to buffer the adverse effects of difficulties with peers. PMID:23914816

  19. Six Month Outcomes of a Peer-Enhanced Community Reinforcement Approach for Emerging Adults with Substance Misuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Davis, Jordan P; Ureche, Daniel J; Dumas, Tara M

    2016-02-01

    Little substance use disorder (SUD) treatment research with emerging adults ages 18-25 has been done in community settings, and it is well-known that peers influence emerging adult substance use. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a peer-enhanced behavioral treatment for emerging adults with substance use problems. Emerging adults (n=35) received a peer-enhanced version of the Community Reinforcement Approach (Peer-CRA), in which their peers (n=34) were trained to provide alcohol-specific social support. Both identified clients and peers were interviewed at treatment intake, and again three and six months later. Six month outcomes included days of abstinence adjusted for controlled environment days, social costs due to substance use, and binge drinking days in the past 90 days. Treatments were delivered with high fidelity, and a high proportion of participants were retained in treatment and follow-up assessments. Growth curve analyses revealed that emerging adults and their peers significantly increased their days of abstinence and reduced their binge drinking over time. Larger randomized trials should a) test whether peer-enhanced treatments are efficacious relative to treatment as usual, b) investigate whether secondary benefits exist for non-treatment seeking peers supporting another's treatment, and c) examine whether proposed mechanisms of change (i.e., peer support and peer reductions in substance use) account for any differences in outcomes.

  20. Youth, Caregiver, and Staff Perspectives on an Initiative to Promote Success of Emerging Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stein, Kathleen F; Connors, Elizabeth H; Chambers, Kerri L; Thomas, Charmaine L; Stephan, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is more challenging for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) as compared to youth with other disability types and typically-developing peers. Outcomes for emerging adults with EBD as a group are particularly concerning in the domains of unemployment, educational dropout rates, and interactions with the judicial system including incarceration, early parenting, homelessness, substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide. The current study presents qualitative program evaluation data for one of seven grantee states awarded 5-year cooperative agreements by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to build developmentally-appropriate and effective youth-guided local systems of care for transition age youth, ages 16-25 years, to promote positive transition outcomes. Findings, obtained from focus groups of 25 participating transition age youth, caregivers, staff, and supervisors, include strategies for maintaining and expanding on the strengths of program, as well as for improving specific program areas. Also, consistent with the goals of the program, this process provided an opportunity for the youth and caregivers to voice their opinions and perspectives regarding their services. Implications for research and practice on effectively serving the unique needs of young adults experiencing EBD and their families in areas such as navigating special education, providing emotional and behavioral supports, and leveraging interagency collaboration are discussed. PMID:25005428

  1. Bivariate Trajectories of Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior: Associations with Emerging Adult Outcomes in a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Trim, Ryan S.; Worley, Matthew J.; Wall, Tamara L.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Hewitt, John K.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and antisocial behavior are complex, interrelated behaviors. The current study identified model trajectory classes defined by concurrent substance use and antisocial behavior and examined trajectory associations with emerging adult outcomes. Participants from a high-risk sample of youth (n=536; 73% male) completed interviews at baseline (mean age= 16.1 years) and followup (mean age= 22.6 years). Latent class growth analyses identified five trajectory classes based on alcohol/drug use (AOD) and antisocial behavior (ASB): Dual Chronic, Increasing AOD/Persistent ASB, Persistent AOD/Adolescent ASB, Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB, and Resolved. Many individuals (56%) exhibited elevated/increasing AOD, and most (91%) reported ASB decreases. Those associated with the Dual Chronic class had the highest rates of substance dependence, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and negative psychosocial outcomes. There were no differences in adult role attainment across classes. Conjoint examination of these behaviors provides greater detail regarding clinical course and can inform secondary prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26889401

  2. Selection on the timing of adult emergence results in altered circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh; Kumar, Dhanya; Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; R, Akarsh C; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2007-03-01

    To investigate whether circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster evolve as a consequence of selection on the timing of adult emergence, we raised four replicate populations each of early (early(1..4)) and late (late(1..4)) emerging flies by selecting for adults that emerged during the morning and the evening hours. We estimated the percentage of flies that emerged during the two selection windows to evaluate the direct response to selection, and the circadian phenotypes of adult emergence and locomotor activity rhythms under light/dark (LD) and constant darkness (DD) to assess the correlated response to selection. After 55 generations, the percentage of flies emerging during the morning window increased in the early populations, but decreased in the late populations. The percentage of flies emerging during the evening window increased in the late populations, but decreased in the early populations. The time course and waveform of emergence and locomotor activity rhythms of the selected populations diverged from each other as well as from the controls. Further, the circadian periodicity of the early populations was significantly shorter than the controls, while that of the late populations was significantly longer than the controls. The light-induced phase response curve of the selected populations differed significantly within groups as well as from the controls. Such modifications in the circadian phenotypes of the selected populations due to heritable changes in genetic architecture, in response to imposed selection pressure, suggest that the circadian clocks underlying emergence and locomotor activity rhythms in D. melanogaster evolve as a correlated response to selection on the timing of adult emergence.

  3. Wide Variability in Emergency Physician Admission Rates: A Target to Reduce Costs Without Compromising Quality

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Jeffrey J.; Lundberg, Scott R.; Scheib, Geoffrey P.; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G.; Richman, Mark J.; Wang, Chien-Ju; Talan, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attending physician judgment is the traditional standard of care for emergency department (ED) admission decisions. The extent to which variability in admission decisions affect cost and quality is not well understood. We sought to determine the impact of variability in admission decisions on cost and quality. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study of patients presenting to a university-affiliated, urban ED from October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008. The main outcome measures were admission rate, fiscal indicators (Medicaid-denied payment days), and quality indicators (15- and 30-day ED returns; delayed hospital admissions). We asked each Attending to estimate their inpatient admission rate and correlated their personal assessment with actual admission rates. Results Admission rates, even after adjusting for known confounders, were highly variable (15.2%–32.0%) and correlated with Medicaid denied-payment day rates (p=0.038). There was no correlation with quality outcome measures (30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission). There was no significant correlation between actual and self-described admission rate; the range of mis-estimation was 0% to 117%. Conclusion Emergency medicine attending admission rates at this institution are highly variable, unexplained by known confounding variables, and unrelated to quality of care, as measured by 30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission. Admission optimization represents an important untapped potential for cost reduction through avoidable hospitalizations, with no apparent adverse effects on quality. PMID:27625720

  4. Wide Variability in Emergency Physician Admission Rates: A Target to Reduce Costs Without Compromising Quality

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Jeffrey J.; Lundberg, Scott R.; Scheib, Geoffrey P.; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G.; Richman, Mark J.; Wang, Chien-Ju; Talan, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attending physician judgment is the traditional standard of care for emergency department (ED) admission decisions. The extent to which variability in admission decisions affect cost and quality is not well understood. We sought to determine the impact of variability in admission decisions on cost and quality. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study of patients presenting to a university-affiliated, urban ED from October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008. The main outcome measures were admission rate, fiscal indicators (Medicaid-denied payment days), and quality indicators (15- and 30-day ED returns; delayed hospital admissions). We asked each Attending to estimate their inpatient admission rate and correlated their personal assessment with actual admission rates. Results Admission rates, even after adjusting for known confounders, were highly variable (15.2%–32.0%) and correlated with Medicaid denied-payment day rates (p=0.038). There was no correlation with quality outcome measures (30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission). There was no significant correlation between actual and self-described admission rate; the range of mis-estimation was 0% to 117%. Conclusion Emergency medicine attending admission rates at this institution are highly variable, unexplained by known confounding variables, and unrelated to quality of care, as measured by 30-day ED return or delayed hospital admission. Admission optimization represents an important untapped potential for cost reduction through avoidable hospitalizations, with no apparent adverse effects on quality.

  5. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  7. Bursts of Self-Conscious Emotions in the Daily Lives of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Rebar, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions play a role in regulating daily achievement strivings, social behavior, and health, but little is known about the processes underlying their daily manifestation. Emerging adults (n = 182) completed daily diaries for eight days and multilevel models were estimated to evaluate whether, how much, and why their emotions varied from day-to-day. Within-person variation in authentic pride was normally-distributed across people and days whereas the other emotions were burst-like and characterized by zero-inflated, negative binomial distributions. Perceiving social interactions as generally communal increased the odds of hubristic pride activation and reduced the odds of guilt activation; daily communal behavior reduced guilt intensity. Results illuminated processes through which meaning about the self-in-relation-to-others is constructed during a critical period of development. PMID:25859164

  8. Typologies and precursors of career adaptability patterns among emerging adults: a seven-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Vasalampi, Kati; Barr, Tamuz; Livne, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Pratt, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined career adaptability in 100 Israeli emerging adults who were followed from ages 22 to 29. Participants were given an in depth interview and were asked to talk about their current work, difficulties they might have had in the past and how they coped with them. In addition they were asked to elaborate on the extent to which their job fits their interests and is meaningful to them. Analyses of interviews yielded three distinctive career adaptability patterns that were associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Integrated, Compromised, and Vague. A lower level of identified motivation measured seven years earlier predicted membership in the Compromised pattern. A higher level of extrinsic motivation combined with decreased parental support predicted membership in the Vague pattern. Findings are discussed within the framework of the occupational adaptations and compromises that young people must make when approaching the age of 30. PMID:24986058

  9. Structure emerges faster during cultural transmission in children than in adults.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Forsyth, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    How does children's limited processing capacity affect cultural transmission of complex information? We show that over the course of iterated reproduction of two-dimensional random dot patterns transmission accuracy increased to a similar extent in 5- to 8-year-old children and adults whereas algorithmic complexity decreased faster in children. Thus, children require more structure to render complex inputs learnable. In line with the Less-Is-More hypothesis, we interpret this as evidence that children's processing limitations affecting working memory capacity and executive control constrain the ability to represent and generate complexity, which, in turn, facilitates emergence of structure. This underscores the importance of investigating the role of children in the transmission of complex cultural traits.

  10. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.

  11. Transition Needs of Parents of Adolescents and Emerging Adults With Special Health Care Needs and Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Betz, Cecily L; Nehring, Wendy M; Lobo, Marie L

    2015-08-01

    The period of health care transition (HCT) for adolescents and emerging adults with special health care needs and disabilities involves a complex realignment of the parent-child relationship, including alterations in role responsibilities and decision making. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the research designs, methodology, and findings reported in studies of parents during this transition period to provide new insights for research and clinical practice. Results showed that parents were unable to clearly envision what the future held for their children and were not well prepared by the service system to anticipate future prospects. These parents have a myriad of needs that are not yet fully understood, as HCT research is in the early stages of development. PMID:26283056

  12. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  13. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  14. [Mild head injury in children and adults. Diagnostic challenges in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Lindner, T; Wolf, S; Bogner, V; Steinbeck, A; Börner, N; Peiser, C; Audebert, H J; Biberthaler, P; Kanz, K-G

    2015-01-01

    Mild head injuries are one of the most frequent reasons for attending emergency departments and are particularly challenging in different ways. While clinically important injuries are infrequent, delayed or missed injuries may lead to fatal consequences. The initial mostly inconspicuous appearance may not reflect the degree of intracranial injury and computed tomography (CT) is necessary to rule out covert injuries. Furthermore, infants and young children with a lack of or rudimentary cognitive and language development are challenging, especially for those examiners not familiar with pediatric care. Established check lists of clinical risk factors for children and adults regarding traumatic brain injuries allow specific and rational decision-making for cranial CT imaging. Clinically important intracranial injuries can be reliably detected and unnecessary radiation exposure avoided at the same time. PMID:25630884

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-12-01

    Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Is the intraosseous access route fast and efficacious compared to conventional central venous catheterization in adult patients under resuscitation in the emergency department? A prospective observational pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Leidel, Bernd A; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Bogner, Viktoria; Stegmaier, Julia; Mutschler, Wolf; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Braunstein, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Background For patients' safety reasons, current American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council guidelines recommend intraosseous (IO) vascular access as an alternative in cases of emergency, if prompt venous catheterization is impossible. The purpose of this study was to compare the IO access as a bridging procedure versus central venous catheterization (CVC) for in-hospital adult emergency patients under resuscitation with impossible peripheral intravenous (IV) access. We hypothesised, that CVC is faster and more efficacious compared to IO access. Methods A prospective observational study comparing success rates and procedure times of IO access (EZ-IO, Vidacare Corporation) versus CVC in adult (≥18 years of age) patients under trauma and medical resuscitation admitted to our emergency department with impossible peripheral IV catheterization was conducted. Procedure time was defined from preparation and insertion of vascular access type until first drug or infusion solution administration. Success rate on first attempt and procedure time for each access route was evaluated and statistically tested. Results Ten consecutive adult patients under resuscitation, each receiving IO access and CVC, were analyzed. IO access was performed with 10 tibial or humeral insertions, CVC in 10 internal jugular or subclavian veins. The success rate on first attempt was 90% for IO insertion versus 60% for CVC. Mean procedure time was significantly lower for IO cannulation (2.3 min ± 0.8) compared to CVC (9.9 min ± 3.7) (p < 0.001). As for complications, failure of IO access was observed in one patient, while two or more attempts of CVC were necessary in four patients. No other relevant complications, like infection, bleeding or pneumothorax were observed. Conclusion Preliminary data demonstrate that IO access is a reliable bridging method to gain vascular access for in-hospital adult emergency patients under trauma or medical resuscitation with impossible

  18. EMERGENCY BRAKING IN ADULTS VERSUS NOVICE TEEN DRIVERS: RESPONSE TO SIMULATED SUDDEN DRIVING EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Venk; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death in teens in the United States. Newly licensed drivers are the group most at risk for crashes. Their driving skills are very new, still very often untested, so that their ability to properly react in an emergency situation remains a research question. Since it is impossible to expose human subjects to critical life threatening driving scenarios, researchers have been increasingly using driving simulators to assess driving skills. This paper summarizes the results of a driving scenario in a study comparing the driving performance of novice teen drivers (n=21) 16–17 year olds with 90 days of provisional licensure with that of experienced adult drivers (n=17) 25–50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years. As part of a 30 to 35 simulated drive that encompassed the most common scenarios that result in serious crashes, participants were exposed to a sudden car event. As the participant drove on a suburban road, a car surged from a driveway hidden by a fence on the right side of the road. To avoid the crash, participants must hard brake, exhibiting dynamic control over both attentional and motor resources. The results showed strong differences between the experienced adult and novice teen drivers in the brake pressure applied. When placed in the same situation, the novice teens decelerated on average 50% less than the experienced adults (p<0.01). PMID:26709330

  19. An Exploration of the Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adult Men Attending a Historically Black College/University

    PubMed Central

    Younge, Sinead N.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Geter, Angelica; Barker, Judith C.; Corneille, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide formative data on the sexual behaviors of emerging adult Black men who attended a historically Black college/university. A convenience sample of 19 participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. This study utilized a phenomenological qualitative approach to explore the role of the developmental stage that emerging adulthood has on sexual health. Some of the major themes that emerged included maturation, sexual decision-making, respectability, a future orientation, and masculinity. Despite sexual initiation beginning prior to entering college, participants discussed how the college environment presented them with new information, experiences, and attitudes. This study provides useful information for the future investigation of emerging adult Black men who attend HBCUs. PMID:26146649

  20. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults.

    PubMed

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J; Hans, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  1. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults.

    PubMed

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J; Hans, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health. PMID:27051556

  2. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health. PMID:27051556

  3. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  4. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  5. Survival rates of adult lake trout in northwestern Lake Michigan, 1983-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Holey, Mark E.; McKee, Patrick C.; Toneys, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan has been an elusive goal of resource management agencies in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we estimated annual survival rates of adult lake trout from an area in northwestern Lake Michigan known as the Clay Banks refuge. We tagged and recaptured fish with gill nets during the fall spawning season (N = 12,175; 1983–1989 and 1991–1993) and with pound nets in the spring (N = 52,035; 1984–1990 and 1992–1993). We fit Cormack–Jolly–Seber models to the two sets of data. We had insufficient data to analyze annual differences in survival rates of fall-tagged fish, but we were able to estimate an overall annual survival rate of 0.67. Annual survival rates of spring-tagged fish varied between 0.53 and 0.88 and increased after 1987–1988. In addition to the mark–recapture studies, we analyzed catch rates of lake trout from gill-net and pound-net surveys to estimate survival rates using catch curve analyses; these annual rates were generally lower than those estimated from mark–recapture analyses of tagged fish. However, survival rates of lake trout from the Clay Banks refuge appeared to meet the minimum rate believed necessary for restoration of this species in Lake Michigan. Furthermore, adult survival rates have been increasing in recent years, and lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is not hampered by low survival of adult fish. We hypothesize that the recent decrease in abundance of adult lake trout is primarily due to decreases in survival rates of lake trout younger than 6 years.

  6. Factors Associated With Emergency Department Visits: A Multistate Analysis of Adult Fee-for-Service Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parul; Bias, Thomas K.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Frisbee, Stephanie; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association of patient- and county-level factors with the emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. Methods A cross-sectional design using retrospective observational data was implemented. Patient-level data were obtained from 2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files. Information on county-level health-care resources was obtained from the Area Health Resource file and County Health Rankings file. Results In adjusted analyses, the following patient-level factors were associated with higher number of ED visits: African Americans (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 1.47), Hispanics (IRR = 1.63), polypharmacy (IRR = 1.89), and tobacco use (IRR = 2.23). Patients with complex chronic illness had a higher number of ED visits (IRR = 3.33). The county-level factors associated with ED visits were unemployment rate (IRR = 0.94) and number of urgent care clinics (IRR = 0.96). Conclusion Patients with complex healthcare needs had a higher number of ED visits as compared to those without complex healthcare needs. The study results provide important baseline context for future policy analysis studies around Medicaid expansion options.

  7. Factors Associated With Emergency Department Visits: A Multistate Analysis of Adult Fee-for-Service Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parul; Bias, Thomas K.; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Frisbee, Stephanie; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association of patient- and county-level factors with the emergency department (ED) visits among adult fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. Methods A cross-sectional design using retrospective observational data was implemented. Patient-level data were obtained from 2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files. Information on county-level health-care resources was obtained from the Area Health Resource file and County Health Rankings file. Results In adjusted analyses, the following patient-level factors were associated with higher number of ED visits: African Americans (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 1.47), Hispanics (IRR = 1.63), polypharmacy (IRR = 1.89), and tobacco use (IRR = 2.23). Patients with complex chronic illness had a higher number of ED visits (IRR = 3.33). The county-level factors associated with ED visits were unemployment rate (IRR = 0.94) and number of urgent care clinics (IRR = 0.96). Conclusion Patients with complex healthcare needs had a higher number of ED visits as compared to those without complex healthcare needs. The study results provide important baseline context for future policy analysis studies around Medicaid expansion options. PMID:27512721

  8. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  9. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  10. Effect of temperature on the standard metabolic rates of juvenile and adult Exopalaemon carinicauda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengsong; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-03-01

    Ridgetail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) are of significant economic importance in China where they are widely cultured. However, there is little information on the basic biology of this species. We evaluated the effect of temperature (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C) on the standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda in the laboratory under static conditions. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonia-N excretion rate (AER), and atomic ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen consumed (O:N ratio) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda were significantly influenced by temperature ( P < 0.05). Both the OCR and AER of juveniles increased significantly with increasing temperature from 16 to 34°C, but the maximum OCR for adults was at 31°C. Juvenile shrimp exhibited a higher OCR than the adults from 19 to 34°C. There was no significant difference between the AERs of the two life-stages from 16 to 31°C ( P >0.05). The O:N ratio in juveniles was significantly higher than that in the adults over the entire temperature range ( P <0.05). The temperature coefficient ( Q 10) of OCR and AER ranged from 5.03 to 0.86 and 6.30 to 0.85 for the adults, respectively, and from 6.09-1.03 and 3.66-1.80 for the juveniles, respectively. The optimal temperature range for growth of the juvenile and adult shrimp was from 28 to 31°C, based on Q 10 and SMR values. Results from the present study may be used to guide pond culture production of E. carinicauda.

  11. Quality of care in sickle cell disease: Cross-sectional study and development of a measure for adults reporting on ambulatory and emergency department care.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Christian T; Treadwell, Marsha J; Keller, San; Levine, Roger; Hassell, Kathryn L; Werner, Ellen M; Smith, Wally R

    2016-08-01

    Documented deficiencies in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) care include poor access to knowledgeable providers and inadequate treatment in emergency departments (EDs).The aim of this study was to create patient-reported outcome measures of the quality of ambulatory and ED care for adults with SCD.We developed and pilot tested SCD quality of care questions consistent with Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We applied psychometric methods to develop scores and evaluate reliability and validity.The participants of this study were adults with SCD (n = 556)-63% aged 18 to 34 years; 64% female; 64% SCD-SS-at 7 US sites.The measure used was Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement information system Quality of Care survey.Most participants (90%) reported at least 1 severe pain episode (pain intensity 7.8 ± 2.3, 0-10 scale) in the past year. Most (81%) chose to manage pain at home rather than the ED, citing negative ED experiences (83%). Using factor analysis, we identified Access, Provider Interaction, and ED Care composites with reliable scores (Cronbach α 0.70-0.83) and construct validity (r = 0.32-0.83 correlations with global care ratings). Compared to general adult Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores, adults with SCD had worse care, adjusted for age, education, and general health.Results were consistent with other research reflecting deficiencies in ED care for adults with SCD. The Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Quality of Care measure is a useful self-report measure for documenting and tracking disparities in quality of SCD care. PMID:27583862

  12. Elevational variation in adult body size and growth rate but not in metabolic rate in the tree weta Hemideina crassidens.

    PubMed

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Trewick, Steven A; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Sinclair, Brent J; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Populations of the same species inhabiting distinct localities experience different ecological and climatic pressures that might result in differentiation in traits, particularly those related to temperature. We compared metabolic rate (and its thermal sensitivity), growth rate, and body size among nine high- and low-elevation populations of the Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, distributed from 9 to 1171 m a.s.l across New Zealand. Our results did not indicate elevational compensation in metabolic rates (metabolic cold adaptation). Cold acclimation decreased metabolic rate compared to warm-acclimated individuals from both high- and low-elevation populations. However, we did find countergradient variation in growth rates, with individuals from high-elevation populations growing faster and to a larger final size than individuals from low-elevation populations. Females grew faster to a larger size than males, although as adults their metabolic rates did not differ significantly. The combined physiological and morphological data suggest that high-elevation individuals grow quickly and achieve larger size while maintaining metabolic rates at levels not significantly different from low-elevation individuals. Thus, morphological differentiation among tree weta populations, in concert with genetic variation, might provide the material required for adaptation to changing conditions.

  13. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  14. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Main, Keith L; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Visual processing in the magnocellular pathway is a reputed influence on word recognition and reading performance. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. To explore this concept, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rates but only for real words, not pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlations between contrast detection thresholds and the reading rates. We also found no correlations between speed discrimination or contrast detection and WASI subtest scores. These findings indicate that familiarity is a factor in magnocellular operations that may influence reading rate. We suggest this effect supports the idea that the magnocellular pathway contributes to word reading through an analysis of letter position.

  15. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Main, Keith L.; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Word familiarity may affect magnocellular processes of word recognition. To explore this idea, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed-discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rate, but only for words, not for pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlation between contrast sensitivity and reading rate and no correlation between speed discrimination thresholds WASI subtest scores. These findings support the position that reading rate is influenced by magnocellular circuitry attuned to the recognition of familiar word-forms. PMID:25278418

  16. Differentiating Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adults: Associations with Hostile Attribution Biases and Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Christopher A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature on forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of participants' cognitions and beliefs about aggressive behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 165; M = 19.05 years; SD = 1.55) and completed a battery of…

  17. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  18. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  19. Demystifying a Black Box: A Grounded Theory of How Travel Experiences Impact the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact on the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults of both the 10 day trips to Israel popularly known as Birthright trips and the service learning trips commonly known as Alternative Spring Breaks has been well-documented. However, the mechanics of how this positive impact occurs has not been well-understood. This…

  20. "It Felt Good but Weird at the Same Time": Emerging Adults' First Experiences of Six Different Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Maas, Megan K.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual behavior is multidimensional, little research has focused on the experience of nonintercourse behaviors for adolescents and emerging adults. This article uses open-ended coded data from a longitudinal study of college students (N = 346; M age = 18.5, 52% female, 27% Hispanic/Latino [HL], 25% non-HL European American, 23% non-HL…

  1. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  2. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  3. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  4. Marriage (In)equality: The Perspectives of Adolescents and Emerging Adults with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The debate over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into civil marriages continues in the United States. Forty-nine adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-29) with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents were interviewed for the current exploratory study, which examined how individuals perceived themselves and their families as being…

  5. Ability of newly emerged adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to exit belowground stormwater treatment systems via lateral conveyance pipes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Marco E; Harbison, Justin E; Burns, Joseph E; Hu, Renjie

    2012-03-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes flourish in belowground stormwater systems in the southern United States. Recent evidence suggests that oviposition-site-seeking females may have difficulties locating, entering, and ovipositing inside permanent water chambers when surface entry through pickholes in manhole covers are sealed. It remains unknown, however, if newly emerged adults are able to detect cues necessary to exit these partly sealed systems via lateral conveyance pipes or if they perish belowground. Fourth instar Cx. quinquefasciatus were placed within proprietary belowground stormwater treatment systems to determine the percentage of newly emerged adults able to escape treatment chambers via a single lateral conveyance pipe. Overall, 56% of deployed mosquitoes were captured in adult exit traps with an 1:1 male:female ratio. The percentage of adults captured varied significantly among chambers, but was not associated with structural site characteristics such as the chamber depth or the length and course of conveyance pipe to the exit trap. Empirical observations suggested that longbodied cellar spiders, Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin), ubiquitous in these structures, may have reduced adult trap capture. Findings demonstrate that newly emerged Cx. quinquefasciatus can exit subterranean chambers under potentially difficult structural conditions but suggest that a portion may perish in the absence of surface exit points in manhole shafts.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  7. Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and Completion Rates: A Guide for Student Affairs Leaders and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Marguerite McGann, Ed.; Dungy, Gwendolyn Jordan, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    More than a third of all undergraduate students are 25 or older, and their presence on college and university campuses is growing. However, institutions of higher learning are struggling to meet the needs of, and improve persistence and completion rates for, this significant student population. "Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and…

  8. Dual-Dimension Naming Speed and Language-Dominance Ratings by Bilingual Hispanic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Henriette W.; Wiig, Elisabeth H.; Nielsen, Niels Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of measures of naming speed, verbal fluency and self-ratings for establishing language dominance in 25 bilingual English-Spanish adults with college degrees. Naming speed was measured by total naming times (in seconds) for five "Alzheimer's Quick Test" tasks (Wiig, Nielsen, Minthon & Warkentin, 2002) and verbal…

  9. Akathisia in Adults with Mental Retardation: Development of the Akathisia Ratings of Movement Scale (ARMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Akathisia, a state of uncontrollable motor restlessness, is a side effect of neuroleptic treatment. The prevalence rate of akathisia in 94 adults with mental retardation was estimated to be 5% in neuroleptic-free subjects, 17% in neuroleptic-maintenance subjects, and 25% in neuroleptic-reduction subjects. Akathisia was also related to dyskinesia…

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  11. Individual Variability in Delayed Auditory Feedback Effects on Speech Fluency and Rate in Normally Fluent Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chon, HeeCheong; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Zhang, Jingfei; Loucks, Torrey; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) is known to induce stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs) and cause speech rate reductions in normally fluent adults, but the reason for speech disruptions is not fully known, and individual variation has not been well characterized. Studying individual variation in susceptibility to DAF may identify factors…

  12. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E A

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person's rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  13. Children with Autism Detect Targets at Very Rapid Presentation Rates with Similar Accuracy as Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Wyble, Bradley; Shea, Nicole; LeBlanc, Megan; Kates, Wendy R.; Russo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced perception may allow for visual search superiority by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but does it occur over time? We tested high-functioning children with ASD, typically developing (TD) children, and TD adults in two tasks at three presentation rates (50, 83.3, and 116.7 ms/item) using rapid serial visual presentation.…

  14. Emergency Department Discharge Diagnosis and Adverse Health Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, S. Nicole; Whitson, Heather E.; Purser, Jama L.; Sloane, Richard J.; Johnson, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between the reason for an emergency department (ED) visit and subsequent risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Setting ED. Participants One thousand eight hundred fifty-one community-dwelling Medicare fee-for-service enrollees aged 65 and older discharged from the ED between January 2000 and September 2002. Measurements Independent variables were ED discharge diagnosis groups: injury or musculoskeletal (MSK) (e.g., fracture, open wound), chronic condition (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure), infection, non-MSK symptom (e.g., chest pain, abdominal pain), and unclassified. Adverse health outcomes were hospitalization or death within 30 days of the index ED visit. Results Injury or MSK was the largest ED diagnosis group (31.4%), followed by non-MSK symptom (22.2%), chronic condition (20.9%), and infection (7.8%); 338 (17.8%) had ED discharge diagnoses that were unclassified. In adjusted analyses, a discharge diagnosis of injury or MSK condition was associated with lower risk of subsequent adverse health outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50–0.96) than for all other diagnosis groups. Patients seen in the ED for chronic conditions were at greater risk of adverse outcomes (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.37–2.52) than all others. There were no significant differences in risk between patients with infections, those with non-MSK symptoms, and the unclassified group. Conclusion Adverse health outcomes were common in older patients with an ED discharge diagnosis classified as a chronic condition. ED discharge diagnosis may improve risk assessment and inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. PMID:19694872

  15. A multifaceted intervention increases epinephrine use in adult emergency department anaphylaxis patients

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Veena; Hess, Erik P.; Bellamkonda, Venkatesh R.; Nestler, David M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Hagan, John B.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Decker, Wyatt W.; Li, James T.C.; Scanlan-Hanson, Lori N.; Vukov, Samuel C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have documented inconsistent emergency anaphylaxis care and low compliance with published guidelines. Objective To evaluate anaphylaxis management before and after implementation of an emergency department (ED) anaphylaxis order set and introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and to measure the effect on anaphylaxis guideline adherence. Methods A cohort study was conducted from April 29, 2008-August 9, 2012. Adult ED patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis were included. ED management, disposition, self-injectable epinephrine prescriptions, allergy follow-up and incidence of biphasic reactions were evaluated. Results The study included 202 patients. Median age of patients was 45.3 years (IQR 31.3 – 56.4); 139 (69%) were female. Patients who presented after order set implementation were more likely to be treated with epinephrine (51% vs. 33%, OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.04- 4.04) and admitted to ED observation unit (EDOU) (65% vs. 44%, OR 2.38, 95%CI 1.23-4.60) and less likely to be dismissed home directly from ED (16% vs. 29%, OR: 0.47, 95%CI 0.22- 1.00). Eleven patients (5%) had a biphasic reaction. Of these, five (46%) had the biphasic reaction in EDOU; one patient was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Six patients (55%) had reactions within 6 hours of initial symptom resolution of whom two were admitted to ICU. Conclusion Significantly greater proportions of anaphylaxis patients received epinephrine and were admitted to EDOU after introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and order set implementation. Slightly over half of the biphasic reactions occurred within recommended observation time of 4-6 hours. These data suggest that the multifaceted approach to changing anaphylaxis management described here improved guideline adherence. PMID:24811020

  16. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  17. A new rating scale for adult ADHD based on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90-R).

    PubMed

    Eich, Dominique; Angst, Jules; Frei, Anja; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Gamma, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is increasingly recognized as a clinically important syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric performance of a new scale for adult ADHD based on the widely used Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R). Scale performance was assessed in a clinical study including 100 ADHD patients and 65 opiate-dependent patient controls, and in the Zurich study, an epidemiological age cohort followed over 30 years of adult life. Assessments included a ROC analysis of sensitivity and specificity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, external validity and measurement invariance over nine testing occasions. The new scale showed a sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 54%, respectively, internal consistency over 0.8 (McDonald's omega, Cronbach's alpha), one-year test-retest reliabilities over 0.7, statistically significant and substantial correlations with two other validated self-rating scales of adult ADHD (R = 0.5 and 0.66, respectively), and an acceptable degree of longitudinal stability (i.e., measurement invariance). The proposed scale must be further evaluated, but these preliminary results indicate it could be a useful rating instrument for adult ADHD in situations where SCL-90-R data, but no specific ADHD assessment, are available, such as in retrospective data analysis or in prospective studies with limited methodical resources. PMID:22212725

  18. Vaccination Rates for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Influenza Among Children Presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department in New York City.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Philip; Posner, Amanda; Stockwell, Melissa S; Dayan, Peter S; Sonnett, F Meredith; Graham, Philip L; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    We compared measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and influenza vaccination rates of children presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) in New York City with rates from national assessments. MMR and influenza vaccination rates in this PED population were generally comparable to community rates, but lower than Healthy People 2020 targets. PMID:26625457

  19. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Amrein, Irmgard; Dechmann, Dina K N; Winter, York; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    useful subjects to compare adult neurogenesis with other long-living species, such as monkeys and humans, showing low rates of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  20. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Anthony R; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J; Holder, Michael E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  1. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Anthony R.; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J.; Holder, Michael E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J.; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  2. Clinical Setting and Management Approach Matters: Metabolic Testing Rates in Antipsychotic-Treated Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Ginger; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Garfield, Lauren D; Newcomer, John W; Parks, Joe; Morrato, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend increased metabolic monitoring in antipsychotic-treated patients. State and federal agencies are striving to address under-screening. Methods Rates of glucose and lipid testing among antipsychotic-treated youth and adults in Missouri Medicaid (N=9,473) in Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs), with and without case management, versus other care settings were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regressions determined which characteristics were independently associated with metabolic testing. Results Rates of glucose and lipid testing were 37.0% and 17.3% in youth and 68.7% and 34.9% in adults, respectively. Adjusted odds of glucose and lipid testing were higher in patients receiving care in a CMHC with case management [youth: AOR=1.68 (95% CI=1.37-2.04), 2.40(1.91-3.02); adults: 1.43(1.18-1.74), 1.97(1.64-2.36)], or without [youth: 1.89(1.61-2.22), 2.35(1.94-2.85); adults: 1.44(1.22-1.70), 1.48(1.27-1.74)] versus other settings. Conclusions Within Missouri Medicaid, receiving care at a CMHC was associated with higher rates of metabolic testing, possibly reflecting state efforts to promote health homes in these settings. PMID:26325456

  3. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  4. The Temporal “Pulse” of Drinking: Tracking Five Years of Binge Drinking in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Cummings, Jenna R.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Moltisanti, Allison J.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the five “peak” years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day Timeline Follow back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend “pulse” of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire five year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve (LGC) modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with “maturing out” was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  5. How many versus how much: 52 weeks of alcohol consumption in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mark S; Greenbaum, Paul E; Darkes, Jack; Brandon, Karen Obremski; Del Boca, Frances K

    2011-03-01

    In previous research using timeline follow-back methods to closely monitor drinking and related variables over the first year of college (9 months), we showed that drinking varied considerably over time in accord with academic requirements and holidays. In a new community sample (N = 576) of emerging adults (18- and 19-year-olds who reported having begun drinking prior to recruitment), we used similar methods to compare drinking patterns in college and noncollege individuals over a full calendar year (including summer). To reduce the extreme distortion in computations of average drinking over restricted time spans (i.e., 1 week) that arise because large numbers of even regular drinkers may not consume any alcohol, we analyzed data using recently developed two-part latent growth curve modeling. This modeling distinguished consumption levels from numbers of individuals drinking in a given period. Results showed that drinking levels and patterns generally did not differ between college and noncollege drinkers, and that both groups responded similarly to even those contexts that may have seemed unique to one (i.e., spring break). We also showed that computation of drinking amounts without accounting for "zero drinkers" could seriously distort estimates of mean drinking on some occasions; for example, mean consumption in the total sample appeared to increase on Thanksgiving, whereas actual average consumption for those who were drinking diminished.

  6. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development. PMID:26142190

  7. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  8. "Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

  9. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  10. Prevalence and incidence rates of pressure ulcers in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dugaret, Elodie; Videau, Marie-Neige; Faure, Isabelle; Gabinski, Claude; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Salles, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Older patients represent an increasing population in emergency department (ED) with underlying diseases and longer ED length of stay, which are potential risk factors of pressure ulcers (PUs). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and incidence rates of PUs in an Emergency Department and to analyse variables related to PUs occurrence. The study was carried out in the Emergency Department of Bordeaux (France), and included 602 patients from 1 to 15 June 2010. All the potential body sites of pressure were examined at admission and discharge for all the patients by trained nurses. Comorbidity score, list of treatment, length of stay (hours), PUs (including stage I) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were systematically recorded. A total of 47 (7·8%) patients had prevalent PUs at admission and 74 (12·3%) at discharge. The cumulative incidence was 4·9% and the incidence density was 5·4 per 1000 patients per hour. In multivariate analysis, higher comorbidities (OR 1·3; P = 0·014) and CRP levels (OR 1·005; P = 0·017) were both independent risk factors for developing PU. In conclusion, these data show that even a very short stay to the ED is sufficient to induce PUs especially stage I.

  11. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report From an NHLBI/ACHA Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S; Daniels, Curt J; Fuller, Stephanie M P N; Honein, Margaret A; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Mahle, William T; Mann, Douglas L; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Starling, Randall C; Tringali, Glenn R; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C; Califf, Robert M

    2016-04-26

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary working group to identify high-impact research questions in adult CHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease, and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single-ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy.

  12. Brunt-Vaisala growth rate and the radial emergence of equipartition fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Silva, S.

    1995-04-01

    It is believed that the dynamo operates in the overshoot region at the base of the solar convection zone (CZ), and the magnetic features we see at the surface are formed when flux tubes rise through the CZ and appear at the photosphere. Studies of dynamics of flux tubes have pointed out that 10 kG tubes, which are nearly in energy equipartition with the velocity field at the base of the CZ, are weakly buoyant and hence overwhelmed by the Coriolis force. They move parallel to the rotation axis and emerge at very high latitudes, well above the sunspot zone, which makes it difficult to explain the formation of sunspots. Influence of the Coriolis force was found to be overcome only if flux tubes were stronger than roughly a 100 kG. The Brunt-Vaisala growth rate (we define as the square root of the absolute value of N2; where N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency) of the CZ plays an imporatnt role in the dynamics of rising flux tubes. In an isothermal rise, when the flux tube is in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, absolute value of N2 is shown to play a negligible role. However, in an adiabatic rise the role of absolute value of N2 is dominant; if absolute value of N2 is larger than roughly 10-12/sq sec in the lower CZ, magnetic buoyancy is shown to rise exponentially as the flux tube emerges. Further if absolute value of N2 greater than 4 x 10-11/sq sec, the exponential rise is sufficiently rapid to enable equipartition fields to overcome the influence of the Coriolis force and emerge rapidly. In the CZ of the solar model of Christensen-Dalsgaard, Proffitt, & Thompson (1993; model CPT) equipartition fields are found to emerge at high latitudes. However, an increase of absolute value of N2 in the lower CZ, on average, roughly by a factor of 8 would make them emerge radially to sunspot latitudes. If this is possible, there would be no need for the dynamo to produce extraordinarily strong fields to explain the formation of sunspots. Conversely, if such a large

  13. [Assessment of user embracement with risk rating in emergency hospital services].

    PubMed

    Versa, Gelena Lucinéia Gomes Da Silva; Vituri, Dagmar Wilamowius; Buriola, Aline Aparecida; Carlos Aparecido De Oliveira; Matsuda, Laura Misue

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted in 2013, aiming to evaluate the implementation of User Embracement with Risk Rating (ACCR) in four Emergency Hospital Services. One hundred fifty six nurses participated and answered the questionnaire"User Embracement with Risk Rating". The data were treated through descriptive and inferential statistics, from the Kruskal-Wallis test. The implementation of ACCR was assessed as precarious, mainly due to the lack of referral of low complexity cases to the basic health system, the inadequate physical space for companions and the lack of discussion and periodic assessment of the flow of care in ACCR. The dimension Result of Implementation obtained a slightly higher score and Structure was the dimension with the lowest score. It was concluded that the negative assessments by nursing professionals of the referred dimensions in the investigated sites suggests the need for improvements, especially in the dimension Structure. PMID:25508615

  14. [Assessment of user embracement with risk rating in emergency hospital services].

    PubMed

    Versa, Gelena Lucinéia Gomes da Silva; Vituri, Dagmar Wilamowius; Buriola, Aline Aparecida; Carlos Aparecido de Oliveira; Matsuda, Laura Misue

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted in 2013, aiming to evaluate the implementation of User Embracement with Risk Rating (ACCR) in four Emergency Hospital Services. One hundred fifty six nurses participated and answered the questionnaire"User Embracement with Risk Rating". The data were treated through descriptive and inferential statistics, from the Kruskal-Wallis test. The implementation of ACCR was assessed as precarious, mainly due to the lack of referral of low complexity cases to the basic health system, the inadequate physical space for companions and the lack of discussion and periodic assessment of the flow of care in ACCR. The dimension Result of Implementation obtained a slightly higher score and Structure was the dimension with the lowest score. It was concluded that the negative assessments by nursing professionals of the referred dimensions in the investigated sites suggests the need for improvements, especially in the dimension Structure. PMID:25474836

  15. The organizational culture of emergency departments and the effect on care of older adults: a modified scoping study.

    PubMed

    Skar, Pål; Bruce, Anne; Sheets, Debra

    2015-04-01

    How does the organizational micro culture in emergency departments (EDs) impact the care of older adults presenting with a complaint or condition perceived as non-acute? This scoping study reviews the literature and maps three levels of ED culture (artifacts, values and beliefs, and assumptions). Findings on the artifact level indicate that EDs are poorly designed for the needs of older adults. Findings on the ED value and belief level indicate that EDs are for urgent cases (not geriatric care), that older adults do not receive the care and respect they should be given, that older adults require too much time, and that the basic nursing needs of older adults are not a priority for ED nurses. Finally, finding on the assumptions level underpinning ED behaviors suggest that older adults do not belong in the ED, most older adults in the ED are not critically ill and therefore can wait, and staff need to be available for acute cases at all times. A systematic review on the effect of ED micro culture on the quality of geriatric care is warranted.

  16. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate During Continuous Experimental Sleep Fragmentation in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Melinda J.; Trinder, John

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: This paper aims to determine whether experimental arousals from sleep delay the sleep related fall in cardiovascular activity in healthy adults. Design: We report the results of 2 studies. The first experiment manipulated arousals from sleep in young adults. The second compared the effect of frequent arousals on young and middle-aged adults. The influence of arousals were assessed in 2 ways; (1) the fall in cardiovascular activity over sleep onset and the early sleep period, and (2) the underlying sleep levels during the sleep periods in between arousals. Setting: Both experiments were conducted in the sleep laboratory of the Department of Psychology, The University of Melbourne, Australia. Participants: There were 5 male and 5 female healthy individuals in each experiment between the ages of 18–25 years (Experiment 1) and 38–55 years (Experiment 2). Interventions: Participants in Experiment 1 were aroused by auditory stimuli every (i) 2 min, (ii) 1 min, and (iii) 30 sec of sleep for 90 min after the first indication of sleep. In a control condition, participants slept undisturbed for one NREM sleep cycle. Experiment 2 compared the control with the 30-sec condition in the young adults and in an additional group of middle-aged adults. Measurements and Results: The dependent variables were blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). In Experiment 1, sleep fragmentation at higher frequencies retarded the fall in BP over sleep onset but did not affect the underlying sleep levels. Experiment 2 showed that there were no age differences on the effect of arousals on changes in BP and HR during sleep. Conclusions: This paper supports the hypothesis that repetitive arousals from sleep independently contribute to elevations in BP at night. Citation: Carrington MJ; Trinder J. Blood pressure and heart rate during continuous experimental sleep fragmentation in healthy adults. SLEEP 2008;31(12):1701–1712. PMID:19090326

  17. Ethnic differences in prevalence and correlates of self-harm behaviors in a treatment-seeking sample of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Tsypes, Aliona; Soffer, Ariella; Miranda, Regina

    2014-12-30

    The present study examined differences between White and ethnic minority emerging adults in the prevalence of self-harm behaviors – i.e., non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) – and in well-documented risk (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation (SI), substance use, abuse history) and protective factors (i.e., religiosity/spirituality, family support, friend support) associated with NSSI and SAs. Emerging adults (N=1156; 56% ethnic minority), ages 17–29 (M=22.3, S.D.=3.0), who were presented at a counseling center at a public university in the Northeastern U.S., completed a clinical interview and self-report symptom measures. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between risk and protective factors in predicting history of NSSI-only, any SA, and no self-harm separately among White and ethnic minority individuals. Ethnic differences emerged in the prevalence and correlates of NSSI and SAs. Social anxiety was associated with SAs among White individuals but with NSSI among ethnic minority individuals. Substance use was a more relevant risk factor for White individuals, and friend support was a more relevant protective factor for ethnic minority individuals. These findings suggest differing vulnerabilities to NSSI and SAs between White and ethnic minority emerging adults.

  18. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  19. Emerging trends and persistent challenges in the management of adult syphilis.

    PubMed

    Tuddenham, Susan; Ghanem, Khalil G

    2015-08-19

    There are an estimated 10.6 million incident cases of syphilis worldwide each year. We highlight some persistent challenges and emerging trends in the clinical management of syphilis with a particular focus on therapy, serology, diagnostics, and prevention. Decades after the introduction of penicillin, the optimal management of early syphilis continues to be a controversial topic, particularly in the setting of HIV co-infection. Similarly, the need for routine lumbar puncture in HIV co-infected asymptomatic persons is an unanswered question. Despite advances in both automation and point-of-care diagnostics, we continue to rely on indirect measures of disease activity to manage this infection. As syphilis rates in some populations continue to rise, novel and effective prevention strategies are needed.

  20. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  1. Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

  2. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  3. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  4. Comparative Adult Education 1998. The Contribution of ISCAE to an Emerging Field of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reischmann, Jost, Ed.; Bron, Michal, Jr., Ed.; Jelenc, Zoran, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers from the 1995 and 1998 International Society for Comparative Adult Education (ISCAE) conferences. The following papers are included: "International and Comparative Adult Education" (Jost Reischmann); "Development and Fundamental Principles of International and Comparative Adult Education" (Joachim H. Knoll);…

  5. Estimation of Leak Rate from the Emergency Pump Well in L-Area Complex Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A

    2005-12-19

    This report provides an estimate of the leak rate from the emergency pump well in L-basin that is to be expected during an off-normal event. This estimate is based on expected shrinkage of the engineered grout (i.e., controlled low strength material) used to fill the emergency pump well and the header pipes that provide the dominant leak path from the basin to the lower levels of the L-Area Complex. The estimate will be used to provide input into the operating safety basis to ensure that the water level in the basin will remain above a certain minimum level. The minimum basin water level is specified to ensure adequate shielding for personnel and maintain the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' concept of radiological exposure. The need for the leak rate estimation is the existence of a gap between the fill material and the header pipes, which penetrate the basin wall and would be the primary leak path in the event of a breach in those pipes. The gap between the pipe and fill material was estimated based on a full scale demonstration pour that was performed and examined. Leak tests were performed on full scale pipes as a part of this examination. Leak rates were measured to be on the order of 0.01 gallons/minute for completely filled pipe (vertically positioned) and 0.25 gallons/minute for partially filled pipe (horizontally positioned). This measurement was for water at 16 feet head pressure and with minimal corrosion or biofilm present. The effect of the grout fill on the inside surface biofilm of the pipes is the subject of a previous memorandum.

  6. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2-3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%.

  7. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2–3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%. PMID:27335646

  8. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2-3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%. PMID:27335646

  9. [Standardised psychopathological rating scales for the diagnosis of ADHD in adults].

    PubMed

    Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Römer, K; Rösler, M

    2013-07-01

    Ascertaining the diagnosis of ADHD in adults according to DSM-IV requires determination of the presence of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity during both childhood and adulthood. Developmental changes of psychopathology, age-related comorbidity and functional and psychosocial problems associated with ADHD have to be taken into account during the diagnostic process. The use of standardised instruments might improve validity and reliability of the diagnosis. These diagnostic tools comprise self and expert ratings as well as observer ratings for the retrospective assessment of childhood and the evaluation of current ADHD symptoms. Here we give an overview of the standardised instruments that are available in German language and present data regarding the validity and reliability of a structured guide for the integrated diagnosis of adult ADHD (IDA) which has been constructed in order to provide a feasible tool for diagnosis of ADHD.

  10. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  11. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use among Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group-oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed.

  12. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use Among Hispanic Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073

  13. Effects of Marijuana Use on Prefrontal and Parietal Volumes and Cognition in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jenessa S.; McQueeny, Tim; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Browning, Erin L.; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic marijuana (MJ) use among adolescents has been associated with structural and functional abnormalities, particularly in developing regions responsible for higher order cognition. Objectives This study investigated prefrontal (PFC) and parietal volumes and executive function in emerging adult MJ users and explored potential gender differences. Methods Participants (ages 18–25) were 27 MJ users and 32 controls without neurologic or psychiatric disorders or heavy other drug use. A series of multiple regressions examined whether group status, past year MJ use, and their interactions with gender predicted ROI volumes. Post-hoc analyses consisted of brain-behavior correlations between volumes and cognitive variables and Fisher’s z tests to assess group differences. Results MJ users demonstrated significantly smaller medial orbitofrontal (mOFC; p=.004, FDR p=.024) and inferior parietal volumes (p=.04, FDR p=.12); follow-up regressions found that increased past year MJ use did not significantly dose-dependently predict smaller mOFC volume in a sub-sample of individuals with at least one past year MJ use. There were no significant gender interactions. There was a significant brain-behavior difference by group, such that smaller mOFC volumes were associated with poorer complex attention for MJ users (p<.05). Conclusions Smaller mOFC volumes among MJ users suggest disruption of typical neurodevelopmental processes associated with regular MJ use for both genders. These results highlight the need for longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies providing clearer information on timing of neurodevelopmental processes and neurocognitive impacts of youth MJ initiation. PMID:25921032

  14. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  15. Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes during the First Year Post-High School: Perceptions of Parental Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Kathleen M.; Weaver, Michael T.; Stump, Timothy E.; Guthrie, Diana; Oruche, Ukamaka M.

    2014-01-01

    Among 182 emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (93% White and 57% female), changes during the year post-high school were examined in perceptions of diabetes-specific conflict with parents, parent-youth shared responsibility, parental tangible aid, and parental autonomy support, as well as the moderating effects of living situation, gender, years with diabetes, and glycemic control. A linear mixed effects model, controlling for baseline values, tested the changes in and relationships among these variables over time. Changes over time in parent-youth conflict were moderated by living independently of parents; autonomy support and shared responsibility were moderated by years with diabetes; and tangible aid was moderated by glycemic control. Future longitudinal research needs to examine whether changes in parental behaviors lead to positive or negative diabetes outcomes among these emerging adults with diabetes. PMID:25019036

  16. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments.

  17. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  18. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P

    2010-11-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the "high." Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  19. Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, Guido D.; Gentine, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (Csurf). Csurf accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of Csurf to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid-humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and Csurf can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle.

  20. The Effects of Guided Imagery on Heart Rate Variability in Simulated Spaceflight Emergency Tasks Performers

    PubMed Central

    Yijing, Zhang; Xiaoping, Du; Fang, Liu; Xiaolu, Jing; Bin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of guided imagery training on heart rate variability in individuals while performing spaceflight emergency tasks. Materials and Methods. Twenty-one student subjects were recruited for the experiment and randomly divided into two groups: imagery group (n = 11) and control group (n = 10). The imagery group received instructor-guided imagery (session 1) and self-guided imagery training (session 2) consecutively, while the control group only received conventional training. Electrocardiograms of the subjects were recorded during their performance of nine spaceflight emergency tasks after imagery training. Results. In both of the sessions, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), the standard deviation of all normal NN (SDNN), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs (PNN50), the very low frequency (VLF), the low frequency (LF), the high frequency (HF), and the total power (TP) in the imagery group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Moreover, LF/HF of the subjects after instructor-guided imagery training was lower than that after self-guided imagery training. Conclusions. Guided imagery was an effective regulator for HRV indices and could be a potential stress countermeasure in performing spaceflight tasks. PMID:26137491

  1. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Lakshay; Jegaraj, Moses A. K.; Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Yadav, Bijesh; Abilash, Kundavaram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED) and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6%) were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%). Majority of the patients (76.9%) presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36%) followed by colicky type (22.3%). The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%). Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%), urinary tract infection (12.5%), acute pancreatitis (11%), acute appendicitis (10.6%) and acute gastritis (8%). More than half (51.9%) discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:26288785

  2. A self-regulation resource model of self-compassion and health behavior intentions in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Fuschia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested a self-regulation resource model (SRRM) of self-compassion and health-promoting behavior intentions in emerging adults. The SRRM posits that positive and negative affect in conjunction with health self-efficacy serve as valuable self-regulation resources to promote health behaviors. Methods An online survey was completed by 403 emerging adults recruited from the community and a Canadian University in late 2008. Multiple meditation analyses with bootstrapping controlling for demographics and current health behaviors tested the proposed explanatory role of the self-regulation resource variables (affect and self-efficacy) in linking self-compassion to health behavior intentions. Results Self-compassion was positively associated with intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors. The multiple mediation model explained 23% of the variance in health behavior intentions, with significant indirect effects through health self-efficacy and low negative affect. Conclusion Interventions aimed at increasing self-compassion in emerging adults may help promote positive health behaviors, perhaps through increasing self-regulation resources. PMID:26844074

  3. Change You Can Believe In: Changes in Goal Setting During Emerging and Young Adulthood Predict Later Adult Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Brandenberger, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A widely held assumption is that changes in one’s goals and motives for life during emerging and young adulthood have lasting influences on well-being into adulthood. However, this claim has yet to receive rigorous empirical testing. The current study examined the effects of prosocial and occupational goal change during college on adult well-being in a 17-year study of goal setting (N = 416). Using a latent growth model across three time points, both level and growth in goal setting predicted later well-being. Moreover, goal changes both during college and in young adulthood uniquely predicted adult well-being, controlling for goal levels entering college. These findings suggest that what matters for attaining adult well-being is both how you enter adulthood and how you change in response to it. PMID:23493639

  4. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  5. Emerging restorative treatments for Parkinson's disease: manipulation and inducement of dopaminergic neurons from adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junpeng; Xu, Qunyuan

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a selective loss of midbrain Dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To address this problem, various types of stem cells that have potential to differentiate into DA neurons are being investigated as cellular therapies for PD, including cells derived from embryonic or adult donor tissue, and embryonic stem cells. These cell sources, however, have raised certain questions with regard to ethical and rejection issues. Recent progress in adult stems has further proved that the cells derived from adult tissue could be expanded and differentiated into DA precursor cells in vitro, and cell therapy with adult stem cells could produce a clear improvement for PD models. Using adult stem cells for clinic application may not only overcome the ethical problem inherent in using human fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, but also open the possibility for autologous transplantation. The patient-specific adult stem cell is therefore a potential and prospective candidate for PD treatment.

  6. Influence of temperature and activity on the metabolic rate of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Berrigan, D; Partridge, L

    1997-12-01

    We measured metabolic rates of adult male Drosophila melanogaster allowed to evolve in the laboratory at 18 and 25 degrees C and compared these with measurements of metabolic rates of flies collected along a latitudinal gradient in Australia. Metabolic rates of flies that had evolved in the laboratory at low temperature were 5-7% higher than those of flies allowed to evolve at high temperature. Metabolic rates of field collected increased with latitude when measured at 18 degrees C but not at higher temperature (25 degrees C) and were about 9% greater in high latitude (approximately 41'00) flies than low latitude (16'53) flies. Metabolic rate was strongly influenced by measurement temperature; estimated Q10s ranged from 1.79 to 2.5 for measurements made at 18 and 25 degrees C. Metabolic rate scaled isometrically with body mass; the estimated slope of a ln-ln regression of metabolic rate and body mass was 1.03 +/- 0.1. We used our measures of metabolic rate and activity to estimate the minimum cost of transport (MCOT) while walking. The estimates of MCOT have high standard errors (lab, 34.30 +/- 14.2 ml O2/g/km; and field, 38.0 +/- 17.0 ml O2/g/km); however, they differ by only 3-9% from predicted values based on allometric relationships reported in the literature.

  7. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  8. Heart Rate Response During Underwater Treadmill Training in Adults with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking on a submerged treadmill can improve mobility in persons displaying lower limb muscle weakness and balance deficits. Little is known, however, regarding the effect of water treadmill exercise on cardiac performance in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Objective: To assess heart rate response during underwater treadmill training (UTT) in adults with iSCI. Methods: Seven males and 4 females with iSCI (age = 48 ± 13 years; 5 ± 8 years after injury) completed 8 weeks of UTT (3 sessions per week; 3 walks per session) incorporating individually determined walking speeds, personalized levels of body weight unloading, and gradual, alternating increases in speed and duration. Heart rate was monitored during the last 15 seconds of the final 2 minutes of each walk. Results: Over the course of 3 biweekly periods in which walking speed remained constant, heart rate fell by 7% (7 ± 1 b•min-1; P < .001) in weeks 2 and 3, 14% (17 ± 6 b•min-1; P < .001) in weeks 4 and 5, and 17% (21 ± 11 b•min-1; P < .001) in weeks 6 and 7. Conclusion: In adults with iSCI, progressively greater absolute and relative reductions in submaximal exercise heart rate occurred after 2 months of UTT featuring a systematic increase in training volume. PMID:25762859

  9. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Romo-Perez, Vicente; Souto, Dilia; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity (PI) are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486). The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03), and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes). 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week). According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations. PMID:26886367

  10. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  11. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  12. High Gastrointestinal Colonization Rate with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Kassu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Azazh, Aklilu; Mohammod, Halima; Desalegn, Dawit; Shimelis, Damte; Gulilat, Dereje; Lamisso, Biruk; Makonnen, Eyasu; Worku, Alemayehu; Mannerqvist, Kerstin; Struwe, Johan; Aspevall, Olov; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gastrointestinal colonization rate and antibiotic resistance patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients admitted at Ethiopia’s largest tertiary hospital. Fecal samples/swabs from 267 patients were cultured on chrome agar. ESBL. Bacterial species identification, verification of ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done using Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). Phenotype characterization of ESBL-E.coli and ESBL- K.pneumoniae was done using Neo-Sensitabs™. ESBL positivity rate was much higher in K. pneumoniae (76%) than E. coli (45%). The overall gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in hospitalized patients was 52% (95%CI; 46%–58%) of which, ESBL-E. coli and K.pneumoniae accounted for 68% and 32% respectively. Fecal ESBL-E carriage rate in neonates, children and adults was 74%, 59% and 46% respectively. Gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL-E.coli in neonates, children and adults was 11%, 42% and 42% respectively. Of all E. coli strains isolated from adults, children and neonates, 44%, 49% and 22% were ESBL positive (p = 0.28). The prevalence of ESBL-K.pneumoniae carriage in neonates, children and adults was 68%, 22% and 7% respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates (100%) and 88% of K. pneumoniae isolated from children were ESBL positive, but only 50% of K.pneumoniae isolated from adults were ESBL positive (p = 0.001). Thirteen patients (5%) were carriers of both ESBL-E.coli and ESBL-KP. The overall carrier rate of ESBL producing isolates resistant to carbapenem was 2% (5/267), all detected in children; three with E.coli HL cephalosporinase (AmpC), resistant to ertapenem and two with K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) resistant to meropenem, ertapenem and impenem. We report a high gastrointestinal colonization rate with ESBL-E and the emergence of carbapenems-resistant K

  13. High Gastrointestinal Colonization Rate with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Desta, Kassu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Azazh, Aklilu; Mohammod, Halima; Desalegn, Dawit; Shimelis, Damte; Gulilat, Dereje; Lamisso, Biruk; Makonnen, Eyasu; Worku, Alemayehu; Mannerqvist, Kerstin; Struwe, Johan; Aspevall, Olov; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gastrointestinal colonization rate and antibiotic resistance patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients admitted at Ethiopia's largest tertiary hospital. Fecal samples/swabs from 267 patients were cultured on chrome agar. ESBL. Bacterial species identification, verification of ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done using Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). Phenotype characterization of ESBL-E.coli and ESBL- K.pneumoniae was done using Neo-Sensitabs™. ESBL positivity rate was much higher in K. pneumoniae (76%) than E. coli (45%). The overall gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in hospitalized patients was 52% (95%CI; 46%-58%) of which, ESBL-E. coli and K.pneumoniae accounted for 68% and 32% respectively. Fecal ESBL-E carriage rate in neonates, children and adults was 74%, 59% and 46% respectively. Gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL-E.coli in neonates, children and adults was 11%, 42% and 42% respectively. Of all E. coli strains isolated from adults, children and neonates, 44%, 49% and 22% were ESBL positive (p = 0.28). The prevalence of ESBL-K.pneumoniae carriage in neonates, children and adults was 68%, 22% and 7% respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates (100%) and 88% of K. pneumoniae isolated from children were ESBL positive, but only 50% of K.pneumoniae isolated from adults were ESBL positive (p = 0.001). Thirteen patients (5%) were carriers of both ESBL-E.coli and ESBL-KP. The overall carrier rate of ESBL producing isolates resistant to carbapenem was 2% (5/267), all detected in children; three with E.coli HL cephalosporinase (AmpC), resistant to ertapenem and two with K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) resistant to meropenem, ertapenem and impenem. We report a high gastrointestinal colonization rate with ESBL-E and the emergence of carbapenems-resistant K

  14. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  15. Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms at the carotid bifurcations of older adults.

    PubMed

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Wasserman, Bruce A; Xie, Yuanyuan J; Najjar, Samer S; Ferruci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G; Gerstenblith, Gary; Steinman, David A

    2010-03-01

    While it is widely appreciated that volumetric blood flow rate (VFR) dynamics change with age, there has been no detailed characterization of the typical shape of carotid bifurcation VFR waveforms of older adults. Toward this end, retrospectively gated phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure time-resolved VFR waveforms proximal and distal to the carotid bifurcations of 94 older adults (age 68 +/- 8 years) with little or no carotid artery disease, recruited from the BLSA cohort of the VALIDATE study of factors in vascular aging. Timings and amplitudes of well-defined feature points from these waveforms were extracted automatically and averaged to produce representative common, internal and external carotid artery (CCA, ICA and ECA) waveform shapes. Relative to young adults, waveforms from older adults were found to exhibit a significantly augmented secondary peak during late systole, resulting in significantly higher resistance index (RI) and flow augmentation index (FAI). Cycle-averaged VFR at the CCA, ICA and ECA were 389 +/- 74, 245 +/- 61 and 125 +/- 49 mL min(-1), respectively, reflecting a significant cycle-averaged outflow deficit of 5%, which peaked at around 10% during systole. A small but significant mean delay of 13 ms between arrivals of ICA versus CCA/ECA peak VFR suggested differential compliance of these vessels. Sex and age differences in waveform shape were also noted. The characteristic waveforms presented here may serve as a convenient baseline for studies of VFR waveform dynamics or as suitable boundary conditions for models of blood flow in the carotid arteries of older adults.

  16. Emerging Adult Educators' Experiences in an International On-Line Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Reischmann, Jost; Kim, Young Sek

    2007-01-01

    It is hoped that the opportunity to engage in dialogue with fellow adult learners from different countries will enable adult learners and educators to become more globalised in their perspectives and to actively take their place in a global society. This article describes a study that explores how an asynchronous internet-based forum encourages…

  17. Facing Adulthood: Comparing the Criteria That Chinese Emerging Adults and Their Parents Have for Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Duan, Xin xing; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Luster, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Past work in China has revealed that approximately 60% of young people in China consider themselves to be adults. However, no work, prior to this study, has been done examining either the views of Chinese parents regarding their children's adult status or the criteria that Chinese parents use in determining whether or not their children have…

  18. Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Guido D; Gentine, Pierre

    2013-04-16

    The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (C(surf)). C(surf) accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of C(surf) to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid-humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and C(surf) can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:23576717

  19. Emergency Medicine Residents Consistently Rate Themselves Higher than Attending Assessments on ACGME Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Goldflam, Katja; Bod, Jessica; Della-Giustina, David; Tsyrulnik, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2012 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced the Next Accreditation System (NAS), which implemented milestones to assess the competency of residents and fellows. While attending evaluation and feedback is crucial for resident development, perhaps equally important is a resident’s self-assessment. If a resident does not accurately self-assess, clinical and professional progress may be compromised. The objective of our study was to compare emergency medicine (EM) resident milestone evaluation by EM faculty with the same resident’s self-assessment. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study that was performed at an academic, four-year EM residency program. Twenty-five randomly chosen residents completed milestone self-assessment using eight ACGME sub-competencies deemed by residency leadership as representative of core EM principles. These residents were also evaluated by 20 faculty members. The milestone levels were evaluated on a nine-point scale. We calculated the average difference between resident self-ratings and faculty ratings, and used sample t-tests to determine statistical significance of the difference in scores. Results Eighteen residents evaluated themselves. Each resident was assessed by an average of 16 attendings (min=10, max=20). Residents gave themselves statistically significant higher milestone ratings than attendings did for each sub-competency examined (p<0.0001). Conclusion Residents over-estimated their abilities in every sub-competency assessed. This underscores the importance of feedback and assessment transparency. More attention needs to be paid to methods by which residency leadership can make residents’ self-perception of their clinical ability more congruent with that of their teachers and evaluators. The major limitation of our study is small sample size of both residents and attendings. PMID:26594293

  20. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners. PMID:22224965

  1. Heart rate and accelerometer data fusion for activity assessment of rescuers during emergency interventions.

    PubMed

    Curone, D; Tognetti, A; Secco, E L; Anania, G; Carbonaro, N; De Rossi, D; Magenes, G

    2010-05-01

    The current state of the art in wearable electronics is the integration of very small devices into textile fabrics, the so-called ¿smart garment.¿ The ProeTEX project is one of many initiatives dedicated to the development of smart garments specifically designed for people who risk their lives in the line of duty such as fire fighters and Civil Protection rescuers. These garments have integrated multipurpose sensors that monitor their activities while in action. To this aim, we have developed an algorithm that combines both features extracted from the signal of a triaxial accelerometer and one ECG lead. Microprocessors integrated in the garments detect the signal magnitude area of inertial acceleration, step frequency, trunk inclination, heart rate (HR), and HR trend in real time. Given these inputs, a classifier assigns these signals to nine classes differentiating between certain physical activities (walking, running, moving on site), intensities (intense, mild, or at rest) and postures (lying down, standing up). Specific classes will be identified as dangerous to the rescuer during operation, such as, ¿subject motionless lying down¿ or ¿subject resting with abnormal HR.¿ Laboratory tests were carried out on seven healthy adult subjects with the collection of over 4.5 h of data. The results were very positive, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 88.8%. PMID:20378475

  2. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  3. Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Detects White Matter Changes in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Yen, Yu-Shiuan; Chen, Ta-Fu; Yan, Sui-Hing; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the putative changes in regional gray matter and cingulum bundle segments in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by using two diagnostic criteria. Participants comprised 50 older adults with MCI and 22 healthy older controls (HC). The older adults with MCI were further divided into two groups defined by a global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0.5 and with (the CDR/NPT MCI group) or without (the CDR MCI group) objective cognitive impairments determined using neuropsychological tests (NPTs). Comparable regional gray matter integrity was observed among the three groups. However, the integrity of the right inferior segment of the cingulum bundle in the two MCI groups was more reduced than that in the HC group, and the CDR/NPT MCI group exhibited additional disruption in the left inferior cingulum bundle. The results also demonstrated that neuropsychological measures have greater predictive value for changes in white matter beyond the contribution of an informant-based instrument alone. Overall, the findings confirm the utility of informant-based assessment in detecting microstructural brain changes in high-risk older adults, even before objective cognitive impairment is evident. The findings also suggest that combining the neuropsychological measures with the informant-based assessment provided the greatest predictive value in assessing white matter disruption. The essential role of the white matter measurement as a biomarker for detecting individuals at a high risk of developing dementia was highlighted.

  4. Serum procalcitonin measurement as diagnostic and prognostic marker in febrile adult patients presenting to the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Juillien, Gaëlle; Madonna-Py, Beatrice; Haroche, Julien; Bernard, Maguy; Riou, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Identification of bacterial infections is crucial if treatment is to be initiated early and antibiotics used rationally. The primary objective of this study was to test the efficiency of procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying bacterial/parasitic episodes among febrile adult patients presenting to an emergency department. Secondary objectives were to identify clinical or biological variables associated with either bacterial/parasitic infection or critical illness. Methods This was a prospective, single centre, non-interventional study, conducted in the adult emergency department of an academic tertiary care hospital. We included patients with body temperature of 38.5°C or greater. A serum sample for measurement of PCT was collected in the emergency room. Patients were followed up until day 30. After reviewing the medical files, two independent experts, who were blind to the PCT results, classified each of the patients as having a bacterial/parasitic infection, viral infection, or another diagnosis. Results Among 243 patients included in the study, 167 had bacterial/parasitic infections, 35 had viral infections and 41 had other diagnoses. The PCT assay, with a 0.2 μg/l cutoff value, had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.59 in diagnosing bacterial/parasitic infection. Of the patients with PCT 5 μg/l or greater, 51% had critical illness (death or intensive care unit admission) as compared with 13% of patients with lower PCT values. Conclusion Bearing in mind the limitations of an observational study design, the judgements of the emergency department physicians were reasonably accurate in determining the pretest probability of bacterial/parasitic infection. PCT may provide additional, valuable information on the aetiology and prognosis of infection in the emergency department. PMID:17521430

  5. Adult Oral Health Programs in Japanese Municipalities: Factors Associated with Self-Rated Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Fuchida, Shinya; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Hirata, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Health Japan 21 plan establishes specific targets for aspects of health including oral health for 2010, in an effort to increase health expectancy. Despite this, there has been insufficient improvement in oral health status in adults. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with effective oral health programs for adults in Japanese municipalities. Questionnaires were mailed to all 1,472 municipalities in Japan and responses were obtained from 862 municipalities (response rate: 58.6%). After excluding 71 municipalities with "unknown" answer, no answer, or lack of relevant information, we analyzed the data from the remaining 791 municipalities with or without oral health programs for adults self-reported as effective within three years. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations of effective programs with oral health personnel, contact with related agencies, the establishment of Health Japan 21 goals, financial status, the density of dentists and population density at the municipality level, and having oral health personnel at the prefecture level. Three hundred and fifty-four municipalities reported having effective programs. In the fully adjusted model, having dental hygienists in the municipal office (P < 0.05) and a high number of contacts with related agencies (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with having effective programs. These results suggest that having dental hygienists and contact with related agencies such as residents, local dental associations, companies, community general support centers, or medical, nursing or welfare facilities are promoting factors for effective adult oral health programs in Japanese municipalities. PMID:26567468

  6. Examining Variations of Resting Metabolic Rate of Adults: A Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G.; Soares, Jesus; Caspersen, Carl J.; McCurdy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There has not been a recent comprehensive effort to examine existing studies on the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of adults to identify the effect of common population demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Thus, we reviewed the literature on RMR (kcal·kg−1·h−1) to determine the relationship of age, sex, and obesity status to RMR as compared with the commonly accepted value for the metabolic equivalent (MET; e.g., 1.0 kcal·kg−1·h−1). Methods Using several databases, scientific articles published from 1980 to 2011 were identified that measured RMR, and from those, others dating back to 1920 were identified. One hundred and ninety-seven studies were identified, resulting in 397 publication estimates of RMR that could represent a population subgroup. Inverse variance weighting technique was applied to compute means and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The mean value for RMR was 0.863 kcal·kg−1·h−1 (95% CI = 0.852–0.874), higher for men than women, decreasing with increasing age, and less in overweight than normal weight adults. Regardless of sex, adults with BMI ≥ 30 kg·m−2 had the lowest RMR (<0.741 kcal·kg−1·h−1). Conclusions No single value for RMR is appropriate for all adults. Adhering to the nearly universally accepted MET convention may lead to the overestimation of the RMR of approximately 10%for men and almost 15% for women and be as high as 20%–30% for some demographic and anthropometric combinations. These large errors raise questions about the longstanding adherence to the conventional MET value for RMR. Failure to recognize this discrepancy may result in important miscalculations of energy expended from interventions using physical activity for diabetes and other chronic disease prevention efforts. PMID:24300125

  7. [Pre-hospital management of adults with life-threatening emergencies].

    PubMed

    Wattel, Francis; Dubois, François

    2012-01-01

    In France, acute life-threatening situations are handled by the French Secours a Personne (assistance to persons) and emergency medical facilities. An unequivocal success, this early management of life-threatening emergency situations relies upon centralized call reception, medical dispatching, and immediate on-site emergency medical care. We describe the different emergency care providers and steps involved in the response to emergency situations. Each call centre (Samu, phone number 15; Sapeurs-Pompiers, 18) provides a response tailored to the nature of incoming calls for assistance. A check-list of grounds for an "automatic response" by the SDIS (Service Départemental d'Incendie et de Secours--the French fire brigade) is in use, ensuring that firefighters are often the first on the spot, while the knowledge and skills of the dispatching physician are essential to ascertain the patient's needs, to preserve life and vital functions, and to ensure the patient is sent to the appropriate emergency healthcare facility. In life-threatening emergency situations, patients must be brought straight to the appropriate reference emergency healthcare facility, as quickly as possible, without prior admittance to an emergency department. This is the procedure for extremely acute emergency situations in the following areas: trauma (multiple trauma and/or uncontrolled bleeding, spinal cord trauma), delivery bleeding, other life-threatening situations such as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest (sudden death), cerebrovascular stroke and ensuing brain damage, some acute respiratory situations such as anaphylactic shock, foreign-body inhalation, electrocution, drowning, drug overdose, certain forms of poisoning, and conditions requiring initial hyperbaric oxygen (diving accidents, acute carbon monoxide and smoke poisoning). The reasons for suboptimal emergency care in life-threatening situations are currently a major issue, with medical facilities being reduced in some areas

  8. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  9. Improving access to emergency contraception under the Scottish Sexual Health Strategy: can rates of unintended pregnancy be reduced?

    PubMed

    McGowan, James G

    2013-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a global sexual health problem. Outcomes of unintended pregnancy include unwanted childbirth and abortion, which may be associated with negative physical and psychosocial health implications for women. In Scotland, the Scottish Sexual Health Strategy has the stated goal of improving the sexual health of the people of Scotland. One aim of the Strategy is to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and one policy designed to achieve this is 'widening access to emergency contraception'. This paper examines the success of this policy with reference to the implicit link it makes between expanding access to emergency contraception and increasing its effective use, aiming thereby to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy. Since there is evidence that previous policies and strategies expanding access to emergency contraception have failed to reduce such rates, alternative approaches to achieve a reduction in unintended pregnancies are discussed.

  10. Distinct Genetic Networks Orchestrate the Emergence of Specific Waves of Fetal and Adult B-1 and B-2 Development.

    PubMed

    Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Fice, Michael; Casero, David; Berent-Maoz, Beata; Barber, Chad L; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2016-09-20

    B cell development is often depicted as a linear process initiating in the fetus and continuing postnatally. Using a PU.1 hypomorphic mouse model, we found that B-1 and B-2 lymphopoiesis occurred in distinct fetal and adult waves differentially dependent on the Sfpi1 14 kB upstream regulatory element. The initial wave of fetal B-1 development was absent in PU.1 hypomorphic mice, while subsequent fetal and adult waves emerged. In contrast, B-2 lymphopoiesis occurred in distinct fetal and adult waves. Whole-transcriptome profiling of fetal and adult B cell progenitors supported the existence of three waves of B-1 and two waves of B-2 development and revealed that the network of transcription factors governing B lineage specification and commitment was highly divergent between B-1 and B-2 progenitors. These findings support the view that the B-1 and B-2 lineages are distinct and provide a genetic basis for layering of immune system development.

  11. Comparison of count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Multimorbidity, defined as the presence of 2 or more chronic medical conditions in an individual, is associated with poorer health outcomes. Several multimorbidity measures exist, and the challenge is to decide which to use preferentially in predicting health outcomes. The study objective was to compare the performance of 5 count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency hospital admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults attending primary care. Setting 15 general practices (GPs) in Ireland. Participants n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwellers followed-up for 2 years (2010–2012). Exposure at baseline: Five multimorbidity measures (disease counts, selected conditions counts, Charlson comorbidity index, RxRisk-V, medication counts) calculated using GP medical record and linked national pharmacy claims data. Primary outcomes (1) Emergency admission and ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) admission (GP medical record) and (2) functional decline (postal questionnaire). Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics and measure discrimination (c-statistic, 95% CIs), adjusted for confounders. Results Median age was 77 years and 53% were women. Prevalent rates ranged from 37% to 91% depending on which measure was used to define multimorbidity. All measures demonstrated poor discrimination for the outcome of emergency admission (c-statistic range: 0.62, 0.65), ACS admission (c-statistic range: 0.63, 0.68) and functional decline (c-statistic range: 0.55, 0.61). Medication-based measures were equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Conclusions The choice of measure may have a significant impact on prevalent rates. Five multimorbidity measures demonstrated poor discrimination in predicting emergency admission and functional decline, with medication-based measures equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Consideration of multimorbidity in isolation is insufficient for predicting these outcomes in community settings. PMID:27650770

  12. Predictive equations for the estimation of basal metabolic rate in Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M; Chee, S; Roslee, R; Zawiah, H

    1998-12-01

    In the field of human energy expenditure, the measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an essential element to derive energy requirement estimates for any given population. Besides basic anthropometrics data, this paper reports the generation of predictive equation for basal metabolic rates of healthy Malaysian adult from prospective measurements on 307 male and 349 females aged 18-60 years, using the Douglas bag technique. These new equations based on body-weight reveal that the current FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) predictive equations overestimate BMR of adult Malaysian by an average of 13% in males and 9% in female subjects while differences of between 4-5% were observed when compared to Henry and Rees (1991) equations for tropical people. There is a good reason to believe that the capacity to slow down metabolism amidst the hot and humid climate experience throughout the year as a genuine phenomenon for Malaysians. Similarly, these findings suggest that at equal energy intake recommendation for similar body weight, the lower energy needs of Malaysian could put them at greater risk for developing obesity. These observed deviations must be taken into account in formulating energy requirements of the population.

  13. Filth flies associated with municipal solid waste and impact of delay in cover soil application on adult filth fly emergence in a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nurita, A T; Hassan, A Abu

    2013-06-01

    Two types of municipal solid waste (MSW), newly arrived and 2 weeks old, were sampled from a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia at a fortnightly interval and kept under field conditions for 2 weeks. A total of 480 kg of each type of MSW was sampled to study species composition and impact of delays in cover soil applications on filth fly emergence. Out of 960 kg of MSW sampled, 9.2 ± 0.5 flies emerged per kilogram. Weekly adult fly emergence rates of newly arrived and 2-week-old waste did not differ significantly and MSW remained suitable for fly breeding for up to 1 month. Eight species of flies emerged from the MSW: namely, Musca domestica, Musca sorbens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Hydrotaea chalcogaster, Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia cuprina, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Sarcophaga sp. Newly arrived waste was determined to be the main source for M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. cuprina in the landfill owing to significantly higher mean emergence compared with 2-week-old waste. Musca sorbens was found in newly arrived waste but not in 2-week-old waste, suggesting that the species was able to survive transportation to landfill but unable to survive landfill conditions. Hemipyrellia ligurriens, H. chalcogaster and S. nudiseta were not imported into the landfill with MSW and pre-existing flies in and around the landfill itself may be their source. The results show that landfills can be a major source of fly breeding if cover soil or temporary cover is not applied daily or on a regular schedule.

  14. Enhancing Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research Within the National Clinical Trials Network: Rationale, Progress, and Emerging Strategies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aaron R; Nichols, Craig R; Freyer, David R

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (AYAO, including patients 15-39 years of age) is an emerging discipline in the field of cancer treatment and research. Poorer survival outcomes for this population and characteristic age-related challenges in care have called attention to the need for increased AYAO research. This chapter outlines pressing questions and reviews recent progress in AYAO research within the current organizational structure of the federal clinical trials enterprise, emphasizing how the United States National Cancer Institute's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) has created novel opportunities for collaborative AYAO research among the pediatric and adult NCTN groups. Potential strategies for expanding AYAO research, both within the NCTN and with other partners in the federal and advocacy domains are identified. PMID:26433555

  15. The Effect of an Extended Wilderness Education Experience on Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Skill Development in Emerging Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rachel H.

    2014-01-01

    In a society that is becoming more dynamic, complex, and diverse, the ability to solve ill-structured problems has become an increasingly critical skill. Emerging adults are at a critical life stage that is an ideal time to develop the skills needed to solve ill-structured problems (ISPs) as they are transitioning to adult roles and starting to…

  16. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  17. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  18. The Release Rate of Environmental DNA from Juvenile and Adult Fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kondoh, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) technique is expected to become a powerful, non-invasive tool for estimating the distribution and biomass of organisms. This technique was recently shown to be applicable to aquatic vertebrates by collecting extraorganismal DNA floating in the water or absorbed onto suspended particles. However, basic information on eDNA release rate is lacking, despite it being essential for practical applications. In this series of experiments with bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), we examined the effect of fish developmental stage on eDNA release rate. eDNA concentration reached equilibrium 3 days after the individual fish were introduced into the separate containers, enabling calculation of the eDNA release rate (copies h−1) from individual fish on the assumption that the number of eDNA released from the fish per unit time equals total degradation in the container (copies h−1). The eDNA release rate was 3–4 times higher in the adult (body weight: 30–75 g) than in the juvenile group (0.5–2.0 g). Such positive relationship between fish size and eDNA release rate support the possibility of biomass rather than density estimation using eDNA techniques. However, the eDNA release rate per fish body weight (copies h−1 g−1) was slightly higher in the juvenile than the adult group, which is likely because of the ontogenetic reduction in metabolic activity. Therefore, quantitative eDNA data should be carefully interpreted to avoid overestimating biomass when the population is dominated by juveniles, because the age structure of the focal population is often variable and unseen in the field. eDNA degradation rates (copies l−1 h−1), calculated by curve fitting of time-dependent changes in eDNA concentrations after fish removal, were 5.1–15.9% per hour (half-life: 6.3 h). This suggests that quantitative eDNA data should be corrected using a degradation curve attained in the target field. PMID:25479160

  19. Characteristics and determinants of adult patients with acute poisoning attending the accident and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Khudair, I F; Jassim, Z; Hanssens, Y; Alsaad, W A

    2013-09-01

    Data about etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar are lacking. This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze characteristics and possible determinants of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar. During 2010, 18,073 patients attended the emergency department of Hamad General Hospital, a teaching hospital in Qatar. Out of them, 599 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed as "poisoning case" with either chemical or pharmaceutical substances. The prevalence rate of poisoning incidence was 35.3/100,000 population. Seven patients died, corresponding with a case-fatality rate of 0.39/1000. The majority were male (65%) and the mean age was 34 years. The poisons involved were mainly chemicals (61.6%) and pharmaceuticals (38.4%). Female, mainly single, suffered more intentional poisoning compared to male. Of the patients aged 60 years and above (7.2%), the majority (95.3%) suffered unintentional poisoning with pharmaceuticals; 56% with warfarin, 12% with digoxin and 7% with insulin. Multivariate analysis shows that female gender, single status, younger than 35 years of age, being poisoned by pharmaceutical products, and the need for hospitalization are significant determinants for acute intentional poisoning after adjusting all other possible covariates. The findings of this study can be used to establish awareness and prophylactic campaigns in Qatar.

  20. Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights

    PubMed Central

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent infant deaths rather than improved nutrition and childhood morbidity. Despite declining infant mortality, Sub-Saharan Africa may not be experiencing increases in health human capital. PMID:20634153

  1. 18 CFR 284.268 - Local distribution company emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY... GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and... unit volume of emergency natural gas transported) in accordance with § 284.224(e)(2)(ii) of...

  2. Dietary Interventions for Heart Failure in Older Adults: Re-emergence of the Hedonic Shift

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Jeffrey D.; Hummel, Scott L.; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The ‘hedonic shift’ occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual’s salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults. PMID:25216615

  3. Dietary interventions for heart failure in older adults: re-emergence of the hedonic shift.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Hummel, Scott L; Maurer, Mathew S

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The 'hedonic shift' occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual's salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults.

  4. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  5. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Modeling Fluid Resuscitation by Formulating Infusion Rate and Urine Output in Severe Thermal Burn Adult Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qizhi; Li, Wei; Zou, Xin; Dang, Yongming; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acute burn injuries are among the most devastating forms of trauma and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Appropriate fluid resuscitation after severe burn, specifically during the first 48 hours following injury, is considered as the single most important therapeutic intervention in burn treatment. Although many formulas have been developed to estimate the required fluid amount in severe burn patients, many lines of evidence showed that patients still receive far more fluid than formulas recommend. Overresuscitation, which is known as “fluid creep,” has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial period of burn care. If fluid titration can be personalized and automated during the resuscitation phase, more efficient burn care and outcome will be anticipated. In the present study, a dynamic urine output based infusion rate prediction model was developed and validated during the initial 48 hours in severe thermal burn adult patients. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed dynamic fluid resuscitation model might significantly reduce the total fluid volume by accurately predicting hourly urine output and has the potential to aid fluid administration in severe burn patients. PMID:26090415

  7. Perceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Chinese and American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Sarah; Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2006-01-01

    This study explored cultural differences in the criteria young people have for becoming an adult. Specifically, the study sought (a) to compare Chinese and American responses concerning whether they believe they have reached adulthood; (b) to examine whether adulthood criteria could fit a common statistical model for both cultures; and (c) after…

  8. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  9. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  10. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  11. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  12. Emerging New Service Roles for Older Adults on College and University Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David C.; Tomb, Karyl

    1981-01-01

    Explored number of programs initiated to involve older adults in meaningful volunteer tasks, responsibilities, and roles on university campuses. Data demonstrate the feasibility of these programs and positive outcomes include improvement of intergenerational communication, reduction of ageism, provision of services to educational institutions, and…

  13. Emerging Adulthood and Gender Differences in Adult Bachelor Degree Completion: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Adult undergraduate students constitute 40% of the total undergraduates studying in the United States. However, male undergraduates and male undergraduates over the age of 25 are less likely to enroll in and complete a bachelor's degree than their female counterparts. Given the detrimental employment impacts of not earning a bachelor's…

  14. Emerging Tobacco-Related Cancer Risks in China: A Nationwide, Prospective Study of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng-Ming; Peto, Richard; Iona, Andri; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yi-Ping; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Lu, Feng; Chen, Jun-Shi; Collins, Rory; Li, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In China, cigarette consumption has increased substantially since the 1980s, almost exclusively in men. This study was aimed at assessing the emerging cancer risks. METHODS A nationwide, prospective study recruited 210,259 men and 302,632 women aged 30 to 79 years from 10 areas of China from 2004 to 2008; approximately 18,000 incident cancers were recorded during 7 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted risk ratios (RRs) comparing smokers (including those who had stopped because of illness but not those who had stopped by choice) with never-smokers. RESULTS Among men, 68% were smokers; their overall cancer risk was significantly increased (RR, 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.53), and it was greater in urban (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.41-1.70) than in rural areas (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.49). This excess accounted for 23% of all cancers between the ages of 40 and 79 years, with significantly elevated risks of lung cancer (RR, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.18-2.90), liver cancer (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12-1.54), stomach cancer (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55), esophageal cancer (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.24-1.73), and an aggregate of 5 other minor sites (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.86). For lung cancer, the RRs were much greater for nonadenocarcinoma (RR, 5.83; 95% CI, 5.02-6.77) than for adenocarcinoma (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.36-2.34). Among exsmokers (6.7%) who had stopped by choice, there was little excess cancer risk approximately 15 years after quitting. Among the few female smokers (3%), the overall cancer risk was also significantly increased (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.57). Smoking was estimated to cause approximately 435,000 new cancers per year in China (approximately 360,000 in men and approximately 75,000 in women). CONCLUSIONS In China, smoking now causes a quarter of all adult male cancers. High male uptake rates before the age of 20 years and nearly universal use of cigarettes foreshadow substantial tobacco-attributed risks in China unless there is

  15. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1) in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1), which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1)). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing.

  16. Mental health outcomes in emerging adults exposed to childhood maltreatment: the moderating role of stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Melissa J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Mistler, Amy Kraft; Luecken, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is an established risk factor for varying configurations of psychological problems in emerging adulthood. The current study tested associations between childhood maltreatment, cortisol reactivity, and current mental health symptoms in emerging adulthood. Eighty-eight participants (aged 18-22) completed measures of childhood maltreatment and current internalizing and externalizing symptoms and participated in a 10-min conflict role-play task. Salivary cortisol was sampled throughout the task, and a residualized change score between baseline and peak time points was computed to capture reactivity. Results from robust regression analyses indicated that cortisol reactivity moderated the association between childhood maltreatment and mental health symptoms as hypothesized. Childhood maltreatment was related to greater internalizing problems among participants with higher cortisol reactivity, whereas maltreatment was associated with greater externalizing problems among participants who exhibited lower cortisol reactivity. Results suggest that patterns of cortisol reactivity in emerging adulthood may help elucidate mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment. PMID:24920249

  17. "Owning" the personal past: Adolescents' and adults' autobiographical narratives and ratings of memories of recent and distant events.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Larkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Adults and adolescents are characterised as having different perspectives on their personal or autobiographical memories. Adults are recognised as having vivid recollections of past events and as appreciating the meaning and significance of their autobiographical memories. In development, these qualities are noted as absent as late as adolescence. To evaluate the assumption of developmental differences, we directly compared autobiographical memories of adults and adolescents drawn from each of several periods in the past, using measures of narrative quality (coded independently) and participants' own subjective ratings of their memories. Adults' narratives of events from the previous year and for the "most significant" event of their lives were coded as more thematically coherent relative to those of adolescents'; the groups did not differ on thematic coherence of narratives of early-life events (ages 1-5 and 6-10 years). The ratings that adults and adolescents provided of their autobiographical memories were similar overall; differences were more apparent for early-life events than for more recent events and indicated stronger mnemonic experiences among adolescents than adults. The pattern of findings suggests that whereas adults have more sophisticated narrative tools for describing the significance of events and their relation to the corpus of autobiographical memories, adolescents as well as adults have vivid recollective experiences as well as personal and subjective perspective on the events of their lives and their memories thereof.

  18. "Owning" the personal past: Adolescents' and adults' autobiographical narratives and ratings of memories of recent and distant events.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Larkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Adults and adolescents are characterised as having different perspectives on their personal or autobiographical memories. Adults are recognised as having vivid recollections of past events and as appreciating the meaning and significance of their autobiographical memories. In development, these qualities are noted as absent as late as adolescence. To evaluate the assumption of developmental differences, we directly compared autobiographical memories of adults and adolescents drawn from each of several periods in the past, using measures of narrative quality (coded independently) and participants' own subjective ratings of their memories. Adults' narratives of events from the previous year and for the "most significant" event of their lives were coded as more thematically coherent relative to those of adolescents'; the groups did not differ on thematic coherence of narratives of early-life events (ages 1-5 and 6-10 years). The ratings that adults and adolescents provided of their autobiographical memories were similar overall; differences were more apparent for early-life events than for more recent events and indicated stronger mnemonic experiences among adolescents than adults. The pattern of findings suggests that whereas adults have more sophisticated narrative tools for describing the significance of events and their relation to the corpus of autobiographical memories, adolescents as well as adults have vivid recollective experiences as well as personal and subjective perspective on the events of their lives and their memories thereof. PMID:25643132

  19. Detecting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with intellectual disability The use of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS).

    PubMed

    La Malfa, G; Lassi, S; Bertelli, M; Pallanti, S; Albertini, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. It is also thought that ADHD is more prevalent in the field of intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population, but there are not many experimental studies. Since ADHD diagnosis in adults is more difficult, specific rating scales correlated to the main diagnostic systems have been created but have not been applied to people with ID. This work presents an application of an ADHD screening rating scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) screening version to 46 adults with ID. The resulting prevalence of "ADHD-positive" was 19.6%. These data are in accord with results reported in the general adult literature. Our data suggest that ID and attention disorders can co-occur. Therefore, not only can ADHD be a valid psychiatric diagnosis for a child with ID but for an adult with ID as well. The CAARS can be considered a useful clinical instrument to survey ADHD in ID. PMID:17416484

  20. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked. PMID:24216221

  1. Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Varner, Fatima A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for 4 years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women.

  2. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked.

  3. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use Over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for four years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women. PMID:24730378

  4. Adult Blood Lead Levels in Minnesota: Rates and Trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne; Yendell, Stephanie; Lindgren, Paula; Olson, Larry; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is associated with a number of adverse health events including peripheral neuropathy, anemia, renal damage and cognitive impairment. The vast majority of adult lead exposures occur in the workplace. By statute, all results from blood lead level (BLL) tests performed in Minnesota are submitted to the Minnesota Department of Health for surveillance purposes. We analyzed that data to examine lead exposure trends from 2005 through 2012. We found that an average of 548 persons 16 years of age and older had a BLL greater than 10 μg/dL each year during that period. Analysis of the prevalence rate of elevated BLLs among adults for the years 2005-2012 showed a modest, nonsignificant decline among those with BLLs greater than 1O μg/dL. Much has been done to reduce exposures and BLLs among young children. However, the policies and standards that protect workers have not been similarly adjusted, and many workers remain at risk of exposure. Although OSHA is responsible for developing and implementing policies and standards to protect workers, health care providers can play a critical role in identifying cases of lead exposure by asking patients about their occupation and industry. Those working in high-risk industries should be tested to determine whether they have been exposed and intervention is warranted. PMID:27089677

  5. Adult Blood Lead Levels in Minnesota: Rates and Trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne; Yendell, Stephanie; Lindgren, Paula; Olson, Larry; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is associated with a number of adverse health events including peripheral neuropathy, anemia, renal damage and cognitive impairment. The vast majority of adult lead exposures occur in the workplace. By statute, all results from blood lead level (BLL) tests performed in Minnesota are submitted to the Minnesota Department of Health for surveillance purposes. We analyzed that data to examine lead exposure trends from 2005 through 2012. We found that an average of 548 persons 16 years of age and older had a BLL greater than 10 μg/dL each year during that period. Analysis of the prevalence rate of elevated BLLs among adults for the years 2005-2012 showed a modest, nonsignificant decline among those with BLLs greater than 1O μg/dL. Much has been done to reduce exposures and BLLs among young children. However, the policies and standards that protect workers have not been similarly adjusted, and many workers remain at risk of exposure. Although OSHA is responsible for developing and implementing policies and standards to protect workers, health care providers can play a critical role in identifying cases of lead exposure by asking patients about their occupation and industry. Those working in high-risk industries should be tested to determine whether they have been exposed and intervention is warranted.

  6. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  7. To study the effectiveness and safety of ketamine and midazolam procedural sedation in the incision and drainage of abscesses in the adult emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sim, Tiong Beng; Seet, Chong Meng

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the report was to study the efficacy and safety of ketamine and midazolam combination in the procedural sedation of incision and drainage of abscesses in the adult emergency department (ED) patients. This prospective observational study enrolled patients aged 16-60 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists class I) requiring abscess drainage in an adult ED. Patients received 2 mg/kg of ketamine infusion over 5 min and midazolam 2-5 mg titrated to deep sedation according to Ramsay sedation scale. Primary outcome was patient satisfaction using pain score after procedure. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, hemodynamics alterations and recovery time. Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS software. Fifteen patients were recruited. One patient was excluded because of difficulty with pain score interpretation. Seventy-nine percent were male patients. The mean age was 29. The mean size of abscess was 3.4 cm. The mean dose of midazolam was 3.2 mg. Eighty-six percent did not experience any pain for the procedure. Only two patients (14%) reported mild pain during the procedure. There were no significant adverse events or complications. Three patients had giddiness, two had vomiting and only one reported an unpleasant dream. The median systolic blood pressure and heart rate elevation were 30+/-5.1 mmHg and 12.5+/-3.2/min, respectively. The median time for blood pressure and pulse rate to return to baseline was 20+/-2.7 min. The use of ketamine and midazolam sedation is both well tolerated and effective for adults in the ED undergoing incision and drainage of abscesses. This study is limited by the small sample size. PMID:18460960

  8. Change in heart rate variability after the adult attachment interview in dissociative patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with dissociative disorders (DD) before and after the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Electrocardiograms were recorded before, during, and after the AAI in 13 individuals with DD and 13 healthy participants matched for age and gender. Significant change in HRV was observed only in the DD group. After the AAI, those with DD showed significant increases in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (pre-AAI = 1.91 ± 1.19; post-AAI = 4.03 ± 2.40; Wilcoxon test = -2.76, p = .005). Our results suggest that the retrieval of childhood attachment experiences in individuals with DD is associated with a change in HRV patterns that could reflect the emotion dysregulation of dissociative psychopathological processes.

  9. Clock accuracy and precision evolve as a consequence of selection for adult emergence in a narrow window of time in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Nisha N; Vaze, Koustubh M; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-15

    Although circadian clocks are believed to have evolved under the action of periodic selection pressures (selection on phasing) present in the geophysical environment, there is very little rigorous and systematic empirical evidence to support this. In the present study, we examined the effect of selection for adult emergence in a narrow window of time on the circadian rhythms of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Selection was imposed in every generation by choosing flies that emerged during a 1 h window of time close to the emergence peak of baseline/control flies under 12 h:12 h light:dark cycles. To study the effect of selection on circadian clocks we estimated several quantifiable features that reflect inter- and intra-individual variance in adult emergence and locomotor activity rhythms. The results showed that with increasing generations, incidence of adult emergence and activity of adult flies during the 1 h selection window increased gradually in the selected populations. Flies from the selected populations were more homogenous in their clock period, were more coherent in their phase of entrainment, and displayed enhanced accuracy and precision in their emergence and activity rhythms compared with controls. These results thus suggest that circadian clocks in D. melanogaster evolve enhanced accuracy and precision when subjected to selection for emergence in a narrow window of time.

  10. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  11. Buds of Parenting in Emerging Adult Males: What We Learned from Our Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the precursors of parenting buds (representations regarding parenting before actual parenting) by following 60 men from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Quality of relationships with parents, and attachment representations (state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment styles) assessed in adolescence, contribute to…

  12. Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Support as Sustaining Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Segal-Drori, Ora; Klien, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    Emergent literacy (EL) enhancement has been the goal of numerous educational programs for years, especially for children from low socioeconomic statuses (LSES) (Snow, 1994; Whitehurst, Zevebergen, Crone, Schultz, Velting, & Fischel, 1999). During the past decade, technology software, including electronic books (e-books), have become incorporated…

  13. The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanek, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

  14. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  15. Temporal reward discounting in children, adolescents, and emerging adults during an experiential task

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Anouk; Tontsch, Chandra; Thoeny, Allison L.; Sumiya, Motofumi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine age effects on the ability/willingness to wait for large rewards in a real temporal reward discounting task from childhood to adulthood. Therefore, a real temporal discounting (TD) task was administered to children aged 6–12 (n = 39), adolescents aged 13–17 (n = 28), and young adults aged 18–19 (n = 55). Findings indicated that the cross-sectional development of TD followed a quadratic pattern across age groups, with adolescents choosing more often than children and adults to wait for the large delayed reward, resulting in reward-maximization. Various interpretations of this finding were offered, including a focus on reward maximization despite an immature ability to exert self-control, and flexible self-control which was high during this task as a result of strong motivation to maximize financial gains. PMID:25071675

  16. Characterising the Profile of Everyday Executive Functioning and Relation to IQ in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Is the BRIEF Adult Version a Valid Rating Scale?

    PubMed

    Hocking, Darren R; Reeve, Jessica; Porter, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of a distinct profile of executive dysfunction in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, the utility of informant reports of everyday executive function (EF) impairments and their relation to intelligence is not yet clear. Here we aimed to evaluate the functional impact of executive dysfunction in adults with WS and to establish the validity of child and adult versions of the most commonly used rating scale for EF assessment, the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). We were also interested in whether distinct components of everyday EF relate to intelligence in WS. Parent report child (BRIEF-C) and adult (BRIEF-A) ratings were collected on 20 adults with WS (aged 18.5 to 53 years), with a mean IQ of 60.95 (SD = 17.67). Neuropsychological measures of EF included: The Shape School Test (Espy, 2007); select subdomains of EF from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Australian Adaptation (WJ III COG); and select subdomains from the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Second Edition-Parent Survey (Vineland-II). Results showed that the BRIEF-A, but not the BRIEF-C, was the most highly correlated with neuropsychological measures of EF, suggesting that it was a valid measure of the profile of EF impairments in adults with WS. The profile of everyday EF dysfunction revealed relative impairments in monitoring, working memory, planning and organisation in WS. In addition, both neuropsychological and rating scale measures showed an association between the shifting component of EF and intelligence. These findings indicate that the BRIEF-A is a valid measure of the multidimensional nature of real-world impairments in EF, and highlight its utility as a less labor intensive and low-cost screening tool for measuring specific EF impairments that could become the focus of targeted intervention in adults with WS.

  17. Characterising the Profile of Everyday Executive Functioning and Relation to IQ in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Is the BRIEF Adult Version a Valid Rating Scale?

    PubMed

    Hocking, Darren R; Reeve, Jessica; Porter, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of a distinct profile of executive dysfunction in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, the utility of informant reports of everyday executive function (EF) impairments and their relation to intelligence is not yet clear. Here we aimed to evaluate the functional impact of executive dysfunction in adults with WS and to establish the validity of child and adult versions of the most commonly used rating scale for EF assessment, the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). We were also interested in whether distinct components of everyday EF relate to intelligence in WS. Parent report child (BRIEF-C) and adult (BRIEF-A) ratings were collected on 20 adults with WS (aged 18.5 to 53 years), with a mean IQ of 60.95 (SD = 17.67). Neuropsychological measures of EF included: The Shape School Test (Espy, 2007); select subdomains of EF from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Australian Adaptation (WJ III COG); and select subdomains from the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Second Edition-Parent Survey (Vineland-II). Results showed that the BRIEF-A, but not the BRIEF-C, was the most highly correlated with neuropsychological measures of EF, suggesting that it was a valid measure of the profile of EF impairments in adults with WS. The profile of everyday EF dysfunction revealed relative impairments in monitoring, working memory, planning and organisation in WS. In addition, both neuropsychological and rating scale measures showed an association between the shifting component of EF and intelligence. These findings indicate that the BRIEF-A is a valid measure of the multidimensional nature of real-world impairments in EF, and highlight its utility as a less labor intensive and low-cost screening tool for measuring specific EF impairments that could become the focus of targeted intervention in adults with WS. PMID:26355600

  18. Characterising the Profile of Everyday Executive Functioning and Relation to IQ in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Is the BRIEF Adult Version a Valid Rating Scale?

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of a distinct profile of executive dysfunction in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, the utility of informant reports of everyday executive function (EF) impairments and their relation to intelligence is not yet clear. Here we aimed to evaluate the functional impact of executive dysfunction in adults with WS and to establish the validity of child and adult versions of the most commonly used rating scale for EF assessment, the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). We were also interested in whether distinct components of everyday EF relate to intelligence in WS. Parent report child (BRIEF-C) and adult (BRIEF-A) ratings were collected on 20 adults with WS (aged 18.5 to 53 years), with a mean IQ of 60.95 (SD = 17.67). Neuropsychological measures of EF included: The Shape School Test (Espy, 2007); select subdomains of EF from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Australian Adaptation (WJ III COG); and select subdomains from the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Second Edition—Parent Survey (Vineland-II). Results showed that the BRIEF-A, but not the BRIEF-C, was the most highly correlated with neuropsychological measures of EF, suggesting that it was a valid measure of the profile of EF impairments in adults with WS. The profile of everyday EF dysfunction revealed relative impairments in monitoring, working memory, planning and organisation in WS. In addition, both neuropsychological and rating scale measures showed an association between the shifting component of EF and intelligence. These findings indicate that the BRIEF-A is a valid measure of the multidimensional nature of real-world impairments in EF, and highlight its utility as a less labor intensive and low-cost screening tool for measuring specific EF impairments that could become the focus of targeted intervention in adults with WS. PMID:26355600

  19. Falciparum malaria as an emerging cause of fever in adults living in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K; Offouga, Christelle L; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise P; Essola, Laurence; Madoungou, Blondel; Kombila, Maryvonne

    2014-01-01

    Following the observed increase of malaria prevalence among older children in Gabon, a descriptive observational study was carried out in 2012 to determine the prevalence of malaria in adults presenting with fever in two health centres of Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Thick- and thin-blood smears for malaria diagnosis were performed in febrile individuals aged more than 15 years old. Age, use of bed nets, previous antimalarial drug treatment, clinical symptoms, chest radiography results, and available haemoglobin data were also recorded. Among the 304 patients screened, the global malaria frequency was of 42.1% (n = 128/34). Plasmodium (P). falciparum was the only species identified. The proportion of patients with a clinical malaria requiring parenteral treatment was 38.5%, whereas 47.5% of outpatients had uncomplicated malaria. According to WHO classification, 14 (19.7%) infected patients had severe malaria; neurological and respiratory symptoms tended to be more frequent in case of P. falciparum infection. Anaemia was found in 51.5% adults and none had severe anaemia. Almost half of adults consulting for fever in two health centres of the urban city of Libreville have malaria. The use of insecticide-treated bed nets, the screening, and the treatment of individuals with P. falciparum microscopic and submicroscopic asymptomatic infection or clinical malaria should be emphasized to reduce the transmission.

  20. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  1. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  2. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  3. Initial Emergency Department Diagnosis and Management of Adult Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a medical emergency affecting up to 18 million individuals world wide, with an annual incidence of 750,000 in North America alone. Mortality ranges between 28-50% of those individuals stricken by severe sepsis. Sepsis is a time critical illness, requiring early identification and prompt intervention in order to improve outcomes. This observation has led to increased awareness and education in the field of Emergency Medicine; it has also led to the implementation of critical interventions early in the course of patient management, specifically Early-Goal Directed Therapy, and rapid administration of appropriate antimicrobials. This review begins with a brief summary of the pathophysiology of sepsis, and then addresses the fundamental clinical aspects of ED identification and resuscitation of the septic patient. PMID:22737991

  4. A 12-year ecological study of hip fracture rates among older Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Lee, Yow-Shan; Wu, Ya-Ju; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Chen, Cheng-Ting; Hwang, Jawl-Shan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2013-11-01

    Hip fracture rates in Taiwan are among the highest in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the trends of hip fracture hospitalizations among Taiwanese elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and the trends of antiosteoporosis medication expenditure from 1999 to 2010. We conducted an ecological study using inpatient health care-utilization data from the Department of Health, and medication expenditure data from the IMS Health, Taiwan. The International Classification of Disease, Clinical Modification, 9th version, code 820 was used to identify hip fracture hospitalizations. Medications included alendronate, calcitonin, ibandronate, raloxifene, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and zoledronic acid. Year 2010 was assigned as the reference point for age-standardized rates, currency exchange (to the US dollar), and discount rates. Over the 12-year study period, age-standardized hip fracture hospitalizations decreased by 2.7 % annually (p for trend < 0.001) for Taiwanese elders. The decline was more obvious among those aged ≥75 years (6.1 %). However, the number of hip fracture hospitalizations increased from 14,342 to 18,023. Total hospitalization costs increased by US$0.6 ± 0.2 million annually (p for trend = 0.002); however, the per capita costs decreased by US$23.0 ± 8.0 (p for trend = 0.017). The total medication expenditure increased 7.2-fold, from US$8.1 million to US$58.9 million, accounting for an increase in the overall pharmaceutical market by fivefold, from 3.4 to 15.9 ‰ (both p for trend < 0.001). From 1999 to 2010, there was a decline in hip fracture rates among elderly Taiwanese adults with a concomitant increase in antiosteoporosis medication expenditure.

  5. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood.

  6. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood. PMID:25417739

  7. Technology Use and Frequency and Self-Rated Skills: A Survey of Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Lorraine; O'Shea, Emma; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Timmons, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Many older adults are using technology regularly, but the vast majority still rate their technology skills as poor or average,reflecting their low usage of less-familiar items such as tablet computers. Despite moves toward increasing the use of ICT in the care, rehabilitation, and monitoring of older adults, baseline use of such devices is low. Further study is required to investigate how people's attitudes toward and experience with ICT influence its utility in clinical practice PMID:26189859

  8. Weight loss attempts in adults: goals, duration, and rate of weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D F; Serdula, M K; Anda, R F; Levy, A; Byers, T

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although attempted weight loss is common, little is known about the goals and durations of weight loss attempts and the rates of achieved weight loss in the general population. METHODS. Data were collected by telephone in 1989 from adults aged 18 years and older in 39 states and the District of Columbia. Analyses were carried out separately for the 6758 men and 14,915 women who reported currently trying to lose weight. RESULTS. Approximately 25% of the men respondents and 40% of the women respondents reported that they were currently trying to lose weight. Among men, a higher percentage of Hispanics (31%) than of Whites (25%) or Blacks (23%) reported trying to lose weight. Among women, however, there were no ethnic differences in prevalence. The average man wanted to lose 30 pounds and to weigh 178 pounds; the average woman wanted to lose 31 pounds and to weigh 133 pounds. Black women wanted to lose an average of 8 pounds more than did White women, but Black women's goal weight was 10 pounds heavier. The average rate of achieved weight loss was 1.4 pounds per week for men and 1.1 pounds per week for women; these averages, however, may reflect only the experience of those most successful at losing weight. CONCLUSIONS. Attempted weight loss is a common behavior, regardless of age, gender, or ethnicity, and weight loss goals are substantial; however, obesity remains a major public health problem in the United States. PMID:1503167

  9. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  10. Is residential treatment effective for opioid use disorders? A longitudinal comparison of treatment outcomes among opioid dependent, opioid misusing, and non-opioid using emerging adults with substance use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Greene, M. Claire; Bergman, Brandon G.; Kelly, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid misuse and dependence rates among emerging adults have increased substantially. While office-based opioid treatments (e.g., buprenorphine/naloxone) have shown overall efficacy, discontinuation rates among emerging adults are high. Abstinence-based residential treatment may serve as a viable alternative, but has seldom been investigated in this age group. Methods Emerging adults attending 12-step-oriented residential treatment (N=292; 18–24yrs, 74% Male, 95% White) were classified into opioid dependent (OD; 25%), opioid misuse (OM; 20%), and no opiate use (NO; 55%) groups. Paired t-tests and ANOVAs tested baseline differences and whether groups differed in their during-treatment response. Longitudinal multilevel models tested whether groups differed on substance use outcomes and treatment utilization during the year following the index treatment episode. Results Despite a more severe clinical profile at baseline among OD, all groups experienced similar during-treatment increases on therapeutic targets (e.g., abstinence self-efficacy), while OD showed a greater decline in psychiatric symptoms. During follow-up relative to OM, both NO and OD had significantly greater Percent Days Abstinent, and significantly less cannabis use. OD attended significantly more outpatient treatment sessions than OM or NO; 29% of OD was completely abstinent at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Findings here suggest residential treatment may be helpful for emerging adults with opioid dependence. This benefit may be less prominent, though, among non-dependent opioid misusers. Randomized trials are needed to compare more directly the relative benefits of outpatient agonist-based treatment to abstinence-based, residential care in this vulnerable age-group, and to examine the feasibility of an integrated model. PMID:25267606

  11. Self-Rated Health Among Saudi Adults: Findings from a National Survey, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-10-01

    Self-rated health reflects a person's integrated perception of health, including its biological, psychological, and social dimensions. It is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. To assess the current status of self-rated health and associated factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. We conducted a large national survey of adults aged 15 years or older. A total of 10,735 participants completed a standardized health questionnaire. Respondents rated their health with a five-point scale. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, chronic diseases, health-related habits and behaviors, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Associated factors of self-rated health were analyzed using a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model. More than 77% of respondents rated their health as excellent/very good. Female sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.88], decades of age (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.25-1.46), diagnosed diabetes mellitus (OR 1.54, 95 CI 1.22-1.93), diagnosed hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.79), diagnosed hypertension (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.22-1.96), number of other diagnosed chronic diseases (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.41-2.03), limited vigorous activity (OR 3.59, 95% CI 2.84-4.53), need for special equipment (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.96-3.51), and more than 3 h of daily television/computer screen time (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.11-2.29) were positively associated with poor/fair health. Smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity were not associated with self-reported health. We found that preventable risk factors are not associated with Saudis' self-rated health. This optimistic perception of health poses a challenge for preventive interventions in the Kingdom and calls for campaigns to educate the public about the harm of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:25795222

  12. 18 CFR 284.268 - Local distribution company emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unit volume of emergency natural gas transported) in accordance with § 284.224(e)(2)(ii) of this... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE...

  13. 18 CFR 284.268 - Local distribution company emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation,...

  14. 18 CFR 284.268 - Local distribution company emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation,...

  15. Challenges of emerging adulthood-transition from paediatric to adult diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Gurmit; Nayak, Ananth U; Wilkins, Julie; Hankey, Jo; Raffeeq, Parakkal; Varughese, George I; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex condition with far reaching physical, psychological and psychosocial effects. These outcomes can be significant when considering the care of a youth transferring from paediatric through to adult diabetes services. The art of mastering a smooth care transfer is crucial if not pivotal to optimising overall diabetic control. Quite often the nature of consultation varies between the two service providers and the objectives and outcomes will mirror this. The purpose of this review is to analyse the particular challenges and barriers one might expect to encounter when transferring these services over to an adult care provider. Particular emphasis is paid towards the psychological aspects of this delicate period, which needs to be recognised and appreciated appropriately in order to understand the particular plights a young diabetic child will be challenged with. We explore the approaches that can be positively adopted in order to improve the experience for child, parents and also the multi- disciplinary team concerned with the overall delivery of this care. Finally we will close with reflection on the potential areas for future development that will ultimately aim to improve long-term outcomes and experiences of the young adolescent confronted with diabetes as well as the burden of disease and burden of cost of disease. PMID:25317240

  16. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  17. [Can new technologies reduce the rate of medications errors in adult intensive care?].

    PubMed

    Benoit, E; Beney, J

    2011-09-01

    In the intensive care environment, technology is omnipresent to ensure the monitoring and the administration of critical drugs to unstable patients. Since the early 2000's computerized physician order entry (CPOE), bar code assisted medication administration (BCMA), "smart" infusion pumps (SIP), electronic medication administration record (eMAR) and automated dispensing systems (ADS) have been recommended to reduce medication errors. About ten years later, their implementation rises but remains modest. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of these technologies on the rate of medication errors (ME) in adult intensive care. CPOE allows a strong and significant reduction of ME, especially the least critical ones. Only when adding a clinical decision support system (CDSS), CPOE could allow a reduction of serious errors. Used alone, it could even increase them. The available studies do not have the sufficient power to demonstrate the benefits of SIP or BCMA on ME. However, these devices, reveal practices, such as overriding of alerts. Power or methodology problems and conflicting results do not allow to determine the ability of ADS to reduce the incidence of ME in the intensive care. The studies, investigating these technologies, are not very recent, of limited number and present lacks in their methodology, which does not allow to determine whether they can reduce the incidence of MEs in the adult intensive care. Currently, the benefits appear to be limited which may be explained by the complexity of their integration into the care process. Special attention should be given to the communication between caregivers, the human-computer interface and the caregivers' training.

  18. Male Courtship Rate Plasticity in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana Is Controlled by Temperature Experienced during the Pupal and Adult Stages

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues can act to initiate alternative developmental trajectories that result in different adult phenotypes, including behavioral phenotypes. The developmental period when an organism is sensitive to the cue is often described as a critical period. Here we investigated the critical period for temperature-sensitive courtship rate plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We performed a series of temperature-shift experiments in which larvae, pupae, or adults were shifted for blocks of time from one temperature to an alternative temperature, and then we quantified the courtship rate exhibited by adult males. We discovered that the critical period begins during pupal development and extends into adulthood, but temperature experienced during larval development does not affect male courtship rate. This finding allows us to develop hypotheses that address how developmental and physiological factors may have influenced the evolution of behavioral plasticity in this species. PMID:23717531

  19. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  20. Relationship Between the Urine Flow Rate and Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Emergent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Lixia; Li, Yun; Li, Hualong; Wu, Deng-Xuan; Zhao, Jian-bin; Lian, Dan; Zhou, Yingling; Liu, Yuanhui; Ye, Piao; Ran, Peng; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shiqun; Chen, Pingyan; Xian, Ying; Chen, Jiyan; Tan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A low urine flow rate is a marker of acute kidney injury. However, it is unclear whether a high urine flow rate is associated with a reduced risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in high-risk patients. We conducted this study to evaluate the predictive value of the urine flow rate for the risk of CIN following emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We prospectively examined 308 patients undergoing emergent PCI who provided consent. The predictive value of the 24-hour postprocedural urine flow rate, adjusted by weight (UR/W, mL/kg/h) and divided into quartiles, for the risk of CIN was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The cumulative incidence of CIN was 24.4%. In particular, CIN was observed in 29.5%, 19.5%, 16.7%, and 32.0% of cases in the UR/W quartile (Q)-1 (≤0.94 mL/kg/h), Q2 (0.94–1.30 mL/kg/h), Q3 (1.30–1.71 mL/kg/h), and Q4 (≥1.71 mL/kg/h), respectively. Moreover, in-hospital death was noted in 7.7%, 3.9%, 5.1%, and 5.3% of patients in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding predictors, multivariate analysis indicated that compared with the moderate urine flow rate quartiles (Q2 + Q3), a high urine flow rate (Q4) (odds ratio [OR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–5.68; P = 0.010) and low urine flow rate (Q1) (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.03–4.82; P = 0.041) were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN. Moreover, a moderate urine flow rate (0.94–1.71 mL/kg/h) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality. Our data suggest that higher and lower urine flow rates were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN after emergent PCI, and a moderate urine flow rate (0.94–1.71 mL/kg/h) may be associated with a decreased risk of CIN with a good long-term prognosis after emergent PCI. PMID:26683946

  1. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  2. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  3. Outdoor physical activity and self rated health in older adults living in two regions of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Older adults spend little time outdoors and many are physically inactive. The relationship between outdoor physical activity and self rated health has not been studied in older adults. This paper aimed to assess the relation of location of physical activity to self rated health and physical activity minutes. This was an observational study of ambulatory adults 66 years and older conducted in 2005–2008. Participants (N = 754) completed survey measures of physical activity location and self rated health, and wore an accelerometer to objectively assess physical activity. A mixed model linear regression procedure adjusted for neighborhood clustering effects. Differences in self rated health and physical activity minutes were compared across three physical activity settings (indoor only, outdoor only, both indoor and outdoor). Results Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were significantly greater in those who were physically active at least once a week outdoors compared with those who were physically active indoors only. Self rated health was significantly related to being physically active but did not vary by location of activity. Conclusions Older adults who were physically active outdoors accumulated significantly more physical activity, but self-rated health was not significantly greater than those being physically active indoors. PMID:22846594

  4. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. PMID:25470657

  5. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial.

  6. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  7. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates.

  8. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.

  9. Social network and census tract-level influences on substance use among emerging adult males: An activity spaces approach

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Crystal; Perley, Lauren; Bailey, Jonathan; Barbour, Russell; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. PMID:26176810

  10. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed. PMID:23098273

  11. Emergency Department Waiting Times (EDWaT): A Patient Flow Management and Quality of Care Rating mHealth Application.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Yunus, Faisel

    2014-01-01

    Saudi hospital emergency departments (ED) have suffered from long waiting times, which have led to a delay in emergency patient care. The increase in the population of Saudi Arabia is likely to further stretch the healthcare services due to overcrowding leading to decreased healthcare quality, long patient waits, patient dissatisfaction, ambulance diversions, decreased physician productivity, and increased frustration among medical staff. This will ultimately put patients at risk for poor health outcomes. Time is of the essence in emergencies and to get to an ED that has the shortest waiting time can mean life or death for a patient, especially in cases of stroke and myocardial infarction. In this paper, we present our work on the development of a mHealth Application - EDWaT - that will: provide patient flow information to the emergency medical services staff, help in quick routing of patients to the nearest hospital, and provide an opportunity for patients to review and rate the quality of care received at an ED, which will then be forwarded to ED services administrators. The quality ratings will help patients to choose between two EDs with the same waiting time and distance from their location. We anticipate that the use of EDWaT will help improve ED wait times and the quality of care provision in Saudi hospitals EDs. PMID:25000058

  12. Emergency Department Waiting Times (EDWaT): A Patient Flow Management and Quality of Care Rating mHealth Application.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Yunus, Faisel

    2014-01-01

    Saudi hospital emergency departments (ED) have suffered from long waiting times, which have led to a delay in emergency patient care. The increase in the population of Saudi Arabia is likely to further stretch the healthcare services due to overcrowding leading to decreased healthcare quality, long patient waits, patient dissatisfaction, ambulance diversions, decreased physician productivity, and increased frustration among medical staff. This will ultimately put patients at risk for poor health outcomes. Time is of the essence in emergencies and to get to an ED that has the shortest waiting time can mean life or death for a patient, especially in cases of stroke and myocardial infarction. In this paper, we present our work on the development of a mHealth Application - EDWaT - that will: provide patient flow information to the emergency medical services staff, help in quick routing of patients to the nearest hospital, and provide an opportunity for patients to review and rate the quality of care received at an ED, which will then be forwarded to ED services administrators. The quality ratings will help patients to choose between two EDs with the same waiting time and distance from their location. We anticipate that the use of EDWaT will help improve ED wait times and the quality of care provision in Saudi hospitals EDs.

  13. Case report: An adult-onset type II citrin deficiency patient in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    TANG, LUJIA; CHEN, LIANG; WANG, HAIRONG; DAI, LIHUA; PAN, SHUMING

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A13) gene may result in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia. These conditions are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The current case report describes a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden delirium and upper limb weakness. Upon admission, the patient was fully conscious and alert but later lost consciousness subsequent to a sudden convulsive seizure. Hyperammonemia was detected and analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified an 851del4 mutation. Thus, the possibility of genetic disease should be considered as a potential cause of the symptoms of patients with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium and loss of consciousness, in cases where the cause of the disturbance is unknown. PMID:27347070

  14. Resting metabolic rate in healthy adults: relation to growth hormone status and leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, J O; Vahl, N; Dall, R; Christiansen, J S

    1998-09-01

    Studies in patients with acromegaly and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, and administration of GH in normal and obese subjects and in patients with GH deficiency, suggest that GH increases resting metabolic rate (RMR) independently of changes in body composition. To test whether endogenous GH status determines RMR, we studied 38 healthy adults (18 women and 18 men) in two age groups (young, 30+/-0 years (n=18); older, 51+/-1 years [n=18]) with indirect calorimetry, deconvolution analysis of 24-hour GH secretion, arginin stimulation test, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measurement, lean and fat tissue distribution (computed tomography [CT] and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), assessment of physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max]), thyroid status, and serum leptin levels. RMR was higher in men compared with women, whereas RMR per lean body mass (LBM) (kcal x 24 h(-1) x kg(-1)) was higher in women (30.0+/-0.5 v 33.0 2/3 0.8; P=.003). GH secretion was higher in women and in young people. Total-body fat (TBF) was higher in women, whereas LBM and abdominal fat were higher in men. Older people had significantly more TBF and abdominal fat as compared with younger people. VO2max was higher in younger people. Leptin levels were higher in women and in older people. Thyroid status was narrowly within the normal range in all subjects. RMR was strongly correlated with LBM (r=.90, P < .001). RMR/LBM correlated strongly with TBF (r=.49, P < .01) and leptin (r=.56, P < .001), but not with GH status. By multiple regression analysis, sex and TBF were the strongest predictors of RMR/LBM. However, in the young subgroup, GH production rate was a positive determinant of RMR/LBM. In the male subgroup, leptin was a stronger predictor than TBF of RMR/LBM (P < .001). Neither age, physical fitness, nor thyroid status contributed independently to predict RMR/LBM. In conclusion, (1) LBM was the most important determinant of RMR; (2) RMR/LBM was higher in women and depended

  15. Mood dysregulation and affective instability in emerging adults with childhood maltreatment: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Martin H; Ohashi, Kyoko; Lowen, Steven B; Polcari, Ann; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment increases risk for mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders and is associated with alterations in structure, function and connectivity of brain regions involved in emotional regulation. We sought to assess whether maltreatment was specifically associated with disturbances in positive or negative mood regulation. Ecological momentary ratings were collected with a wristwatch-like device with joy-stick (Seiko ecolog) approximately six times per day over a week in 60 unmedicated participants (22 control, 38 maltreated, 18-25 years old). Forty-five percent of maltreated subjects had a history of major depression but all were currently euthymic. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to provide orthogonal measures of positive and negative valence, which were analyzed for indices of variability, circadian rhythmicity and persistence, using linear and non-linear hierarchical modeling and Hurst analysis. Groups did not differ in mean levels of positive or negative affect. Maltreated subjects had increased variability and circadian and hemicircadian abnormalities in ratings of positive but not negative affect. Conversely, they had higher estimated Hurst exponents for negative but not positive affect ratings indicating a greater degree of persistence. Abnormalities in variability, rhythmicity and persistence were present in both maltreated subjects with and without histories of major depression. These findings suggest that both positive and negative valence systems may be dysregulated in individuals with childhood maltreatment. However the nature of the dysregulation appears to differ fundamentally in these domains, as positive mood ratings were more variable and negative ratings more persistent. PMID:26424417

  16. Substantial risk of "Accidental MCI" in healthy older adults: base rates of low memory scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; White, Travis

    2007-05-01

    When assessing older adults for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, it is important to understand how often low memory scores are obtained in healthy people in order to minimize false positive diagnoses. This study examines the base rates of low memory scores in older adults across a battery of memory tests. Participants included older adults (55-79 years; N = 742) from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB; Stern and White, 2003a) standardization sample. The NAB Memory Module consists of four co-normed memory tests (i.e., List Learning, Shape Learning, Story Learning, and Daily Living Memory) yielding 10 demographically corrected T-scores. When all 10 T-scores were examined simultaneously, 55.5% of older adults had one or more scores one standard deviation (SD) below the mean. At <1.5 SDs, 30.8% of healthy older adults obtained one or more low memory scores. Obtaining low memory scores occurs more often with lesser intellectual abilities. For example, 56.5% of older adults with low average intellectual abilities obtained one or more low memory scores (<1.5 SDs) compared to 21.1% with high average intellectual abilities. Understanding the base rates of low scores can reduce over-interpretation of isolated low memory scores and minimize false positive diagnoses of MCI. PMID:17445298

  17. Lifecourse Priorities Among Appalachian Emerging Adults: Revisiting Wallace's Organization of Diversity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan A; Rehkopf, David H; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Worthman, Carol M

    2009-06-01

    We examine how social demographics (gender, age, or race-ethnicity), census tract characteristics, and family environment during childhood relate to variability in the lifecourse priorities of 344 Cherokee and white youth during emerging adulthood (age 19-24). Analyses were performed using recursive partitioning and random forest methods to examine determinants of prioritizing education, family formation, economic establishment, self characteristics and close relationships, youth independence, conspicuous consumption, and community reliance. Overall, characteristics of census tracts were the most common and influential predictors of lifecourse priorities. Childhood family poverty, parental relationship problems, parental crime, and stressful life events were also important predictors. Race-ethnicity or cultural group (Cherokee vs. white), age, and gender were relatively unimportant. At this developmental stage and in this population, community characteristics and childhood family experiences may be better proxies for developmental settings (and resulting enculturated values and preferences) than social demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity or gender). PMID:24403647

  18. Lifecourse Priorities Among Appalachian Emerging Adults: Revisiting Wallace’s Organization of Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan A.; Rehkopf, David H.; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Worthman, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    We examine how social demographics (gender, age, or race–ethnicity), census tract characteristics, and family environment during childhood relate to variability in the lifecourse priorities of 344 Cherokee and white youth during emerging adulthood (age 19–24). Analyses were performed using recursive partitioning and random forest methods to examine determinants of prioritizing education, family formation, economic establishment, self characteristics and close relationships, youth independence, conspicuous consumption, and community reliance. Overall, characteristics of census tracts were the most common and influential predictors of lifecourse priorities. Childhood family poverty, parental relationship problems, parental crime, and stressful life events were also important predictors. Race–ethnicity or cultural group (Cherokee vs. white), age, and gender were relatively unimportant. At this developmental stage and in this population, community characteristics and childhood family experiences may be better proxies for developmental settings (and resulting enculturated values and preferences) than social demographic variables (e.g., ethnicity or gender). PMID:24403647

  19. Emergency Department Visits Related to Schizophrenia Among Adults Aged 18-64: United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michael; McCaig, Linda F

    2015-09-01

    ED care is important for the treatment of acute presentations of schizophrenia and may serve as a safety net for schizophrenic patients not otherwise receiving care (4,5). This analysis of National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data indicates that during 2009-2011, an average of 382,000 ED visits related to schizophrenia occurred each year among adults aged 18-64, corresponding to an overall visit rate of 20.1 per 10,000 adults. A visit having a first-, second-, or third-listed diagnosis of schizophrenia (i.e., whether the visit was directly or indirectly related to schizophrenia) was included in the analysis to provide a broader description of ED use by these patients. The distribution of the primary diagnosis of visits related to schizophrenia was: schizophrenia (58.8%), another mental disorder (15.4%), and a nonmental health disorder (25.7%) (data not shown). Among adults aged 18-64, the rate for ED visits related to schizophrenia was about twice as high for men as for women. Public insurance (Medicaid, Medicare, or dual Medicare and Medicaid) was more frequently the primary expected source of payment for ED visits related to schizophrenia compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. ED visits related to schizophrenia were more frequently made by patients who were homeless compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. About one-third of ED visits related to schizophrenia resulted in a hospital admission, and another 16.7% resulted in a transfer to a psychiatric hospital--both higher than the percentages for ED visits not related to schizophrenia. One of the goals of Healthy People 2020 is to improve mental health through prevention and by ensuring access to appropriate, quality mental health services (6). National data on the rates and characteristics of ED visits related to schizophrenia will help policymakers and practitioners address disparities and meet this goal.

  20. Emergency imaging discrepancy rates at a level 1 trauma center: identifying the most common on-call resident "misses".

    PubMed

    Tomich, Jennifer; Retrouvey, Michele; Shaves, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    The focus of our research is to identify the most frequently reported on-call discrepancies at our hospital by modality and level of resident training. Our intent is to identify specific areas of concern that may be amenable to improvement through initiation of dedicated resident training in the field of emergency radiology. Our study included 648 significant discrepancies from 193,722 studies ordered through the emergency department over a 7-year period. The overall discrepancy rates were calculated for each resident level of training and modality type. Significance was determined using χ2 testing with α = 0.05. The most common types of discrepancies were identified. The overall rate of reported discrepancies was low for all levels of training (0.23-0.42 %) with a small, but statistically significant, decrease in rate for the senior residents. Common categories of discrepancies for all residents included fractures on radiographs (XR) and computed tomography (CT), masses and hemorrhage on CT, and lung nodules and pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs. Specific discrepancies reported more frequently for new call-takers included phalangeal fractures on XR as well as white matter disease, hepatic lacerations, pyelonephritis, peritoneal fluid, lymphadenopathy, and pneumothoraces on CT. It is our recommendation that radiology resident training programs ensure that the common discrepancies illustrated herein are specifically addressed as part of a dedicated emergency radiology course.

  1. Types of social capital resources and self-rated health among the Norwegian adult population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are large in Norway. In part, these inequalities may stem from differences in access to supportive social networks - since occupying disadvantaged positions in affluent societies has been associated with disposing poor network resources. Research has demonstrated that social networks are fundamental resources in the prevention of mental and physical illness. However, to determine potentials for public health action one needs to explore the health impact of different types of network resources and analyze if the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health is partially explained by social network factors. That is the aim of this paper. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2007, through a postal survey from a gross sample of 8000 Norwegian adults, of which 3,190 (about 40%) responded. The outcome variable was self-rated health. Our main explanatory variables were indicators of socioeconomic positions and social capital indicators that was measured by different indicators that were grouped under 'bonding', 'bridging' and 'linking' social capital. Demographic data were collected for statistical control. Generalized ordered logistic regression analysis was performed. Result Results indicated that those who had someone to talk to when distressed were more likely to rate their health as good compared to those deprived of such person(s) (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.02). Similarly, those who were active members in two or more social organisations (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.22) and those who count a medical doctor among their friends (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.00) report better health. The association between self-rated health and socio-economic background indicators were marginally attenuated when social network indicators were added into the model. Conclusion Among different types of network resources, close and strong friendship-based ties are of importance for people's health in Norway. Networks linking

  2. Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): spatial relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Richard T; Chini, Shahpar R; McGovern, Jeffrey E

    2005-04-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was selected as a representative stored-product moth to test the validity of contour mapping of trap catch for pest monitoring in warehouses and retail stores. Three experiments, each replicated five times, were conducted in a 3.2 by 9.0-m aluminum shed. Each experiment involved placing pupae at a single release point (source) and recording the numbers of emerging adult males captured after 24, 48, and 72 h in each of four pheromone-baited sticky traps. The experiments differed only with respect to the point of release. Distribution of trap catch reflected the general distribution of moths in the shed; and consecutive contour maps tracked their dispersal from the source. As emergence and dispersal progressed, cumulative trap catch increased throughout the shed, but it remained highest near the source. The observed spatial patterns of trap catch relative to sources of infestation and the inverse relationship of trap catch to distance from a source support the validity of contour mapping as a means of monitoring stored-product moths and locating foci of infestation. The relationship between trap catch and distance from a source of infestation was well described by two-parameter exponential decay, both in P. interpunctella and in the previously studied Lasioderma serricorne (F.). Analysis of data from retail pet stores also showed exponential decline in trap catch of P. interpunctella with distance from centers of infestation.

  3. Value transmissions between fathers, mothers, and adolescent and emerging adult children: the role of the family climate.

    PubMed

    Roest, Annette M C; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M

    2009-04-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study investigates father-child, mother-child, and father-mother transmissions on "work-as-duty" and "hedonism" across a 5-year period when children traverse late adolescence and emerging adulthood (N = 402 families). We found bidirectional father-child and child-to-mother transmissions on work-as-duty and child-to-father and bidirectional father-mother transmissions on hedonism. In addition, we examined whether family adaptability and cohesion influence these value transmissions. Father-to-child transmission on work-as-duty occurred regardless of family system levels, whereas child-to-parent transmissions on work-as-duty occurred only within more structured families. Furthermore, a more connected family climate tended to facilitate inter- and intragenerational value transmissions, but multiple-group analyses did not reveal strong evidence. All in all, this study showed that value socialization in the family is not a one-way-traffic process with parents solely influencing their children. Late adolescents and emerging adults also serve to socialize their parents and parents socialize each other.

  4. Identifying Two Potential Mechanisms for Changes in Alcohol Use Among College-attending and Non-attending Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Kim, Min Jung; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. We use structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For four groups defined by college and residential status, more drinking in the spring of 12th grade predicts more pro-alcohol peer influences the following fall, and more pro-alcohol peer influences in the fall predict increases in drinking the following spring. Going to college while living at home is a protective factor for increases in drinking and selection of pro-alcohol peer involvements. Prosocial involvement (measured by involvement in religious activities and volunteer work) is not significantly related to post-high school drinking except among college students living away from home. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing opportunities for heavy drinking for college and noncollege emerging adults as they leave home and increasing prosocial involvement among college students not living at home. PMID:18999326

  5. Psychosocial stress and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate among adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Annor, Francis B.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Okosun, Ike S.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress has been hypothesized to impact renal changes, but this hypothesis has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to examine other predictors of eGFR changes among persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Data from a survey conducted in 2005 by a major health maintenance organization located in the southeastern part of the United States, linked to patients’ clinical and pharmacy records (n=575) from 2005 to 2008, was used. Study participants were working adults aged 25–59 years, diagnosed with DM but without advanced microvascular or macrovascular complications. eGFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. A latent psychosocial stress variable was created from five psychosocial stress subscales. Using a growth factor model in a structural equation framework, we estimated the association between psychosocial stress and eGFR while controlling for important covariates. Results The psychosocial stress variable was not directly associated with eGFR in the final model. Factors found to be associated with changes in eGFR were age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion Among fairly healthy DM patients, we did not find any evidence of a direct association between psychosocial stress and eGFR changes after controlling for important covariates. Predictors of eGFR change in our population included age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26484039

  6. Effects of cannabinoids (marijuana) on taste intensity and hedonic ratings and salivary flow of adults.

    PubMed

    Mattes, R D; Shaw, L M; Engelman, K

    1994-04-01

    Cannabinoids purportedly improve taste responsiveness and enhance the sensory appeal of foods. These properties and a commonly cited oral drying effect were evaluated in a series of studies with 'light' marijuana users. The first was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, acute oral dosing trial, involving an age and gender stratified sample of 57 adults. An influence of route of drug delivery was explored in another 11 individuals who were administered a single dose orally, sublingually and via cigarette. To explore effects following chronic administration, six additional individuals were dosed twice per day for 3 days orally and by rectal suppository. Taste intensity and hedonic responses for sweet, sour, salty and bitter food stimuli were monitored at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 hours post-dosing in the acute studies, and daily in the chronic study. Stimulated saliva samples were collected at these same times. Salivary flow rate was significantly negatively correlated with plasma drug levels, and reported 'high' 2 and 4 h post-dosing. No effects of the drug were observed on taste responses. Self-reported shifts in taste responsiveness and hedonics may be related to alterations of memory and cognition, rather than gustatory function. PMID:8055263

  7. Pathways In and Out of Substance Use among Homeless-Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Although high rates of alcohol and drug use have been found among homeless young people, less is known about who is responsible for their initiation, the reasons for their continued use, and why some individuals eventually transition out of using whereas others do not. Based on qualitative interviews with 40 homeless individuals 19 to 21 years of…

  8. Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Du, Wei; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600 μg/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.

  9. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  10. The Nature and Impact of Gendered Patterns of Peer Sexual Communications Among Heterosexual Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Sarah L; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research demonstrates that peers serve as top sexual informants and advisers, little is known about how peer sexual communications may be a gendered phenomenon. Do communications about sex and romantic relationships vary according to who is speaking to whom? The current study examined 517 college students' reports of male and female peers' communications of four sexual scripts and the associations between reports of such communications and participants' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Results suggest that peer messages about sex and relationships vary by the gender of the recipient and the gender of the communicator. Women reported more frequent communications of all sexual scripts from female peers than did men. In terms of male peers' sexual communications, only one gender difference emerged: men reported receiving significantly fewer messages about the relational script than women. Compared to same-sex peer communications, there were more associations between other-sex peer communications and undergraduates' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Implications for the role of same- and other-sex peers in sexual socialization are discussed.

  11. Agreement Rates between Parent and Self-Report on Past ADHD Symptoms in an Adult Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…

  12. Factors Related to Self-Rated Participation in Adolescents and Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics "and" aspects of participation in young adults with mild…

  13. Item Response Theory Analyses of Adult Self-Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in the Current Symptoms Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2011-01-01

    The graded response model, which is based on item response theory, was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of adult self-ratings (N = 852) of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms presented in the Current Symptoms Scale. This scale has four ordered response categories. The…

  14. Adult Learner Graduation Rates at Four U.S. Community Colleges by Prior Learning Assessment Status and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Milan S.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2015-01-01

    The completion agenda demands higher community college graduation rates among adult learners, and prior learning assessment (PLA) is a promising solution. PLA permits students to earn credit for college-level learning acquired outside of higher education and is associated with improved student outcomes. However, little is known regarding community…

  15. Adult Learner Graduation Rates at Four U.S. Community Colleges by Prior Learning Assessment Status and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    The college completion agenda demands improved graduation rates among adult learners and prior learning assessment (PLA) is a promising solution. PLA permits students to earn college credit for knowledge acquired outside of higher education and is associated with improved student outcomes. The current study expanded the literature regarding adult…

  16. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  17. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults?

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-02-01

    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  18. Impairment in occupational functioning and adult ADHD: the predictive utility of executive function (EF) ratings versus EF tests.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in executive functioning (EF). ADHD in adults is also associated with impairments in major life activities, particularly occupational functioning. We investigated the extent to which EF deficits assessed by both tests and self-ratings contributed to the degree of impairment in 11 measures involving self-reported occupational problems, employer reported workplace adjustment, and clinician rated occupational adjustment. Three groups of adults were recruited as a function of their severity of ADHD: ADHD diagnosis (n = 146), clinical controls self-referring for ADHD but not diagnosed with it (n = 97), and community controls (n = 109). Groups were combined and regression analyses revealed that self-ratings of EF were significantly predictive of impairments in all 11 measures of occupational adjustment. Although several tests of EF also did so, they contributed substantially less than did the EF ratings, particularly when analyzed jointly with the ratings. We conclude that EF deficits contribute to the impairments in occupational functioning that occur in conjunction with adult ADHD. Ratings of EF in daily life contribute more to such impairments than do EF tests, perhaps because, as we hypothesize, each assesses a different level in the hierarchical organization of EF as a meta-construct.

  19. Hospital readmission rates and emergency department visits for mental health and substance abuse conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark W; Stocks, Carol; Santora, Patricia B

    2015-02-01

    Community hospital stays in 12 states during 2008-2009 were analyzed to determine predictors of 12-month hospital readmission and emergency department (EDs) revisits among persons with a mental health or substance abuse diagnosis. Probabilities of hospital readmission and of ED revisits were modeled as functions of patient demographics, insurance type, number of prior-year hospital stays, diagnoses and other characteristics of the initial stay, and hospital characteristics. Alcohol or drug dependence, dementias, psychotic disorders, autism, impulse control disorders, and personality disorders were most strongly associated with future inpatient admission or ED revisits within 12 months of initial encounter. Insurance type, including uninsured status, were highly significant (p<.01) predictors of both readmission and ED revisits.

  20. A new protocol for screening adults presenting with their own medical problems at the Emergency Department to identify children at high risk for maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Velderman, Mariska Klein; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Baeten, Paul; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2013-12-01

    Identifying child abuse and neglect solely on the grounds of child characteristics leaves many children undetected. We developed a new approach (Hague protocol) based on characteristics of parents who attend the Emergency Department (ED) because they have the following problems: (1) intimate partner violence, (2) substance abuse, or (3) suicide attempt or other serious psychiatric problems. The goal of this protocol is to enable the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) to rapidly assess family problems and offer voluntary community based support to these parents. The aim of this study is to assess whether this protocol for screening adults presenting for care in the Emergency Department can identify children at high risk for maltreatment. A before and after study was conducted at 9 EDs in 3 regions in the Netherlands (one intervention region and 2 control regions). During the period January 2006 to November 2007, prior to the introduction of the Hague protocol, from a total of 385,626 patients attending the ED in the intervention region 4 parents (1 per 100,000) were referred to the RCCAN. In the period after introduction of the protocol (December 2007 to December 2011), the number rose to 565 parents from a total of 885,301 patients attending the ED (64 per 100,000). In the control region, where the protocol was not implemented, these figures were 2 per 163,628 (1 per 100,000) and 10 per 371,616 (3 per 100,000) respectively (OR=28.0 (95 CI 4.6-170.7)). At assessment, child abuse was confirmed in 91% of referred cases. The protocol has a high positive predictive value of 91% and can substantially increase the detection rate of child abuse in an ED setting. Parental characteristics are strong predictors of child abuse. Implementing guidelines to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics of parents attending the adult section of the ED can increase the detection rate of child abuse and neglect allowing appropriate aid to be initiated for

  1. In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids.

    PubMed

    Denef, Vincent J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2012-04-27

    Few data are available on how quickly free-living microorganisms evolve. We analyzed biofilms collected from a well-defined acid mine drainage system over 9 years to investigate the processes and determine rates of bacterial evolution directly in the environment. Population metagenomic analyses of the dominant primary producer yielded the nucleotide substitution rate, which we used to show that proliferation of a series of recombinant bacterial strains occurred over the past few decades. The ecological success of hybrid bacterial types highlights the role of evolutionary processes in rapid adaptation within natural microbial communities. PMID:22539719

  2. In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids.

    PubMed

    Denef, Vincent J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2012-04-27

    Few data are available on how quickly free-living microorganisms evolve. We analyzed biofilms collected from a well-defined acid mine drainage system over 9 years to investigate the processes and determine rates of bacterial evolution directly in the environment. Population metagenomic analyses of the dominant primary producer yielded the nucleotide substitution rate, which we used to show that proliferation of a series of recombinant bacterial strains occurred over the past few decades. The ecological success of hybrid bacterial types highlights the role of evolutionary processes in rapid adaptation within natural microbial communities.

  3. Posture and Gender Differentially Affect Heart Rate Variability of Symptomatic Mitral Valve Prolapse and Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chien-Jung; Chen, Ya-Chu; Lee, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Ing-Fang; Yang, Ten-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be a useful measure of autonomic activity in healthy and mitral valve prolapsed (MVP) subjects. However, the effects of posture and gender on HRV in symptomatic MVP and normal adults had not been elucidated in Taiwan. Methods A total of 118 MVP patients (7 males, 39 ± 7 years old; and 111 females, 42 ± 13 years old) and 148 healthy control (54 males, 28 ± 4 years old; and 94 females, 26 ± 6 years old) were investigated. The diagnosis of MVP was confirmed by cross-sectional echocardiography. A locally developed Taiwanese machine was used to record the HRV parameters for MVP and control groups in three stationary positions. Thereafter, the HRV time-domain parameters, and the frequency-domain parameters derived from fast Fourier transform or autoregressive methods were analyzed. Results The MVP group showed a decrease in time domain parameters and obtunded postural effects on frequency domain parameters moreso than the control group. Though the parasympathetic tone was dominant in female (higher RMSSD, nHF and lower nLF vs. male), the sympathetic outflow was higher in MVP female (lower SDNN, NN50 and higher nLF vs. normal female). While the parasympathetic activity was lower in male, sympathetic outflow was dominant in MVP male (lower nHF and higher nLF vs. normal male). Conclusions Both MVP female and male subjects had elevated levels of sympathetic outflow. The obtunded postural effects on frequency domain measures testified to the autonomic dysregulation of MVP subjects. PMID:27471360

  4. Epinephrine, but not vasopressin, improves survival rates in an adult rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hua; Xie, Lu; Liu, Tang-Wei; Song, Feng-Qing; He, Tao; Zeng, Zhi-yu; Mo, Shu-Rong

    2007-06-01

    Although vasopressin has been reported to be more effective than epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in ventricular fibrillation animal models, its efficacy in asphyxia model remains controversy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vasopressin vs epinephrine on restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in a rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced by clamping endotracheal tube. After 5 minutes of basic life-support cardiopulmonary resuscitation, animals who had no ROSC were randomly assigned to receive either epinephrine alone (epinephrine group; 200 microg/kg) or vasopressin alone (vasopressin group; 0.8 U/kg). The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as the difference between the minimal diastolic aortic and simultaneously recorded right atrial pressure. Restoration of spontaneous circulation was defined as an unassisted pulse with a systolic arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg or higher for 5 minutes or longer. We induced arrest in 62 rabbits, 15 of whom had ROSC before drug administration and were excluded from analysis. The remaining 47 rabbits were randomized to epinephrine group (n = 24) and vasopressin group (n = 23). Before and after drug administration, CPP in epinephrine group increased significantly (from -4 +/- 4 to 36 +/- 9 mm Hg at peak value, P = .000), whereas CPP in vasopressin group increased only slightly (from 9 +/- 5 to 18 +/- 6 mm Hg at peak value, P = .20). After drug administration, 13 of 24 epinephrine rabbit had ROSC, and only 2 of 23 vasopressin rabbit had ROSC (P < .01). Consequently, we conclude that epinephrine, but not vasopressin, increases survival rates in this adult rabbit asphyxia model.

  5. The Effects of Literacy Enriched Classroom Environment Partnered with Quality Adult/Child Interaction on the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haustein, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of literacy enriched preschool classroom environments and the quality of adult/child interaction in the classroom on the emergent literacy growth and development of preschool children. Data was collected within the 2009-2010 school year and analyzed to determine if providing a literacy enriched preschool environment…

  6. Pushing and Pulling Emerging Adults through College: College Generational Status and the Influence of Parents and Others in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Islas, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Interview, survey, and academic transcript data with a diverse sample of first-generation college (FGC) and continuing generation college (CGC) premedical intended emerging adults are analyzed to study academic outcomes and any differences in the availability and use of social capital the first year of college. CGC students know many people with…

  7. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  8. Sibling Relationships in Emerging Adulthood and in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Shulman, Shmuel; Avigad-Spitz, Limor

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 116 emerging adults and adolescents completed questionnaires and were interviewed about their relationship with a sibling. Respondents' siblings and their mothers also rated the quality of the sibling relationship. Emerging adults were found to spend less time and to be less involved in joint activities with their siblings than…

  9. Non-Traumatic Dental Condition-Related Emergency Department Visits and Associated Costs for Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Sy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Masterson, Erin E.; Chi, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 2010 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample data and ran regression models to test the hypotheses that individuals with ASD are more likely to have non-traumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits and to incur greater costs for these visits than those without ASD. There were nearly 2.3 million NTDC-related ED visits in 2010. Less than 1.0% (children) and 2.1% (adults) of all ED visits were for NTDC. There was no significant difference in NTDC-related ED visits or costs for children by ASD status. Adults with ASD had significantly lower odds of NTDC-related ED visits (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.52; P<0.001) but incurred significantly greater mean costs for NTDC-related ED visits (P<0.006) than did adults without ASD. PMID:25374135

  10. Theta Oscillations in Visual Cortex Emerge with Experience to Convey Expected Reward Time and Experienced Reward Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zold, Camila L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely regarded as faithfully conveying the physical properties of visual stimuli. Thus, experience-induced changes in V1 are often interpreted as improving visual perception (i.e., perceptual learning). Here we describe how, with experience, cue-evoked oscillations emerge in V1 to convey expected reward time as well as to relate experienced reward rate. We show, in chronic multisite local field potential recordings from rat V1, that repeated presentation of visual cues induces the emergence of visually evoked oscillatory activity. Early in training, the visually evoked oscillations relate to the physical parameters of the stimuli. However, with training, the oscillations evolve to relate the time in which those stimuli foretell expected reward. Moreover, the oscillation prevalence reflects the reward rate recently experienced by the animal. Thus, training induces experience-dependent changes in V1 activity that relate to what those stimuli have come to signify behaviorally: when to expect future reward and at what rate. PMID:26134643

  11. Depot testosterone in boys with anorchia or gonadotrophin deficiency: effect on growth rate and adult height.

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, B; Papadopolou, M; Shaw, D G; Grant, D B

    1991-01-01

    Eleven teenage boys with bilateral anorchia and 12 with gonadotrophin deficiency were treated by injections of testosterone ester (enanthate) at an initial dose of 100 mg every six to eight weeks, rising to 250 mg every four weeks after three to four years. In the anorchic boys average adult height was 177.1 cm, compared with a mean mid-parental height of 174.4 cm, and mean predicted adult heights of 177.0 cm (Tanner-Whitehouse method) and 178.0 cm (Bayley-Pinneau method). In the patients with gonadotrophin deficiency, mean adult height was 176.9 cm, compared with a mean mid-parental height of 176.1 cm, and mean predicted adults heights of 174.0 cm (Tanner-Whitehouse method) and 177.3 cm (Bayley-Pinneau method). We conclude that this testosterone regimen allows achievement of full growth potential in such patients. PMID:2001104

  12. Partial sleep deprivation and energy balance in adults: an emerging issue for consideration by dietetics practitioners.

    PubMed

    Shlisky, Julie D; Hartman, Terryl J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Rogers, Connie J; Sharkey, Neil A; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-11-01

    During the past 30 years, rates of partial sleep deprivation and obesity have increased in the United States. Evidence linking partial sleep deprivation, defined as sleeping <6 hours per night, to energy imbalance is relevant to weight gain prevention and weight loss promotion. With a majority of Americans overweight or obese, weight loss is a recommended strategy for reducing comorbid conditions. Our purpose was to review the literature regarding the role of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and weight regulation. An inverse relationship between obesity and sleep duration has been demonstrated in cross-sectional and prospective studies. Several intervention studies have tested mechanisms by which partial sleep deprivation affects energy balance. Reduced sleep may disrupt appetitive hormone regulation, specifically increasing ghrelin and decreasing leptin and, thereby, influence energy intake. Increased wakefulness also may promote food intake episodes and energy imbalance. Energy expenditure may not be greatly affected by partial sleep deprivation, although additional and more accurate methods of measurements may be necessary to detect subtle changes in energy expenditure. Body weight loss achieved by reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure combined with partial sleep deprivation may contribute to undesirable body composition change with proportionately more fat-free soft tissue mass lost compared with fat mass. Evaluating sleep patterns and recommending regular, sufficient sleep for individuals striving to manage weight may be prudent.

  13. Predator attack rate evolution in space: the role of ecology mediated by complex emergent spatial structure and self-shading.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Susanna M; Ostling, Annette

    2013-11-01

    Predation interactions are an important element of ecological communities. Population spatial structure has been shown to influence predator evolution, resulting in the evolution of a reduced predator attack rate; however, the evolutionary role of traits governing predator and prey ecology is unknown. The evolutionary effect of spatial structure on a predator's attack rate has primarily been explored assuming a fixed metapopulation spatial structure, and understood in terms of group selection. But endogenously generated, emergent spatial structure is common in nature. Furthermore, the evolutionary influence of ecological traits may be mediated through the spatial self-structuring process. Drawing from theory on pathogens, the evolutionary effect of emergent spatial structure can be understood in terms of self-shading, where a voracious predator limits its long-term invasion potential by reducing local prey availability. Here we formalize the effects of self-shading for predators using spatial moment equations. Then, through simulations, we show that in a spatial context self-shading leads to relationships between predator-prey ecology and the predator's attack rate that are not expected in a non-spatial context. Some relationships are analogous to relationships already shown for host-pathogen interactions, but others represent new trait dimensions. Finally, since understanding the effects of ecology using existing self-shading theory requires simplifications of the emergent spatial structure that do not apply well here, we also develop metrics describing the complex spatial structure of the predator and prey populations to help us explain the evolutionary effect of predator and prey ecology in the context of self-shading. The identification of these metrics may provide a step towards expansion of the predictive domain of self-shading theory to more complex spatial dynamics.

  14. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study. PMID:25547077

  15. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  16. Ambulance and aeromedical accident rates during emergency retrieval in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Lutman, D; Montgomery, M; Ramnarayan, P; Petros, A

    2008-05-01

    The retrieval of critically ill patients is frequently done in difficult circumstances and often under considerable time pressures. These adverse conditions have a finite risk of serious injury or death. The level of risk is poorly described in the literature and reliable data on accident rates are hard to find. Most of the information comes from North America. There are no clear published statistics for the UK. We report for the first time data on accidents and casualties involving vehicles classified as having an ambulance body type and air ambulances within Great Britain between 1999 and 2004. PMID:18434473

  17. Life histories have a history: effects of past and present conditions on adult somatic growth rates in wild Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Lopez-Sepulcre, Andrés; Heatherly, Thomas; Kohler, Tyler J; Bassar, Ronald D; Thomas, Steven A; Reznick, David N

    2012-07-01

    1. Environmental conditions in the present, more recent past and during the juvenile stage can have significant effects on adult performance and population dynamics, but their relative importance and potential interactions remain unexplored. 2. We examined the influence of food availability at the time of sampling, 2 months prior and during the juvenile stage on adult somatic growth rates in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). 3. We found that food availability during both the early and later parts of an individual's ontogeny had important consequences for adult growth strategies, but the direction of these effects differed among life stages and their magnitude, in some cases, depended on food levels experienced during other life stages. Current food levels and those 2 months prior to growth measurements had positive effects on adult growth rate; though, food levels 2 months prior had a greater effect on growth than current food levels. In contrast, the effects of food availability during the juvenile stage were higher in magnitude but opposite in direction to current food levels and those 2 months prior to growth rate measurements. Individuals recruiting under low food levels grew faster as adults than individuals recruiting during periods of high food availability. There was also a positive interaction between food levels experienced during the juvenile stage and 2 months prior such that the effects of juvenile food level diminished as the food level experienced 2 months prior increased. 4. These results suggest that the similar conditions occurring at different life stages can have different effects on short- and long-term growth strategies of individuals within a population. They also demonstrate that, while juvenile conditions can have lasting effects on adult performance, the strength of that effect can be dampened by environmental conditions experienced as an adult. 5. A simultaneous consideration of past events in both the

  18. Point-of-Care Multi-Organ Ultrasound Improves Diagnostic Accuracy in Adults Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Mantuani, Daniel; Frazee, Bradley W.; Fahimi, Jahan; Nagdev, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Determining the etiology of acute dyspnea in emregency department (ED) patients is often difficult. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) holds promise for improving immediate diagnostic accuracy (after history and physical), thus improving use of focused therapies. We evaluate the impact of a three-part POCUS exam, or “triple scan” (TS) – composed of abbreviated echocardiography, lung ultrasound and inferior vena cava (IVC) collapsibility assessment – on the treating physician’s immediate diagnostic impression. Methods A convenience sample of adults presenting to our urban academic ED with acute dyspnea (Emergency Severity Index 1, 2) were prospectively enrolled when investigator sonographers were available. The method for performing components of the TS has been previously described in detail. Treating physicians rated the most likely diagnosis after history and physical but before other studies (except electrocardiogram) returned. An investigator then performed TS and disclosed the results, after which most likely diagnosis was reassessed. Final diagnosis (criterion standard) was based on medical record review by expert emergency medicine faculty blinded to TS result. We compared accuracy of pre-TS and post-TS impression (primary outcome) with McNemar’s test. Test characteristics for treating physician impression were also calculated by dichotomizing acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia as present or absent. Results 57 patients were enrolled with the leading final diagnoses being ADHF (26%), COPD/asthma (30%), and pneumonia (28%). Overall accuracy of the treating physician’s impression increased from 53% before TS to 77% after TS (p=0.003). The post-TS impression was 100% sensitive and 84% specific for ADHF. Conclusion In this small study, POCUS evaluation of the heart, lungs and IVC improved the treating physician’s immediate overall diagnostic accuracy for ADHF, COPD

  19. Strain and strain rate: An emerging technology in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Vishwas; Subramaniam, Arun; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Newer noninvasive parameters are being used for perioperative detection of myocardial ischaemia. TDI and global strain rate are some of these parameters. TDI signal is a modification of the routine Doppler flow signal. It is obtained by using thresholding and filtering algorithms that reject echoes originating from the blood pool (by-passing the high pass filter). Set-Up of the machine by activating the TDI function allows decreasing the system gain using a low pass filter and eliminates the signal produced by blood flow. Doppler shift obtained from myocardial tissue motion are of higher amplitudes (reflectivity 40 dB higher) and move about 10 times slower than blood (velocity range: 0.06 to 0.24 m/s). Speckle tracking echocardiography (tissue tracking, 2D strain) utilizes routine gray-scale 2D echo images to calculate myocardial strain. Interactions of ultrasound with myocardium result in reflection and scattering. These interactions generate a finely gray-shaded, speckled pattern (acoustic marker). This speckled pattern is unique for each myocardial region and relatively stable throughout the cardiac cycle. Spatial and temporal image processing of acoustic speckles in both 2D and 3D allows for the calculation of myocardial velocity, strain, and Strain rate. PMID:26750682

  20. Strain and strain rate: An emerging technology in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Malik, Vishwas; Subramaniam, Arun; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Newer noninvasive parameters are being used for perioperative detection of myocardial ischaemia. TDI and global strain rate are some of these parameters. TDI signal is a modification of the routine Doppler flow signal. It is obtained by using thresholding and filtering algorithms that reject echoes originating from the blood pool (by-passing the high pass filter). Set-Up of the machine by activating the TDI function allows decreasing the system gain using a low pass filter and eliminates the signal produced by blood flow. Doppler shift obtained from myocardial tissue motion are of higher amplitudes (reflectivity 40 dB higher) and move about 10 times slower than blood (velocity range: 0.06 to 0.24 m/s). Speckle tracking echocardiography (tissue tracking, 2D strain) utilizes routine gray-scale 2D echo images to calculate myocardial strain. Interactions of ultrasound with myocardium result in reflection and scattering. These interactions generate a finely gray-shaded, speckled pattern (acoustic marker). This speckled pattern is unique for each myocardial region and relatively stable throughout the cardiac cycle. Spatial and temporal image processing of acoustic speckles in both 2D and 3D allows for the calculation of myocardial velocity, strain, and Strain rate.